Table of Contents
 About Aquaphyte
 Aquatic plant management: future...
 Will the rare aquatic carnivorous...
 Cyperus weeds alert
 Odds n' ends
 Questionnaire results
 Notable quote
 More aquatic and wetland plants...
 The electronic media page
 From the database

Group Title: Aquaphyte : a newsletter about aquatic, wetland and invasive plants
Title: Aquaphyte
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00083179/00017
 Material Information
Title: Aquaphyte newsletter of the IPPC Aquatic Weed Program of the University of Florida, a part of the International Plant Protection Center of the Oregon State University, which is funded by the United States Agency for International Development
Abbreviated Title: Aquaphyte
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Center for Aquatic Plants
University of Florida -- IPPC Aquatic Weed Program
University of Florida -- Center for Aquatic Weeds
Publisher: The Program
Place of Publication: Gainesville FL
Publication Date: 1981-
Frequency: semiannual
Subject: Aquatic plants -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: Newsletters   ( lcsh )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (fall 1981)-
Issuing Body: Vols. for fall 1982- issued with: University of Florida, Center for Aquatic Weeds.
Issuing Body: Vols. for <1988-> issued by: University of Florida, Center for Aquatic Plants.
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 12, no. 2 (fall 1992).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00083179
Volume ID: VID00017
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06513906
lccn - sc 84007615
issn - 0893-7702


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Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    About Aquaphyte
        Page 3
    Aquatic plant management: future concerns
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Will the rare aquatic carnivorous plant Aldrovanda cesiculosa survive in Europe?
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Cyperus weeds alert
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Odds n' ends
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Questionnaire results
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Notable quote
        Page 21
    More aquatic and wetland plants in pen-and-ink
        Page 22
        Page 23
    The electronic media page
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    From the database
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
Full Text


Volume 17 Number 1 Winter 1997

Center for Aquatic Plants
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida
7922 N.W. 71st Street
Gainesville, Florida 32653

with support from
The Florida Department of Environmental
Bureau of Aquatic Plant Management

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,
Waterways Experiment Station,
Aquatic Plant Control Research Program

The St. Johns River Water Management District


Aquatic Plant Management: Future Concerns, by Tom C. Brown, Florida DEP

Will the Rare Aquatic Carnivorous Plant Aldrovanda vesiculosa Survive in Europe? By
Lubomir Adamec, Trebon, Czech Republic

Cyperus Weeds ALERT

Odds n' Ends
Questionnaire Results
Some Current Research at The Center
Notable Quote

More Aquatic and Wetland Plants in Pen-and-Ink

* The Electronic Media Review Paae



a sampling of new additions to the APIRS database

Aquaphyte page I Home

Copyright 1997 University of Florida

About Aquaphyte

This is the newsletter of the Center for Aquatic Plants and the Aquatic and Wetland
Plant Information Retrieval System (APIRS) of the University of Florida Institute
of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS). Support for the information system is
provided by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, the U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station Aquatic Plant Control Research
Program (APCRP), the St. Johns River Water Management District and UF/IFAS.

Victor Ramey
Karen Brown

AQUAPHYTE is sent to more than 6,500 managers, researchers, and agencies in
87 countries. Comments, announcements, news items and other information relevant
to aquatic plant research are solicited.

Inclusion in AQUAPHYTE does not constitute endorsement, nor does exclusion
represent criticism of any item, organization, individual, or institution by the
University of Florida.

Aquaphyte Contents I Aquaphyte page I Home

Copyright 1997 University of Florida
March 10, 1997


by Tom C. Brown, former Chief, Bureau of Aquatic Plant Management,
Florida Department of Environmental Protection. (Note: Brown resigned as
Bureau Chief during a tussel with legislators this past spring. The following are
excerpts from his last speech presented as Chief to an aquatic plant
management audience.)

At the Bureau of Aquatic Plant Management, we readily admit our
weaknesses, but at the same time we are proud to be a part of the aquatic plant
management profession in Florida. I consider Florida's professionals and programs to be
the best in the world.

We all have tremendous challenges before us as we face the profound environmental and
economic problems being created by invasive nonindigenous plants in Florida. In light of
the crisis, there are at least three major concerns for the future that stand out.

The first concern we have is that the public, along with many of the political leaders of
our state, have not shown any great concern over the crisis being created by invasive
exotic aquatic plants. For whatever reasons, they are in a state of denial. When the
evidence is clear and intelligent people will not accept that evidence, then they are in
psychological denial, and as long as that denial lasts the aquatic ecosystems of this state
will continue to suffer.

Perhaps one reason for the lack of general interest in the problem is the conservation
dilemma posed by invasive exotic aquatic species. I am referring to the fact that the
actions required to "correct" the problems entail the killing or removal of these plants.
Such activities are far less popular than traditional activities related to environmental
protection such as buying land for preservation, mitigation that attempts to create
wetlands, or regulatory activities that are designed to protect threatened and endangered
species. While the public and our leaders profess to support the idea of preserving and
restoring aquatic ecosystems, killing nonindigenous plants in order to accomplish this is

not appealing to them. This negative attitude often causes resistance, not only to the
effective methods available (most of which are the result of outstanding research), but to
the idea that such management is a necessity at all. We often hear someone contend that
when a monospecific stand of invasive exotics is found in a water body, we should just
leave it alone and let "nature" take care of the problem. They forget that "nature" did not
place these plants here, and their co-evolved natural enemies which keep them in balance
in their home range are not present.

Others contend that nothing serious has really happened, that we just have to change the
use we make of that water body. But what use can we make of a lake covered entirely with
topped-out hydrilla? We can't swim in it. We can't fish it. Recreational boating is
impossible. Even flood control and irrigation are adversely affected. In addition, the native
biodiversity is being displaced, and property values are being lowered. Probably the only
ones happy with this situation are the few ducks and coots that feed on hydrilla--a big
price to pay for duck food!

This sometimes agonizingly slow, and sometimes startling rapid attack on biodiversity has
come to be considered "normal", and is therefore largely ignored. Most of the state and its
waters are no longer in a pristine or undisturbed condition. Native species are increasingly
confined to limited spaces, habitat islands with artificial boundaries and conditions. These
spaces were originally influenced by natural processes originating both within and outside
their boundaries. These natural processes have been extensively altered by human
activities. During the coming decades, the populations of invasive exotic species that do
well in these disturbed environments will continue to thrive unless corrective actions are

A second concern for the future relates to the continued introduction of new invasive
nonindigenous species. Will there be another hydrilla-like exotic to appear in our water
bodies in the future? With the continued importation, sale, and dissemination of
nonindigenous aquatic plants without their first being screened for potential invasiveness,
it is not a question of "if' but "when". It is shocking to see the cavalier attitude with which
nonindigenous species are allowed to be imported into our state. We recognize that most
exotics will never become invasive if they escape into the natural environment, and we
also recognize that some exotics enhance our lives in many ways, not only as food, but
also as things that provide aesthetic values. However that should not keep us from being
concerned about those that do escape and do become invasive. New invasive exotics could
literally cost millions, if not hundreds of millions to eradicate or keep under maintenance

control, and frankly, we do not have the necessary funds to deal with those we already

What value do we place upon our ecosystems? What value do we place upon native
habitat for fish and wildlife? What value do we place upon the loss of the use of our water
bodies for recreational purposes? What value do we place upon irrigation, or flood control,
or even our potable water supply? True, all of these things are difficult to evaluate, but that
does not mean they have no economic value. It is hard to off-set all these costs with the
little profit that is to be had by a special interest group through the sale of invasive
nonindigenous aquatic plant species.

During the past twenty years, millions of dollars have been spent in the programs to bring
invasive exotic aquatic plants under maintenance control, while at the same time virtually
nothing has been spent to prohibit the introduction of additional invasive exotic plant
species. That is the moral equivalent of trying to clean up a water body while you continue
to dump untreated sewage into it. Under present law, there is nothing that can be done
until after an exotic introduction has occurred and proved to be invasive. By that time,
eradication may be impossible and the effects on the environment may be virtually

A third concern we have for the future relates to the funding necessary to bring invasive,
nonindigenous aquatic plants under maintenance control, including the funding for the
necessary related research that must be done. For many reasons, our costs are escalating
dramatically. For example, every year funding for management activities remains low,
new infestations occur and existing infestations expand, dramatically increasing the costs
of achieving or restoring maintenance control. Also, in the past ten years there has been a
70% increase in herbicide and mechanical harvester costs. Add to this the loss of federal
funds and you have the makings of a real environmental catastrophe.

We have estimated that the funding needed for hydrilla alone for this fiscal year to be
about $13 million. [But the Bureau received only about a tenth of that...Ed.] At present,
water hyacinth and water lettuce are under maintenance control, and hydrilla is under
maintenance control in about 30 of our large public water bodies. We estimate that the
total acres of hydrilla remaining in public waters to be about 45,000 acres--down from
about 100,000 acres of two years ago. This is impressive progress which soon could be

At the same time that invasive aquatic plant problems are being under funded, both the
public and political leaders are focused on water quality issues. The irony is that we may
spend millions, if not hundreds of millions as in the case of the Everglades, to improve
water quality, only to find that the beneficiaries of that improvement are the invasive
exotics that are destroying our biodiversity and negatively impacting the economy of the
state by millions of dollars annually.

These three concerns constitute what I believe is a formula for the creation of an
environmental disaster: an uninformed and uncaring public; a cavalier attitude regarding
the introduction of invasive exotic plant species; and an unwillingness on the part of
government to commit the funds necessary to avert this tragedy.

Aquaphyte Contents Aquaphyte page Home

Copyright 1997 University of Florida

Will the Rare Aquatic Carnivorous Plant Aldrovanda
vesiculosa Survive in Europe?

by Lubomir Adamec, Institute of Botany of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic,
Section of Plant Ecology, Dukelska 145, CZ-379 82 Trebon, Czech Republic. E-mail:
adamec(a@butbn. cas. cz

The waterwheel plant, Aldrovanda vesiculosa L. (Droseraceae), is a very rare aquatic
carnivorous plant that is rapidly vanishing from Europe. Yet it is spread over a vast
territory throughout the Old World. It is a rootless plant, usually 6-18 cm long, free-floating
just below the water surface. It has always excited curiosity among botanists due to its
attractive snapping traps (3-6 mm long). Aldrovanda has the same life form and growth
strategy as temperate aquatic Utricularia species: a fast apical growth (1-2 whorls a day)
and simultaneous basal decay. In temperate countries, it propagates only by apical branching
of shoots. Apical winter buds (turions) are formed in autumn.

Aldrovanda is spread irregularly and sparsely from temperate to tropical zones from Europe
to Australia. The origin of its recent population in Europe is still unclear. Here, on the basis


of palaeontological records, it is usually considered a Tertiary relict. Since its turions
probably are spread by migratory waterfowl to new sites, another theory explains the origin
of its European temperate populations as postglacial naturalization of African plants that
were transported by birds. In any case, the historical postglacial spread of Aldrovanda in
Europe was highly irregular, variable in time and area, and probably dependent on migratory
routes of waterfowl. Recent data on its distribution in Africa and Asia are not available
(except for Japan) and only a few recent sites are known from Australia. In Europe, it
occurred more frequently and was recorded at about 150 sites in the last two centuries.
However, the view on the recent map of its sites is alarming. It has declined dramatically in
the last 30 years, vanishing from Germany, France, Italy, and Slovakia. It is now probable
that Europe (excluding the former USSR) has no more than 15-20 sites, with a few dozen
sites in the Ukraine and Russia. There are ten sites still in Poland (from a previous record of
78), one in Hungary, and possibly, a very few in the Balcans. Two artificial sites are in
Switzerland where it was successfully introduced in 1908. In all European countries, it has
had a status of "critically endangered species" and has been under strict state protection for
at least twenty years. Yet, this has not helped much!

Ecological Requirements and Reasons for Decline
Aldrovanda is highly sensitive to competition with filamentous algae and higher aquatic
plants that form denser stands. Very fast apical growth and vegetative propagation are the
only way to overcome the competition. The most important ecological requirements of
Aldrovanda include: a) free-C02 concentration >0.1 mM as the plant is a strict C02 user;
pH may be within 5.0-7.6; b) a medium humic acid concentration (2-30 mg.1-1); c) high
biomass of plant litter from reeds or sedges; d) water surface free of a dense biomass of
submersed or floating macrophytes; e) transparent water free of suspended matter or
phytoplankton; f) relative irradiance >20 % of full sun; g) relatively warm water in summer
(optimum 25-28oC); h) shallow water (0.15-0.6 m, but summer minimum 5-10 cm); i)
abundant zooplankton as prey; j) oligo-mesotrophic water.

Aldrovanda grows in shallow standing dystrophic waters: lakes, bogs, fens, backwater
pools, and peaty fishponds, usually on very limited plots in wind-exposed littorals. It never
grows in open water, but only in shallow, loose stands of emergent vegetation (Phragmites,
Typha, Carex) or in little bays among tussocks of denser vegetation. The strict habitat
requirements of Aldrovanda characterize it as a stenotopic species. Its preferred sites are
those subject to slow, permanent succession wherein the emergent vegetation becomes
dense. Generally, small habitat changes may result in the decline of Aldrovanda. That is
why its occurrence at a site usually is limited in time and it may be found at other proximate
site(s) where favourable conditions have developed (a "fugitive strategy"). In the last
decades, however, the number of potential suitable sites has decreased drastically in many
European countries and its chance to "jump" to new sites has greatly diminished. Its rapid
decline has been caused mainly by water eutrophication, drainage, and filling in of water

bodies. Other reasons may be more general land-use changes, particularly intensive
agriculture, water level fluctuations, and wetland afforestation. Besides the evident reasons,
high amounts of N03-, NH4+, and SO042- in acid precipitates might accelerate
eutrophication and, hence, native succession of shallow wetlands. This is suspected because
Aldrovanda has been vanishing even from those sites which are evidently quite unimpacted
by man. Also, the velocity of its decline has been much higher within the last 30 years than

Active Protection Selection of New Sites
Elaboration of reliable outdoor culture of Aldrovanda was a necessary prerequisite for both
ecophysiological study and selection of its suitable substitute sites in the Czech Republic.
The culture mimics habitat conditions at natural sites. In a 1-2.5 m2 plastic container, about
a 3 cm layer of litter of Carex gracilis (or similar species), placed over 5-8 cm of sand, is
used as the bottom substrate. The container is loosely planted with sedges or common reed.
Water depth is 20-30 cm. As Aldrovanda is susceptible to boron deficiency, boric acid must
be added. Turions overwinter well in the refrigerator.

Great effort has been made to select new suitable sites in the Czech Republic. The plants
placed in nylon enclosures in three shallow dystrophic wetlands in North and South
Bohemia grew rapidly and reproduced 8-34 times over the 1994 season. Approximately 10-
50% of the turions overwintered. When 30 Aldrovanda plants were introduced to the
suitable sites in South Bohemia in 1995, the plants grew rapidly only in the Carex rostrata-
dominated pool at Pta i blato 1C. However, turions overwintered perfectly and in the 1996-
1997 seasons, the plants propagated richly, forming an abundant population. The character
of the suitable pools at Pta i blato reminds us of some natural Polish sites. Water level at the
sites in summer has been found to be the crucial factor for rapid growth and propagation of
Aldrovanda. Both of the dystrophic sites are firmly connected with hypereutrophic
fishponds with fluctuating water levels due to summer rains. The water level was very low
in 1995, but high in 1996 and 1997.

Thus, a new prolific site arose in South Bohemia, where Aldrovanda had never grown.
However, this success should be accepted cautiously as the suitable pools tend towards
eutrophication and overgrowing and some management will be necessary in future years to
keep up its rich population. Similar introduction of Aldrovanda succeeded in Switzerland as
early as 1908 and a stable population has been growing there since. Nowadays, when its
natural spread by waterfowl within vast areas of Europe is almost excluded and its natural
populations are declining, introduction to new sites is probably the only effective way to
keep and propagate the European population, in spite of some success with growing it in
tissue culture.

To increase the feasibility of introductions of Aldrovanda to new sites, it is essential to grow

it in outdoor culture, e.g. in botanical gardens or research institutes (so far T ebo Wroclaw,
Berlin, Kiel, Arras, and Strasbourg) and select potential sites. It also might be a project for
Nature Conservation Unions. These organizations in European countries are challenged to
consider their participation in the conservation of Aldrovanda. I am able to provide them
with sufficient plant material for cultivation as well as know-how. Aldrovanda is still
waiting ...!

Note: The author asks colleagues working in Africa to please send living plants or
seeds of Aldrovanda to the above address. The study of African plants could provide
more clues to the origin of European populations. Any information on recent African
spread of Aldrovanda is greatly welcome.

Adamec L., 1995. Ecological requirements and recent European distribution of the aquatic
carnivorous plant Aldrovanda vesiculosa L. a review. Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 30: 53-61.

Adamec L., 1997. Photosynthetic characteristics of the aquatic carnivorous plant
Aldrovanda vesiculosa. Aquat. Bot. (in press).

Kaminski R., 1987. Studies on the ecology of Aldrovanda vesiculosa L. I. Ecological
differentiation of A. vesiculosa population under the influence of chemical factors in the
habitat. Ekol. Pol. 35: 559-590.

Carniv. Plant Newslett. (1997) 26: (special September issue on Aldrovanda).

Aquaphyte Contents Aquaphyte page | Home

Copyright 1997 University of Florida

Cyperus Weeds ALERT

Here are four more exotic aquatic Cyperus weed species which now occur
in Florida, and aquatic plant managers should "be on the lookout" for them. Two of
these sedges are listed by Holm (1977) as being among the world's worst weeds
(along with water hyacinth, hydrilla and others). Dr. Charles T. Bryson, an expert on
the Cyperaceae, recently contributed photographs and plant material of these species
to APIRS. Bryson is with the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural
Research Service (USDA-ARS), Southern Weed Science Research Unit, Stoneville,
Mississippi 38776-0350, 601-686-5259. E-mail: cbryson(ag.gov

Cyperus alopecuroides Rottb. (Juncellus alopecuroides (Rottb.) C.B. Clarke)

C. alopecuroides is a huge sedge discovered in a reclaimed wetland near Fort
Meade (Polk County), Florida. This is only the second finding of this impressive
species in the Western Hemisphere. C. alopecuroides grows up to twelve feet tall,
with bracts up to six feet long! It has broad bracts and leaf blades and a branched

inflorescence with spikes of densely clustered golden-brown spikelets. Its leaf
margins are serrated and sharp. This species is widely distributed in the tropics of
the Old World where it may form extensive stands and floating mats. According to
Bryson, of the four species discussed here, this one likely would become the most
troublesome weed in Florida conditions.

Cyperus iria L., rice flatsedge

Rice flatsedge, is in Holm's list of the world's worst weeds. An Asiatic species, it
was probably introduced in the 1700 or 1800s. Rice flatsedge has become common
throughout the southeastern United States. Once established in wet situations, rice
flatsedge can persist without wet feet, and become a major weed in rice, cotton,
soybean and other crops.

Cyperus difformis L., smallflower umbrella sedge

Smallflower umbrella sedge, is listed in Holm's list of the world's worst weeds,
being a problem especially in rice, sugarcane, tea and corn. Smallflower umbrella
sedge is native to the tropics of the Old World, but is spreading well outside its
native range. This sedge has a relatively short generation period of as little as 4 to 6
weeks from seed to seed as opposed to a more usual one or two generations a year:
Bryson notes that such a short life cycle is more like that of an insect than a plant.
Smallflower umbrella sedge seems to be spreading along major waterways and in
rice production areas of the U.S. In California, this plant has become resistant to
rice-field herbicides. In Asian rice production, where herbicides are not used, this
weed may account for 60-70% of the total biomass of the rice field.

Cyperus prolifer Lam., dwarf papyrus or miniature papyrus

Dwarf papyrus is commonly sold as an ornamental for use in water gardens,
similar to papyrus (Cyperus papyrus L.), and false papyrus (Cyperus involucratus
Poir.). This species spreads vegetatively, simply by leaning over. New daughter
plants grow in the inflorescence; as the new shoots become heavier, the mother
plant leans over, eventually reaching the mud whereupon the daughter plants attach,
grow and spread. In central Florida, this sedge apparently has escaped from
cultivation and is found growing in floating mats and along margins of limesink

Aquaphyte Contents I Aquaphyte page I Home

Odds n' Ends

The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources has completed a four-year study
on the potential to selectively control Eurasian water milfoil (Myriophyllum
spicatum) with fluridone herbicide (trade name Sonar). For a copy of the final
report, contact Ms. Wendy Crowell, MN DNR Exotic Species Program, Ecological
Services Section, 500 Lafayette Rd, St. Paul, MN 55155-4025, (612)-282-2508. E-
mail: wendyv.crowell(adnr.state.mn.us

The goal of the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk (HEAR) project is to provide
resources (technology, methods, and information) to resource managers statewide to
aid in the fight against invasive alien species statewide. It is based at the Botany
Department of the University of Hawaii. For information about HEAR, visit: http://

Clean Lakes homepage. http://www.epa.gov/OWOW/lakes/lakes.html

Biological control. A case study, Use of Aquatic Weevils to Control a Nuisance
Weed in Lake Bomoseen, Vermont, EPA document number 841-F-97-002, Number
3, can be downloaded from http://www.epa.gov/OWOW/lakes/onlinedocs.html.
Free printed copies of this and other reports are available from National Center for
Environmental Publications and Information (NCEPI), 11029 Kenwood Road,
Building 5, Cincinnati, OH 45242; (513)-489-8190; (800)-490-9198. Other case
studies can be downloaded from the same site.

Index of Watershed Indicators. Aquatic resources information on all 2,111
watersheds in the continental United States. 15 different indicators, or data layers,
which describe the watershed's health: http://www.epa.gov/surf/iwi/

St. Johns RiverPage. A Web "digest of environmental issues, organizations, and
events", from the St. Johns River watershed in northeast, north-central and east-
central Florida: http://www.stjohnsriver.org/default.shtml

Native plants of South Florida. An interesting amateur Web site: http://www.
mangonet.com/~doog/sofl plants/index.html

Pulling Together--National Strategy for Invasive Plant Management, is the
magnum opus of the Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of
Noxious and Exotic Weeds. This book is "a strategic overview...a road map
intended to highlight successful ways to battle invasive plants." Read the entire
book online, or download it: http://bluegoose.arw.r9.fws.gov/ficmnewfiles/

Biological Control of Weeds Working Group Web site: http://gnv.ifas.ufl.edu/

The Tianjin Aquatic Research Institute is engaged in studies of the ecology,
physiology and reproduction of freshwater fish, and maintains large-scale fish
culture facilities. E-mail: look@shell.tivan.com.cn

The International Society of Limnology (SIL) seeks funds to help develop
limnology-education materials for undergraduate students in developing countries,
especially in the areas of general limnology, methods and identification keys.
Contact Prof. Bob Wetzel, E-mail: rwetzel@biology.as.ua.edu

To report finding purple loosestrife in Vermont, or to get an informative purple
loosestrife flyer, contact Department of Environmental Conservation, Water Quality
Division, Wetlands Office, 103 South Main Street, Bldg. 10 North, Waterbury,
Vermont 05671-0408, (802)-241-3770.

The USDA-ARC Aquatic Weed Control Laboratory is associated with the
University of California at Davis. For information about its research and other
programs, visit its WWW site: http://veghome.ucdavis.edu/AquaticWeed/

The Wetland Science Institute (WLI) is part of the Natural Resources
Conservation Service (NRCS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The purpose
of the WLI is to provide expertise to NRCS and others regarding wetland

delineation, conservation and creation and to serve as technical liaison with
government and university research centers. For more information, contact Billy M.
Teels, Director; Wetland Science Institute, 11400 American Holly Drive, Laurel,
MD 20708-4014, (301)-497-5938. WWW: http://www.pwrc.nbs.gov/wetsci.htm

Prentox Prenfish Grass Carp Management Bait is a product specifically
developed to selectively kill grass carp. It is a rotenone based product which
according to the manufacturer can remove grass carp "without harm to desirable
game fish." For more information, contact Prentiss Incorporated (516)-326-1919; or
contact product developer, Dr James R. Fajt, (913)-539-9194 or E-mail:

Natives vs Exotics. "There is absolutely no biological validity to the concepts of
native' and exotic' species..." For a different and thought-provoking point of view
regarding non-native species, direct your browser to: http://www.s-p-h.com/grower/
natives vs exotics.html

Keeping submersed plants under control around boat and fishing docks can be done
automatically by the Crary WeedRoller, a patented machine that repeatedly rolls a
heavy aluminum tube in an arc around a drive unit that is attached to a dock piling.
By "agitating the lake bottom" in this way, plants are prevented from growing,
leaving bare bottom. For more information, contact Crary Company, Box 849, West
Fargo, ND 58078-0849, (800)-247-7335. The base price for the 25-foot unit for a
depth of 5 feet is $2,395.

Among the plethora of purple loosestrife interest groups is the Manitoba (Canada)
Purple Loosestrife Project. Their Web site includes newsletters, brochures and
pictures as well as research notes and abstracts: http://www.ducks.ca/purple/

Aquaphyte Contents Aquaphyte page I Home

copyright 1996 University of Florida
December 1996

Questionnaire Results

Looking for someone who speaks Spanish and studies Azolla? Or a field
research contact in New Zealand? The last issue of AQUAPHYTE contained a
questionnaire for personnel in aquatic plant research and management with the
purpose of compiling a searchable database of this group. The project was
performed in conjunction with the Aquatic Plant Management Society, Inc.
(APMS). Over 1,200 people responded to the questionnaire and the database is now
available for searching. Any field from the questionnaire can be searched, including
name, address, languages spoken, fields of expertise (subjects, plants, countries),
employer, etc. The database contains other essential information such as telephone
and fax numbers, E-mail addresses and WWW/Internet sites. For searches of the
Database of Personnel in Aquatic Plant Research and Management, contact APIRS
or Dr. Alison Fox, APMS President, University of Florida, Agronomy Department,
POB 110500, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA, 352/392-1808, E-mail: amfox(gnv.ifas.

All respondents to the questionnaire were entered into a drawing at the annual
APMS meeting for a complete set of the Journal ofAquatic Plant Management
(1962-1996). The winner was Dr. Michael Braverman, Department of Plant
Pathology and Crop Physiology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge,
Louisiana. (According to the database, he speaks Thai.)

The last issue of AQUAPHYTE (VOL. 16 NO. 1) also required a subscription
renewal for continued receipt of this free newsletter. Over 1,200 aquatic and
wetland plant managers, researchers, students and others renewed their subscription
to our publication. Please remember that AQUAPHYTE is a unique forum for this
specialized group of researchers and managers. We encourage the submission of
news and articles of interest to our readers.

Aquaphyte Contents I Aquaphyte page I Home

Some Current Research at the Center

Aquaphyte Contents Aquaphyte page Home

Copyright 1997 University of Florida

Notable Quote:

The words "obnoxious aquatic plants" conjures up visions of waterways,
rivers, streams, and their tributaries, all choked with water hyacinth, alligatorweed,
hydrilla, Eurasian
watermilfoil and
many, many other
species of
undesirable aquatic
plants. The vision ..h '"
would not be
complete if we did
not include the
many boats and
barges stuck in the
vegetation and
moving with
vegetation as
directed by the
wind; or the flood
waters which are being retained on land areas because floodways are choked with aquatic
vegetation; or the agricultural crops suffering extensive damages because of the lengthy
periods of flooding resulting from clogged drains choked with aquatics; or the untold
losses to wildlife and fisheries as a result of coverage of open waters and blanketing of
marshlands by obnoxious plants; or the reduced flows of life-giving water in choked
irrigation ditches. We must not forget these visions because they can become reality again
in short order if neglected."
From Aquatic Weed History Century Old Problem, by J.J. Raynes, Weeds, Trees and
Turf, July 1972.

Aquaphyte Contents Aquaphyte page Home

More Aquatic and Wetland Plants in Pen-and-Ink

Additional line drawings of aquatic and wetland plants have been added to the
APIRS collection and, when purchased, may be used in any and all publications
without need for further copyright permissions. All were drawn by artist, Ann

The original package of 115 aquatic plant species is being sold as Aquatic Plants in
Pen-and-Ink (IFAS Pub. No. SP233). Refer to the Winter 1996 issue of
AQUAPHYTE (or visit our Web site) for a complete listing of the 115 plants. It
costs $35 plus S/H.

The additional 21 drawings are known as, Aquatic Plants in Pen-and-Ink, 1997
Supplement (IFAS Pub. No. SP243). The Supplement costs $10 plus S/H.

Orders for either must be placed with IFAS Publications, University of Florida,
POB 110011, Gainesville, FL 32611-0011, 1-800-226-1764.

The new 8 1/2" X 11" drawings included in 1997 Supplement (IFAS Pub No.
SP243) are of:

1 Aletrisfarinosa colic-root
2 Allium canadense Canada garlic
3 Asclepias lanceolata milkweed
4 Asimina reticulata pawpaw
5 Cyperus alopecuroides
6 Cyperus difformis smallflower umbrella sedge
7 Cyperus iria rice flatsedge
8 Cyperus prolifer dwarf papyrus
9 Echinodorus cordifolius creeping burhead
10 Eleocharis equisetoides spikerush
11 Equisetum hyemale scouring rush horsetail

12 Eriocaulon decangulare pipewort
13 Fuirena scirpoidea rush fuirena
14 Iris virginica southern blue flag
15 Juncus megacephalus bog rush
16 Lygodium microphyllum Old World climbing fern
17 Mayacafluviatilis bog moss
18 Micranthemum glomeratum baby's-tears
19 Nymphoides aquatica banana lily
20 Potamogeton diversifolius variable-leaved pondweed
21 Potamogeton pusillus pondweed
22 Proserpinaca palustris mermaid weed
23 Proserpinaca pectinata mermaid weed
24 Sambucus canadensis elderberry
25 Sapium sebiferum Chinese tallow

Aquaphyte page Home

Copyright 1997 University of Florida

The Electronic Media Page

Digital Floristic Synthesis of North America

Diskettes for Windows 95 or 3.1, produduced by the Biota of North America Program, University
of North Carolina

Thirty-six thousand (36,000) species are included in this monumental new
computer version of the standard plant reference for U.S. federal agencies: the
Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada and
Greenland by Dr. John T. Kartesz. The computer version, however, contains much
more information than the printed version.

This PC/Windows computer program provides plant nomenclature, taxonomy,
geography, morphology and other information distilled from nearly 300 years of
North American vascular plant systematic research. Linking nearly 500,000 records
of plant distributions, this software enables taxonomists, horticulturalists,
nurserymen, foresters, plant and wildlife managers, ecologists and others to produce
species checklists and distribution summaries, and assessments of species
morphology, species rarity, species endemism, species nativity, etc.

Plants can be selected by scientific and common names or by choosing any of 45
biological attributes. The user-friendly systems permits complicated Boolean
operations to be performed with the click of a mouse, and displays the results
graphically as distribution maps.

Though originally advertised as four products, the producers have decided to
include all parts on a single CD. The single CD is for sale for $495.00.


The Lexicon enables users to show immediate relationships between taxa at various
ranks and to produce listings of all plant names in current use. This product uses the

International Code of Botanical Nomenclature for spelling and orthography.

Floristic Atlas

The Atlas displays state level distribution maps for 28,000 accepted taxa, allowing
the maps to be printed in publication-quality format, black and white or color. Zoom
capabilities will permit county-level and even site-specific data to be added to future
editions of the Atlas. A county data update is planned to be released in the summer
of 1998.

Biological Attributes

This includes up to 45 biological attributes for each of the 36,000 species, including
morphology and other specialized data, such as rarity, weediness, insectivory, habit,
habitat, trophic levels, duration, medicinal value, forage and range values, toxicity,

For more information on the Synthesis, click here: http://www.bonap.org/synth.

Order from North Carolina Botanical Garden, University of North Carolina at
Chapel Hill, CB 3375, Totten Center, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3375. 919/962-0578.

Aquaphyte Contents Aquaphyte page Home

Copyright 1999 University of Florida

Be There, Do That

Aquaphyte Contents I Aquaphyte page Home

copyright 1996 University of Florida
December 1996


by Garrett E. Crow (University of New Hampshire) and C. Barre Hellquist,
Massachusettes College of Liberal Arts. 1999.
(Pre-publication discount and ordering information from Mr. Steve Salemson, Associate
Director, The University of Wisconsin Press, 2537 Daniels Street, Madison, WI 53718-
6772. Phone: (608) 224-3889, Fax: (608) 224-3924. E-mail: salemson@facstaff.wisc.edu)

Currently "in press", this all new 2-volume reference includes 1139 plant species,
with 92% of the taxa illustrated. The aim of this work is to aid in the identification
of vascular plants which are native or have become naturalized in aquatic and
wetland habitats in the northeast. The range of the manual covers Newfoundland to
Minnesota, south to Virginia and Missouri. The keys treat a total of 1139 species
(1186 taxa) representing 295 genera in 109 families. To aid the users 606 pages of
illustrations include figures of 1086 taxa, with 93% of the taxa fully or partially
illustrated. To further facilitate the identification process, references to the figures
are incorporated into the keys. Volume 1 contains the Introduction, Nuisance
Aquatic Plants of the Northeast, General Keys, Pteridosperms, Gymnosperms and
Angiosperms/Dicots. Volume 2 contains the Angiosperms/Monocots. Both volumes
will have a full index.

K.C. Burks, R.W. Cantrell, et al. of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
1998. 598 pp.
(Order from IFAS Publications, POB 110011, Gainesville, FL 32611-0011. Phone: (352)
392-1764, Fax: (352) 392-2628. $35 plus S/H. Credit card ordering: 1-800-226-1764
weekdays during business hours.)

With more than 800 color photos and 1,000 entries, this book covers a majority of
the plant species listed in the Florida Wetland Delineation Methodology, 1994

(Chapter 62-340, F.A.C.). This is the latest "must have" new resource to help
understand, appreciate and protect Florida's wetlands. It will appeal to nature lovers
and other outdoorspeople, as well as to regulators, scientists, consultants and others
who must help determine where wetlands lay. The volume is a completely revised
and rewritten update to the Identification Manual for Wetland Plant Species of
Florida, published in 1987.

Plants are treated in one-page descriptions which include plant morphology, tips for
recognizing the species, habitat descriptions and Florida distribution. The color
photographs are reproduced well and the drawings are adequate.

Each plant is placed into one of four "indicator" categories: Obligate, Facultative
Wet, Facultative, and Upland; however, the book contains no definitions for what
these terms mean, nor does it include Florida's wetlands delineation laws and plant
lists. Nor does the book include a key to the plants, nor some other means to help
non-botanists identify plants, such as are included in commonly-used field guides.
With this manual, the user is simply expected to know what plant family the plant of
interest is in, and then flip the pages until accidentally finding a matching picture or
drawing. This can be a particular irksome procedure when considering Cyperaceae
(44 pages of plants) or Poaceae (86 pages). In addition, submersed aquatic plants are
not included in the book, since they are excluded from the wetlands vegetation

1996 Conference, October, 1996, Seattle, Washington, edited by B. Paust and J.B.
Peters. 1997. 288 pp.
(Order from Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Service, Cooperative Extension,
152 Riley-Robb Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-5701. US$65 plus US$7 S/H. 607-254-8770, E-
mail: nraes( ,cornell. edu)

This is a collection of forty-nine papers that discuss animal welfare, environmental
issues, shellfish, finfish, ornamentals, holding and transport, and marketing and
regulatory issues. Some of the issues discussed also relate to the aquatic plant
nursery industry, although not one of the papers here are about aquatic plants, per

Coile. 1996. 88 pp.
(Order from Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant
Industry, POB 147100, Gainesville, FL 32614-7100. Contribution No. 38.)

Florida's "Regulated Plant Index" contains 339 endangered species, 66 threatened
species and eight commercially exploited species. This book contains descriptions
of all these rare species, as well as their scientific and common names, families, and
references, as well as county locations in Florida. However, there are no illustrations
of any sort.

V. Hoyer and D.E. Canfield. 1997. 103 pp.
(Order from North American Lake Management Society, POB 5443, Madison, WI 53705-
5443. $20 members, $15 non-members.)

This trustworthy manual, meant for informed citizens and management/regulatory
professionals, summarizes the "whys and wherefores" of aquatic plant management,
and presents practical information for designing and implementing aquatic plant
management programs. Presented in a refreshingly austere format (the editors are
more interested in subject matter than in typography), chapters cover the history and
development of aquatic weed control, aquatic plant biology, management problems,
management techniques, and developing management plans.

Lazur. 1997. 44 pp.
(Order from IFAS Publications, POB 110011, Gainesville, FL 32611-0011, 1-800-226-
1764. $7 plus $3 S/H and applicable tax.)

This is a reference for the formulas necessary to operate an aquaculture facility:
estimating volumes for tanks and ponds of various shapes; calculating feed
conversion; estimating fish weight; calculating chemical treatments; converting
temperatures; figuring pumping rates... Also included are a dozen equivalency and
conversion tables.

PEPPER TASK FORCE, edited by Amy Ferriter. 1997. 31 pp.
(This report may be downloaded in Adobe Acrobat format from http://aquatl.ifas.ufl.edu/

The Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius) is one of the worst weeds of
south Florida--millions of the exotic trees grow along hundreds of miles of canals
and highways and in innumerable backyards. This report is the product of a task
force of experts who reviewed the situation in Florida and listed eight "priority
recommendations." Included are descriptions of its taxonomy, morphology,
reproduction, toxicity, economic uses, distribution, ecology and economic impact.
Other sections discuss management options, including mechanical control, control
by fire, herbicidal control, and seven case studies from south Florida.

by Blue Nile Associates. 1995. Various pages.
(Order from Blue Nile Associates, POB 552, Dolores, CO 81323. 970-882-7778. E-mail:
bluenile(gmcimail.com Handbook 2: $25. Handbook 3: $50. Handbook 4: $30.)

More than 200 million people are infected with bilharzia worms (schistosomiasis).
This human disease is spread by aquatic snails living in rivers, canals, ditches and
other water bodies. The number of snails is linked to the amount of aquatic plants
present; plants serve as the snails' food and sites for egg deposition. Blue Nile
Associates are consultants on tropical diseases in water resource development
projects. Written especially for parasitologists and engineers, these handbooks
contain guidelines for designing tropical dams and irrigation systems to avoid health
problems. They also contain detailed 1995 cost information on disease control
measures, useful in planning and teaching.

COMMUNITIES OF NORTHEAST GERMANY, I. Aquatic and Terrestrial Plants,
by H. Passarge. 1996. 298 pp.

(Order from Gebr. Borntraeger Verlagsbuchhandlung, Johannesstr. 3 A, D-70176
Stuttgart, Germany. DM48.00.)

This book, in German, is about the phytosociology of the rivers, lakes and wetlands
of northeastern Germany. More than 50 plant associations are described, 24 of them
aquatic. Numerous tables describe plant habitats and water chemistry.

AQUARIENPFLANZEN, by C. Kasselmann. 1995. 472 pp.
(Order from Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.)

This book is for aquarium plant lovers, who read German. The book treats more
than 300 aquatic and wetland plants; each treatment includes a high quality color
photograph (mostly very good field shots), taxonomy, distribution, plant description,
culturing requirements and ecology. According to C.D.K.Cook, "the book is a
thoroughly professional work and deserves a wider readership than just German-
speaking aquarium freaks."

THE RIVER SCENE--Ecology and cultural heritage, by S.M. Haslam, with
contributions from J. Purseglove and G.A. Wait. 1997. 344 pp.
(Order from Cambridge University Press, The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU,
United Kingdom; 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211; 10 Stamford Road,
Oakleigh, Victoria 3166, Australia.)

Sylvia Haslam loves rivers: "Rivers are much too unprotected and vulnerable. The
loss of water and the loss of wildlife and cultural heritage, have become
unacceptable... River integrity has no one to speak for it." In this, her latest book
about rivers, she seeks to help non-specialists understand rivers by presenting some
shouldd" of rivers in their natural environment ("rivers should have much
diversity", etc.) and of rivers in relation to their cultural heritage (rivers should not
look like industrial refuse zones). The copiously illustrated book "aims to give a
wide view and an overview", looking at rivers in terms of water, structure,
vegetation, pollution, birds, cultural heritage and controlled recreation, omitting
information about invertebrates, fish, chemistry, diatoms, other algae and micro-
organisms. Though the book concentrates on British rivers, the lessons and
shouldd" apply to rivers worldwide.

BIOLOGICAL POLLUTION -- The Control and Impact of Invasive Exotic Species,
edited by Bill N. McKnight. 1993. 261 pp.
(Order from Purdue University Press, 1532 South Campus Courts Bldg E, West Lafayette,
IN 47907-1532. 317-494-2038; 1-800-933-9637. $30 plus S/H.)

"Biological pollution is one of the least publicized environmental issues facing us,"
says the editor. This is the proceedings of a symposium held at Indiana University-
Purdue University at Indianapolis, October 25-26, 1991. It includes 21 reviews and
case studies covering invasive species as diverse as funguses, fish, fire ants,
domestic cats, and aquatic plants. "What role can science play in eliminating or
slowing this alien invasion?"

and T.P. Sullivan. 1997. 302 pp.
(Order from Applied Mammal Research Institute, 11010 Mitchell Avenue, R.R. #3,
Summerland, B.C., Canada.)

Glyphosate is a herbicide that is used in agriculture, forestry and aquatic
ecosystems. This book is a compendium of references and abstracts extracted from
the major online literature databases. Included are several thousand items covering
environmental impacts, toxicology, efficacy and human health. Ten sections include
aquatic invertebrates and algae, biodiversity-conservation and habitat restoration/
alteration, birds, fish, human health, mammals, microflora and fungi, plant and soil
residues, terrestrial invertebrates and water quality.

Experts Meeting 11-14 September, 1995, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA, Food and
Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. 1996. 217 pp.
(Order from R. Labrada, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations,
Rome, Italy.)

"Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is still the major floating water weed in the
world despite nearly 100 years of attempts to control it." This book of 16 articles by
international experts focuses on water hyacinth problems in developing countries,
and efforts to manage them, with special emphasis on insect biological control

methods. A recommendations section presents guidelines for hyacinth control in
developing countries, and strategies for implementing them.

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WEEDS--Proceedings of the VIII International
Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds, 2-7 February, Canterbury, New
Zealand, edited by E.S. Delfosse and R.R. Scott. 1996. 760 pp.
(Order from CSIRO Publishing, POB 1139, Collingwood 3066, Victoria, Australia. (+61)-
3-9662-7666. E-mail: sales@publish.csiro.au)

As the most comprehensive collection of its kind, this book of 135 papers covers all
aspects of the theory and current practice of biological control of weeds. Topics
include biological control in protected natural areas, aquatic habitats, forests, pasture
rangelands and crops; selecting agents and targets; economics and evaluating
impacts; and screening, rearing, releasing and managing agents, particularly plant
pathogens and arthropods.

STEMMING THE TIDE--Controlling Introductions of Nonindigenous Species by
Ships' Ballast Water, by the Committee on Ships' Ballast Operations, National
Research Council. 1996. 160 pp.
(Order from National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Lockbox 285,
Washington, DC 20055. 1-800-624-6242. WWW: http://www.nap.edu US$39.95

Ballast is any solid or liquid that is taken aboard ship to achieve more controlled and
safer operation. It has been estimated that more than 3,000 species of animals and
plants are transported daily around the world in ballast water, including species such
as zebra mussels, comb jellyfish, seagrasses, and possibly freshwater plants. When
these species are released in new areas, well-known ecological problems can result.
This book assesses current approaches to the problem and makes recommendations
for U.S. government agencies and the international maritime industry.

STRANGERS IN PARADISE--Impact and Management of Nonindigenous Species
in Florida, edited by D. Simberloff, D.C. Schmitz and T.C. Brown. 1997. 467 pp.
(Order from Island Press, Box 7, Dept. 2PR, Covelo, CA 95428. 800-828-1302. US

In Florida, millions of acres of land and water have been invaded by non-native
plants and animals. Does this mean that introduction of all non-native species should
be regulated? Including plants that nobody thinks will ever spread and become
invasive? "Well,...yes!" the editors of this book say. It "provides the first
comprehensive in-depth examination of the Florida experience." Chapters include
"case studies" of nonindigenous insects, invertebrates, fishes, amphibians and
reptiles, birds and mammals; examples of various "management strategies"; policy
and implementation discussions; and essays on the roles of federal and state

the 9th International Symposium on Aquatic Weeds, European Weed Research
Society, edited by J.M. Caffrey, P.R.F. Barrett, K.J. Murphy and P.M. Wade. 1997. 376
(Order from Kluwer Academic Publisher, Order Dept., POB 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht,
The Netherlands. US$224.00. E-mail: services@wkap.nl)

This proceedings provides "a valuable insight into the complexities involved in
managing aquatic systems, discusses state-of-the-art control techniques such as
biomanipulation using fish and waterfowl and the use of straw, and deals with
patterns of regrowth and recovery post-management." The symposium held in
Dublin in 1994 drew 270 delegates from 35 countries. Fifty-six papers are included
in the following sections: Ecology of Freshwater Plants; Plant-Environment
Interactions; Aquatic Weed Problems; Control of Freshwater and Riparian
Vegetation; and Utilization of Freshwater and Riparian Vegetation.

CONTROL OF WEEDS, edited by V.C. Moran and J.H. Hoffmann. 1996. 563 pp.
(Order from J.H. Hoffmann, Zoology Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch
7700, South Africa. US$75, surface; US$95, air. E-mail: hoff@botzoo.uct.ac.za)

Nearly 170 refereed papers and abstracts are included in this Proceedings of the
meeting that took place in Stellenbosch, South Africa, January 19-26, 1996. Many
of them are about aquatic plants. Sections include: Ecology of Invasive Plants; Host
Range, Specificity, and Recruitment; Pre-Release Studies; New Developments,

Strategies and Overviews; Agent Performance; Integrated Control and Management;
Evaluation and Economics; and the International Bioherbicide Workshop. Each
section is treated with a "synthesis" by an expert in the field.

Resource Managers, edited by John R. Cassani. 1996. 196 pp.
(Order from American Fisheries Society, Publication Fulfillment, POB 1020, Sewickley,
PA 15143. US$18.00 plus S/H. (412) 741-5700. Fax: (412) 741-0609.)

Development of the triploid grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) has increased the
use of this weed-eating fish. This manual is the result of the American Fisheries
Society "identifying the need for a comprehensive source of information on
managing aquatic vegetation with grass carp." It includes sections on the use of
grass carp in managing aquatic weeds in lakes, ponds, impoundments, rivers and
canal systems. Recapture and removal techniques are covered, and a review of
Florida's experiences in administering the grass carp program is presented. Stocking
rates, ecological side-effects, diseases and parasites, staff requirements and other
management issues are covered.

HUNGARIAN GREAT PLAIN--Az Eszak-Alfold Edenyes Floraja, edited by Istvan
Fintha. 1994. 359 pp.
(Order from the bookstore: AQUA, Kiado es Nyomda Leanyvallalat, H-1075, Budapest,
Kazinczy u. 3/b. Hungary.)

This book, in Hungarian, surveys the flora of the Alfold, or Great Hungarian Plain
(2,800 sq. km.). More than 1,000 species are listed, including many new plants for
Hungary, as well as 200 alien and garden plants.

LAS TABLAS DE DAIMIEL--Ecologia Acuatica y Sociedad, edited by M. Alvarez
Cobelas and S. Cirujano. 1996. 371 pp. (In Spanish.)
(Order from Direccion General de Conservacion de la Naturaleza, Organismo Autonomo
Parques Nacionlaes, Servicio de Publicaciones, Gran Via de San Francisco 4, 28005
Madrid, SPAIN. US$21.00 plus S/H. Fax: (91)3476303.)

Las Tablas de Daimiel is a 1700 hectare wetland found on the La Mancha plain of
south-central Spain. "It is experiencing very high organic pollution coming from the
towns in its watershed." Macrophyte vegetation species richness has decreased from
25 species reported in 1974 to 15 species reported in 1995; fish species have
declined from 13 species twenty years ago to 2 species today. Although humans
have lived at Las Tablas for the past 3,600 years, data shows that in only 20 years
man has overexploited Las Tablas and in doing so, reduced its area by two thirds.
The Spanish government is determined to restore and conserve Las Tablas. This
book compiles what is known about the area's morphology and climate, water
chemistry and production, as well as man's impacts on these unique wetlands.

FLORIDA AQUACULTURE PLAN, Current Status, Opportunities and Future
Needs, by Anonymous of the Bureau of Seafood and Aquaculture, Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services. 1996. 72 pp.
(Order from Division of Marketing and Development, Bureau of Seafood and
Aquaculture, 2051 E Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310.)

This book contains general information about the aquaculture industry in Florida,
with descriptions often aquaculture products, possible future products, and a listing
of "research priorities" received from various state sources. (According to this
report, the aquatic plant industry in Florida in 1995 generated $8.6 million in sales,
compared to $52.5 million for tropical fish and $4.5 million for alligators.)
Appendixes include the Florida Statutes relative to aquaculture as of 1996.

PEATLANDS IN FINLAND, edited by Harri Vasander. 1996. 168 pp. (In English.)
(Order from the Finnish Peatland Society, Kuokkalantie 4, FIN-40420, Jyska, Finland.
About US$40.)

Finland's 10 million hectares of peatlands are "a major and fascinating element of
the Finnish landscape and national economy." Since the Stone Age, peat, which is
made of fragmented plant residues, has been used for the production of energy. As
peat has been cut-away and burned, peatlands have been converted to agriculture and
forestry. This handsome and colorful book, an "updated interdisciplinary review", is
filled with pictures, illustrations and maps, and includes sections on the ecology and
natural history of Finnish peatlands, Finland's peat resources, economic utilization
of peatlands, environmental aspects of peatland utilization, and options for

managing harvested peatlands.

MIRES OF JAPAN--Ecosystems and Monitoring of Miyatoko, Akaiyachi and
Kushior Mires, edited by Toshio Iwakuma. 1996. 127 pp. (In English.)
(Order from the National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba
305, Japan.)

Mires are peatlands. This report intends to give perspective on Japanese peatlands,
and the modern methods that the Japahnese have developed to monitor peatlands.
Maps, weather information, hydrology, water chemistry, and soils are presented,
Plant species occurrence, phenology, and community composition are described.
Remote sensing techniques are also described.

GROW YOUR OWN NATIVE LANDSCAPE: A Guide To Identifying, Propagating,
and Landscaping with Western Washington Native Plants, edited by Michael Leigh.
1996. 132 pp.
(Order from WSU Cooperative Extension, Thurston County, Native Plant Salvage Project,
6128 Capitol Blvd. S.E., Suite 3, Olympia, WA 98501; (360) 786-5445.)

This booklet is an introduction to native plants, explains what native plants are and
lists the benefits of using them for landscaping. It lists native plants according to
their need for sunlight and moisture; it explains how to buy and collect plants, and
includes detailed instructions for propagating and salvaging native plants.
Descriptions of more than 90 native plants suitable for growing in Washington state
are included. It may be the best basic handbook on collecting and growing native
plants that the APIRS library has.

W. Thieret, with illustrations by Sara Fish Brown. 1986. 1996. 312 pp.
(Order from Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission, 801 Schenkel Lane, Frankfort,
KY 40601; (502) 573-2886. $22 plus $2.68 S/H.)

This is a reprint of the 1986 identification manual. It includes identification keys,
descriptions, illustrations, county distribution maps and notes on habitat, overall
range and biology of hundreds of plants that grow in water or in soil saturated, at

least much of the year, with water.

RESTORING PRAIRIE WETLANDS--An Ecological Approach, by Susan M.
Galatowitsch and Arnold G. Van der Valk. 1994. 246 pp.
(Order from Iowa State University Press, 2121 S. State Avenue, Ames, Iowa 50014-8300;
1-800-862-6657. $44.95 plus S/H.)

This book "describes and assesses ecological-based methods of restoration in the
southern prairie pothole region--Iowa, Minnesota, and South Dakota." The main
problem discussed by this book is whether or not "restored" wetlands function as the
original wetlands did, and what difference it makes if they do not. The book
examines ecological and technical considerations in planning, constructing,
managing and evaluating wetland restorations. It includes plant, animal and soils
lists of the pothole region.

1996. 227 pp.
(Ordering information unknown. However, the entire book can be accessed via WWW:
http://piked2.agn.uiuc.edu/piap/phenoxy.html The section on use of 2,4-D in aquatic
systems, written by Dr. Carole Lembi can be found at http://piked2.agn.uiuc.edu/piap/

This report was prepared by a dozen of the world's authorities on phenoxy
herbicides, such as 2,4-D. The work was sponsored by the National Agricultural
Pesticide Impact Assessment Program (NAPIAP), a USDA and state cooperative
program. It includes chapters on the history of 2,4-D, risk assessment, potential
effects of banning phenoxy herbicides, and the use of phenoxy herbicides in
agriculture, forestry and aquatic systems. The book also includes "An Overview of
the Epidemiology and Toxicology Data", which is a thorough review of 74 scientific
papers and case-studies of the effects of phenoxy herbicides on animals and humans.
This Overview is at http://piked2.agn.uiuc.edu/piap/assess/ch3.htm

Aquaphyte Contents Aquaphyte page Home

Copyright 1997 University of Florida


Here is a sampling of the research articles, books and reports which have been entered into
the aquatic plant database since January 1997. The database has more than 44,000
citations. To receive free bibliographies on specific plants and/or subjects, contact APIRS
at 352-392-1799 or use the database online at http://aquatl.ifas.ufl.edu/database.html

To obtain articles, contact your nearest state or university library.

Abtew, W.; Obeysekera, J.
Lysimeter study of evapotranspiration of cattails and comparison of three estimation
TRANS. AM. SOC. AGRIC. ENGR. 38(1):121-129. 1995.

Agren, J.
Population size, pollinator limitation, and seed set in the self-incompatible herb Lythrum
ECOLOGY 77(6):1779-1790. 1996.

Aldridge, F.J.
Application of nutrient enrichment bioassays to evaluate spatial and temporal limiting-
nutrient patterns and to estimate surplus phosphorus concentrations in Lake Okeechobee,

Alexander, S.A.; Hobson, K.A.; Gratto-Trevor, C.L.; Diamond, A.W.
Conventional and isotopic determinations of shorebird diets at an inland stopover: the
importance of invertebrates and Potamogetonpectinatus tubers.
CAN. J. ZOOL. 74(6):1057-1068. 1996.

Andersson, E.
On the identity of orchid populations: a morphometric study of the Dactylorhiza

traunsteineri complex in eastern Sweden.
NORD. J. BOT. 14(3):269-275. 1994.

Armstrong, J.; Armstrong, W.; van der Putten, W.H.
Phragmites die-back: bud and root death, blockages within the aeration and vascular
systems and the possible role of phytotoxins.
NEW PHYTOL. 133(3):399-414. 1996.

Bai, B.B.; Lim, G.S.; Sastroutomo, S.S.; et al
The establishment of Cyrtobagous salviniae in Malaysia for the biological control of
Salvinia molesta.

Barthlott, W.; Neinhuis, C.; Jetter, R.; et al
Waterlily, poppy, or Sycamore: on the systematic position of Nelumbo.
FLORA 191(2):169-174. 1996.

Baskin, C.C.; Baskin, J.M.; Chester, E.W.
Seed germination ecology of the aquatic winter annual Hottonia inflata.
AQUATIC BOTANY 54(1):51-57. 1996.

Bechara, J.A.
The relative importance of water quality, sediment composition and floating vegetation in
explaining the macrobenthic community structure of floodplain lakes (Parana River,
HYDROBIOLOGIA 333(2):95-109. 1996.

Beer, S.; Koch, E.
Photosynthesis of marine macroalgae and seagrasses in globally changing C02
MAR. ECOL. PROG. SER. 141(1-3):199-204. 1996.

Beltman, B.; van den Broek, T.; van Maanen, K.; Vaneveld, K.
Measures to develop a rich-fen wetland landscape with a full range of successional stages.
ECOL. ENGR. 7(4):299-313. 1996.

Bhagat, R.M.; Bhuiyan, S.I.; Moody,K.

Water, tillage and weed interactions in lowland tropical rice: a review.
AGRIC. WATER MANAGE. 31(3):165-184. 1996.

Biggs, B.J.F.
Hydraulic habitat of plants in streams.

Boeye,D.; Van Haesebroeck,V.; Verhagen,B.; et al
A local rich fen fed by calcareous seepage from an artificial river water infiltration system.
VEGETATIO 126(1):51-58. 1996.

Boyd, W.A.; Best, E.P.H.
HYDRIL (Version 1.0): a simulation model for growth of Hydrilla.

Brunton, D.F.; Britton, D.M.
The status, distribution, and identification of Georgia quillwort (Isoetes georgiana;
AMER. FERN J. 86(4): 105-113. 1996.

Carter, R.; Mears, R.L. Burks, K.C.; Bryson, C.T.
A report of four exotic Cyperus (Cyperaceae) species new to Florida, USA
SIDA 17(1):275-281. 1996.

Cooper, P.; Green, B.
Reed bed treatment systems for sewage treatment in the United Kingdom the first 10
years' experience.
WAT. SCI. TECH. 32(3):317-327. 1995.

Crisman, T.L.; Phlips, E.J.; Beaver, J.R.
Zooplankton seasonality and trophic state relationships in Lake Okeechobee, Florida.

Cronk, J.K.
Constructed wetlands to treat wastewater from dairy and swine operations: a review.
AGRIC. ECOSYSTEMS ENVIRON. 58(2-3):97-114. 1996.

Dadang; Ohsawa, K.; Kato, S.; Yamamoto, I.

Insecticidal compound in tuber of Cyperus rotundus L. against the diamondback moth
J. PESTICIDE SCI. 21(4):444-446. 1996.

Dalton, P.A.; Smith, R.J.; Truong, P.N.V.
Vetiver grass hedges for erosion control on a cropped floodplain: hedge hydraulics
AGRIC. WATER MANAGE. 31(1-2):91-104. 1996.

Degroft, K.L.; Francko, D.A.
Effect of freezing on germination of Nelumbo lutea (Willd.) Pers. seeds.
J. FRESHWATER ECOL. 11(3):373-376. 1996.

Delesalle, V.A.; Mazer, S.J.
Nutrient levels and salinity affect gender and floral traits in the autogamous Spergularia
INT. J. PLANT SCI. 157(5):621-631. 1996.

Delgado, 0.; Rodriguez-Prieto, C.; Gacia, E.; Ballesteros, E.
Lack of severe nutrient limitation in Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl.) C. Agardh, an introduced
seaweed spreading over the oligotrophic northwestern Mediterranean.
BOTANICA MARINA 39(1):61-67. 1996.

Dewanji, A.; Matai, S.
Nutritional evaluation of leaf protein extracted from three aquatic plants.
J. AGRIC. FOOD CHEM. 44(8):2162-2166. 1996.

Dibble, E.D.; Killgore, K.J.; Dick, G.O.
Measurement of plant architecture in seven aquatic plants.
J. FRESHWATER ECOL. 11(3):311-318. 1996.

Dole, J.; Kesseli, R.
Inheritance of pale flower, calyx spotting, and glandular pubescence in Mimulus guttatus x
M. platycalyx progenies.
J. HEREDITY 88(1):42-46. 1997.

Doss, C.R.; Taff, S.J.
The influence of wetland type and wetland proximity on residential property values.
J. AGRIC. RESOURCE ECONOMICS 21(1):120-129. 1996.

Eckert, C.G.; Mavraganis, K.
Evolutionary consequences of extensive morph loss in tristylous Decodon verticillatus
(Lythraceae): a shift from tristyly to distyly?
AMERICAN J. BOT. 83(8): 1024-1032. 1996.

Everall, N.C.; Lees, D.R.
The use of barley-straw to control general and blue-green algal growth in a Derbyshire
WATER RESEARCH 30(2):269-276. 1996.

Fasola, M.; Canova, L.; Saino, N.
Rice fields support a large portion of herons breeding in the Mediterranean region.
COLONIAL WATERBIRDS 19 (SPEC. PUBL. 1):129-134. 1996.

Feurtet-Mazel, A.; Grollier, T.; Grouselle, M.; et al
Experimental study of bioaccumulation and effects of the herbicide Isoproturon on
freshwater rooted macrophytes (Elodea densa and Ludwigia natans).
CHEMOSPHERE 32(8):1499-1512. 1996.

Galal, Y.G.M.
Estimation of nitrogen fixation in an Azolla-rice association using the nitrogen-15 isotope
dilution technique.
BIOL. FERTILITY SOILS 24(1):76-80. 1997.

Garai, S.; Mahato, S.B.; Ohtani, K.; Yamasaki, K.
Dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins from Bacopa monniera.
PHYTOCHEMISTRY 42(3):815-820. 1996.

Getsinger, K.D.; Fox,A.M.; Haller,W.T.
Herbicide application technique development for flowing water: summary of research

Greenway, M.; Simpson, J.S.
Artificial wetlands for wastewater treatment, water reuse and wildlife in Queensland,
WAT. SCI. TECH. 33(10-11):221-229. 1996.

Griffith, J.S.; Smith, R.W.
Failure of submersed macrophytes to provide cover for rainbow trout throughout their first
winter in the Henrys Fork of the Snake River, Idaho.
NORTH AMER. J. FISH. MANAGE. 15(1):42-48. 1995.

Grosse, W.; Armstrong, J.; Armstrong, W.
A history of pressurised gas-flow studies in plants.
AQUATIC BOTANY 54(2,3):87-100. 1996.

Groth, A.T.; Lovett-Doust, L.; Lovett-Doust, J.
Population density and module demography in Trapa natans (Trapaceae), an annual,
clonal aquatic macrophyte.
AMER. J. BOTANY 83(11):1406-1415. 1996.

Hagley, C.A.; Wright, D.; Owen, C.J.; Eiler, P.; Danks, M.
Changes in aquatic macrophytes after liming Thrush Lake, Minnesota.
RESTORATION ECOLOGY 4(3):307-312. 1996.

Hawes, I.; Schwarz, A-M.
Epiphytes from a deep-water Characean meadow in an oligotrophic New Zealand lake:
species composition, biomass and photosynthesis.
FRESHWATER BIOL. 36(2):297-313. 1996.

Helsen, D.R.; Gerber, D.T.; Engel, S.
Comparing spring treatments of 2,4-D with bottom fabrics to control a new infestation of
Eurasian watermilfoil.
J. AQUATIC PLANT MANAGE. 34:68-71. 1996.

Heusser, C.J.; Denton, G.H.; Hauser, A., et al
Water fern (Azollafiliculoides Lam.) in southern Chile as an index of paleoenvironment
during early deglaciation.
ARCTIC ALPINE RES. 28(2):148-155. 1996.

Hill, M.P.; Cilliers, C.J.
Biology and host range of Eccritotarsus catarinensis (Heteroptera: Miridae), a new
potential biological control agent for water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)
(Pontederiaceae) in South Africa.


Hoyer, M.V.; Canfield, D.E.
Lake size, aquatic macrophytes, and largemouth bass abundance in Florida lakes: a reply.
J. AQUATIC PLANT MANAGE. 34:48-50. 1996.

Hroudova, Z.; Zakravsky, P.
Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla tuber production and dormancy in natural habitats.
ABSTRACT BOTANICA 19:89-94. 1995.

Hughes, J.B.; Shanks, J.; Vanderford, M.; et al
Transformation of TNT by aquatic plants and plant tissue cultures.
ENVIRON. SCI. TECHNOL. 31(1):266-271. 1997.

Humphries, P.
Aquatic macrophytes, macroinvertebrate associations and water levels in a lowland
Tasmanian River.
HYDROBIOLOGIA 321(3):219-233. 1996.

Islebe, G.A.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Van't Veer, R.
Holocene vegetation and water level history in two bogs of the Cordillera de Talamanca,
Costa Rica.
VEGETATIO 124(2):155-171. 1996.

Jones, T.P.; Fortier, S.M.; Pentecost, A.; Collinson, M.E.
Stable carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of recent charophyte oosporangia and
water from Malham Tarn, U.K.: palaeontological implications.
BIOGEOCHEM. 34(2):99-112. 1996.

Jordan, W.C.; Courtney, M.W.; Neigel, J.E.
Low levels of intraspecific genetic variation at a rapidly evolving chloroplast DNA locus
in North American duckweeds (Lemnaceae).
AMER. J. BOT. 83(4):430-439. 1996.

Julien, M.H.; Storrs, M.J.
Integrating biological and herbicidal controls to manage Salvinia in Kakadu National Park,
Northern Australia.
449. 1996.

Katovich, E.J.S.; Becker, R.L.; Kinkaid, B.D.
Influence of nontarget neighbors and spray volume on retention and efficacy of Triclopyr
in purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria).
WEED SCI. 44(1):143-147. 1996.

Kelly, L.A.; Smith, S.
The nutrient budget of a small eutrophic loch and the effectiveness of straw bales in
controlling algal blooms.
FRESHWATER BIOL. 36(2):411-418. 1996.

Kenow, K.P.; Rusch, D.H.
Food habits of redheads at the Horicon Marsh, Wisconsin.
J. FIELD ORNITHOL. 67(4):649-659. 1996.

Klokov, V.M.; Smurnova, N.N.; Kozina, S.Y.; et al
Phytocenoses of aquatic macrophytes in Kiev Reservoir in the presence of radioactive
HYDROBIOL. J. 30(3):53-60. 1994.

Kludze, H.K.; Delaune, R.D.
Soil redox intensity effects on oxygen exchange and growth of cattail and sawgrass.
SOIL SCI. SOC. AM. J. 60(2):616-621. 1996.

Korner, S.; Kuhl, H.
Development of submerged macrophytes in the treated sewage channel Wuhle (Berlin,
INT. REVUE GES. HYDROBIOL. 81(3):385-397. 1996.

Krahulec, F.; Kaplan, Z.
Diversity of Potamogeton species during 21 years of succession in a new water reservoir.
PRESLIA PRAHA 66:237-241. 1994.

Lieberman, D.M.
Use of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis)
for algae control in a small pond: changes in water quality.
J. FRESHWATER ECOL. 11(4):391-397. 1996.

Maceina, M.J.

Largemouth bass abundance and aquatic vegetation in Florida lakes: an alternative
J. AQUATIC PLANT MANAGE. 34:43-47. 1996.

Madsen, J.D.
Seasonal biomass and carbohydrate allocation in a southern population of Eurasian

McGregor, M.A.; Bayne, D.R.; Steeger, J.G.; et al
The potential for biological control of water primrose (Ludwigia grandiflora) by the water
primrose flea beetle (Lysathia ludoviciana) in the southeastern United States.
J. AQUATIC PLANT MANAGE. 34:74-75. 1996.

Mirka, M.A.; Clulow, F.V.; Dave, N.K.; Lim, T.P.
Radium-226 in cattails, Typha latifolia, and bone of muskrat, Ondatra zibethica (L.), from
a watershed with uranium tailings near the city of Elliot Lake, Canada.
ENVIRON. POLLUTION 91(1):41-51. 1996.

Mitchell, S.F.; Wass, R.T.
Grazing by black swans (Cygnus atratus Latham), physical factors, and the growth and
loss of aquatic vegetation in a shallow lake.
AQUATIC BOTANY 55(3):205-215. 1996.

Moore, K.A.; Neckles, H.A.; Orth,R.J. Zostera marina (eelgrass) growth and survival
along a gradient of nutrients and turbidity in the lower Chesapeake Bay.
MAR. ECOL. PROG. SER. 142(1-3):247-259. 1996.

Moss, B.; Stansfield, J.; Irvine, K.; et al
Progressive restoration of a shallow lake: a 12-year experiment in isolation, sediment
removal and biomanipulation.
J. APPLIED ECOL. 33(1):71-86. 1996.

Mumma, M.T.; Cichra, C.E.; Sowards, J.T.
Effects of recreation on the submersed aquatic plant community of Rainbow River,
J. AQUATIC PLANT MANAGE. 34:53-56. 1996.

Netherland, M.D.; Shearer, J.F.
Integrated use of fluridone and a fungal pathogen for control of Hydrilla.
J. AQUATIC PLANT MANAGE. 34:4-8. 1996.

Olaleye, V.F.; Akinyemiju, O.A.
Effect of a glyphosate (N-(Phosphonomethyl) glycine) application to control Eichhornia
crassipes Mart. on fish composition and abundance in Abiala Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria.
J. ENVIRON. MANAGE. 47(2):115-122. 1996.

Paveglio, F.L.; Kilbride, K.M.; Grue, C.E., et al
Use of Rodeo and X-77 spreader to control smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) in a
southwestern Washington estuary: 1. Environmental fate.
ENVIRON. TOXICOL. CHEM. 15(6):961-968. 1996.

Perkins-Visser, E.; Wolcott, T.G.; Wolcott, D.L.
Nursery role of seagrass beds: enhanced growth of juvenile blue crabs (Callinectes
sapidus Rathbun).
J. EXPER. MAR. BIOL. ECOL. 198(2):155-173. 1996.

Philbrick, C.T.; Les, D.H.
Evolution of aquatic angiosperm reproductive systems.
BIOSCIENCE 46(11):813-826. 1996.

Phlips, E.J.; Lynch, T.C.; Badylak, S.
Chlorophyll a, tripton, color, and light availability in a shallow tropical inner-shelf lagoon,
Florida Bay, USA.
MAR. ECOL. PROG. SER. 127:223-234. 1995.

Powell, R.L.; Kimerle, R.A.; Moser, E.M.
Development of a plant bioassay to assess toxicity of chemical stressors to emergent
ENVIRON. TOXICOL. CHEM. 15(9):1570-1576. 1996.

Radomski, P.J.; Goeman, T.J.; Spencer, P.D.
The effects of chemical control of submerged vegetation on the fish community of a small
Minnesota centrarchid lake.
PP. 1995.

Randall, R.G.; Minns, C.K.; Cairns, V.W.; Moore, J.E.
The relationship between an index of fish production and submerged macrophytes and
other habitat features at three littoral areas in the Great Lakes.
CAN. J. FISH. AQUAT. SCI. 53(SUPPL. 1):35-44. 1996.

Reiskind,J.B.; Madsen,T.V.; Van Ginkel,L.C.; Bowes,G.
Evidence that inducible C4-type photosynthesis is a chloroplastic CO2-concentrating
mechanism in hydrilla, a submersed monocot.
PLANT CELL ENVIRON. 20(2):211-220. 1997.

Roelofs, J.G.M.; Smolders, A.J.P.; Brandrud, T-E.; Bobbink, R.
The effect of acidification, liming and reacidification on macrophyte development, water
quality and sediment characteristics of soft-water lakes.
WATER AIR SOIL POLLUTION 85(2):967-972. 1995.

Romero, M.I.; Onaindia, M.
Fullgrown aquatic macrophytes as indicators of river water quality in the northwest
Iberian peninsula.
ANN. BOT. FENNICI 32(2):91-99. 1995.

Rorslett, B.; Johansen, S.W.
Remedial measures connected with aquatic macrophytes in Norwegian regulated rivers
and reservoirs.
REGULATED RIVERS: RES. & MANAGE. 12(4-5):509-522. 1996.

Rossier, 0.; Castella,E.; Lachavanne, J.
Influence of submerged aquatic vegetation on size class distribution of perch (Perca
fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilis rutilus) in the littoral zone of Lake Geneva (Switzerland).
AQUATIC SCI. 58(1):1-14. 1996.

Roy, S.; Sen, C.K.; Hanninen, 0.
Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using moss bags': bioaccumulation and
responses of antioxidant enzymes in Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw.
CHEMOSPHERE 32(12):2305-2315. 1996.

Ruggles, M.P.
Comparison of sedimentation, aquatic vegetation, benthic invertebrates, and wild brook
and brown trout twenty years after dredging in Wisconsin spring ponds.

Salo, V.; Pykala, J.; Toivonen, H.
Achene epidermis in the Carexflava complex (Cyperaceae) studied by scanning electron
ANN. BOT. FENNICI 31(1):45-52. 1994.

Schipper, L.A.; Reddy, K.R.
Determination of methane oxidation in the rhizosphere of Sagittaria lancifolia using
methyl fluoride.
SOIL SCI. SOC. AM. J. 60(2):611-616. 1996.

Schoonbee, H.J.
Biological control of the submerged fennel-leaved pondweed, Potamogetonpectinatus
(Potamogetonaceae), in South Africa.

Silberhorn, G.M.; Dewing, S.; Mason, P.A.
Production of reproductive shoots, vegetative shoots, and seeds in populations of Ruppia
maritima L. from the Chesapeake Bay, Virginia.
WETLANDS 16(2):232-239. 1996.

Smolders, A.J.P.; Roelofs, J.G.M.; Den Hartog, C.
Possible causes for the decline of the water soldier (Stratiotes aloides L.) in The
ARCH. HYDROBIOL. 136(3):327-342. 1996.

St-Cyr, L.; Campbell, P.G.C.
Metals (Fe, Mn, Zn) in the root plaque of submerged aquatic plants collected in situ:
relations with metal concentrations in the adjacent sediments and in the root tissue.
BIOGEOCHEMISTRY 33:45-76. 1996.

Sullivan, G.; Titus, J.E.
Physical site characteristics limit pollination and fruit set in the dioecious hydrophilous
species, Vallisneria americana.
OECOLOGIA 108(2):285-292. 1996.

Tanner, C.C.
Plants for constructed wetland treatment systems a comparison of the growth and

nutrient uptake of eight emergent species.
ECOL. ENGINEERING 7(1):59-83. 1996.

Thieret, J.W.; Luken, J.O.
The Typhaceae in the southeastern United States.
HARVARD PAPERS BOT. 8:37-56. 1996.

Tracy, M.; Freeman, D.C.; Emlen, J.M.; et al
Developmental instability as a biomonitor of environmental stress an illustration using
aquatic plants and macroalgae.

Ueno, 0.
Immunocytochemical localization of enzymes involved in the C3 and C4 pathways in the
photosynthetic cells of an amphibious sedge, Eleocharis vivipara.
PLANTA 199(3):394-403. 1996.

Aquatic vegetation in two pre-alpine lakes of different trophic levels (Lake Bled and Lake
Bohinj): vegetation development from the aspect of bioindication.
ACTA BOT. GALLICA 142(6):563-570. 1995.

Vanden Berghen, C.; Manga, A.
People and botanical environment at Enampor, a village of the Lower Casamance, Senegal.
LEJEUNIA 146:1-26. 1995.

Van Den Brink, F.W.B.; Van Der Velde, G.; Buijse, A.D.; Klink, A.G.
Biodiversity in the lower Rhine and Meuse River floodplains: its significance for
ecological river management.
NETHERLANDS J. AQUATIC ECOL. 30(2-3):129-149. 1996.

Wahaab, R.A.; Lubberding, H.J.; Alaerts, G.J.
Copper and chromium (III) uptake by duckweed.
WAT. SCI. TECH. 32(11):105-110. 1995.

Wang, T.C.; Weissman, J.C.; Ramesh, G.; et al
Parameters for removal of toxic heavy metals by water milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum).
BULL. ENVIRON. CONTAM. TOXICOL. 57(5):779-786. 1996.

Wassen, M.J.; Joosten, J.H.J.
In search of a hydrological explanation for vegetation changes along a fen gradient in the
Biebrza upper basin (Poland).
VEGETATIO 124(2):191-209. 1996.

Weisner, S.E.B.; Strand, J.A.; Sandsten, H.
Mechanisms regulating abundance of submerged vegetation in shallow eutrophic lakes.
OECOLOGIA 109(4):592-599. 1997.

Welling, C.; Crowell, W.; Perleberg, D.
Evaluation of Fluridone herbicide for selective control of Eurasian watermilfoil: final

Wollheim, W.M.; Lovvorn, J.R.
Effects of macrophyte growth forms on invertebrate communities in saline lakes of the
Wyoming high plains.
HYDROBIOLOGIA 323(2):83-96. 1996.

Reconstruction of the vegetation at A.D. 915 at Ohse-Yachi Mire, northern Japan, from
pollen, present-day vegetation and Tephra data.
VEGETATIO 125(2):111-122. 1996.

Zimmerman, R.C.; Kohrs, D.G.; Alberte, R.S.
Top-down impact through a bottom-up mechanism: the effect of limpet grazing on
growth, productivity and carbon allocation of Zostera marina L. (eelgrass).
OECOLOGIA 107(4):560-567. 1996.

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