Group Title: Aquaphyte : a newsletter about aquatic, wetland and invasive plants
Title: Aquaphyte
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00083179/00021
 Material Information
Title: Aquaphyte newsletter of the IPPC Aquatic Weed Program of the University of Florida, a part of the International Plant Protection Center of the Oregon State University, which is funded by the United States Agency for International Development
Abbreviated Title: Aquaphyte
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Center for Aquatic Plants
University of Florida -- IPPC Aquatic Weed Program
University of Florida -- Center for Aquatic Weeds
Publisher: The Program,
The Program
Place of Publication: Gainesville, FL
Publication Date: Winter 2009
Frequency: semiannual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Aquatic plants -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: Newsletters   ( lcsh )
Newsletters.
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (fall 1981)-
Issuing Body: Vols. for fall 1982- issued with: University of Florida, Center for Aquatic Weeds.
Issuing Body: Vols. for <1988-> issued by: University of Florida, Center for Aquatic Plants.
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 12, no. 2 (fall 1992).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00083179
Volume ID: VID00021
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06513906
oclc - 6513906
lccn - sc 84007615
issn - 0893-7702

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A Q U A P H Y T E


A NEWSLETTER ABOUT AQUATIC, WETLAND AND INVASIVE PLANTS


Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants UNIVERSITY of
with support from
The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, L A
Invasive Plant Management SectionAS Extension
IFAS Extension


Volume 29 Number 1 Winter 2009 Gainesville, Florida ISSN 0893-7702


A LOOK INSIDE The 12th EWRS International Symposium on

At the Center page 2 Aquatic W eeds
by Seppo Hellsten and Arnold Pieterse
Hydrilla Workshop page 3
Read about the latest in After an interval of sevenyears, the European Weed Research Society (EWRS), in cooperation
Hydrilla management in Florida. -with the International Society of Limnology (SIL), the Finnish Environment Institute
(SYKE) and the University of Jyviskyli, organized the 12th International Symposium on Aquatic
Books/Reports, etc. page 6 Weeds in Jyviskyli, Finland. This city, situated in the middle of the Finnish Lake District, and
See the latest additions the Agora building, located on the shore of Lake Jyvasjarvi at the University campus, provided
to the CAIP library. an ideal venue. The SIL Working Groups on Macrophytes and Wetlands assisted in drafting
the scientific programme and support was obtained from the Federation of the Finnish Learned
Mary's Picks page 8 Societies and the Waterpraxis Project of the Baltic Sea Programme of the European Union.
Selected articles byAPIRS After an introductory speech by the chairman of the Organizing Committee, Dr. Seppo Hell-
cataloger Mary Langeland. sten, the Symposium was formally opened by Dr. Roger Jones of the University of Jyviskyli.
Two invited lectures were delivered by Dr. Brij Gopal (chairman of the SIL Working Group on
From the Database page 10 Wetlands) and Dr. Ricardo Labrada (formerly with FAO), respectively, on Impact oflnvasive
A s ling of new additions Species on Ecosystem Goods and Services of Wetlands, and on Management ofAquatic Weeds in
to the APIRS database.
the Tropics and Subtropics.
EWRS International Symposium In his introductory presentation of Aquatic Weed Management, the conference coordinator, Dr.
onAquatic Weeds-An American Arnold Pieterse, emphasized that a variety of anthropogenic disturbances, such as the nutrient
Perspective page 14 enrichment of water bodies, result in excessive growth of various macrophyte species. These are
considered to be "weeds" because they interfere with irrigation, navigation, recreation and fisher-
APIRS Funding Reduced ies, or are detrimental to human interests in various other ways. Moreover, many aquatic plants
page 15 have been introduced, largely through human activities, into non-native habitats where they have
caused extensive degrada-
tion of the natural habitats
CAIP Information Office Staff and altered the native plant
and animal communities
Karen Brown, Coordinator drastically.
EducatonalMedma/Communicaons drastically.
Amy Richard, In recent years, the in-
Educattonlnhtattve Coordinator terest in aquatic macro-
Mary Langeland, phytes has grown further
APIRSReader Cataloger for their role in monitoring
Lynda Dillon, water quality, treatment of
APIRS Program Assistant
waste waters, and also in
Elizabeth Hathaway,
Information Technology Specialist climate change. There has
Rob Horsbaugh, been a shift in focus from
EducattonInhtattveProgramAssistant the "control" of "weeds" to
Joshua Huey, Graphics Assistant their management in a larger The participants C dw aquatic weeds symposium during thefield
Amy Tang, APIRSAssistant ecosystem perspective. Nu- (i Phn n hv Annp-A/lari Rvtkiinen)
... .. ... .. ... .. .. (Pot.bAneMai..t.nn


merous papers presented at


See EWRS Symposium, continued on page 16.


J







Page 2 AQUAPHYTE Winter 2009


At the Center in 2009

By William T Haller, Acting Director

The UF/IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants (CAIP)
faculty and staff have certainly been busy this year with
research, training and pesticide certification courses, in-service
training for Florida teachers, and many other programs. There is
no doubt that budget reductions and the faculty hiring freeze as
a result of the economy have made the remaining staff assume
additional responsibilities. Nevertheless, the CAIP has continued
to fulfill its research, teaching and extension responsibilities.
The annual Aquatic Weed Control Short Course in south Flor-
ida was held May 4-7, 2009 and over 400 professionals attended.
More than 250 pesticide certification exams were taken and li-
censed applicators earned up to 20 Continuing Education Units
(CEUs) each. The 2010 Short Course (http://conference.ifas.ufl.
edu/aw) will be held May 3-6 in south Florida at the Coral Springs
Marriott.
The Florida Invasive Plant Education Initiative is the first of
its kind to provide in-service training for Florida teachers (i.e., up-
per elementary, middle and high school levels) on the subject of
aquatic and upland invasive plants. The annual "PLANT CAMP"
workshop, held for 4.5 days in mid-June, includes field trips and
rigorous hands-on plant identification activities as a way of gen-
erating excitement about the curriculum and providing greater
background knowledge on Florida's native, non-native and inva-
sive plants. So far, 130 teachers have attended the workshops. The
workshops and curricula are part of a partnership between CAIP
and the Invasive Plant Management Section of the Florida Fish
and Wildlife Conservation Commission. This year's (4th) PLANT
CAMP will be held June 13-17, 2010. For more information, visit:
http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/education.
Drs. Jay Ferrell, Fred Fishel and Ken Langeland coordinated
the biennial Southeast Herbicide Applicators Conference in
the northern location of Panama City, Florida in September 2009.
Nearly 200 applicators from several states received CEUs in Right-
of-Way, Natural Areas and Aquatic categories. This course will be
offered again in the fall of 2011.
CAIP members have also been active in the teaching arena this
year. Dr. Colette Jacono, post-doctoral associate working with Dr.
Langeland, taught "Biological Invaders," an undergraduate course
that focuses on the study of invasive plants and animals. Dr. Lyn
Gettys, research assistant scientist, taught "Seeds ofC ih,., i." an
undergraduate course that explores the practical applications of
genetic engineering in plants.
Research by CAIP-affiliated faculty and graduate students is
tackling many of the major invasive weed biology and manage-
ment issues faced by Florida. Dr. Atul Puri is developing best man-
agement practices for Rotala rotundifolia, with field trials planned
for this spring, while Dr. Gettys continues to collect, grow and
evaluate different biotypes of Vallisneria to determine ideal growth
conditions and identify types adapted to specific environmental
parameters. Drs. Langeland and Jacono are studying the biology
of Luziola subintegra, another exotic invasive species that has
invaded Lake Okeechobee and surrounding areas in the last few


years. Graduate student Courtney Stokes (MS) is working with Dr.
Greg MacDonald on natalgrass (Melinis repens), and Brett Bulte-
meier (PhD) is working with Dr. Bill Haller to study herbicide
release from granular formulations and root uptake of herbicides
by submersed aquatic species. Abishek Mukherjee (PhD) is con-
cluding his research on biocontrol of Hygrophila with entomolo-
gist Dr. Jim Cuda, and Sushila Chaudhari (MS) is just beginning
research on control of paragrass (Brachiaria sp.) with Dr. Brent
Sellers at the Ona Cattle Research Station in south-central Florida.
Sarah Berger (MS) began her work in the Agronomy Department
in summer 2009 and will be studying herbicide physiology and
biochemistry with Dr. Greg MacDonald. Jeff Hutchinson (PhD)
is completing his dissertation on the biology and control of Old
World climbing fern (Lygodium microphyllum) with Dr. Lange-
land and is scheduled to graduate in May 2010.
Dr. Mike Nether-
land, courtesy pro- NIVERSITY of
fessor at the Uni- | L T
versity of Florida, is W 1. 1ID
based at the CAIP IFAS Exension
and works for the r A
US Army Corps of C'ndt'r for A luatic
Engineers Environ-am asve Plt
mental Research and
Development Center (ERDC) Environmental Laboratory. Dr.
Netherland has worked extensively on the Osceola County Hyd-
rilla and Hygrophila Demonstration Project with county biologist
Dean Jones and is involved in other research as well. The Osceola
County project includes monitoring herbicide residues in large-
scale hydrilla control operations on the Kissimmee Chain of Lakes
and evaluating the impact of these herbicide treatments on native
plants, with a particular focus on Vallisneria spp. Jeremy Slade,
biologist at the CAIP, assists Dr. Netherland with these projects
and is responsible for monitoring lakes outside Osceola County.
The Osceola County project has been in progress for several years
and includes research and demonstration projects on biological
control (led by Drs. Cuda and Overholt), evaluation of herbicides,
and an extensive educational program that is a collaborative effort
between the CAIP and Osceola County. More information about
the Osceola County project is available at http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/
osceola/.
Angie Huebner, a US Army Corps of Engineers biologist, re-
cently established a presence at the CAIP and splits her work week
between the Center and the Corps' Jacksonville District office.
Angie has conducted research on conditions that foster growth
of alligatorweed (Alternanthera philoxeroides) and coordinates a
number of Corps projects in Florida and other states.
As you can see, personnel at the Center for Aquatic and Inva-
sive Plants have truly had a busy year. Despite budget reductions
and the faculty hiring freeze, we have all assumed additional re-
sponsibilities to ensure that the CAIP continues to produce quality
research, teaching and extension programs that benefit the citizens
of Florida.
Be sure to check out the CAIP website at http://plants.ifas.ufl.
edu and let us know if you have any comments or suggestions for
additional content or improvements.







Winter 2009 AQUAPHYTE Page 3


Workshop Held on Hydrilla Management Tools and Herbicide

Strategies in Florida

Review and Discussion of Operational Use of Current EPA-Registered Herbicide Compounds for
Managing Hydrilla in Florida Public Lakes and Rivers, November 9-10, 2009, Crystal River Florida

by Mike Netherland and Jeff Schardt


n spite of more than fifty years of hydrilla management efforts,
this tenacious aquatic weed continues to be a major problem
in Florida waters. Those involved in management efforts know
of the plant's evolved resistance to fluridone, the most successful
herbicide in the toolbox from the mid-1980s through the 1990s.
Fluridone resistance was confirmed in 2000 at several sites in
Florida. Since then, researchers and managers have scrambled
to develop new management tools and strategies, and to prevent
future herbicide resistance issues.
In November 2009, a workshop was held to review and discuss
the operational use of currently registered herbicide compounds,
which include diquat, endothall, and fluridone, and recently reg-
istered products including penoxsulam (2007) and imazamox
(2008). The workshop was attended by 60 Florida Fish and Wild-
life Conservation Commission (FWC) field biologists, contrac-
tors, researchers and industry representatives who are responsible
for developing or implementing large-scale hydrilla control pro-
grams using herbicides. The workshop was led by Dr. Mike Neth-
erland (US Army Engineer Research and Development Center
and University of Florida (UF) Courtesy Associate Professor), Dr.
William Haller (Director, UF-IFAS Center for Aquatic and Inva-
sive Plants), and Mr. Jeff Schardt (Environmental Administrator,
FWC, Invasive Plant Management Section).
The agenda included:
Workshops
Hydrilla Physiology, Growth, and Reproduction Why
we manage hydrilla and how it resists or persists through
management efforts;
Defining Aquatic Herbicide Selectivity Perceptions
and reality;
Herbicide Degradation and Dispersion How factors
such as flow, photolysis, microbial degradation, and
scale impact herbicide efficacy;
A Cautionary Tale: Enhanced degradation of fluridone;
Search for New Hydrilla Management Tools Results
from screening existing herbicide compounds and
updates on five potential candidates not yet registered
for operational use;
Rates, Timing, Application Strategies, and Efficacy for
Fluridone, Diquat, Endothall and the Newly Registered
Compounds, Penoxsulam and Imazamox.

Observations and Strategies for Applying EPA-Registered
Herbicides
Combinations of penoxsulam, imazamox, endothal, and
diquat;
The rationale and limitations of the rotation of
herbicides and of growth regulation as management
strategies.


Open Discussions
Expenses and Logistics Associated with Large-scale
Hydrilla Management;
Selectivity and Efficacy Resistance Management /
Product Stewardship;
Growth Regulation vs. Herbicide Control; Coordinating
Large-scale Hydrilla Control among Management
Agencies;
NPDES Permitting Impacts on Future Herbicide Use;
Additional Research Needs.
In addition to the numerous open discussion topics, each attendee
was asked to submit two written questions on material covered in
the workshop. This tool will help assess the existing knowledge
of participants, and provide a forum for attendees to pose more
detailed questions. All questions will ultimately be addressed by
experts and posted to all workshop participants.
This workshop was the sixth in a series of summits and
workshops to search for, develop, and implement alternative
hydrilla management tools and strategies in Florida waters since
the confirmation of fluridone resistance in 2000. As part of
the ongoing efforts to disseminate rapidly developing hydrilla
management technologies, the Aquatic Plant Management Society
(APMS) is contemplating a special session on this topic at the 50th
annual APMS conference to be held in Bonita Springs, Florida in
July 2010. Visit http://www.apms.org/ for up-to-date information.



References on herbicide resistance in Hydrilla
verticillata from the APIRS Database
(beginning with the first published reference to this topic in 2001)

DISCUSSION OF FLURIDONE "TOLERANT" HYDRILLA
AUTHOR: MACDONALD, G.E., NETHERLAND, M.D.,
HALLER, W.T.
DATE: 2001
CITATION: AQUATICS 23(3):4,7-8

USE OF PLANT ASSAY TECHNIQUES TO SCREEN
FOR TOLERANCE AND TO IMPROVE SELECTION OF
FLURIDONE USE RATES
AUTHOR: NETHERLAND, M.D., KIEFER, B., LEMBI, C.A.
DATE: 2001
CITATION: IN: ABSTRACTS, 41STANNU. MEETING,
AQUATIC PLANT MANAGEMENT SOCIETY, INC.,
MINNEAPOLIS, MN, JULY 15-18, 2001, P 19. (ABSTRACT)


See References, continued on page 4.







Page 4 AQUAPHYTE Winter 2009


References, continuedfrom page 3.


THREE AND A HALF-YEARS OF LABORATORY AND FIELD
MONITORING OF FLURIDONE-TOLERANT HYDRILLA:
WHAT HAVE WE LEARNED?
AUTHOR: NETHERLAND, M.D., DAYAN, F., SCHEFFLER, B.,
COCKREHAM, S.
DATE: 2002
CITATION: IN: PROGRAM, 42NDANNU. MEETING, AQUATIC
PLANT MANAGEMENT SOCIETY, JUL. 21-24, KEYSTONE, CO,
P. 26. (ABSTRACT)

RESISTANCE TO PDS-INHIBITORS IN AN INVASIVE
AQUATIC WEED SPECIES
AUTHOR: MICHEL, A., DAYAN, F.E., NETHERLAND, M.D.,
SCHEFFLER, B.E.
DATE: 2003
CITATION: IN: WSSAABSTRACTS, 2003 MEETING,
WEED SCI. SOC. OF AMERICA, VOL.43, ED. R.J. KREMER,
JACKSONVILLE, FL, P. 89-90 (ABSTRACT)

INVESTIGATIONS INTO FLURIDONE TOLERANCE IN
SELECTED HYDRILLA
Author: PURI,A., MACDONALD, G.E., HALLER, W.T.
Date: 2003
Citation: IN: WSSAABSTRACTS, 2003 MEETING, WEED
SCI. SOC. OF AMERICA, VOL.43, ED. R.J. KREMER,
JACKSONVILLE, FL, P. 89 (ABSTRACT)

SOMATIC MUTATION-MEDIATED EVOLUTION OF
HERBICIDE RESISTANCE IN THE NONINDIGENOUS
INVASIVE PLANT HYDRILLA (HYDRILLA VERTICILLATA)
Author: MICHEL, A., ARIAS, R.S., SCHEFFLER, B.E.,
DUKE, S.O., ETAL
Date: 2004
Citation: MOL. ECOL. 13:3229-3237

RESISTANCE AND THE FUTURE OF AQUATIC WEED
CONTROL
Author: HALLER, W.T.
Date: 2004
Citation: 44TH ANNUAL AQUATIC PLANT MANAGE. SOC.,
MEETING, TAMPA, FL, P. 39 (ABSTRACT)

TECHNICALAPPROACHES TO SONAR USE IN
MANAGEMENT OF FLURIDONE-TOLERANT HYDRILLA
Author: HEILMAN, M.A.
Date: 2004
Citation: 44TH ANNUAL AQUATIC PLANT MANAGE. SOC.,
MEETING, TAMPA, FL, P. 38 (ABSTRACT)

THE BASIS FOR FLURIDONE RESISTANCE IN HYDRILLA
VERTICILLATA
Author: SCHEFFLER, B.E., ARIAS, R.S., NETHERLAND, M.D.,
MICHEL,A., ETAL
Date: 2004
Citation: 44TH ANNUAL AQUATIC PLANT MANAGE. SOC.,
MEETING, TAMPA, FL, P 38 (ABSTRACT)

HERBICIDE RESISTANCE IN AQUATIC PLANTS
Author: MACDONALD, G.E.
Date: 2004


Citation: 44TH ANNUAL AQUATIC PLANT MANAGE. SOC.,
MEETING, TAMPA, FL, PP. 37-38 (ABSTRACT)

AQUATIC PLANTS AND HERBICIDE MANAGEMENT: A
SPECIAL SESSION TO DISCUSS RESISTANCE, TOLERANCE,
AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS THAT IMPACT
TREATMENT EFFICACY
Author: NETHERLAND, M.D.
Date: 2004
Citation: 44TH ANNUAL AQUATIC PLANT MANAGE. SOC.,
MEETING, TAMPA, FL, P. 37 (ABSTRACT)

MEETING NEW CHALLENGES IN CONTROLLING
AQUATIC PLANTS WITH HERBICIDES
Author: SCHARDT, J.D.
Date: 2004
Citation: 44TH ANNUAL AQUATIC PLANT MANAGE. SOC.,
MEETING, TAMPA, FL, PP. 35-36 (ABSTRACT)

HYDRILLA MANAGEMENT IN FLORIDA: A SUMMARY AND
DISCUSSION OF ISSUES IDENTIFIED BY PROFESSIONALS
WITH FUTURE MANAGEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS -
FINAL DOCUMENT
Author: HOYER, M.V, NETHERLAND, M.D., ALLEN, M.S.,
CANFIELD, D.E.
Date: 2005
Citation: FLORIDA LAKEWATCH, DEPT. OF FISHERIES AQUAT.
SCI., UNIV FL./IFAS, GAINESVILLE, FL., 68 PP.

MOLECULAR EVOLUTION OF HERBICIDE RESISTANCE
TO PHYTOENE DESATURASE INHIBITORS IN HYDRILLA
VERTICILLATA AND ITS POTENTIAL USE TO GENERATE
HERBICIDE-RESISTANT CROPS
Author: ARIAS, R.S., NETHERLAND, M.D., SCHEFFLER, B.E.,
PURI,A., ETAL
Date: 2005
Citation: PEST MANAGE. SCI. 61(3):258-268

COMPARATIVE RESPONSE OF TWO HYDRILLA STRAINS
TO FLURIDONE
Author: POOVEY,A.G., GETSINGER, K.D., STEWART,A.B.
Date: 2005
Citation: J. AQUAT. PLANT MANAG. 43(2):85-90

HYDRILLA, THE PERFECT AQUATIC WEED BECOMES
MORE NOXIOUS THAN EVER
Author: DAYAN, F.E., NETHERLAND, M.D.
Date: 2005
Citation: OUTLOOKS ON PEST MANAGEMENT 16(4):277-282

AQUATIC PLANT RESISTANCE TO HERBICIDES
Author: KOSCHNICK, T.J., HALLER, W.T., NETHERLAND, M.D.
Date: 2006
Citation: AQUATICS 28(1):4,6,8-9

MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION AND GENETIC
VARIABILITY OF FLURIDONE RESISTANT HYDRILLA
BIOTYPES
Author: PURI, A., MACDONALD, G.E., HALLER, W.T.
Date: 2006







Winter 2009 AQUAPHYTE Page 5


Citation: IN: 46THANN. MEETING, AQUATIC PLANT
MANAGEMENT SOCIETY, JULY 16-19, PORTLAND, OR., P. 40
(ABSTRACT)

MEETING NEW CHALLENGES IN HYDRILLA (HYDRILLA
VERTICILLATA) MANAGEMENT IN FLORIDA
Author: NETHERLAND, M.D., SCHARDT, J.D.
Date: 2006
Citation: IN: ICAIS 14TH INTERNAL. CONF. AQUAT. INVASIVE
SPECIES, MAY 14-19, KEY BISCAYNE, FL., P. 175 (ABSTRACT)

PHYTOENE AND BETA-CAROTENE RESPONSE OF
FLURIDONE-SUSCEPTIBLE AND -RESISTANT
HYDRILLARILLA (HYDRILLA VERTICILLATA) BIOTYPES TO
FLURIDONE
Author: PURI,A., MACDONALD, G.E., HALLER, W.T.,
SINGH,M.
Date: 2006
Citation: WEED SCI. 54(6):995-999

HERBICIDE RESISTANCE: A PROBLEM IN AQUATICS AND
OTHER NATURAL AREAS?
Author: POLGE, N.
Date: 2007
Citation: IN: AQUATIC WEED CONTROL SHORT COURSE,
CORAL SPRINGS, UNIV FL., IFAS:179-187 (POWERPOINT)

THE STATUS OF FLURIDONE-RESISTANT HYDRILLA
IN FLORIDAAND ITS IMPACT ON OPERATIONS AND
RESEARCH
Author: NETHERLAND, M.D.
Date: 2007
Citation: 47TH ANNUAL AQUAT. PLANT MANAG. SOC.,
MEETING, NASHVILLE, TN, PP. 45-46 (ABSTRACT)

IMPACT OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROLAGENTS ON
FLURIDONE-RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE HYDRILLA
BIOTYPES
Author: SHEARER, J.F., FREEDMAN, J.E., GRODOWITZ, M.J.
Date: 2007
Citation: 47TH ANNUAL AQUAT. PLANT MANAG. SOC.,
MEETING, NASHVILLE, TN, PP. 53 (ABSTRACT)

MUTATIONS IN PHYTOENE DESATURASE GENE
IN FLURIDONE-RESISTANT HYDRILLA (HYDRILLA
VERTICILLATA) BIOTYPES IN FLORIDA
Author: PURI,A., MACDONALD, G.E., ALTPETER, F.,
HALLER, W.T.
Date: 2007
Citation: WEED SCI. 55(5):412-420

PLOIDY VARIATIONS IN FLURIDONE-SUSCEPTIBLE
AND -RESISTANT HYDRILLA (HYDRILLA VERTICILLATA)
BIOTYPES
Author: PURI,A., MACDONALD, G.E., HALLER, W.T.
Date: 2007
Citation: WEED SCI. 55(6):578-583

GROWTH AND REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY OF
FLURIDONE-SUSCEPTIBLE AND -RESISTANT HYDRILLA
(HYDRILLA VERTICILLATA) BIOTYPES
Author: PURI,A., MACDONALD, G.E., HALLER, W.T., SINGH, M.


Date: 2007
Citation: WEED SCI. 55(5):441-445

AQUATIC PLANT MANAGEMENT AND THE IMPACT OF
EMERGING HERBICIDE RESISTANCE ISSUES
Author: RICHARDSON, R.J.
Date: 2008
Citation: WEED TECHNOL. 22(1):8-15

HERBICIDE RESISTANCE IN AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS:
WHERE WE ARE AND WHY IT MATTERS
Author: BULTEMEIER, B., HALLER, W.T.
Date: 2009
Citation: IN: FL. WEED SCI. SOC., ANNUAL MEETING, FEB.
23-24, MAITLAND, FL, P. 23 (ABSTRACT)

PERFORMANCE OF TWO BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
AGENTS ON SUSCEPTIBLE AND FLURIDONE-RESISTANT
GENOTYPES OF THE AQUATIC WEED HYDRILLA,
HYDRILLA VERTICILLATA
Author: SCHMID, T.A., CUDA, J.P, MACDONALD, G.E.,
GILLMORE, J.L.
Date: 2009
Citation: IN: WSSAANNUAL MEETING, FEB. 9-13, ORLANDO,
FL (ABSTRACT 165)

DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANCE TO HERBICIDES
Author: MACDONALD, G.
Date: 2009
Citation: IN: AQUATIC WEED CONTROL SHORT COURSE,
CORAL SPRINGS, FL, MAY 4-7, UNIV FL, IFAS: 339-343
(POWERPOINT)

INTRA-SPECIES VARIATION OF SUBMERSED AQUATIC
PLANTS TO HERBICIDE TREATMENTS
Author: NETHERLAND, M.D., GLOMSKI,L. M., BULTEMEIER, B.
Date: 2009
Citation: IN: WSSAANNUAL MEETING, FEB. 9-13, ORLANDO,
FL (ABSTRACT 355)

HERBICIDE RESISTANCE ISSUES AND THE SEARCH FOR
NEW AQUATIC HERBICIDES
Author: HALLER, W.
Date: 2009
Citation: IN: SOUTHEAST HERBICIDE APPLICATOR
CONFERENCE, SEP 22-24, UNIV FL., IFAS, PANAMA CITY, FL.,
PP. 91-98 (POWER POINT PRESENTATION)

CROSS-RESISTANCE IN FLURIDONE-RESISTANT
HYDRILLA TO OTHER BLEACHING HERBICIDES
Author: PURI, A., HALLER, W.T., NETHERLAND, M.D.
Date: 2009
Citation: WEED SCIENCE. 57(5):482-488

DIFFERENTIAL HERBICIDE RESPONSE AMONG THREE
PHENOTYPES OF CABOMBA CAROLINIANA
Author: BULTEMEIER, B., NETHERLAND, M.D., FERRELL, J.,
HALLER, W.T.
Date: 2010
Citation: INVASIVE PLANT SCIENCE AND MANAGEMENT 2(4):
IN PRESS







Page 6 AQUAPHYTE Winter 2009


BOOKS/REPORTS. ETC.


BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF AQUATIC PLANTS A BEST I \ (,I II- NT PRACTICES HANDBOOK
By L.A. Gettys, W.T Haller andM. Bellaud, editors. 2008. 200pp. ISBN 978-0-615-32646-7. Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Founda-
tion, Marietta, Georgia. www. aquatics. org
This is the second edition of the handbook produced by the Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Foundation (AERF). It includes contribu-
tions from more than 20 experts in the field of aquatic weed biology and control. AERF supports research and development to provide
strategies and techniques for the environmentally and scientifically sound management, conservation and restoration of aquatic ecosys-
tems. The goal in preparing the handbook was to guide riparian homeowners and others interested in aquatic plants and to provide basic,
scientifically sound information to assist decision-makers with water management questions. The handbook is available as a PDF file at
http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu. Printed copies are available by contacting AERF, www.aquatics.org.

THE CURIOUS WORLD OF CARNIVOROUS PLANTS A COMPREHENSIVE
. GUIDE TO THEIR BIOLOGY AND CULTIVATION
T By W. Barthlott, S. Porembski, R. Seine, and I. Theisen. Translated by A. Ash-
i* down. 2007. 224 pp. ISBN 978-88192-792-4. Timber Press, Inc. www.timberpress.
com
This amazing book provides detailed descriptions including trapping mecha-
nisms, digestion, and prey and cultivation information for key species in 17 genera
and 10 families. Most notably, it includes the first comprehensive listing of some
630 known carnivorous plant species, with identification history and geographic
distribution for each one. The book also covers animal-trapping mosses and fungi.
Advice is provided for growing and buying carnivorous plants. The book is copi-
ously illustrated with excellent color photographs and some scanning electron mi-
croscopic photos.

S ASSESSING THE CONSERVATION VALUE OF FRESH WATERS AN INTER-
NATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
By P.J. Boon and C.M. Pringle, editors. 2009. 293 pp. ISBN 978-0-521-61322-4.
Cambridge University Press, New York. www.cambridge. org
"Aimed at academic researchers, graduate students and professionals, chapters
are written by pairs of UK and US authors, who compare methods used for evalu-
ating rivers and lakes for conservation in these countries that share a long history
of freshwater science, but approach nature conservation very differently. Sweden,
Australia and South Africa are also examined, and there is a chapter on developing
countries, allowing discussion of the role of social and economic conditions in conservation ethics."

WEEDY AND INVASIVE PLANT GENOMICS
By C.N. Stewart. 2009. 253 pp. ISBN 978-0-8138-2288-4. Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, Iowa. www.wiley.com
"While I and many others have been interested in genes and proteins that confer interesting traits to weeds and invasive plants, there
has been surprisingly little research at the genome or proteome levels. Molecular biology of weeds has progressed very slowly, which I
think is mainly due to three interrelated factors. First, the weed science research community and culture is vastly different from that of
plant genomics and evolutionary biology.... Second, the sources of research funding are also quite different in each of these two areas....
Third, and related to the second point, there is little information on the genomes of any weedy and invasive plant species. Being neither
models nor crops, their genomes have fallen through the funding cracks. With little basal genomic information, meager funding, and
a lack of collaboration between weed scientists and genomicists, the field has not yet blossomed. The situation is about to change as
these two cultures have been slowly converging on the field of weed genomics, with the promise of more research to come in the near
future."

THE REED PHRAGMITESAUSTRALIS (CAV.) TRIN. EX STEUD.
By S.M. Haslam. Updated 2009. 28 pp. British Reed Growers Association.
This booklet updates the 1969 original version written for the then-Norfolk Reed Growers Association. British commercial reedbeds
have been concentrated in East Anglia for centuries, supplying much of the reed thatch for thatched roofs. The booklet remains local,
although the general principles apply elsewhere. It is a thorough review of the use of reed, its growth characteristics and the manage-
ment of reedbeds for harvesting. The booklet also contains numerous figures and tables for detailed information. Interesting historical
background is provided, as well.







Winter 2009 AQUAPHYTE Page 7

MATHEMATICAL ECOLOGY OF POPULATIONS AND ECOSYSTEMS
By J. Pastor. 2008. ISBN 978-1-4051-7795-5. 329 pp. Wiley-Blackwell. www.wiley. com/wilev-blackwell
"It is often easy to make a 'plausible' argument that some hypothesized relationship between populations, species, and ecosystems
must be true, only to find on more rigorous examination that it is not necessarily true, true only under certain restrictions, or simply not
true at all. Framing the plausibility argument in mathematical terms and using the rules of mathematics to examine its logical structure
is often the best way to uncover the sense in which it might be true." An advanced undergraduate/graduate level textbook bridging the
subdisciplines of population ecology and ecosystem ecology.

ICONOGRAFIA COMENTADA DE PLANTS AQUATICAS DO PARQUE NATIONAL DA RESTING DE JURUBATIBA
Serie Livros 36, Rio de Janeiro Museu Nacional. Text by Claudia P Bove; illustrated by Cristina Siqueira Ferreira. 2009. ISBN
978-85-7427-031-9. (In Portuguese.)
This is a lovely collection of water colors, or aquarelas, of thirty aquatic plants of the Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, each
measuring 8-3/4" x 11-1/4". It is accompanied by a similarly illustrated but smaller format booklet of non-scientific text describing each
species (32 pp.) Both are presented in a handsome, color-illustrated portfolio.

GUIA DE CAMPO DAS PLANTS AQUATICAS DO PARQUE NATIONAL DA RESTING DE JURUBATIBA, RIO DE JANEIRO -
BRAZIL
By C.P. Bove andJ. Paz. 2009. 176pp. ISBN 978-85-7427-030-2. Museu Nacional, Serie Livros 35, Rio de Janeiro. (In Portuguese.)
This is a very attractive field guide for identifying the aquatic plants of the lakes of the Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba,
located in the coastal zone of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. However, the guide could be useful for the identification of aquatic plants
in many regions of the world. Numerous photographs aid in the identification of approximately 100 aquatic species. Plants are grouped
by their growth form: fixed submersed, free submersed, free floating, fixed floating, emergent, and amphibious, and by taxonomic fam-
ily. In addition to species descriptions and information on geographic distribution and habitat, the text offers etymological information,
potential economic uses, and other commentary. This book will be useful to both the scientific and non-scientific communities. The guide
is in Portuguese. It is spiral-bound, with water-resistant color-coded pages. The layout and graphic design of this field guide are excep-
tional. A small sample of the species covered: Sagittaria lancifolia, Eclipta prostrata, Cyperus giganteus, Fuirena robusta, Rhynchos-
pora tenuis, Utricularia poconensis, Nymphaea lingulata, Hymenachne amplexicaulis, Eichhornia azurea, Salvinia biloba, Burmannia
capitata, Eleocharis minima, Rhynchospora hirta, Scleria soronia, Najas marina, Utriculariafoliosa, Nymphoides indica, Paspalidium
geminatum, Potamogeton montevidensis, Typha domingensis.

GUIA DE CAMPO PARA PLANTS AQUATICAS E PALUSTRES DO ESTADO DE SAO PAULO (FIELD GUIDE FOR AQUATIC
AND MARSH PLANTS FROM THE STATE OF SAO PAULO)
By M C.E. Amaral, V Bittrich, A.D. Faria, L.O. Anderson, L. YS. Aona. 2008. 452 pp. ISBN 978-85-86699-64-1. Serie Manuais
Prdticos em Biologia 4, Holos, Editora Ltda-ME, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil (In Portuguese.)
This field guide identifies aquatic and marsh plants that occur in the State of Sao Paulo and bordering regions. It is a product of
more than ten years of collections, photographs, species identifications and descriptions by University of Campinas (UNICAMP)
scientists and students. To facilitate species identification by non-experts, plants are organized by flower color. There is a separate sec-
tion for grasses and similar plants, and another one for plants without flowers or with very tiny flowers. Within each grouping, species
were grouped according to morphological similarities of the flowers so that plants within the same botanical families are generally
close together. Although the text is in Portuguese, the book is very user-friendly and will be useful to anyone studying aquatic and
marsh plants in South America. A small sample of the species covered: Nymphaea amazonum, Myriophyllum aquaticum, Sagittaria
montevidensis, Eichhornia crassipes, Thalia geniculata, Nymphaea mexicana, Hydrocleys nymphoides, Utricularia triloba, Xyris
capensis, Limnocharis flava, Hygrophila costata, Lobelia aquatica, Bacopa lanigera, Eichhornia azurea, Cabombafurcata, Drosera
montana, Mayacafluviatilis, Ceratophyllum demersum, Leersia hexandra, Triglochin striata.

AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS TRENDS AND GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES
By N. VC. Polunin. 2008. 482 pp. ISBN 978-0-521-83327-1. Cambridge University Press, New York. www.cambridge.org
"This book divides the aquatic realm into 21 ecosystems, from those on land (both saline and fresh water) to those of the open and
deep oceans. It draws on the understanding of leading ecologists to summarize the state and likely condition by the year 2025 of each of
the ecosystems. Written for academic researchers and professionals, the aim is to put the climate change debate into a broader context
as a basis for conservation science."

METAL CONTAMINATION IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS SCIENCE AND LATERAL I \1 \ I. \Il. NT
By S.N. Luoma and P.S. Rainbow. 2008. 573 pp. ISBN 978-0-521-86057-4. Cambridge University Press. www.cambridge.org
"The first 11 chapters of the book present the fundamentals of the science that underlie metal policies and issues.... The next seven
chapters more directly address the interaction between science and policy in specific circumstances.... In the conclusions we address
constructive dialogue between the scientific and the policy communities."







Page 8 AQUAPHYTE Winter 2009

MARY'S PICKS

Items of special interest from APIRS reader/cataloger, Mary Langeland ~


The consumption of Typha domingensis Pers. (Typhaceae)
pollen among the ethnic groups of the Gran Chaco, South
America. Arenas, P., Scarpa, G.F. 2003. Economic Botany
57(2):181-188.
Arenas and Scarpa report that this survey is the result of extensive
research on the use of plants by the Gran Chaco's ethnic groups.
They consider a detailed study of the uses of T domingensis pollen
to be relevant because of both the original data found and the
information rescued from oblivion in the Chaco's ethnographic
literature.

Predicting risks of invasion of macroalgae in the genus
Caulerpa in Florida. Glardon, C.G., Walters, L.J., Quintana-
Ascencio, P.F., McCauley, L.A., et al. 2008. Biological
Invasions 10(7):1147-1157.
Glardon, et al state that their "goal was to evaluate potential
invasion of C. taxifolia to Florida's coastal waters. We looked
for evidence of C. taxifolia-aquarium strain, as well as the
present distribution of all species of Caulerpa, in Florida's near-
shore waters." They conclude the following: Our data indicate
that latitude, presence of seagrass, human population density,
and proximity to marinas successfully predict the occurrence of
Caulerpa species along the Florida coastline and can be a useful
tool to select zones for survey that would be more likely to be
invaded by Caulerpa.


Cobbania corrugata gen. et comb. nov., being inspected by an Omithomi-
mus dinosaur. The Cobbania quarry from Dinosaur Provincial Park,
Alberta, Canada produced numerous whole plants and the most com-
plete skeleton of this dinosaur ever recovered. Image by Marjorie I .. ,
(http://www.science-ar ..... 1 Used with permission.

Cobbania corrugata gen. et comb. nov. (Araceae): a floating
aquatic monocot from the Upper Cretaceous of western North
America. 2007. Stockey, R.A., Rothwell, G.W., Johnson, K.R.
Amer. J. Bot. 94(4):609-624. 2007.
Stockey, Rothwell and Johnson introduce this paper stating it
"describes a floating aquatic monocot from 71 whole plants and
several isolated leaf fragments from Upper Cretaceous oxbow


lake sediments in the Dinosaur Park Formation, Alberta, Canada."
They conclude, "The reconstruction of C. corrugata increases our
understanding of unrooted floating aquatic plants in the Upper
Cretaceous and reveals a previously underappreciated food source
for herbivorous dinosaurs and other large reptiles of the late
Mesozoic. As a result of the growing phylogenetic resolution of
Araceae, Cobbania, Limnobiophyllum, and Pistia reveal that there
have been at least three separate origins of free-floating aquatic
plants within the family, with true Pistia as perhaps the most
recently derived of these taxa."

Taxonomy of the American Azolla species (Azollaceae): a
critical review. 2004. Evrard, C., van Hove, C. Syst. Geogr.
P1. 74:301-318.
The taxonomy of the New World species of Azolla has been
controversial with most authors, primarily Americans, recognizing
four species: A. caroliniana, A. filiculoides, A. mexicana and A.
microphylla. This study, comprehensively reviewing the literature
and making original observations, confirms the opinion of some
authors thatA. caroliniana andA. microphylla are synonyms of the
previously described A. filiculoides. Evrard and van Hove found
that the ferns named A. caroliniana and A. microphylla by most
authors, including the American taxonomists in their recent works,
are different from their type specimens. They conclude, "The study
also shows that the Mettenius conception, proposed as early as
1867, has to be rehabilitated: two species only exist in America.
According to the priority rule they must be named A. cristata and
A. filiculoides."

Foreign exploration for natural enemies of Hydrilla verticillata
in East Africa. 2009. Overholt, W.A., Copeland, R., Williams,
D., Cuda, J., et al. Final Report, St. Johns River Water Manage.
Dist., Palatka, FL, 33 pp.
In this report by Overholt et al, there were some surprising
findings about the native origin of Hydrilla verticillata and about
its role as a host plant for insects and fish. The molecular genetic
research indicates that hydrilla is not native to Africa, but rather
originates from China. None of the insects sampled from lakes
in Uganda and Burundi were herbivorous. However, four species
of fish feed on hydrilla, but their level of herbivory has not yet
been determined. The Florida populations of hydrilla are from one
introduction, and the high genetic variation that is found is due to
somatic mutations.

Handbook of utilization of aquatic plants a review of world
literature. 1979. Little, E.C.S. FAO Fisheries Technical
Paper No. 187, 176 pp. [Now online at http://www.fao.org/
DOCREP/003/X6862E/X6862E00.HTM]
In this work from 1979, Little compiled over 250 available
sources addressing the utilization of aquatic plants, summarizing
the published material and also reviewing it. Little quotes
Sculthorpe (see next page) to underline his own hopes for this
handbook: "Sculthorpe writes (p.503): 'In India, China and Japan
several decorative water plants have been held in the highest esteem







Winter 2009 AQUAPHYTE Page 9


since the earliest times. The immense admiration of the beautiful
flowers of lotuses and waterlilies, above all others, is reflected
in their frequent portrayal on fabrics and tapestries, pottery and
metalwork, monuments and tombs, temples and public buildings,
and in their adoration in prose and verse.' This admiration spread
to the western world where water gardens were developed to a high
form of art. A consequence of this has been the distribution round
the world of many water plants, some, like the water hyacinth the
most notorious of all spreading prolifically and dangerously. Now
it seems the circle may have almost completely turned. Pampered
and admired plants became pests and now, with greater insight, are
again seen (but for different reasons) as valued and potential assets
to mankind."

Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle (Hydrocharitaceae), "The
perfect aquatic weed." 1996. Langeland, K.A. Castanea
61(3):293-304.
Langeland offers an overview of Hydrilla verticillata since
its introduction into the United States ca. 1960, after which it
spread rapidly and offered major management challenges. The
effects of hydrilla are discussed, including economic hardships,
interference with water uses, displacement of native aquatic plant
communities, and adverse affects on freshwater habitats. Because
of its aggressive growth, the author says, "Hydrilla could easily be
called the perfect aquatic plant because of the extensive adaptive
attributes it possesses to survive in the aquatic habitat." He reports
that management programs have been developed, but there is a
lack of sufficient funding and a need for educational efforts to raise
public awareness.

Aquatic weeds: the ecology and management of nuisance
aquatic vegetation. 1990. Pieterse, A.H., Murphy, K.J. Oxford
Sci. Publ., Oxford Univ. Press, New York, NY, 593 pp.
This classic textbook, edited by Pieterse and Murphy, is based
on contributions from the EWRS (European Weed Research Soci-
ety) Working Group on Aquatic Weeds and scientists from all over
the world a veritable "who's who" of aquatic weed researchers
and managers. In the preface, the editors describe the book as fol-
lows:
"The book is divided into three main parts. The first
part is concerned with concepts, ecology, and character-
istics of aquatic weeds and also includes chapters on flow
resistance and the relation between aquatic weeds and
public health. The second part covers the management of
aquatic weeds, with chapters on various control methods,
surveying and modeling of aquatic weed vegetation, uti-
lization of aquatic weeds, and the relation between plant
survival strategies and control measure. The third part
deals with the present status of aquatic weed problems in
the various continents."

The biology of aquatic vascular plants. 1985. Sculthorpe, C.D.
Edward Arnold (Publ.) Ltd., London. Reprint by Koeltz Scien-
tific Books, Konigstein, West Germany, 610 pp.
Sculthorpe's work "The Biology of Aquatic Vascular Plants,"
first published in 1967 and republished in 1985, is still recognized
today as the foremost authoritative book on vascular aquatic plants


and their biology. First editions are collector's items with prices
starting at $170 (US).
In the preface to his book, Sculthorpe explains his purpose:
"There seems to have been no attempt whatsoever to
provide a reasonably up-to-date monograph treating all
aspects of the comparative biology of freshwater and ma-
rine vascular plants. Such is my principal aim in writ-
ing this book.... Data lie scattered throughout journals of
agriculture, hydrobiology, medicine, geology and even
engineering.... My subsidiary aim has therefore been to
review the research literature as thoroughly as possible
and provide a reasonably comprehensive bibliography."

Comparison of cell and tissue differences in good and unusable
clarinet reeds. Veselack, M.S.W. 1979. Ph.D. D.A. Thesis, Ball
State Univ., Muncie, IN, 136 pp.
Veselack reports that there has been increasing difficulty in find-
ing good reed material for the musical woodwind instrument, the
clarinet. Professional clarinetists were invited to provide reeds in
pairs, one good and one unusable for performance. In her disserta-
tion, the author investigated "the cell structure and tissue arrange-
ments in clarinet reeds made from the plant, Arundo donax L., and
to identify possible relationships which may exist between ana-
tomical structure and playability of reeds."

Water plants: A study of aquatic angiosperms. Arber, A. Re-
print 1972. J. Cramer, New York, 436 pp.
First published in 1920, Agnes Arber's "Water Plants: A Study
of Aquatic Angiosperms" has been described as "a standard com-
pendium of information on aquatics" and "a very extensive record
of observation, experiment and research." Written in a simple and
graceful style, the book is interesting to serious students of water
plants and the weekend hobbyist, with numerous illustrations by
the author. The book was reprinted in 1963 and again in 1972.
Though some nomenclatural alterations have been made in the
reprinted 1972 edition, along with several additions and correc-
tions to the text and bibliography, Arber's "Water Plants" remains
a useful and informative study. The following is a short excerpt
describing the effects of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes),
introduced to the St. Johns River in Florida:
"About the year 1890, this plant was accidentally in-
troduced into the St. John's (sic) River in Florida, which
being a sluggish stream, was particularly well-suited to
serve as its home. After seven years, two hundred miles
of the river bank had become fringed with a zone of Eich-
hornia from twenty-five to two hundred feet in width. In
the summer of 1896, a strong north wind drove the plants
up stream from Lake George, forming a solid mass en-
tirely covering the river for nearly twenty-five miles. The
growth was so dense that small boats with screw propel-
lers could not get through the mass. Formerly, when the
stream was clear, logs used to be rafted down the river,
and it is estimated that, at the time when the Water Hy-
acinth was at its maximum, the lumber industry of the
region suffered an approximate annual loss of $55,000
from the difficulty of rafting." (p. 213)







Page 10 AQUAPHYTE Winter 2009


AJUONU, O., BYRNE, M., HILL, M.,
NEUENSCHWANDER, P., ET AL
The effect of two biological control agents,
the weevil Neochetina eichhorniae and
the mirid Eccritotarsus catarinensis on
water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes,
grown in culture with water lettuce, Pistia
stratiotes.
BIOCONTROL 54(1):155-162. 2009.

BAL, K.D., MEIRE, P.
The influence of macrophyte cutting on the
hydraulic resistance of lowland rivers.
J. AQUAT. PLANT MANAG. 47(1):65-68. 2009.

BEETON, A.M., HECKY, R.E.,
STEWARD, K.M.
Environmental trends and potential future
states of large freshwater lakes.
IN: AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS: TRENDS AND
GLOBAL PROSPECTS, POLUNIN, N.V.C., ED.,
CAMBRIDGE UNIV. PRESS, NEW YORK, PP.
81-93. 2008.

BELGERS,J.D.M.,AALDERINK, G.H.,
VAN DEN BRINK, P.J.
Effects of four fungicides on nine non-tar-
get submersed macrophytes.
ECOTOXICOL. ENVIRON. SAFETY72(2):579-584.
2009.

BERGAMINI, A., PEINTINGER, M.,
FAKHERAN, S., MORADI, H., ET AL
Loss of habitat specialists despite con-
servation management in fen remnants
1995-2006.
PERSPECT. IN PLANT ECOL. EVOL. SYS. 11(1):
65-79. 2009.

BICKEL, T.O., CLOSS, G.P.
Impact of partial removal of the invasive
macrophyte Lagarosiphon major (Hydro-
charitaceae) on invertebrates and fish.
RIVER RES. APPL. 25(6):734-744. 2009.

BOGNER, J., KVACEK, Z.
A fossil Vallisneria plant (Hydrocharitace-


ae) from the early miocene freshwater de-
posits of the Most Basin (North Bohemia).
AQUAT. BOT. 90(2):119-123. 2009.

BOVE, C.P.
A new species of Utricularia (Lentibulari-
aceae) from central Brazil.
REVISTABRASIL. BOT. 31(4):555-558. 2008.

BRUNEL, S.
Pathway analysis: aquatic plants imported
in 10 EPPO countries.
OEPP/EPPO BULLETIN 39:201-213. 2009.

CAPERS, R.S., SELSKY, R., BUGBEE,
G.J., WHITE, J.C.
Species richness of both native and inva-
sive aquatic plants influenced by environ-
mental conditions and human activity.
BOTANY 87(3):306-314. 2009.

CARLQUIST, S., SCHNEIDER, E.L.
Do tracheid microstructure and the pres-
ence of minute crystals link Nymphaeace-
ae, Cabombaceae and Hydatellaceae?
BOT. J. LINN. SOC. 159(4):572-582. 2209.

CASPER, S.J., STIMPER, R.
Chromosome numbers in Pinguicula (Len-
tibulariaceae): survey, atlas, and taxonomic
conclusions.
PLANT SYST. EVOL. 277(1-2):21-60. 2009.

CHAMPION, P.D., CLAYTON, J.S.,
HOFSTRA, D.E.
Aquatic plant invasions: nipping invasions
in the bud weed risk assessment and the
trade.
IN: AQUATIC WEEDS 2009, PROC., 12TH EU-
ROPEAN WEED RES. SOC. SYMP, AUG. 24-28,
JYVASKYLA, FINLAND, REP. FINN. ENVIRON.
INST. 15, P. 96 (ABSTRACT). 2009.

CHANG, A.L., GROSSMAN, J.D.,
SPEZIO, T.S., WEISKEL, H.W., ET AL
Tackling aquatic invasions: risks and op-


FROM THE DATABASE

According to GoogleTM Analytics, the APIRS database had more than 5,000
hits from almost 4,000 visitors during 2009. The database is used world-wide,
with visitors from 116 countries during the past year. Approximately 2,500 new
citations were added to the database in 2009 and a small sample is provided
here. References cited include peer-reviewed research articles, government
reports, books and book chapters, dissertations and theses, and gray literature
such as abstracts from proceedings. To obtain full-text of citations, contact your
nearest academic library or search online. http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/APIRS/


portunities for the aquarium fish industry.
BIOL. INVASIONS 11(4):773-785. 2009.

CHEN, H., VOLLMER, K.,
ZAMORANO, M., MACDONALD, G.,
ETAL
Biochemical response of cattails (Typha
spp.) to high water conditions in storm-
water treatment areas.
IN: WSSA ANNUAL MEETING, FEB. 9-13, OR-
LANDO, FL (ABSTRACT 75). 2009.

CHESHIER, J.C., MADSEN, J.D.
Common reed: Phragmites australis (Cav.)
Trin. ex Steud: life history in the Mobile
River Delta, Alabama.
IN: WSSA ANNUAL MEETING, FEB. 9-13, OR-
LANDO, FL (ABSTRACT 188). 2009.

CHRISTMAN, M.A., JAMES, J.J.,
DRENOVSKY, R.E., RICHARDS, J.H.
Environmental stress and genetics influ-
ence night-time leaf conductance in the C4
grass Distichlis spicata.
FUNC. PLANT BIOL. 36(1):50-55. 2009.

COHEN, J., MIROTCHNICK, N.,
LEUNG, B.
Thousands introduced annually: the aquar-
ium pathway for non-indigenous plants to
the St. Lawrence Seaway.
FRONT. ECOL. ENVIRON. 5(10):528-548. 2007.

CROFE, M.V., CHOW-FRASER, P.
Non-random sampling and its role in habi-
tat conservation: a comparison of three
wetland macrophyte sampling protocols.
BIODIVERS. CONSERV. 18(9):2283-2306. 2009.

CUDA, J.P., GORDON, D.R.,
DITOMASO, J.M.
Cultivating non-native plants in Florida for
biomass production: hope or harm?
WILDLAND WEEDS 12(4):21. 2009.

DE BACKER, S., VAN ONSEM, S.,
PERETYATKO, A., TEISSIER, S.,
ETAL
Biomanipulation of hypereutrophic ponds:
the role of submerged macrophytes.
IN: AQUATIC WEEDS 2009, PROC., 12TH EU-
ROPEAN WEED RES. SOC. SYMP, AUG. 24-28,
JYVASKYLA, FINLAND, REP. FINN. ENVIRON.
INST. 15, P 139-140 (ABSTRACT). 2009.

DE MARCH, S.R., MARTINS, D.,
DA COSTA, N.V., DOMINGUES, V.D.
Effect of spray tips and mix deposition
on common water hyacinth growing with







Winter 2009 AQUAPHYTE Page 11


varied population arrangements of salvinia
and water lettuce.
J. AQUAT. PLANT MANAGE. 47:110-115. 2009.

DEMARS, B.O.L., EDWARDS, A.C.
Distribution of aquatic macrophytes in con-
trasting river systems: a critique of compo-
sitional-based assessment of water quality.
SCI. TOTAL ENVIRON. 407(2):975-990. 2009.

DIBBLE, E.D., KOVALENKO, K.
Ecological impact of grass carp: a review
of the available data.
J. AQUAT. PLANT MANAG. 47(1):1-15. 2009.

DUKER, L., PALMER, M.
Methods for assessing the conservation
value of lakes.
IN: ASSESSING THE CONSERVATION VALUE
OF FRESH WATERS: AN INTERNAT'L PERSPEC-
TIVE, BOON,P.J. AND C.M. PRINGLE, EDS., CAM-
BRIDGE UNIV. PRESS, U.K., PP 166-199. 2009.

DUNLAP, C., JACKSON, M.
Drying and formulation of Mycoleptodis-
cus terrestris: a microbial bioherbicide of
Hydrilla verticillata.
IN: WSSA ANNUAL MEETING, FEB. 9-13, OR-
LANDO, FL (ABSTRACT 163). 2009.

ECKE, F.
Drainage ditching at the catchment scale
affects water quality and macrophyte oc-
currence in Swedish lakes.
FRESHWATER BIOL. 54(1):119-126. 2009.

FAN, C., CHANG, F.-C., KO, C.-H.,
SHEU, Y.-S., ET AL
Urban pollutant removal by a constructed
riparian wetland before typhoon damage
and after reconstruction.
ECOL. ENG. 35(3):424-435. 2009.

FERREIRA, T.F., VA NES, E.H.,
MARQUES, D.M.
Continuous growth of the giant grass Zizani-
opsis bonariensis in subtropical wetlands.
FRESHWATER BIOL. 54(2):321-330. 2009.

FROST, J.W., SCHLEICHER, T.,
CRAFT, C.
Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus addi-
tions on primary production and inverte-
brate densities in a Georgia (USA) tidal
fresh-water marsh.
WETLANDS 29(1):196-203. 2009.


GAN, X., CAI, Y., CHOI, C., MA, Z.,
ETAL
Potential impacts of invasive Spartina al-
ternifora on spring bird communities at
Chongming Dongtan, a Chinese wetland of
international importance.
ESTUAR. COAST. SHELF SCI. 83(2):211-218. 2009.

GETTYS, L.A., HALLER, W.T.,
MUDGE, C.R., KOSCHNICK, T.J.
Effect of temperature and feeding prefer-
ence on submerged plants by the island ap-
ple snail, Pomacea insularum (D'orbigny,
1839) (Ampullariidae).
VELIGER 50(3):248-254. 2008.

GRAY, C.J., ADRIAN, G., WALZ, K.J.
Using endothall in irrigation canals for sago
pondweed (Stuckenia pectinata) control.
IN: WSSA ANNUAL MEETING, FEB. 9-13, OR-
LANDO, FL (ABSTRACT 350). 2009.

GUTRICH, J.J., TAYLOR, K.J.,
FENNESSY, M.S.
Restoration of vegetation communities of
created depressional marshes in Ohio and
Colorado (USA): the importance of initial
effort for mitigation success.
ECOL. ENG. 35(3):351-368. 2009.

HA, N.T.H., SAKAKIBARA, M.,
SANO, S., HORI, R.S., ETAL
The potential of Eleocharis acicularis for
phytoremediation: case study at an aban-
doned mine site.
CLEAN SOIL, AIR, WATER 37(3):203-208. 2009.

HALLER, W.T., GETTYS, L.
Hydrilla, fifty years of invasive aquatic
weed warfare.
IN: FL. WEED SCI. SOC., ANNUAL MEETING, FEB.
23-24, MAITLAND, FL, P 19 (ABSTRACT). 2009.

HALLINGER, K.D., SHISLER, J.K.
Seed bank colonization in tidal wetlands fol-
lowing phragmites control (New Jersey).
ECOL. RESTOR. 27(1):16-18. 2009.

HARMS, N.E., GRODOWITZ, M.J.
Insect herbivores of aquatic and wetland
plants in the United States: a checklist from
literature.
J. AQUAT. PLANT MANAGE. 47:73-96. 2009.

HARTKE, K.M., KRIEGEL, K.H.,
NELSON, G.M., MERENDINO, M.T.
Abundance of wigeongrass during winter


and use by herbivorous waterbirds in a
Texas coastal marsh.
WETLANDS 29(1):228-293. 2009.

HEISS, A.G., OEGGL, K.
The plant macro-remains from the Iceman
site (Tisenjoch, Italian-Austrian border,
Eastern Alps): new results on the glacier
mummy's environment.
VEGET. HIST. ARCHAEOBOT. 18(1):23-35. 2009.

HENNINGER, T.O., FRONEMAN, P.W.,
RICHOUX, N.B., HODGSON,A.N.
The role of macrophytes as a refuge and
food source for the estuarine isopod Exo-
sphaeroma hylocoetes (Barnard, 1940)
ESTUAR. COAST. SHELF SCI. 82(2):285-293. 2009.

HERAULT, B., THOEN, D.
How habitat area, local and regional factors
shape plant assemblages in isolated closed
depressions.
ACTA OECOL. 35(3):385-392. 2009.

IKEGAMI, M., WHIGHAM, D.F.,
WERGER, M.J.A.
Ramet phenology and clonal architectures
of the clonal sedge Schoenoplectus ameri-
canus (Pers.) Volk. ex Schinz & R. Keller.
PLANT ECOL. 200(2):287-301. 2009.

IRITI, M., CASTORINA, G.,
PICCHI, V., FAORO, F., ET AL
Acute exposure of the aquatic macrophyte
Callitriche obtusangula to the herbicide
oxadiazon: the protective role of N-acetyl-
cysteine.
CHEMOSPHERE 74(9):1231-1237. 2009.

JACOBS, M.J., MACISAAC, H.J.
Modelling spread of the invasive macro-
phyte Cabomba caroliniana.
FRESHWATER BIOL. 54(2):296-305. 2009.

JANAUER, G.A., SCHMIDT, B.,
LANZ, E., SCHMIDT-MUMM, U.
Aquatic macrophytes in a large river: eco-
logical status, trophic level indication, hab-
itat preference and species migration in the
Danube.
IN: AQUATIC WEEDS 2009, PROC., 12TH EU-
ROPEAN WEED RES. SOC. SYMP, AUG. 24-28,
JYVASKYLA, FINLAND, REP. FINN. ENVIRON.
INST. 15, P. 27 (ABSTRACT). 2009.







Page 12 AQUAPHYTE Winter 2009


JUNG, V., HOFFMANN, L.,
MULLER, S.
Ecophysiological responses of nine flood-
plain meadow species to changing hydro-
logical conditions.
PLANT ECOL. 201(2):589-598. 2009.

KARAGATZIDES, J.D.,
BUTLER, J.L., ELLISON, A.M.
The pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea can
directly acquire organic nitrogen and short-
circuit the inorganic nitrogen cycle.
PLOS ONE 4(7):E6164, 9 PP 2009.

KENOW, K.P., LYON, J.E.
Composition of the seed bank in drawdown
areas of navigation pool 8 of the upper Mis-
sissippi River.
RIVER RES. APPL. 25(2):194-207. 2009.

KETTERER, E.A.
Evaluation of growth regulating herbicides
for improved management of cogongrass
and torpedograss.
M.S. THESIS, UNIV. FL, 97 PP. 2009.

KLAVSEN, S.K., MABERLY, S.C.
Crassulacean acid metabolism contributes
significantly to the in situ carbon budget in
a population of the invasive aquatic macro-
phyte Crassula helmsii.
FRESHWATER BIOL. 54(1):105-118. 2009.

KNICKERBOCKER, C.M.,
LEITHOLF, S., STEPHENS, E.L.,
KEELLINGS, D.J., ET AL
Tree encroachment of a sawgrass (Cladium
jamaicense) marsh within an increasingly
urbanized ecosystem.
NAT. AREAS J. 29(1):15-26. 2009.

KOZLOWSKI, G., VALLELIAN, S.
Eutrophication and endangered aquatic
plants: an experimental study on Baldellia
ranunculoides (L.) Parl. (Alismataceae).
HYDROBIOLOGIA (ONLINE FIRST). 2009.

KULA, R.R.
A new species of Chaenusa (Hymenoptera:
Braconidae) reared from Hydrellia paki-
stanae and Hydrellia sarahae laticapsula
(Diptera: Ephydridae) infesting Hydrilla
verticillata (Alismatales: Hydrocharitaceae)
in India and Pakistan.
FL. ENTOMOL. 92(1):139-146. 2009.


LA-ONGSRI, W., TRISONTHI, C.,
BALSLEV, H.
A synopsis of Thai Nymphaeaceae.
NORD. J. BOT. 27(2):97-114. 2009.

LI, B., LIAO, C.-H., ZHANG, X.-D.,
CHEN, H.-L., ET AL
Spartina alternifora invasions in the Yang-
tze River Estuary, China: an overview of
current status and ecosystem effects.
ECOL. ENG. 35(4):511-520. 2009.

LI, J., WU, D., WU, Y., LIU, H., ET AL
Identification of algae-bloom and aquatic
macrophytes in Lake Taihu from in-situ
measured spectra data.
J. LAKE SCI. 21(2):215-222 (IN CHINESE; ENG-
LISH SUMMARY). 2009.

LOO, S.E., MACNALLY, R., O'DOWD,
D.J., THOMSON, J.R., ET AL
Multiple scale analysis of factors influenc-
ing the distribution of an invasive aquatic
grass.
BIOL. INVASIONS ONLINE FIRST. 2009.

LUMBRERAS, A., OLIVES, A.,
QUINTANA, J.R., PARDO, C., ET AL
Ecology of aquatic Ranunculus communi-
ties under the Mediterranean climate.
AQUAT. BOT. 90(1):59-66. 2009.

LYNCH, R.L., CHEN, H.,
BRANDT, L.A., MAZZOTTI, F.J.
Old world climbing fern (Lygodium mi-
crophyllum) invasion in hurricane caused
treefalls.
NAT. AREAS J. 29(3):210-215. 2009.

MCKEE, K.L., CHERRY, J.A.
Hurricane Katrina sediment slowed eleva-
tion loss in subsiding brackish marshes of
the Mississippi River Delta.
WETLANDS 29(1):2-15. 2009.

MISHRA, V., PATHAK, V., TRIPATHI, B.
Accumulation of cadmium and copper
from aqueous solutions using Indian lotus
(Nelumbo nucifera).
AMBIO 38(2):110-112. 2009.

MORAN, P.J.
Effects of biological control agents on
chemical control of water hyacinth (Eich-
hornia crassipes) with penoxsulam, gly-
phosate and triclopyr in field tanks.
IN: WSSA ANNUAL MEETING, FEB. 9-13, OR-
LANDO, FL (ABSTRACT 166). 2009.


MORENO, J.L., TOMAS, P.,
ROS, R.M., DURAN, C., ETAL
A new genus level macrophyte index for
assessing the trophic state of Spanish rivers
under the water framework directive.
IN: AQUATIC WEEDS 2009, PROC., 12TH EU-
ROPEAN WEED RES. SOC. SYMP, AUG. 24-28,
JYVASKYLA, FINLAND, REP. FINN. ENVIRON.
INST. 15, P 73 (ABSTRACT). 2009.

MUKHERJEE, A., OKINE, D.,
CUDA, J.P., OVERHOLT, W.A., ET AL
Effect of simulated herbivory on growth
and final biomass of the aquatic weed hy-
grophila, Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.)
T. Anders (Acanthaceae).
IN: WSSA ANNUAL MEETING, FEB. 9-13, OR-
LANDO, FL (ABSTRACT 432). 2009.

NETHERLAND, M.D., SCHARDT, J.
A manager's definition of aquatic plant
control.
AQUATICS 31(1):6, 8-19. 2009.

NEWMAN, R.M., INGIS, W.G.
Distribution and abundance of the milfoil
weevil, Euhrychiopsis lecontei, in Lake Min-
netonka and relation to milfoil harvesting.
J. AQUAT. PLANT MANAG. 47(1):21-25. 2009.

NGAYILA, N., BOTINEAU, M.,
BAUDU, M., BASLY, J.-P.
Myriophyllum alterniforum DC. Effect of
low concentrations of copper and cadmium
on somatic and photosynthetic endpoints: a
chemometric approach.
ECOL. INDIC. 9(2):307-312. 2009.

OTHMAN, A.S., JACOBSEN, N.,
MANSOR, M.
Cryptocoryne of peninsular Malaysia.
UNIV. SAINS MAYAYSIAPRESS, PULAU PINANG,
MALAYASIA, 102 PP. CRYPTOCORYNE. 2009.

PALMIK, K., HAEMETS, H.
Species richness on differently managed
shore stretches of Lake Peipsi, Estonia.
IN: AQUATIC WEEDS 2009, PROC., 12TH EU-
ROPEAN WEED RES. SOC. SYMP, AUG. 24-28,
JYVASKYLA, FINLAND, REP. FINN. ENVIRON.
INST. 15, P 145 (ABSTRACT). 2009.

PARSONS, J.K, COUTO, A.,
HAMEL, K.S., MARX, G.E.
Effect of fluridone on macrophytes and fish
in a coastal Washington lake.
J. AQUAT. PLANT MANAG. 47(1):31-40. 2009.







Winter 2009 AQUAPHYTE Page 13


PEMBERTON, R.W., BODLE, J.M.
Native North American azolla weevil,
Stenopelmus rufinasus (Coleoptera: Cur-
culionidae), uses the invasive Old World
Azolla pinnata as a host plant.
FL. ENTOMOL. 92(1):153-155. 2009.

PLACHNO, B.J., SWIATEK, P.
Functional anatomy of the ovule in Gen-
lisea with remarks on ovule evolution in
Lentibulariaceae.
PROTOPLASMA 236(1-4):39-48. 2009.

POLOMSKI, R.E, TAYLOR, M.D.,
BIELENBERG, D.G., BRIDGES, W.C.,
ETAL
Nitrogen and phosphorus remediation
by three floating aquatic macrophytes in
greenhouse-based laboratory-scale subsur-
face constructed wetlands.
WATER AIR SOIL POLLUT 197(1-4):223-232. 2009.

POT, R., TER HEERDT, G.N.J.
Recolonisation of submerged macrophytes
in the shallow Lake Loenderveen after res-
toration measures; the success of different
life-traits.
IN: AQUATIC WEEDS 2009, PROC., 12TH EU-
ROPEAN WEED RES. SOC. SYMP, AUG. 24-28,
JYVASKYLA, FINLAND, REP. FINN. ENVIRON.
INST. 15, P. 143-144. 2009.

POULIN, B., LEFEBVRE, G.,
ALLARD, S., MATHEVET, R.
Reed harvest and summer drawdown en-
hance bittern habitat in the Camargue.
BIOL. CONSERV. 142(3):689-695. 2009.

PRATHEPHA, P.
The fragrance (FGR) gene in natural popula-
tions of wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.).
GENET RESOUR. CROP EVOL. 56(1):13-18. 2009.

RICHARDSON, R.J., GARDNER, A.P.,
ROTEN, R.L., HOYLE,S.T.
Responses of selected aquatic weeds to car-
fentrazone and flumioxazin.
IN: WSSA ANNUAL MEETING, FEB. 9-13, OR-
LANDO, FL (ABSTRACT 352). 2009.

RUAUX, B., GREULICH, S.,
HAURY, J., BERTON, J.-P.
Sexual reproduction of two alien invasive
ludwigia (Onagraceae) on the middle Loire
River, France.
AQUAT. BOT 90(2):143-148. 2009.


RUDRAPPA, T., CHOI, Y.S.,
LEVIA, D.F., LEGATES, D.R., ET AL
Phragmites australis root secreted phyto-
toxin undergoes photo-degradation to ex-
ecute severe phytotoxicity.
PLANT SIGNALING & BEHAVIOR 4(6):1-8. 2009.

SCHMID, T.A., CUDA, J.P.,
MACDONALD, G.E., GILLMORE, J.L.
Performance of two biological control
agents on susceptible and fluridone-resis-
tant genotypes of the aquatic weed hydrilla,
Hydrilla verticillata.
IN: WSSA ANNUAL MEETING, FEB. 9-13, OR-
LANDO, FL (ABSTRACT 165). 2009.

SEHGAL, A., SETHI, M., RAM, H.Y.M.
Development of the floral shoot and pre-
anthesis cleistogamy in Hydrobryopsis ses-
silis (Podostemaceae).
BOT J. LINN. SOC. 159(2):222-236. 2009.

SHARPE, P.J., BALDWIN, A.H.
Patterns of wetland plant species richness
across estuarine gradients of Chesapeake Bay.
WETLANDS 29(1):225-235. 2009.

SIMARD, I., SIMARD, A., DUMAS, B.,
BILODEAU, P.
Status of the water chestnut (Trapa natans)
eradication program in Quebec, Canada.
IN: 16TH INTERNAL. CONF. AQUAT. INVASIVE
SPECIES, APR. 19 23, MONTREAL, CANADA,
POWERPOINT, P. 232. 2009.

SIMPSON, T.B.
Restoring native sedge meadow vegetation
with a combination of herbicides (Illinois).
ECOL. RESTOR. 27(2):134-136. 2009.

SIROVA, D., BOROVEC, J., CERNA,
B., REJMANKOVA, E., ET AL
Microbial community development in the
traps of aquatic Utricularia species.
AQUAT. BOT. 90(2):129-136. 2009.

SHARES, D.J., BARRETO, R.W.,
LIMA, B.V.
Potential mycoherbicide fungi collected on
arrowhead (Sagittaria montevidensis) in
Brazil.
IN: WSSA ANNUAL MEETING, FEB. 9-13, OR-
LANDO, FL (ABSTRACT 17). 2009.

STEFANIDIS, K.,
PAPASTERGIADOU, E.
Association of hydrophyte assemblages
and zooplankton abundance in five lakes of
Greece.


IN: AQUATIC WEEDS 2009., PROC., 12TH EU-
ROPEAN WEED RES. SOC. SYMP, AUG. 24-28,
JYVASKYLA, FINLAND, REP. FINN. ENVIRON.
INST. 15, P 29. 2009.

SUN, L., LIU, Y., JIN, H.
Nitrogen removal from polluted river by
enhanced floating bed grown canna.
ECOL. ENG. 35(1):135-140. 2009.

TAGGART, M.A., MATEO, R.,
CHARNOCK, J.M., BAHRAMI, F.,
ETAL
Arsenic rich iron plaque on macrophyte
roots an ecotoxicological risk?
ENVIRON. POLLUT 157(3):946-954. 2009.

TRUE, S.L., RICHARDSON, R.J.,
BATTEN, W., IVERSON, R., ET AL
The giant salvinia eradication program in
North Carolina.
IN: WSSA ANNUAL MEETING, FEB. 9-13, OR-
LANDO, FL (ABSTRACT 183). 2009.

WILSON, S.J., RICCIARDI, A.
Epiphytic macroinvertebrate communities
on Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum
spicatum) and native milfoils Myriophyl-
lum sibericum and Myriophyllum alterni-
florum in eastern North America.
CAN. J. FISH. AQUAT. SCI. 66(1):18-30. 2009.

WONG, P.K, KWONG, K.L.,
QIU, J.-W.
Complex interactions among fish, snails
and macrophytes: implications for biologi-
cal control of an invasive snail.
BIOL. INVASIONS 11:2223-2232. DOI 10.1007/
S10530-008-9378-Z. 2009.

ZACHEIS, A., DORAN, K.
Resistance and resilience of floating mat
fens in interior Alaska following airboat
disturbance.
WETLANDS 29(1):236-247. 2009.

ZAJICEK, P.W., WEIER, T., HARDIN,
S., CASSANI, J.R., ET AL
A triploid grass carp risk analysis specific
to Florida.
J. AQUAT. PLANT MANAG. 47(1):15-20. 2009.

ZHANG, T.T., HE, M., WU, A.P.,
NIE, L.W.
Allelopathic effects of submerged macro-
phyte Chara vulgaris on toxic Microcystis
aeruginosa.
ALLELOPATHY J. 23(2):391-402. 2009.







Page 14 AQUAPHYTE Winter 2009


The 12th European Weed Research Society International Symposium

on Aquatic Weeds-An American Perspective

by Jeffrey T Hutchinson, University of Florida, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants

W while international in scope, the 12th European Weed Research Society International Symposium on Aquatic Weeds had a local,
friendly and sociable atmosphere. Upon arrival, I was warmly greeted by the symposium chairman, Seppo Hellsten of the Finnish
Environment Institute, Arnold Pieterse, other symposium organizers and many of the participants. All participants I encountered were
eager to hear about aquatic plant problems in the United States and excited to discuss their country's research and management problems.
All shared a mutual interest and enthusiasm towards aquatic plants regardless of latitude or longitude.
Over the past decade, European ecologists have been working with aquatic plants and their management more than weed scientists.
This was noted by the limited number of presentations on control of aquatic weeds using herbicides. Presentations were very broad but
focused primarily on aquatic macrophyte ecology. Sessions were broken into 1) biology, ecology, and distribution, 2) indicator value of
aquatic plants, 3) management of aquatic vegetation and side effects, 4) invasive plants and their ecological effects, 5) aquatic vegetation
and environmental relationships, and 6) practical uses of aquatic plants. Some of the main themes presented throughout the meeting were
the increase in invasive aquatic macrophytes even in colder climates such as Northern Europe, the need for environmental monitoring of
lake and river ecosystems, the increased rates of eutrophication in lakes, and the impacts of littoral macrophytes on lakes.
Ricardo Labrada from Italy noted that most of the invasive aquatic plants were introduced
by humans and stated there is a need for more regulation and control of introduced plants
by botanical gardens and other sources. Throughout the symposium, it was emphasized that,
while warmer regions of the World have the most management problems with invasive aquatic
plants, colder climates also have their share of invasive aquatic plant problems. For example, i
introduced aquatic macrophyte species such as Cabomba caroliniana (Hungary), Egeria densa al
(France, Germany), Elodea canadensis (Finland, Germany, Hungary, Serbia, Croatia, Slove-
nia), Hydrocotyle ranunculoides (Germany), Lagarosiphon major (Ireland), Lemna minute
(Belgium), Ludwigia gruandiflira (France), and Myriophyllum sibiricum (Finland) have be-
come problematic or pose future threats in various European countries. In Germany, the num- v l
Field trip participants visited lakes and
ber of invasive aquatic plants increased from one in 1869 to 24 in 2008. rivers in central Finland.
An all day (and half of the night) field trip visiting lakes and rivers of central Finland oc-
curred on Thursday from 9:00 AM 11:30 PM. Finland has over 187,888 lakes with about 30% of them larger than three acres. Many of
the lakes are located in the area around Jyviskyli. Participants were transported 125 miles around the Finnish Lake District with stops
made at clear water lakes, eutrophic lakes, regulated lakes, rapids, small and large rivers. At each stop, indicator plants were identi-
fied and the status of the lake or river was discussed. A traditional Finnish lunch was served at Holiday Farm Salvia. In the afternoon,
participants took a two hour boat tour of Lake Piijinne, the second largest (275,796 acres) and the deepest lake (313 feet) in Finland.
The evening ended with the symposium dinner at Savutuvan Apaja, an old traditional style Finnish farmhouse and cottage. The EWRS
recognized five students who were awarded 4000 Euros ($5900) to attend the symposium. Contingents from Finland, Russia, Poland,
and England serenaded the crowd with songs from their country land.
After walking around multiple lake edges and wetlands near Jyviskyli during the week and those on the Thursday field trip, I was
surprised to find only a single clump of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria)
(see photo, p. 16), native to Finland and Europe, but a highly invasive wet-
land plant in the Midwestern United States. This event tied together many of
the ideas presented and discussed at the symposium, that the introduction of
non-native aquatic plants, land use patterns, increased nutrient loading, and
eutrophication have greatly altered water bodies throughout the world.
Overall, the symposium was extremely well organized and beneficial to
the participants, thanks to the efforts of EWRS, the International Society of
Limnology, the Finnish Environment Institute, the University of Jyvriskyli,
and Waterpraxis. The local organizing committee of Seppo Hellsten, Timo
Huttula, Raimo Ihme, Arnold Pieterse, Jukka Salonen, Juha Karjalainen,
Pirjo-Leena Pitkdinen, Kati Martinmniki, and Anne-Mari Rytkdnen went well
Lake Jyvasjirvi and symposium site at the University of beyond the call of duty in their efforts to arrange and organize the symposium
Jyvaskyla. and they are highly commended for their efforts. Christian Bohren, repre-
senting the EWRS, closed the symposium on Friday thanking the Finnish
organizers for their hospitality, entertainment, and sponsorship of the symposium, and participants for their scientific presentations. The
symposium was a hyv~i matkaa for me.







Winter 2009 AQUAPHYTE Page 15


APIRS Funding Reduced
by Karen Brown and Mary Langeland

The most recent fiscal year funding
for the Aquatic Plant Information
Retrieval System (APIRS) has been reduced
by approximately thirty percent due to
the extreme shortfalls in Florida's state
revenues. APIRS is funded primarily by
the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation
Commission (FWC) in conjunction with
the University of Florida Institute of Food
and Agricultural Sciences (UF-IFAS).
Already running on a skeleton staff, APIRS
continues to maintain a comprehensive
collection of the scientific literature related
to aquatic and wetland plants published
world-wide. In addition, references on
invasive upland species in Florida have
been collected since 2001. The 74,000+
references currently cited include abstracts
and presentations from relevant symposia,
government and NGO reports, dissertations
and theses, book chapters, peer-reviewed
journal articles, CDs and DVDs, and more.
Although the electronic age has reduced
operating costs and accelerated the speed
of acquisitions and data entry, the Internet
now provides lightning fast service and
full-text expectations for those seeking
information. Personal and academic web-
sites, online publishing, GoogleTM Scholar
and other sources now provide much of
the information that is referenced in the
APIRS collection. An APIRS strength is
that the database has been continuously in
service since the mid 1980s and cites re-
search throughout the 1900s and even into
the 1800s. A weakness is that most people
expect full-text, or active links to full-text,
to be available within the database, some-
thing that APIRS has never provided due
to copyright restrictions then and now, the
much higher costs to provide such a ser-
vice, and, previously, to the technology not
yet being readily accessible or affordable
to a small system such as APIRS. Although
GoogleTM Scholar has the vast resources to
upgrade their services regularly, APIRS is


still a contender for researchers in need of
complete scholarly literature searches on
our topics. In a recent comparison between
the two, sardonically referred to as APIRS
vs Goliath, we made the following obser-
vations:
APIRS Pros/Cons:
* APIRS is readily available to all and is
free.
* APIRS is a database, self-contained
and targeted, with focused and subject-
specific content.
* APIRS contains historical sources, let-
ter, and grey literature and reports.
* APIRS allows truncation, Boolean
searches, etc. for query words.
* APIRS categories, keywords and plant
lists enhance subject access.
* APIRS does not search or link to any
other databases.
* APIRS search methods are not user-
friendly.
GoogleTM Scholar Pros/Cons:
* GS is readily available to all and is
free.
* GS has access to a variety of academic
publishers, professional societies, pre-
print repositories, universities, and, of
course, what is found with a regular
Google Search.
* GS has links to digital documents.
* GS often offers the abstract as part of
the search results.
* GS advanced searches are user-friendly.
* GS hits are sometimes irrelevant and/or
non-scholarly.
* GS depends on pdf files so only docu-
ments in pdf format are indexed.
* GS does not search some of the most
academically-esteemed databases, i.e.
Elsevier publications which alone has a
whopping 1,700 publications.
* GS searches have redundant results,
with frequent duplicates and overlap.
Peter Jacso, professor and chair of the
Library and Information Science Program
in the Department of Information and
Computer Sciences at the University of
Hawai'i at Manoa, has long reported on GS


pitfalls and had the following observation
(Jacso, 2009): "many of the publications,
randomly scattered in the detailed result
lists, are just variant formats of the same
paper, and the citations are mismatched...
While GS developers have fixed some of
the most egregious problems... such as
the 910,000 papers attributed to an author
named Passi\\ oid"-other large-scale non-
sense remains and new absurdities are pro-
duced every day."
In comparison, APIRS provides clear-
cut categories which can be further refined
with keyword and plant species names. Ir-
relevant sources have already been filtered
out so that every citation is about aquatic
plants or Florida upland invasive plants.
Duplicate hits are not a problem.


"An APIRS strength is

that the database has

been continuously in

service since the mid

1980s... "


We hope to continue to provide the com-
prehensive database which is APIRS. We
appreciate the continued spirit of coopera-
tion demonstrated by the many researchers
and others who supply their publications
for our citation purposes. We welcome con-
structive criticism and hope to upgrade our
search methods in the near future. This goal
is uncertain due to budget constraints but
we have long thrived during stressed eco-
nomic periods. We also greatly appreciate
the long-time financial support of the FWC
Invasive Plant Management Section and the
University of Florida-IFAS.
References
Jacso, P (2009, Sept. 24). GoogleTM Scholar's
Ghost Authors, Lost Authors, and Other
Problems. Library Journal [Online serial],
Retrieved 11/20/2009: blip ,ii!,!i.ir
joural.com/article/CA6698580.html


NOTES OF INTEREST
The Journal ofAquatic Plant Management, published by the Aquatic Plant Management Society (U.S.), is now online at: http://www.
apms.org/japmj apmindex.htm
Aquatics magazine, published by the Florida Aquatic Plant Management Society, is now online at: http://www.fapms.org/aquatics/
issues.htm
Wildland Weeds, published by the Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council, is now online at: www.se-eppc.org






Winter 2009 AQUAPHYTE Page 16

EWRS Symposium, continued fom page 1.


the symposium cited the European Water
Framework Directive (WFD) and the role
of macrophytes for monitoring the status of
water bodies, as well as meeting the goals
of the WFD.
The Symposium was attended by 106
participants from 30 different countries:
Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Croa-
tia, Egypt, Estonia, France, Finland, Ger-
many, Greece, Hungary, India, Ireland,
Italy, Japan, Kenya, Latvia, Netherlands,
New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Russian
Federation, Slovenia, Sri Lanka, Serbia,
Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom
and United States. Both oral and poster



AQUAPHYTE

AQUAPHYTE is the newsletter of the
Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants
(CAIP) and the Aquatic, Wetland and
Invasive Plant Information Retrieval
System (APIRS) of the University of
Florida / Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences (UF/IFAS). Support for CAIP is
provided by the Florida Fish and Wildlife
Conservation Commission, Invasive Plant
Management Section, and UF/IFAS.

EDITOR: Karen Brown

AQUAPHYTE is sent to managers,
researchers and agencies in 71 countries
around the world. Comments, announce-
ments, news items and other information
relevant to aquatic and invasive plant
research are solicited.
Inclusion in AQUAPHYTE does not
constitute endorsement, nor does exclu-
sion represent criticism, of any item,
organization, individual, or institution by
the University of Florida.

TUF UNIVERSITY of
UFLORIDA
IFAS Extension
Center for Aquatic
and Invasive Plants


presentations were given at the sympo-
sium. The abstracts of the presentations
(in total 105) were included in a sympo-
sium proceedings, which was presented
to participants and is available online as
Reports of the Finnish Environment Insti-
tute 15/2009: http://www.environment.fi/
default.asp?contentid=332257&lan=en
Selected papers from the symposium
will be published in a special volume of the
journal, Hydrobiologia.
The Scientific Committee of the Sym-
posium decided to organize the next
(13th) EWRS International Symposium on
Aquatic Plants in Poznan, Poland, in 2012.


A special Working Group, consisting of Dr.
Joe Caffrey (Ireland), Dr. Teresa Ferreira
(Portugal), Dr. Jacques Haury (France), Dr.
Seppo Hellsten (Finland) and Dr. Krzysztof
Szoszkiewicz (Poland), has been appointed
to make preparations for the next sympo-
sium in cooperation with the chairman of
the EWRS Working Group on Invasive
Plants, Dr. Christian Bohren. Information
will be posted on the EWRS webpage in
2010 (http://www.ewrs.org/).
EU Water Framework Directive (WFD):
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/wa-
ter-framework/info/intro en.htm


|I |I Lythrum salicaria (Linnaeus 1753), known as purple loosestrife among other common
names, is an aquatic herb native to Europe (extendingfrom Great Britain to central
University of Florida Russia), Japan, Manchuria China, southeastern Asia, and northern India. It is capable of
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences invading a variety of wetland habitats, including marshes, river and stream banks, pond
Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants (CAIP) edges, lakes, roadside ditches, and reservoirs, and has invaded Canada, the United States,
7922 N.W 71st Street Ethiopia, andAustralia. This species is listed in 100 of the World Worst Invasive Alien
Gainesville, Florida 32653-3071 USA Species: A selection from the Global Invasive Species Database, by Lowe, S., Browne, A.,
CAIP-websie fl.u Boudjelas, S., De Poorter M. (2000, 2004). Published by The Invasive Species Specialist
l.du Group (ISSG) of the Species Survival Commission (SSC) of the World Conservation Union
http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu (IUCN), 12pp. Electronic version available at: www.issg.or/




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