Table of Contents
 About Aquaphyte
 You have been deleted
 Database of personnel in aquatic...
 A view on Melacuca from down...
 Environmental professionals to...
 APIRS update
 We are looking for plant material...
 Coloring page to be shown on the...
 Have camera--will travel
 4-H wetlands program
 Handbook needs authors
 Aquatic Exotic News--Hydrilla in...
 Prohibited aquatic plants - out...
 America's least wanted -- alien...
 The uncontrolled growth of Azolla...
 Aquatic plant drawings package...
 The electronic media page
 From the database

Group Title: Aquaphyte : a newsletter about aquatic, wetland and invasive plants
Title: Aquaphyte
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00083179/00018
 Material Information
Title: Aquaphyte newsletter of the IPPC Aquatic Weed Program of the University of Florida, a part of the International Plant Protection Center of the Oregon State University, which is funded by the United States Agency for International Development
Abbreviated Title: Aquaphyte
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Center for Aquatic Plants
University of Florida -- IPPC Aquatic Weed Program
University of Florida -- Center for Aquatic Weeds
Publisher: The Program
Place of Publication: Gainesville FL
Publication Date: 1981-
Frequency: semiannual
Subject: Aquatic plants -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: Newsletters   ( lcsh )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (fall 1981)-
Issuing Body: Vols. for fall 1982- issued with: University of Florida, Center for Aquatic Weeds.
Issuing Body: Vols. for <1988-> issued by: University of Florida, Center for Aquatic Plants.
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 12, no. 2 (fall 1992).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00083179
Volume ID: VID00018
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06513906
lccn - sc 84007615
issn - 0893-7702


This item has the following downloads:

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Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    About Aquaphyte
        Page 3
    You have been deleted
        Page 4
    Database of personnel in aquatic plant research and management
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    A view on Melacuca from down under
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Environmental professionals to be licensed
        Page 11
        Page 12
    APIRS update
        Page 13
        Page 14
    We are looking for plant material to draw
        Page 15
    Coloring page to be shown on the Internet
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Have camera--will travel
        Page 18
    4-H wetlands program
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Handbook needs authors
        Page 22
    Aquatic Exotic News--Hydrilla in Connecticut
        Page 23
    Prohibited aquatic plants - out and about?
        Page 24
        Page 25
    America's least wanted -- alien species invasions of U.S. ecosystems
        Page 26
        Page 27
    The uncontrolled growth of Azolla in the Guadiana River
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Aquatic plant drawings package for sale
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    The electronic media page
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    From the database
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
Full Text


Volume 16 Number 2 Winter 1996

Center for Aquatic Plants
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida
7922 N.W. 71st Street
Gainesville, Florida 32653

with support from
The Florida Department of Environmental
Bureau of Aquatic Plant Management

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,
Waterways Experiment Station,
Aquatic Plant Control Research Program


You Have Been Deleted!
Database of Personnel in Aquatic Plant Research and Management
Form for: AQUAPHYTE Subscription Renewal and The Database of Personnel in Aquatic
Plant Research and Management

A View on Melaleuca...from Down Under by Tim Low, Queensland, Australia
Environmental Professionals To Be Licensed?

How To Download Search Results From The APIRS Database
We are looking for plant material to draw!
Coloring Page
Have Camera--Will Travel

4-H Wetlands Programs
APROPOS Strategy Planner
Aquatic Plant Handbook Needs Authors
Aauatic Exotic News--Hvdrilla in Connecticut

. Prohibited Aquatic Plants Out and About?
. America's Least Wanted--Alien Species Invasions of U.S. Ecosystems
. The Uncontrolled Growth of Azolla in the Guadiana River (Portugal)

. Aquatic Plant Drawings Package for Sale

* The Electronic Media Review Page


Spin-the-Wheel Bladderworts
by Kathy Craddock Burks, Botanist



a sampling of new additions to the APIRS database

Aquaphyte page I Home

copyright (C) 1997 University of Florida
Revised: January 1997

About Aquaphyte

This is the newsletter of the Center for Aquatic Plants and the Aquatic and Wetland
Plant Information Retrieval System (APIRS) of the University of Florida Institute
of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS). Support for the information system is
provided by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, the U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station Aquatic Plant Control Research
Program (APCRP), the St. Johns River Water Management District and UF/IFAS.

Victor Ramey
Karen Brown

AQUAPHYTE is sent to more than 6,500 managers, researchers, and agencies in
87 countries. Comments, announcements, news items and other information relevant
to aquatic plant research are solicited.

Inclusion in AQUAPHYTE does not constitute endorsement, nor does exclusion
represent criticism of any item, organization, individual, or institution by the
University of Florida.

Aquaphyte Contents I Aquaphyte page I Home

Copyright 1997 University of Florida
March 10, 1997

You Have Been Deleted!

As of this issue, EVERYBODY on the AQUAPHYTE mailing list has been deleted,
whether this is your first issue or your thirtieth. (Regular purging of our mailing lists
is required by the government.)

If you want to continue receiving the printed version of AQUAPHYTE, you must
contact us in writing, through regularmail or via E-mail, verifying your name and
mailing address. Please see pages 14 and 15.

There is an alternative. You do not have to re-subscribe to the printed version of
AQUAPHYTE and can simply read (andprint, if you want to) the online version of
this newsletter. In fact, we would prefer that you read it online rather than expectan
expensive printed version delivered by mail. Online AQUAPHYTE is accessible
through the APIRS Internet Web site at http://aquatl.ifas.ufl.edu/

Aquaphyte Contents I Aquaphyte page I Home

copyright 1996 University of Florida
December 1996

Database of Personnel in Aquatic Plant Research and Management

Please look at the form further down this page. This form has two purposes.

First, as you read from the article on page one, your name has been deleted from the AQUAPHYTE
mail lists. If you wish to receive future issues of this newsletter, you must re-subscribe in writing, by mail
or E-mail. The form below will do. Print it out, fill it in and send it to us.

Second, in conjunction with the Aquatic Plant Management Society, Inc., APIRS is compiling a database
of people throughout the world who work with aquatic plants, particularly in research and management.
This database will be available on-line from our WWW site to provide a referral service which can
be searched by country, plant species, field of expertise, etc. This database will be especially useful for
anyone seeking assistance with a particular plant or needing contacts in a specific country.

If you would like to be included in this database, please complete and return the form, omitting
any information that you do not want included in the database. Return the form or its copy to APIRS,
Center for Aquatic Plants, 7922 NW 71 ST, Gainesville, FL 32653, or E-mail its equivalent to:


Names of all respondents to this questionnaire will be entered into a drawing on 15 July 1997.
The winner will receive a complete set of the Journal of Aquatic Plant Management from 1962 to 1996.

The Aquatic Plant Management Society, Inc.

The Aquatic Plant Management Society, Inc., (APMS) is an international, professional organization
of scientists, educators, administrators, and concerned individuals interested in the management and control
of aquatic plants. The membership reflects a diverse collection of federal, state, and local
agencies; researchers and students from universities and colleges around the world; corporations;
commerical plant managers; and others dedicated to promoting research and sharing information about
aquatic plants and the technology of aquatic plant management.

Originally named The Hyacinth Control Society, Inc. when formed in 1961, APMS has evolved into
a respected source of expertise in the aquatics field. The Society has grown to include several regional or
state chapters within the US, and through these affiliates, annual meetings, newsletters, and the Journal
of Aquatic Plant Management, members keep abreast of the latest developments in aquatic plant
ecology, physiology, and biological, mechanical, chemical, and integrated methods of aquatic
plant management.

APMS membership dues: Active $35.00; Student $5.00; Subscriptions available.
If you would like further information about how to join this international society, please check the space
at the bottom of the form.

The following is a dual purpose form. Please check one or both:

For AQUAPHYTE Subscription Renewal

(free of charge)

For The Database of Personnel in Aquatic Plant Research and Management (free of charge)

Return this form or copy to: APIRS, Center for Aquatic Plants, 7922 NW 71 ST, Gainesville, FL 32653-
3071. Or the equivalent E-mail to: CAIP-WEBSITE(TAufl.edu

a n d N a m e :...............................................................................................................................................................................

A d d r e s s :...................................................................................................................................................................................

T elep h o n e:F....................................... ................... ..................... ... .... .... ..... .

F m ail: .. ... ...................... ............................................... ...

In te rn et S ite :.........................................................................................................................................................................

Y o u r L a n g u a g e s :....................................................................................................................................................................

Fields of Expertise: (please check as many as are appropriate) APM = Aquatic Plant Management.

Algae Macrophytes Invertebrates
Fisheries Other fauna Limnology
Large lakes (> 10 ha) Small lakes and ponds Rivers and streams
Canals Wetlands Estuaries
Education Researcher Research Technician
Student Information/library Aquatic ecology
Plant physiology Plant taxonomy Ecosystem studies

Photography/illustrations Surveying/mapping Public health
Engineering Aquatic plant production/nursery Aquascaping/mitigation
APM regulation/permitting APM equipment production/sales APM program administration
APM field supervision APM field operations/Technician APM Mechanical
APM Herbicides APM Blocontrol fish APM Biocontrol other vertebrates
APM Biocontrol-
invertebratesocontrol APM Blocontrol pathogens Aquatic plant utilization

Countries in which you have used
e x p e r tis e : .......................................................................................................................................... .....................................

Plant species with which you are
fa m ilia r : .............................................................................................................................................. ...................................

Employer: (please check as many as are appropriate)

International agency National State government Local government
Private business Research institution Educational institution Regulatory agency
Direct APMConsultants gEquipment/Herbicide Retired
services Mfg

If you would like further information about how to join the Aquatic Plant Management Society,
please check here:

Aquaphyte Contents | Aquaphyte page | Home

copyright 1996 University of Florida
December 1996

A View on Melaleuca...

From Down Under

by Tim Low, Queensland, Australia

Very few Australians realise that our paperbark tea tree (Melaleuca quinquenervia)
has become a weed in Florida. In Australia, it is a well known tree often planted in
parks. It is also an important source of honey to beekeepers, and the bark is
sometimes gathered to line plant pots, and to make bark "paintings".

The paperbark is a very successful tree in temperate eastern Australia. In pre-
European times it formed vast forests on coastal swampy land. It replaces eucalypts
on seasonally-inundated alluvial soil, forming monotypic forests or woodlands. It
also grows within swamps and along the banks of streams in the lower reaches of

Paperbark forests are not a diverse habitat. Often there are no other tree species
present. Where the ground is slightly elevated, eucalypts grow as emergents,
especially the forest red gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis), and also the swamp
mahogany (Lophostemon suaveolens). Where the soil becomes saline, paperbarks
are replaced by swamp oak (Casuarina glauca).

In paperbark forests, the ground cover is usually blady grass (Imperata cylindrica).
This grass is very widely distributed in Australia, Asia, and Africa, and it has spread
to the United States to become a serious weed. Very few shrubs grow within
paperbark forests, and only one vine is common, strawpod (Parsonia straminea).

The fauna of paperbark forests is limited. Frogs are usually well-represented by
about 8-12 species, and these are preyed upon by the keelback (Tropidonophis
mairii), a harmless colubrid snake sometimes found in large numbers. Kangaroos
and wallabies are largely confined to areas supporting blady grass (Imperata
cylindrica), or other palatable species. Paperbarks do not develop hollow limbs so
they do not provide shelter for possums, gliders, parrots, and other hole-nesting

birds. These species will occur where emergent eucalypts are present, but a
monotypic stand of paperbarks is very poor habitat for mammals and most birds.

Paperbarks flower prolifically and the blossoms attract large numbers of nectar-
feeding birds and bats. The birds include several species of honey eater and lorikeet,
and there are four species of temperate nectar-feeding bat, ranging in weight from
15 grams up to a kilogram. When a paperbark forest is in bloom, it becomes very
noisy, with squawking birds by day, and squabbling bats by night. Feral and
domesticated honeybees take much of the honey and nectar. Most of the coastal
paperbark forests were cleared in the past for pasture. The remaining stands are
threatened by real estate development. In Brisbane, Australia's third largest city, the
conservation of remaining paperbarks has become a conservation issue. The
Brisbane City Council opposed development of one paperbark stand as a shopping
centre, and the site has now become a bushland park called Deagon Wetlands.

In a recent book, Wild Places of Greater Brisbane (1996), Brisbane City Council
Officer Stephen Poole had this to say about Deagon: "Paperbark forest has the
highest loss rate and is under the most threat of any vegetation type in South-East
Queensland. This, and its relatively undisturbed nature, make the Deagon Wetlands
one of the most important bushland sites within the metropolitan area. The wetlands
are administered by Brisbane City Council as a Conservation Reserve, specifically
established to protect this fast disappearing habitat."

Paperbarks germinate prolifically and grow quickly, and when given the chance,
they soon reclaim cleared swampy ground. The species remains very common on
disturbed swampy land despite the broad-scale clearing of the past. It is the habitat
type that is under threat, not the species.

Paperbark remnants are very prone to weed invasion. On one side of the Deagen
Wetlands, adjacent to housing, a wide range of garden plants is invading the forest,
by courtesy of garden dumping. The worst invader is probably groundsel bush
(Baccharis halimifolia), a declared noxious weed originally introduced from North
America as an ornamental. Another weed is broad-leaved pepper tree (Schinus
terebinthifolius), which forms a tall shrub layer along swampy watercourses. This
shrub or small tree is widely grown as an ornamental, and its spread as a weed
appears to be relatively recent. I have seen lorikeets eating the fruits and birds are
apparently spreading the seeds. Another invasive weed is morning glory (Ipomoea


I am aware that Australian insects have been introduced to Florida in a bid to control
the spread of melaleuca. I would question whether this is likely to succeed.
Melaleucas in Australia are attacked by a very large number of insects yet they still
grow naturally in vast monocultures, representing one of the most common trees in
the region. In pre-European times it was almost certainly the most common tree
along the coastal strip of southern Queensland and northern New South Wales.
From the few pictures I have seen, the paperbark forests of Florida look much like
the paperbark forests here. However, in Australia, the insect predators are heavily
controlled by parasites, and perhaps by birds. For example, the larvae and eggs of
the pergid sawfly (Lophyrotoma zonalis) which is being studied for possible
introduction into Florida, are heavily parasitised in Australia. One can only hope
that in Florida, free from their controlling agents in Australia, the insects will be
dramatically successful in controlling Melaleuca.

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copyright 1996 University of Florida
December 1996

Environmental Professionals To Be Licensed?

Should "environmental professionals" be regulated and licensed by the state in the
same way that other professionals are, such as engineers, surveyors, geologists and
bankers? The Florida Association of Environmental Professionals, the Florida Lake
Management Society, and other organizations think so. They have formed a
coalition to file a bill with the Florida Legislature for consideration in its spring
1997 session. Four years in the writing, the bill would require anyone whowants to
"practice environmental management" (make ecological predictions or
environmental determinations) to have license, or to work under the guidance of
someone who does. Owners and managers of private companies that
offerenvironmental services in the state would be affected. Government workers in
general would be exempted, "provided theirwork is reviewed and/or prepared under
the supervision of a licensed environmental professional". The management
ofagricultural and aquacultural resources are exempt.

According to the bill, a licensee must provide proof of "having earned a four-year
college degree in one of the environmental management sciences", "having
completed a minimum of 5 accumulative years of experience" and "having met the
continuing education requirements." A "grandfather clause" is included in the bill,
which allows some applicants to substitute experience for a degree in environmental

Licensure is a good idea, according to Dr. Tom Cuba, because the general public
needs more assurance that reliable ecological decisions are made and that
environmental professionals are more liable for their actions; and because there is
"too much tax money wasted" on and environmental damage caused by bad
environmental management advice and activities. Cuba is the Executive Director of
the Environmental ProfessionalsAction Coalition, a lobbying organization that has
been shepherding the bill.

As of now, according to Cuba, only British Columbia requires licensing of

itsenvironmental professionals. However, five states are monitoring the progress
ofFlorida's bill. "I am very optimistic that it will pass this spring," says Cuba. He
isinterested in comments and suggestions: Dr Tom Cuba, Delta Seven, Box 54697,
St. Petersburg, FL 33739 (813/532-0709). V.R.

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copyright 1996 University of Florida
December 1996

How To Download Search Results From The APIRS

These are instructions as to how remote users can download search results from the
APIRS database. First, be sure to follow the new "log on" instructions to be found
on the database page of our Web site: http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/database.html

Here is the solution for downloading to your computer the results of a database
search. (This would be much easier if APIRS could afford a $17,000 software
interface, but this works.) For example, suppose you did the following search, and
you want the results at your computer so that you can print them out on your printer.

At the search screen, suppose your search was: eichhornia$ and biogass$ or
The number of "hits" for this query comes to 170 documents, and you want to look
at them at your leisure. For demonstration purposes, let's call this printout biogass".

1) You have completed your search of the database, and you are at a blank "Enter
search request [Options]" line. Press return. Also press return after each of the
following actions.

2) You are at the "Options" screen. Choose "R" to "Redirect documents".

3) The full pathname to type here will be: /usr/guest/biogas (Note the direction of
the "/"--make sure it's right.)

4) Enter your selection [F]: f

5) Enter documents for redirect: all

6) Press return when prompted.

7) You are back at the search screen. Follow instructions to log off (and quit the

8) Quit your telnet program (your "terminal session").

9) Start your FTP program.

10) Using FTP commands, you will transfer your search file (in this example,
biogass") from the database computer to your computer. FTP programs are
different; some require FTP commands, some use easy menu choices. For those
that require FTP commands:

11) At "ftp" prompt, type: ftp plants.ifas.ufl.edu (Note that there is a single space
between "ftp" and "plants")

12) At user, type: guest

13) At password, type: datalist4

14) At "ftp" prompt, type: get /usr/guest/biogas c:\mydirectory\biogas
(Note that 1) there is a single space between "get" and "/usr..."and between biogass"
and "c:\my...", and 2) "mydirectory" is the name of the directory on your computer
where you want the search file to go.)

15) After transfer, at "ftp" prompt, type: bye

16) Quit FTP

17) Start word processor; load biogass" file. (You may have to convert the file to
ASCII (DOS) Text or some other compatible format for your word processing

Aquaphyte Contents I Aquaphyte page I Home


We are looking for plant material to draw!

If you have an aquatic or wetland plant specimen that you need a botanically
accurate drawing of, please send it to APIRS. We will make the drawing, send you a
free reproduction of it, and include the drawing in our line-drawings package. (See
elsewhere in AQUAPHYTE Online for the list of plants already drawn.)

Please contact Vic Ramey at APIRS for more information: CAIP-
WEBSITE(ufl.edu or 352/392-1799.

Aquaphyte Contents I Aquaphyte page I Home

copyright 1996 University of Florida
December 1996

Coloring Page To Be Shown On The


Uncolored copies of the line drawing shown below (of a Florida scene by Ann
Murray) are available for free and ready to color. Send the colored pictures to
APIRS and we will display them on our Web site for all to enjoy. (Because of
technical considerations, you cannot download this line drawing from the Internet:
you must contact APIRS for free 8" X 10" copies, or you may photocopy the
drawing which is included in the latest printed issue (Winter, 1996) of

Plants depicted include cattail (Typha), fire flag (Thalia), duck potato (Sagittaria),
lotus (Nelumbo), water lily (Nymphaea), red ludwigia (Ludwigia), blue flag (Iris),
smartweed (Polygonum), bur reed (Sparganium), and tape grass (Vallisneria).

Here are some colorings received so far.

Aquaphyte Contents Aquaphyte page Home

copyright 1996 University of Florida
December 1996

Have Camera--Will Travel

The APIRS office has made some thirty video programs about aquatic plants and
the management of aquatic and wetland ecosystems. If you have anything to do with
the study and management of freshwater ecosystems, you likely have seen some of
our videos: plant ID; aquatic plant management; lake eutrophication; environmental

We now stand ready to make more.

If you have ideas for video programs that should be made about freshwater
environments, and have the necessary funding to act, consider contacting the
Information Office of the Center for Aquatic Plants of the University of Florida. If
you have the necessary funding to act but have no ready ideas, again, please
consider contacting the Information Office of the Center for Aquatic Plants of the
University of Florida. We have a list of video ideas and treatments about the
functioning and management of aquatic and wetland ecosystems, for audiences
ranging from middle-school children to lakeside homeowners to environmental
management personnel.

Call Vic Ramey, Information Office, Center for Aquatic Plants, 7922 NW 71 ST,
Gainesville, FL 32653-3071. Phone: 352/392-1799; E-mail: CAIP-WEBSITE(ufl.

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copyright 1996 University of Florida
December 1996

4-H Wetlands Program

St. Lucie County 4-H realizes the importance of Florida's wetlands. A
wetlands 4-H school enrichment program was developed by 4-H Agriculture Agent
Susan Munyan and 4-H Program Assistant Debbie McNeill to bring appreciation
and understanding of our wetlands to students. In the classroom, 4th and 5th grade
students learn what a wetland is, some of the different forms of wetlands, and
typical wetland plants and animals.

The program is concluded with a wetlands field trip that tests their classroom
studies. Students visit several natural and man-made wetlands. Using the University
of Florida produced "Aquatic Plant Identification Deck", teams of students are asked
to identify plants and signs of wildlife found in the wetlands. This team approach
encourages students to collectively use their wetlands knowledge.

Through classroom and hands-on experience, 795 students are to be an interactive
part of the St. Lucie County 4-H wetlands program. These students will be able to
determine a wetland by the plants and animals found. Students also begin to
understand the significance of Florida's wetlands to the environment.

Aquaphyte Contents Aquaphyte page Home

copyright 1996 University of Florida
December 1996


APROPOS the aquatic plant management strategy planner is under development
by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and needs "beta testers". This is "a computer -
assisted tool to help the aquatic plant manager integrate all the information available
for developing management plans." The main menu will allow the user to access a
planner, as well as literature databases, simulation tools, field techniques toolbox,
control technique toolbox, database menu, and, of course, a "help menu". If you are
interested in testing and commenting on APROPOS, contact John Madsen (E-mail:
madsenj@exl.wes.army.mil; (214/436-2215)) or Bob Gunkel (E-mail:
gunkelr@exl.wes.army.mil; (601/634-3722)).

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copyright 1996 University of Florida
December 1996

Handbook Needs Authors

The Handbook of Aquatic and Wetland Plants of the Caribbean and Bahamas
Islands is being coordinated by Drs. Rodulio Caudales and Efren Vega of the
University of Botswana. They have put out a request for scientists interested in
writing sections on various families of plants. For more information, contact Dr.
Rodulio Caudales, University of Botswana, Private Bag 0022, Gaborone,
BOTSWANA; E-mail: caudales@noka.ub.bw

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copyright 1996 University of Florida
December 1996

Aquatic Exotic News--Hydrilla in Connecticut

The Fall 1996 issue of Aquatic Exotics News includes an account of the spread of
Hydrilla verticillata into New England. Prof. Donald Les discovered the federally
prohibited plant densely grown to the surface in a Connecticut pond. Les was lead to
the site when he happened to recognize an error in a herbarium record: what Les
recognized as hydrilla had been misidentified by the herbarium in 1989 as Egeria
densa. Thus, hydrilla was introduced to Connecticut at least seven years ago.

Aquatic Exotics News is the newsletter of the Northeast (USA) Sea Grant Network
at the University of Connecticut at Avery Point. Ms. Nancy Balcom edits the 4-8
page newsletter, and it is published twice a year. The latest issue included the report
cited above, as well as a zebra mussel update from Vermont; a notice about the
"storm drain stencil program" in Connecticut and purple loosestrife publications;
and information about upcoming lake management meetings.

For information on subscribing to Aquatic Exotics News, contact Nancy Balcom,
Connecticut Sea Grant Marine Advisory Program, University of Connecticut, 1084
Shennecossett Rd., Groton, CT 06340-6097.

Aquatic Exotics News and other information from the Connecticut Sea Grant
Program also may be accessed on the World Wide Web at: http://www.ucc.uconn.

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copyright 1996 University of Florida
December 1996

Prohibited Aquatic Plants Out and About?

In an effort to not curtail the sale of commercially valuable plant species, the Florida
Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Aquatic Plant Management, is
revising its Florida Administrative Code, Rule 62C52 on Aquatic Plant Importation,
Transportation, Non-Nursery Cultivation, Possession and Collection, to allow the
sale of prohibited aquatic plant material proven to be non-viable. Commercial uses
for prohibited plants include selling the bright red berries of Brazilian pepper,
Schinus terebinthifolius, as ornamentals at Christmas. The berries are sterilised
using heat and methyl bromide fumigation treatments. The new rule will allow
permits for the collection, transportation and sale of the berries providing collection
and transportation methods are secure against accidental dispersal and the plant
material is proven to be sterile.

The rule change was considered partly in response to complaints from commercial
growers and members of Florida's Asian community who have shown a strong
desire to grow water spinach, Ipomoea aquatica. Water spinach is widely grown and
eaten as a vegetable in Vietnam and other areas in Asia. It repeatedly has been
found growing illegally in Florida waterbodies and commercial nurseries, and being
sold in Asian food markets. Growers in Hillsborough County signed a legal consent
order agreeing to destroy their crops if inspectors could obtain a positive
identification of the plant by a third party. Dr. Dan Austin, a botanist with the
University of South Florida, grew plant samples to the flowering stage and verified
that they were indeed Ipomoea aquatica. Under the new rule, permit applications
would be evaluated based on the demonstrated non-viability of the plant material.
Research is now underway at the University of Florida, Fort Lauderdale Research
and Education Center, on methods of rendering Ipomoea aquatica non-viable,
possibly using irradiation. If this is accomplished to the satisfaction of DEP,
growers may begin cultivating water spinach under quarantine conditions.

Another product which so far has been allowed is the sale of Hydrilla verticillata in
powdered, capsuled form. (In Florida, the powdered material is made from hydrilla

which has been mechanically harvested and left on the banks of Lake Seminole, so
the plant is not being cultivated.) The product is billed as "100% Hydrilla, a unique,
wild harvested' freshwater herb, the most recently discovered antioxidant,
phytonutrient, complex enzyme, whole food concentrate, a muscle builder, energy
enhancer, nutrient provider, anti-arthritic, free radical scavenger, with applications
for stress management, skin disorders and age associated diseases..." The product's
purveyors also claim that hydrilla "helps control toxic reactions caused by drugs and
chemical exposures from our diet and environment." Meanwhile, hydrilla is the
number one aquatic weed problem in the state of Florida, with approximately 13
million dollars allocated for its control during the 1996-1997 fiscal year. Ninety
capsules retail for about $36.00. Step right up, folks! K.B.

Florida bills and legislation may be viewed on the WWW. For bills profiled for
the 1997 session, substitute "1997" for "1996".

House: http://www.scri.fsu.edu/fla-leg/bill-info/1996/house index.html

Senate: http://www.scri.fsu.edu/fla-leg/bill-info/1996/senate index.html

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copyright 1996 University of Florida
December 1996

America's Least Wanted --

Alien Species Invasions of U.S. Ecosystems

This report and video about non-native plants and animals by The Nature
Conservancy declares that "an invasion is underway that is undermining our nation's
economy and endangering our most precious natural treasures." The organization
claims that "just 79 of them have cost the U.S. economy $97 billion in direct losses
from 1906 to 1991."

The report profiles "the dirty dozen of the least wanted", exotic species that
exemplify the range of problems caused by exotic species. Included is information
about the species (including range maps), the problems caused by them, and things
individuals can do to stop them. The dirty dozen are:

1) Zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha
2) Purple loosestrife Lythrum salicaria
3) Flathead catfish Pylodictis olivaris
4) Tamarisk Tamarix species
5) Rosy wolfsnail Euglandina rosea
6) Leafy spurge Euphorbia esula
7) Green crab Carcinus maenas
8) Hydrilla Hydrilla verticillata
9) Balsam wooly adelgid Adelges piceae
10) Miconia Miconia calvescens
11) Chinese tallow Sapium sebiferum
12) Brown tree snake Boiga irregularis

The report and video are available from: The Nature Conservancy
Communications Department 1815 North Lynn Street Arlington, VA 22209-2003

It is also available at http://www.tnc.org/science/library

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copyright 1996 University of Florida
December 1996

The Uncontrolled Growth of Azolla in the Guadiana

by Francisco Carrapito*, M.H. Costa, M.L. Costa, G. Teixeira, A.A. Frazao, M.C.R.
Santos, M.V. Baioa *Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Faculdade de Ciencias da
Universidade de Lisboa, Centro de Biologia Ambiental, Lisboa, Portugal E-mail: F.
Also, see The Azolla Page at http://skull.cc.fc.ul.pt/~bfcarrap/Main Azolla.html

The Guadiana River is an international one that has its spring in Spain (Campo
Montiel) and its mouth between Ayamonte and Vila Real de Santo Antonio
(Algarve, Portugal). The basin area of the river is about 67,000 km2, of which
12,000 km2 are in Portuguese territory. In 1990-1993, southern Portugal
experienced low rainfall with long dry seasons. This factor, combined with several
dams along the river, caused low water flow during 1993. In addition, farming and
industrial activity in the upper area of the Guadiana, together with untreated
domestic effluents from several towns and villages, contributed to organic
contamination of the Guadiana River that year. Lower flows (3.64 1.13 m3/s) also
promoted higher nutrient concentrations. Maximum Azolla growth requires a
phosphorus level of over 0.4 mg/L. At different river sites during the first months of
1993, the phosphorous levels changed, with maximum concentration values in April
between 5.36 and 0.63 mg/L P. In April 1993, a massive Azolla fern bloom occurred.

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Azolla caroliniana normally exists in small channels or in restricted zones of the

upper Guadiana River. In the lower Guadiana River, the bloom was composed of

Azollafiliculoides. The number of sporulated plants in 1993 was 675%. This fact,

associated with the high nutrient concentration in the river, allowed the fern to

expand into new areas, ending with the explosive bloom observed in 1993. In some

areas, Azolla covered the surface for several kilometres along the river. The

situation was the worst near the village of M,rtola and produced panic among the

population, especially the fishing community. Fishing was difficult and the fish

caught could not be sold due to local suspicion that it was poisoned.

The explosive growth of the Azolla represented the first occurrence in Portugal of

such a large scale uncontrolled growth of this fern in a river. As a consequence,

governmental authorities took a special interest. Aerial photographs of the river

were taken to document the extent of the coverage and military forces were brought

in to control and isolate the area. The situation grew into a national event with

intense media coverage. Unfortunately, some of the news reported was incorrect or

exaggerated, contributing to the panic of the population. Decisions by the

government to remove the Azolla were rash and without scientific support. In the

first removal efforts made by the local and military authorities, large amounts of the

fern were harvested and placed on the river banks to dry. A large quantity of

juvenile eels (Anguilla anguilla) were found in the harvested biomass, which was a
cause of great concern. Apparently, the Azolla bloom had coincided with the
migration of juvenile eels in the river. Due to concern that the fern biomas, which
covered large areas of the river, could cause eutrophic conditions, a monitoring
survey of the main water quality parameters was done and the Azolla biomass was
removed in the most problematic areas.

The catastrophic event ended with the closing of the life cycle of Azolla and the
disappearance of its vegetative structure. However, the incident left an important
message for our environmental authorities who need to examine weed management
in Portugal. The way a civil population can react to an unusual ecological situation
and how the media can contribute to the amplification of the situation, perhaps
leading to panic, are important points to be considered for management models
developed in the future. All of these events reinforce our belief that only with
monitoring and prevention, involving central and local authorities with an adequate
environmental education, can we solve future problems like those experienced in
April of 1993.

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copyright 1996 University of Florida
December 1996

Aquatic Plant Drawings Package For Sale

The very popular APIRS aquatic plant line drawings collection is now for sale. As
of December 1996, there are 115 looseleaf pages of drawings in the collection,
which grows monthly. For more information...

1 Freshwater Scenics
2 Illustrated Glossary of plant parts
3 Alternanthera philoxeroides Alligatorweed
4 Andropogon glomeratus Bushy beardgrass
5 Arundo donax Giant reed
6 Azolla caroliniana Azolla
7 Bacopa caroliniana Blue-hyssop
8 Bidens laevis Bur-marigold
9 Brachiaria mutica
10 Brasenia schreberi Water shield
11 Cabomba aquatica Fanwort
12 Carex spp. Sedge
13 Carex comosa Sedge
14 Carex glaucescens Sedge
15 Casuarina spp. Australian pine
16 Cephalanthus occidentalis Buttonbush
17 Ceratophyllum demersum Coontail
18 Chara spp. Muskgrass
19 Cicuta mexicana Water hemlock
20 Cladium jamaicense Saw-grass
21 Colocasia esculenta Wild Taro
22 Colubrina asiatica
23 Crassula helmsii Swamp stonecrop
24 Cyperus distinctus Flat sedge
25 Cyperus odoratus Flat sedge
26 Decodon verticillatus Swamp loosestrife

27 Dichromena colorata White-top sedge, Star rush
28 Egeria densa
29 Eichhornia crassipes Water hyacinth
30 Eichhornia crassipes (2nd drawing)
31 Eleocharis baldwinii Slender spikerush
32 Eriocaulon decangulare Pipewort
33 Habenaria blephariglottis White fringed orchid
34 Helianthus angustifolius Narrow-leaf sunflower
35 Hydrilla verticillata Hydrilla
36 Hydrilla comparisons: Hydrilla-Elodea-Egeria
37 Hydrocotyle spp.
38 Hygrophila polysperma Hygro
39 Ipomoea aquatica Water spinach
40 Ipomoea fistulosa
41 Juncus effusus Soft rush
42 Juncus elliottii Bogrush
43 Lachnanthes caroliniana Redroot
44 Lagarosiphon spp. African elodea
45 Lemna minor* Duckweed
46 Liatris spicata Blazing star
47 Lilium catesbaei Pine lily
48 Limnobium spongia Frog's bit
49 Limnocharisflava Flowering rush
50 Limnophila sessiliflora Ambulia
51 Lobelia cardinalis Cardinal-flower
52 Ludwigia alternifolia Seed-box, Rattle-box
53 Ludwigia peruviana Primrose-willow
54 Ludwigia repens Red ludwigia
55 Luziolafluitans Watergrass
56 Lygodium japonicum Japanese climbing fern
57 Lythrum salicaria Purple loosestrife
58 Melaleuca quinquenervia Melaleuca
59 Mimosa pigra Giant sensitive plant
60 Monochoria hastata
61 Monochoria vaginalis
62 Myriophyllum aquaticum Parrot feather
63 Myriophyllum heterophyllum Variable-leaf milfoil

64 Myriophyllum spicatum Eurasian water milfoil
65 Najas guadalupensis Southern naiad
66 Nechamandra alternifolia
67 Nelumbo lutea American lotus
68 Nitella spp. Stonewort
69 Nuphar spp. Cow lily, Spatterdock
70 Nymphaea spp. Water lily
71 Oryza rufipogon Wild red rice
72 Oscillatoria spp.**
73 Oxypolisfiliformis Water dropwort
74 Panicum hemitomon Maidencane
75 Panicum repens Torpedograss
76 Paspalum urvillei Vasey grass
77 Pennisetum purpureum Elephant grass
78 Phragmites australis Common reed
79 Pistia stratiotes Water lettuce
80 Polygonum densiflorum Knotweed
81 Polygonum hydropiperoides Smartweed
82 Pontederia cordata Pickerelweed
83 Pontederia rotundifolia Tropical pickerelweed
84 Potamogeton illinoensis Illinois pondweed
85 Potamogeton pusillus
86 Rhynchospora cephalantha Beak rush
87 Rhynchospora inundata Beak rush
88 Ruellia brittoniana
89 Sagittaria lancifolia Duck potato
90 Sagittaria stagnorum
91 Salvinia (S. molesta, S. minima, S. auriculata) Salvinia
92 Salvinia rotundifolia (minima) Salvinia
93 Saururus cernuus Lizard's-tail
94 Schinus terebinthifolius Brazilian pepper-tree
95 Scirpus californicus Giant bulrush
96 Solanum tampicense Aquatic soda apple
97 Sparganium americanum Bur-reed
98 Sparganium erectum Exotic bur-reed
99 Spirodela polyrhiza* Giant duckweed
100 Spirogyra spp.**

101 Stratiotes aloides Water soldier, Water aloe
102 Thalia geniculata Fire flag
103 Trapa spp. Water chestnut
104 Typha (T. domingensis, T. latifolia) Cattail
105 Ulothrix spp.**
106 Utricularia purpurea Bladderwort
107 Utricularia radiata Bladderwort
108 Vallisneria americana Tapegrass
109 Viola spp. American violet
110 Vossia cuspidata Hippo grass
111 Wolffia spp.* Water-meal
112 Xyris spp. Yellow-eyed grass
113 Zizania aquatica Wild rice
114 Zizaniopsis miliaceae Giant cutgrass

*Lemna, Spirodela, Wolffia on Lemna page
**Oscillatoria, Spirogyra, Ulothrix on Spirogyra page


Raphael Gottlieb
Jean Putnam Hancock
Laura Line
Ann Murray
Katrina Vitkus

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copyright 1996 University of Florida
December 1996

The Electronic Media Page

CD -- Zebra Mussel Information System--ZMIS

A single CD for Microsoft Windows, produced by the U.S. Army Corps of

This is truly an all-in-one information source about the new scourge of U.S. dams
and other water control operations, recreational areas and ecological zones: zebra
mussels and quagga mussels. In this CD, you'll find well-organized and easy-to-use
interfaces to: larval and adult identification of zebra and quagga mussels, including
many pictures; complete hot-linked text; impacts on industry, recreation and
ecosystems; life history diagrams and text; comparisons to several other species of
mussels; distribution maps over time; risk assessment software; detection and
monitoring systems; management and control options; case studies; molluscicide
issues; hundreds of references according to topic; a separate picture list... The
creators of this CD knew what they were doing. It works.

The authors of this CD are working on two more: Aquatic Plant Information System
(APIS), ID information on 60 aquatic plants, including biocontrol information on 18
of them; and the Noxious and Nuisance Plant Management Information System
(PMIS), ID and control information on 34 terrestrial and aquatic weeds. Both are
due for release in 1997.

Order from Dr. Michael Grodowitz, CEWES-ER-A, 3909 Halls Ferry Road,
Vicksburg, MS 39180; (601/634-2972). E-mail: GrodowM(exl.wes.army.mil

CD -- Aquatic Plants Field Identification Guide

A single CD or multiple diskettes for Microsoft Windows, produced by the

Texas Agricultural Extension Service

Sixty-eight plants are indexed and depicted in this CD. Each plant treatment
includes a photograph and a sometimes too-brief description, plus a line drawing.
The plants are indexed by common name, or may be searched by category: floating,
algae, emersed, shoreline/marginal or submersed.

Order from Prof. James Davis, Extension Specialist, 102 Nagle Hall, College
Station, TX 77843-2258; (409/845-7473). E-mail: idavis21(tamu.edu

CD -- Weeds of the United States

A single CD for Microsoft Windows, produced for the Southern Weed Science
Society by Information Design

"This CD contains almost 1600 color photographs, detailed descriptions and
distribution maps of 300 weeds of the continental United States. The program also
includes illustrated lessons and quizzes on the principles of plant identification and
an illustrated glossary of botanical terms that is hot-linked to the lessons and weed
descriptions." This CD does not feature an identification key; you simply must
know the name of the plant you want information about. This product does feature a
unique and thorough collection of photographs of seeds and seedlings of weeds,
which farmers presumably would come across first in well-maintained fields, but
there is a noticeable dearth of photos of mature weeds in their habitats, nor does the
CD include drawings of these plants.

If this CD, with its good-looking interface to plant identification information and its
intensive hyper-linking, could be combined with Plant-ID, the computerized
"key" (described below) that enables users to sort 2,000 weed species by their
characteristics but has no pictures or other information, then you'd really have a
weed CD!

Order from Southern Weed Science Society, 1508 West University Avenue,
Champaign, IL 61821-3133; (217/353-4212). $90.00.

Floppy -- Plant-ID: Weeds and Toxic Plants of U.S. and Canada

A single 3.5" floppy disk, that runs in DOS on a PC, produced by the
University of Idaho

This computer program acts as a key to aid the user in identifying more than 2,000
species of weeds growing in fields, lawns and gardens of North America. By
selecting a few of more than 50 possible characteristics for "non-grass-like" plants,
or more than 40 characteristics for "grass-like" plants, the user automatically takes
advantage of the computer's ability to combine and re-combine, thus making it more
likely for a non-botanist to identify a plant. The program includes a good manual
that depicts the possible characteristics. What the program does not include are plant
descriptions, pictures, graphics and drawings --users are expected to refer to other
media for these.

Order from Weed Diagnostic Lab, Department of PSES, University of Idaho,
Moscow, ID 83844-2339; (208/885-7831). $99.95.

Video -- Restoring the Balance: Biological Control of Purple

A 28-minute video produced by Cornell University

This video is a primer about the exotic nuisance marsh plant, purple loosestrife
(Lythrum salicaria), its impacts on North American wetlands, previous attempts
since the 1970s to control its spread and infestations, and the new emphasis on
identifying and introducing biological controls to help manage it. The video
includes details on several weevils and other insects being studied as biocontrol
agents, and includes footage showing how to augment and enhance field populations
of the insects. This video is very instructive for viewers interested in biological
control of any aquatic plants, whether loosestrife or hydrilla. The only problem is,
there is no conclusion: it will be "several years" before the scientists and video
makers will know whether the released insects have any effect on the target plant.

Order from Cornell University, Media Services Center, 7 Cornell Business &
Technology Park, Ithaca, NY 14850; (607/255-2090). $24.95 plus S/H.

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copyright 1996 University of Florida
December 1996

Getting To Know The Natives


by Kathy Craddock Burks, Botanist, Technical Services, Bureau of Aquatic Plant
Management, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, 3917 Commonwealth
Blvd., MS 710, Tallahassee, FL 32399, 904/487-2600.

Aquatic bladderworts (Utricularia spp.) are submersed, rootless, carnivorous plants.
Their stems, with leaflike branching, may grow to over a meter long, and most bear
small unlikek" bladders that trap and digest tiny animals. These plants also provide
habitat for invertebrates and juvenile fish.

Among Florida's 14 species of bladderwort are two that are often confused because
of their similar habit. They have distinctive swollen lateral branches ("floats") that
radiate from a node of the flowering stalk like spokes of a wheel.

Both Utricularia inflata and U. radiata form these easily recognized floating
"wheels." Both have yellow flowers, and both have submersed stems below the
floats with highly dissected leaflike branching. Of course, both have bladders that
are typical of the genus. However, upon closer inspection, one can use several other
characteristics to distinguish the two species.

The larger of the two is U. inflata, with usually longer, wider floats and a flower
scape rising as much as 15 cm above them (compared to a maximum scape length
above the floats of 6 cm for U. radiata). Also, the floats in U. inflata gradually taper
in width toward the center of the whorl, while those in U. radiata do not, except for
a brief, more abrupt tapering near the axis. But admittedly, such morphological
features can be difficult to discern when you have only one of the two species at

Clearer distinctions can be found in the inflorescence. The scape of U. inflata may
bear 4 to 18 flowers, with a usual number of 10 or 11, while U. radiata may bear 1
to 7 flowers but most often has 3 or 4. The individual mature fruiting stalks are

usually recurved (bent downward) in U. inflata, and nearly always erect or
ascending in U. radiata. The small leaflike bract at the base of individual flower
stalks is definitely longer than broad in U. inflata, and unlobed; in U. radiata, the
bract is lobed and broader than long. And not least of all, the protrusion of extra
petal tissue seen on the "back" of each flower i.e., the corolla spur differs in the two
plants: its tip is usually notched in U. inflata, and not so in U. radiata.

The two species also differ in their mode of vegetative reproduction. When plants of
U. inflata are stranded on exposed muck or mud, they frequently produce long
threadlike branches among the "leafy" stems, with each "thread" bearing a tiny tuber
at its tip. U. radiata does not produce tubers, but under similar conditions will form
tiny vegetative buds at the axils of smaller branches. (Either species may turn up in
great numbers following a drought or drawdown event in a shallow waterbody, and
then return to relative obscurity in the plant community at higher, stabilized water

Both of these bladderworts occur in all regions of the state, although U. inflata is the
more commonly seen species. Its distribution extends on the Coastal Plain from
New Jersey and Delaware to south Florida, and west to eastern Texas. The smaller
species, U. radiata, is more cold-hardy, and ranges north to Nova Scotia, west to
Indiana and Arkansas, and south to Florida.

For more information contact the address above.

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copyright 1996 University of Florida
December 1996


19-25, 1998. Florence, Italy.

Organized by the International Association for Ecology (INTECOL) in conjunction
with the Italian Ecological Society (SItE), the motto of this congress is New Tasks
for Ecologists after Rio 1992. It is an invitation to all ecologists to come together to
examine the relationships of human activities and the environment in both scientific
and social dimensions.

Contact: Almo Farina, Secretariat VII International Congress of Ecology, c/o
Lunigiana Museum of Natural History, Fortezza della Brunella, 54011 AULLA,
Italy; WWW: http://www.tamnet.it/intecol.98

January 28-29, 1997, Houston, Texas. February 25-26, 1997, Atlanta,

These two day workshops are to "demonstrate the most effective and efficient
means of planning and implementing wetlands restoration, creation, and
management projects, and to promote pro-active management of wetlands for
maximum benefits." The workshops are sponsored by the Wildlife Habitat Council
in cooperation with the US EPA, the US Army Corps of Engineers, the USDA
Natural Resources Conservation Service, the Tennessee Valley Authority, the US
Fish & Wildlife Service and Svoboda Ecological Resources.

Contact: Wildlife Habitat Council, 1010 Wayne Avenue, Suite 920, Silver Spring,
MD 20910; telephone: 301/588-8994; fax: 301/588-4629; E-mail: whccais.com;
WWW: http://www.wildlifehc.org/wildlifehc

AQUATIC NUISANCE SPECIES. February 7-8, 1997. Burlington,

Connecticut Sea Grant, University of Connecticut, and the Vermont Department of
Environmental Conservation are sponsoring a two-day conference to discuss current
research on non-indigenous aquatic species in the northeastern United States.

Contact: Nancy Balcom, Sea Grant Marine Advisory Program, 1084 Shennecossett
Rd., Groton, CT 06340; telephone: 860/405-9127

June 25-29, 1997. Vigo, Spain.

Contact: Beatriz Reguera, Conference Coordinator, Instituto Espanol de
Oceanografia, Apartado 1552, 36280 Vigo, Spain.

WORKSHOP. March 11-12, 1997. Gainesville, Florida.

Recently completed and current research being conducted on aquatic plant
management throughout Florida will be presented, together with an assessment of
the future of aquatic plant management.

Contact: Office of Conferences, University of Florida, IFAS, telephone: 352/392-
5930; E-mail: conf@(gnv.ifas.ufl.edu


19-23, 1997. Orlando, Florida.

A combination technical conference and trade show, which addresses local, national
and international environmental issues associated with government, industry, small
business, sustainable development, stakeholder involvement, NEPA, and risk
management. Held in conjunction with Environmental Resource EXPO 97, billed as
the largest environmental industry trade show in the Southeast.

Contact: Helen Merkel, Home Engineering and Environmental Services, 4501 Ford
Ave., Suite 1100, Alexandria, VA 22302.

1997, Whistler, British Columbia, Canada

Organized by the International Federation for Information Processing and the
German Computer Society. The symposium will include course lectures for students
and faculty on Tools for Environmental Informatics, with advanced credit provided
at several institutions. The theme of the course is environmental data management
and environmental information systems to bridge gaps in time and space in data,
information and knowledge. Participating universities are University of Waterloo,
University of Guelph, Hochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft des Saarlandes, and
Fachhochschule Nuertingen.

Contact: Dr. David Swayne, Department of Computing & Information Science,
University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada NIG 2W1; Fax: 519/837-0323; E-
mail: dswayne@snowhite.cis.uoguelph.ca

CREATION. May 15-16, 1997. Tampa, Florida.

Sponsored by the Hillsborough Community College Institute of Florida Studies. The
conference will provide a forum for the nationwide exchange of scientific research

in the restoration, creation and management of total ecosystems including
freshwater and coastal wetlands and upland and transitional areas.

Contact: Frederick Webb, Hillsborough Community College, Institute of Florida
Studies, Plant City Campus, 1206 N. Park Road, Plant City, FL 33566; telephone:
813/757-2104; E-mail: webb@mail.hcc.cc.fl.us

AQUATIC WEED SHORT COURSE. May 12-15, 1997. Fort
Lauderdale, Florida.

Sponsored by the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
(IFAS). The course will offer continuing education units for Pesticide Applicator
Certification in categories including Aquatic, Right-of-Way, Aerial, Ornamental and
Turf, CORE, Demonstration & Research, and Regulatory.

Contact: University of Florida, IFAS, Office of Conferences, telephone: 352/392-

SCIENTISTS. June 1-6, 1997. Bozeman, Montana.

The technical program will focus on the wetland functions and management theme
of the meeting, Wetlands Heritage and Stewardship. Several field trips are planned.

Contact: Montana State University, Conference Services, Room 280F, Strand
Union, Bozeman, MT 59717-0402; fax: 406/994-3228. To submit abstracts: Paul
Hook, Dept. Animal & Range Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT
59717-2900; telephone: 406/994-3724; E-mail: bozeman97(sws.org; WWW: http://


Alexandria, Virginia.

Billed as an American Wetlands Month Celebration, the meeting will be a gathering
of people interested and sharing experiences in community-based wetlands

Contact: Communities Working for Wetlands, c/o Terrene Institute, 4 Herbert St.,
Alexandria, VA 22305; telephone: 800/726-4853; fax: 703/548-6299; E-mail:_

MANAGEMENT SOCIETY. May 7-9, 1997. West Palm Beach,

The conference theme is "New Perspectives and Tools for Lake and Watershed

Contact: Chuck Hanlon, Conference Chairman, South Florida Water Management
District, P.O. Box 24680, West Palm Beach, FL 33416-4680; telephone: 561/687-
6748; E-mail: charles.hanlon@sfwmd.gov

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copyright 1996 University of Florida
December 1996


Conference on the Conservation and Management of Lakes, "Hangzhou '90", edited
by J. Xiangcan, L. Hongliang, T. Qingying, Z. Zongshe and Z. Xuan. 1990. 652 pp. (In
(Order from Prof. Jin Xiangcan, Water Environmental Institue of the Chinese Research Academy of
Environmental Sciences, Beiyuan, Beijing, 100012, CHINA. US$150.00.)

Ecologists and limnologists of the Chinese Academy of Science have compiled a
very large amount of research, graphs and maps about the status of the highly
diverse lakes (and reservoirs) of China in a well-produced, very well-written book.
There are no other such resources about the lakes of China in the APIRS library.

In two parts, this tome is 1) "a comprehensive introduction to the lakes'
environmental characteristics" and 2) a review and compilation of dozens of
eutrophication studies by many Chinese scientists. Part One includes information on
all conceivable characteristics from sediment granularity to the effects of tourists to
the distributions of indicator species. Part Two (the remaining 500 pages) presents
the trophic states of five regions of China, as well as separate reviews of urban lakes
and reservoirs.

There are no indexes or appendixes.

by C.D. Preston. 1995. 352 pp.
(Order from the Botanical Society of the British Isles, Publications, Green Acre, Wood
Lane, Oundle, Peterborough PE8 5TP, GREAT BRITAIN. (Tel. 01832 273388))

This book is "intended as an identification guide rather than a taxonomic
monograph" for those who are "reasonably familiar" with botany. The first third is

an introduction to the biology of Potamogeton species in the British Isles, and
includes chapters on prehistory, nomenclature, classification, evolution,
hybridisation, structure, life history, habitats, distribution, and collection and

The second part of the book presents two keys to 50 species (including a couple of
Ruppias and Groenlandia densa). Each species is treated by descriptions, maps and
excellent line drawings.

RESERVOIR FISHERIES OF INDIA, by V.V. Sugunan. 1995. 423 pp. (In English.)
(Order from Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations,
Publications Division, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, ITALY. FAO
Fisheries Technical Paper No. 345.)

The per capital availability of fish in India is 3.2 kg while the world average is 12.1
kg. To increase inland fish production will require using Indian reservoirs, about
which documentation is "grossly inadequate." This research literature review will
provide "a baseline" to "assess the potential for culture-based fisheries enhancement
of reservoirs in the region."

The book begins with a national perspective on inland fisheries in India, as well as
maps and charts of reservoir distribution, soils, and climate. The remaining 13
chapters present the facts and figures from each state, including stocking methods
and rates, yields, and water chemistry.

DICTIONARY OF PLANT NAMES, In Latin, German, English and French, by H.
Nikolov. 1996. 926 pp. ISBN 3-443-50019-6
(Order from J. Cramer, Gebruder Borntraeger, Johannesstr. 3A, D-70176 Stuttgart,
GERMANY. Tel: 0711/625001. US$128.00.)

This books lists 14,500 generic names and as many species and 1,600 synonyms, for
about 600 families of plants, bacteria included.

of Mexico, edited by C.L. Coultas and Y.-P. Hsieh. 1997. 352 pp. ISBN 1-57444-026-8
(Order from St Lucie Press, 100 E Linton Blvd., Suite 403B, Delray Beach, FL 33483.
(407/274-9906.) US$59.95 plus S/H.)

This book introduces the reader to the highly productive intertidal salt marshes of
Florida's Gulf of Mexico coast. Florida has more intertidal wetlands than Georgia
and the Carolinas combined. It is illustrated with charts, graphs and ok-quality black-
and-white photographs.

Included are 12 review chapters on various aspects of intertidal marshes, such as
functions, geology, soils, vegetation, primary productivity and animals. The chapter
on legal protection was written by lawyers, and the one on management was written
by specialists of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection.

This book also includes chapters on how "to value" wetlands and the things that live
in them. Chapter 8, written by Professors H.T. Odum and D.A. Hornbeck, is a
tutorial on how to use Odum's highly-complex "EMERGY measure" (named in
1983) to "estimate the contributions of marsh production and storage to real
wealth"; that is to say, to calculate the monetary value of marshes. Using EMERGY,
Odum and Hornbeck calculate that marshes around Cedar Key, Florida, contribute
to the "potential for growth" of the town to the tune of $55.3 million (1990 $).
Therefore, the "potential public value that depends on marshes is $5,839/ha/year
(1990 $)." Appendixes that list the terrestrial vertebrates and aquatic insects of
Florida's Gulf coast tidal marshes complete this compendium.

Report, by R.L. Schroeder. 1996. 42 pp.
(Order from National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield,
VA 22161. Technical Report WRP-DE-14. Final Report from the US National Biological
Service to the US Army Corps of Engineers.)

This publication is a description of and tutorial for the use of the "Habitat Model", a
mathematical procedure that "predicts [species] richness from an evaluation of

habitat and spatial variables, with the highest levels of richness assumed to be found
in mature, unfragmented forested wetland tracts."

Smith and S.J. de Kozlowski. Second Edition. 1996. 128 pp.
(Order from K. Horan, SCDNR, Water Resources Division, 1201 Main Street, Suite 1100,
Columbia, SC 29201, (803/737-0800.) $15.00.)

This expanded version of the 1990 edition includes treatments for more than 120
species. It is a well-made book profusely illustrated with exceptional (though
smallish) color photographs and line drawings. This manual does not include a key
to the species, though the book is divided into sections: submersed; floating;
shoreline and wetland; grasses, sedges and rushes; and algae.

Machado, K.M. Fitzsimmons and S.E. Menke. 1996. 33 pp.
(Order from Environmental Research Laboratory, University of Arizona, 2601 E Airport
DR, Tucson, AZ 85706 (520/741-1990.)

This publication resembles a ready-made "business plan" for starting the business of
seaweed aquaculture. The spiral-bound manual explains how to prepare and operate
a spore culture facility, in which Gracilaria (a red seaweed) is grown and harvested.
Gracilaria is consumed around the world where it is the raw material for gel agar
and other foodstuffs. Its increasing demand is not being met by the industry's
depleting natural sources in the seas of Asia and South America; aquacultural
sources must be expanded.

In many large, very good black-and-white photographs, the Gracilaria life cycle and
its aquaculture are depicted. Chapters also explain how to collect data and keep
records, and presents the "Moloka'i experience" in Hawaii, including listing
installation and operating costs, with depreciation schedule and 5-year-cash-flow

FLORIDA FRESHWATER PLANTS A Handbook of Common Aquatic Plants in
Florida Lakes, by M.V. Hoyer, D.E. Canfield, C.A. Horsburgh, and K.P. Brown. 1996.
264 pp.
(Order from University of Florida, IFAS Publications, PO Box 110011, Gainesville, FL
32611-0011. (352/392-1764.) US$35.00 plus S/H.)

The objective of this uniquely informative handbook is to examine the relation of
water chemistry to the presence and distribution of 103 common aquatic plants in
322 Florida lakes.

The book presents color photographs, descriptions, Florida distribution and biology
of each plant. It also includes tables of data and succinct interpretations which
describe the ranges of water chemistry variables for the individual species. These
data were taken from 15 years of research conducted on Florida lakes. In addition, a
list of scientific references selected from the Aquatic Plant Information Retrieval
System (APIRS) database refers users to other sources of published information for
each species.

Also included in this fact-filled volume are statistical tables showing plants sorted
for water chemistry variables including pH, alkalinity, conductance, color,
phosphorus, nitrogen, chlorophyll a, Secchi depth, calcium, magnesium, sodium,
potassium, sulfate, chloride, iron and silicon.

ISBN 0-19-854821-4
(Order from Oxford University Press. 198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016.
$165.00 plus S/H.)

This "Flora", Prof. Cook's "last fling before going into retirement", is a much-
needed record of the diversity of aquatic and wetland plants in the subcontinent, as
well as a much-needed identification manual that was written to be used by students
and others having little botanical training.

The identification keys for the 660 species are based on easily seen vegetative
characteristics, so that taxa may appear several times in the key. Thus, users may

depend on different characteristics and follow different ("easier") paths in the key to
identify a plant in question. Each species is described, its distribution in India is
noted, and an "ecological diagnosis" is presented. Only Latin names are used in this

All species are illustrated by line drawings, but these "are not meant to be plant
portraits and are often restricted to diagnostic features."

pp. ISBN 1-55105-060-9
(Order from Lone Pine Publishing, 206, 10426-81 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, CANADA
T6E 1X5, 800/661-9017. $19.95 plus S/H.)

This highly illustrated and colorful wetland manual is meant for botanists,
environmentalists, managers and "all who appreciate, enjoy, study, protect and
manage the wetlands" of the Pacific Northwest. It details 155 (mainly flowering)
plants, but treats about 330 species in various ways, such as being described as
"look-alike" species. It includes native and exotic species. The author uses five
identification keys: "pondweeds and others", grasses, rushes, sedges, and willows
(Salix spp.). In addition to the keys, the plants are arranged in the book according to
general habitats, including "submerged and floating, marshy shore, prairie wetland,
shrub swamp and wooded wetland" communities.

The color photographs and line drawings of the plants are generally very good. Each
plant is described as to growth habit, leaves, flowers, fruits, habitat, natural history,
similar species and special notes of interest.

Robinson, with F. Perry. 1996. 434 pp. ISBN 0-88192-335-4
(Order from Timber Press, Inc., 133 SW Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-
3527, (800/327-5680.) $59.95 plus S/H.)

Written by two of the world's leading water-gardening experts, this very complete
book includes two main parts. Part one includes all one needs to know to design,

construct and use pools, bogs, waterfalls and streams in the garden landscape.
Choosing, planting and maintaining floating, submersed, marginal, and bog plants
as well as moisture-loving trees and shrubs, is explained. The roles of fish, frogs,
insects and other animals are also described, including particular detail regarding the
lives of dragonflies.

Part Two is the "Encyclopedia of Water Lilies and and Lotuses", in which all
species and major cultivars of water lilies and lotuses are described, including both
day- and night-blooming tropicals. Here are found most of the 445 laser-sharp color
photographs of flowers, leaves and roots.

Appendices include hardiness zone maps, a listing of commercial water lily sources,
a glossary and a recommended reading list.

Aquaphyte Contents I Aquaphyte page I Home

copyright 1996 University of Florida
December 1996


Here is a sampling of the research articles, books and reports which have been entered into
the aquatic plant database since April 1996. The database has more than 43,000 citations.
To receive free bibliographies on specific plants and/or subjects, contact APIRS at 352-
392-1799 or use the database online at http://aquatl.ifas.ufl.edu/database.html

To obtain articles, contact your nearest state or university library.

Agren, J.; Ericson, L.
Population structure and morph-specific fitness differences in tristylous Lythrum salicaria.
EVOLUTION 50(1):126-139. 1996.

Aldridge, F.J.; Phlips, E.J.; Schelske, C.L.
The use of nutrient enrichment bioassays to test for spatial and temporal distribution of
limiting factors affecting phytoplankton dynamics in Lake Okeechobee, Florida.

Anderson, L.; Fellows, S.; Pirosko, C.
Effect of Garlon 3A on waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in a pond on the Los Banos
Wildlife Refuge.

Barrat-Segretain, M.H.; Amoros, C.
Influence of flood timing on the recovery of macrophytes in a former river channel.
HYDROBIOLOGIA 316(2):91-101. 1995.

Barreto, R.W.; Evans, H.C.
The mycobiota of the weed Mikania micrantha in southern Brazil with particular reference
to fungal pathogens for biological control.
MYCOL. RES. 99(3):343-352. 1995.

Bellan-Santini, D.; Arnaud, P.M.; Bellan, G.; Verlaque, M.
The influence of the introduced tropical alga Caulerpa taxifolia on the biodiversity of the
Mediterranean marine biota.
MAR. BIOL. ASSOC. U.K. 76(1):235-237. 1996.

Bjorndal, K.A.; Bolten, A.B.
Digestive efficiencies in herbivorous and omnivorous freshwater turtles on plant diets: do
herbivores have a nutritional advantage?
PHYSIOL. ZOOL. 66(3):384-395. 1993.

Bramwell, S.A.; Prasadd, P.V.D.
Performance of a small aquatic plant wastewater treatment system under Caribbean
J. ENVIRON. MANAGE. 43(3):213-220. 1995.

Braverman, M.P.
Weed control in rice (Oryza sativa) with Quinclorac and bensulfuron coating of granular
herbicides and fertilizer.
WEED TECHNOL. 9(3):494-498. 1995.

Bryson, C.T.; Carter, R.
Notes on Carex, Cyperus, and Kyllinga (Cyperaceae) in Mississippi with records of eight
species previously unreported to the state.
SIDA 16(1):171-182. 1994.

Buckingham, G.R.
Biological control of aquatic weeds.
PP. 413-480. 1994.

Camargo, A.F.M.; Esteves, F.A.
Influence of water level variation on biomass and chemical composition of the aquatic
macrophyte Eichhornia azurea (Kunth) in an oxbow lake of the Rio Mogi-Guacu (Sao
Paulo, Brazil).
ARCH. HYDROBIOL. 135(3):423-432. 1996.

Collares-Pereira, M.J.; Magalhaes, M.F.; Geraldes, A.M.; Coelho, M.M.
Riparian ecotones and spatial variation of fish assemblages in Portuguese lowland streams.


Cruzan, M.B.; Barrett, S.C.H.
Postpollination mechanisms influencing mating patterns and fecundity: an example from
Eichhornia paniculata.

David, P.G.
Changes in plant communities relative to hydrologic conditions in the Florida Everglades.
WETLANDS 16(1):15-23. 1996.

De Casabianca, M.L.
Large-scale production of Eichhornia crassipes on paper industry effluent.
BIORESOURCE TECHN. 54(1):35-38. 1995.

De Leeuw, J.; Wielemaker, A.; De Munck, W.; Herman, P.M.J.
Net aerial primary production (NAPP) of the marsh macrophyte Scirpus maritimus
estimated by a combination of destructive and non-destructive sampling methods.
VEGETATIO 123(1):101-108. 1996.

Dong, X-J.; Takagi, S.; Nagai, R.
Regulation of the orientation movement of chloroplasts in epidermal cells of Vallisneria:
cooperation of phytochrome with photosynthetic pigment under low-fluence-rate light.
PLANTA 197(2):257-263. 1995.

Dooris, P.M.
Hydrilla verticillata: chemical factors in lakes affecting growth.

Eberle, J.R.; Banks, J.A.
Genetic interactions among sex-determining genes in the fern Ceratopteris richardii.
GENETICS 142(3):973-985. 1996.

Ferreira, M.T.; Moreira, I.S.
The invasive component of a river flora under the influence of Mediterranean agricultural

127. 1995.

Flamm, R.O.; Ward, L.; Weigle, B.L.
Habitat influences on the distribution and abundance of Florida manatee in the Indian
River Lagoon, Florida.
14 (ABSTRACT). 1995.

Frantz, V.
Recovery plan for rough-leaved loosestrife (Lysimachia asperulaefolia).

Freese, G.
Structural refuges in two stem-boring weevils on Rumex crispus.
ECOL. ENTOMOL. 20(4):351-358. 1995.

Gabor, T.S.; Haagsma, T.; Murkin, H.R.; Armson, E.
Effects of triclopyr amine on purple loosestrife and non-target wetland plants in south-
eastern Ontario, Canada.
J. AQUAT. PLANT MANAGE. 33:48-51. 1995.

Getsinger, K.D.; Madsen, J.D.; Netherland, M.D.; Turner, E.G.
Field evaluation of triclopyr (Garlon 3A) for controlling Eurasian watermilfoil in the Pend
Oreille River, Washington.

Gordeev, M.I.; Sibataev, A.K.
Influence of predatory plant bladderwort (Utricularia vulgaris) on the process of selection
in malaria mosquito larvae.
RUSSIAN J. ECOL. 26(3):216-220. 1995.

Grail, G.
Cuatro Cienegas: Mexico's desert aquarium.
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 188(4):85-96. 1995.

Grice, A.M.; Loneragan, N.R.; Dennison, W.C.
Light intensity and the interactions between physiology, morphology and stable isotope
ratios in five species of seagrass.
J. EXP. MAR. BIOL. ECOL. 195(1):91-110. 1996.

Hall, J.A.; Cox, N.
Nutrient concentrations as predictors of nuisance Hydrodictyon reticulatum populations in
New Zealand.
J. AQUAT. PLANT MANAGE. 33:68-74. 1995.

Hara, T.; Srutek, M.
Shoot growth and mortality patterns of Urtica dioica, a clonal forb.
ANNALS BOTANY 76(3):235-243. 1995.

Haraguchi, A.
Rhizome growth of Menyanthes trifoliata L. in a population on a floating peat mat in
Mizorogaike Pond, Central Japan.
AQUATIC BOTANY 53(3,4): 163-173. 1996.

Hart, K.H.; Cox, P.A.
Dispersal ecology of Nuphar luteum (L.) Sibthorp & Smith: abiotic seed dispersal
BOTANICAL J. LINNEAN SOC. 119(1):87-100. 1995.

Heard, T.A.; Forno, I.W.
Host selection and host range of the flower-feeding weevil, Coelocephalapionpigrae, a
potential biological control agent of Mimosa pigra.
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL 6(1):83-95. 1996.

Hemminga, M.A.; Huiskes, A.H.L.; Steegstra, M.; Van Soelen, J.
Assessment of allocation and biomass production in a natural stand of the salt marsh plant
Spartina anglica using 13C.
MAR. ECOL. PROG. SER. 130(1-3):169-178. 1996.

Henry, C.P.; Amoros, C.; Bornette, G.
Species traits and recolonization processes after flood disturbances in riverine
VEGETATIO 122(1):13-27. 1996.

Hine, N.R.; Pilidis, G.A.
An assessment of the efficiency of a macrophyte-based biological treatment plant to treat
wastewater from a wood impregnation factory.
FRESENIUS ENVIR. BULL. 4(10):630-635. 1995.

Hu, F.S.; Brubaker, L.B.; Anderson, P.M.
A 12,000 year record of vegetation change and soil development from Wien Lake, central
CAN. J. BOT. 71(9):1133-1142. 1993.

Idestam-Almquist, J.; Kautsky, L.
Plastic responses in morphology of Potamogetonpectinatus L. to sediment and above-
sediment conditions at two sites in the northern Baltic proper.
AQUATIC BOTANY 52(3):205-216. 1995.

Jamil, K.; Hussain, S.; Anees, I.; Murthy, U.S.
Toxic effects of lead on the biochemical parameters of the hyacinth weevils Neochetina
eichhornae through the trophic levels of food chain.
J. ENVIRON. SCI. HEALTH A30(9): 1925-1934. 1995.

Jacobsen, N.
The narrow leaved Cryptocoryne of mainland Asia.
AQUATIC GARDENER 8(3):71-86. 1995.

Kane, M.
Wetland plant micropropagation: issues and opportunities.
AQUATICS 18(2):4,6,8-11. 1996.

Kilbride, K.M.; Paveglio, F.L.; Grue, C.E.
Control of smooth cordgrass with Rodeo in a southwestern Washington estuary.
WILDLIFE SOC. BULL. 23(3):520-524. 1995.

Kimber A.
Decline and restoration of Vallisneria americana in the upper Mississippi River.

Langangen, A.
Chara-lakes in the county of Troms.
POLARFLOKKEN 19(2):111-118. 1995.

Linz, G.M.; Blixt, D.C.; Bergman, D.L.; Bleier, W.J.
Responses of red-winged blackbirds, yellow-headed blackbirds and marsh wrens to
glyphosate-induced alterations in cattail density.
J. FIELD ORNITHOL. 67(1):167-176. 1996.

Lockhart, C.S.
Aquatic heterophylly as a survival strategy in Melaleuca quinquenervia (Myrtaceae).
CAN. J. BOT. 74(2):243-246. 1996.

Lorenzoni, C.; Paradis, G.
Synecological observations about the Corsican stations of a rare species, Cressa cretica

McBride, T.P.; Noller, B.N.
Sampling techniques for reliable determination of trace metals in macrophytes and
MARINE FRESHWATER RES. 46(7): 1047-1053. 1995.

McIninch, S.M.; Garbisch, E.W.
The establishment of Peltandra virginica from large and small bulbs as a function of water
WETLAND J. 7(1):17-20. 1995.

Middleton, B.A.
Seed banks and species richness potential of coal slurry ponds reclaimed as wetlands.
RESTORATION ECOL. 3(4):311-318. 1995.

Mitchell, S.F.; Wass, R.T.
Food consumption and faecal deposition of plant nutrients by black swans (Cygnus atratus
Latham) in a shallow New Zealand lake.
HYDROBIOLOGIA 306(3): 189-197. 1995.

Moldovan, M.
Large-scale restoration of wetland habitats: the reflooding of the 22 Km2 Babina Polder in
the Danube Delta, Romania.
BUREAU, SLIMBRIDGE, UK, PP. 154-156. 1995.

Murdock, N.A.
Rare and endangered plants and animals of southern Appalachian wetlands.
WATER AIR SOIL POLLUTION 77(3-4):385-405. 1994.

Netherland, M.D.; Getsinger, K.D.
Laboratory evaluation of threshold fluridone concentrations under static conditions for
controlling hydrilla and Eurasian watermilfoil.
J. AQUAT. PLANT. MANAGE. 33:33-36. 1995.

Newell, S.Y.; Moran, M.A.; Wicks, R.; Hodson, R.E.
Productivities of microbial decomposers during early stages of decomposition of leaves of
a freshwater sedge.
FRESHWATER BIOL. 34(1): 135-148. 1995.

Newman, R.M.; Holmberg, K.L.; Biesboer, D.D.; Penner, B.G.
Effects of a potential biocontrol agent, Euhrychiopsis lecontei, on Eurasian watermilfoil in
experimental tanks.
AQUATIC BOTANY 53(3,4): 131-150. 1996.

Parker, M.L.; Waldron, K.W.
Texture of Chinese water chestnut: involvement of cell wall phenolics.
J. SCI. FOOD AGRIC. 68(3):337-346. 1995.

Peckol, P.; Rivers, J.S.
Physiological responses of the opportunistic macroalgae Cladophora vagabunda (L.) van
den Hoek and Gracilaria tikvahiae (McLachlan) to environmental disturbances associated
with eutrophication.
J. EXP. MAR. BIOL. ECOL. 190(1):1-16. 1995.

Poovey, A.G.; Kay, S.H.
Effects of short-term summer drawdown on monoecious Hydrilla and non-target aquatic
(ABSTRACT). 1995.

Preen, A.
Impacts of dugong foraging on seagrass habitats: observational and experimental evidence
for cultivation grazing.
MAR. ECOL. PROG. SER. 124(1-3):201-213. 1995.

Pysek, P.; Pysek, A.
Invasion by Heracleum mantegazzianum in different habitats in the Czech Republic.
J. VEGETATION SCI. 6(5):711-718. 1995.

Randall, K.A.
Care and propagation of Anubias.
AQUATIC GARDENER 9(3):71-76. 1996.

Ravindran, V.; Sivakanesan, R.; Cyril, H.W.
Nutritive value of raw and processed Colocasia (Colocasia esculenta) corm meal for
ANIMAL FEED SCI. TECHNOL. 57(4):335-345. 1996.

Roberts, J.; Chick, A.; Oswald, L.; Thompson, P.
Effect of carp, Cyprinus carpio L., an exotic benthivorous fish, on aquatic plants and
water quality in experimental ponds.
MAR. FRESHWATER RES. 46:1171-1180. 1995.

Ryan, F.J.
Nitrogen and carbon concentrations, soluble proteins and free amino acids in subterranean
turions of Hydrilla during overwintering.
J. AQUAT. PLANT MANAGE. 32:67-70. 1994.

Shearer, J.F.
Field and laboratory studies of the fungus Mycoleptodiscus terrestris as a potential agent
for management of the submersed aquatic macrophyte Hydrilla verticillata.

Shilling, D.G.; Gaffney, J.F.
Cogongrass control requires integrated approach (Florida).

Sinden-Hempstead, M.; Killingbeck, K.T.
Influences of water depth and substrate nitrogen on leaf surface area and maximum bed
extension in Nymphaea odorata.
AQUATIC BOTANY 53(3,4): 151-162. 1996.

Skinner, L.C.; Rendall, W.J.; Fuge, E.L.
Minnesota's purple loosestrife program: history, findings and management
SECTION, ST. PAUL, MN, 27 PP. 1994.

Stewart, R.M.; Boyd, W.A.
Amur/stock simulations for examination of the effects of site conditions on plant control
by grass carp.

Stoner, A.W.; Lin, J.; Hanisak, M.D.
Relationships between seagrass bed characteristics and juvenile queen conch (Strombus
gigas Linne) abundance in the Bahamas.
J. SHELLFISH RES. 14(2):315-323. 1995.

Thomas, J.D.
The snail hosts of schistosomiasis: some evolutionary and ecological perspectives in
relation to control.
MEM. INST. OSWALDO CRUZ 90(2):195-204. 1995.

Thomas, K.L.; Benstead, J.; Davies, K.L.; Lloyd, D.
Role of wetland plants in the diurnal control of CH4 and C02 fluxes in peat.
SOIL BIOL. BIOCHEM. 28(1):17-23. 1996.

Toner, M.; Stow, N.; Keddy, C.J.
Arrow arum, Peltandra virginica: a nationally rare plant in the Ottawa Valley region of
CAN. FIELD-NATURALIST 109(4):441-442. 1995.

Uchino, A.; Samejima, M.; Ishii, R.; Ueno, 0.
Photosynthetic carbon metabolism in an amphibious sedge, Eleocharis baldwinii (Torr.)
Chapman: modified expression of C4 characteristics under submerged aquatic conditions.
PLANT CELL PHYSIOL. 36(2):229-238. 1995.

Vickery, J.A.; Sutherland, W.J.; Watkinson, A.R.; Lane, S.J.; et al
Habitat switching by dark-bellied brent geese Branta b. bernicla (L.) in relation to food
OECOLOGIA 103(4):499-508. 1995.

Visser, E.J.W.; Bogemann, G.M.; Blom, C.W.P.M.; Voesenek, L.A.C.J.
Ethylene accumulation in waterlogged Rumex plants promotes formation of adventitious

J. EXP. BOTANY 47(296):403-410. 1996.

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December 1996

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