• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Table of Contents
 About Aquaphyte
 Update on APIRS
 Freshwater aquatic fruit: water...
 Odds n' ends
 Water chestnuts for sale
 More aquatic and wetland plants...
 Electronic media page
 Meetings
 Books, manuals, and online...
 From the database






Group Title: Aquaphyte : a newsletter about aquatic, wetland and invasive plants
Title: Aquaphyte
ALL VOLUMES CITATION PDF VIEWER THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
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STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00083179/00016
 Material Information
Title: Aquaphyte newsletter of the IPPC Aquatic Weed Program of the University of Florida, a part of the International Plant Protection Center of the Oregon State University, which is funded by the United States Agency for International Development
Abbreviated Title: Aquaphyte
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Center for Aquatic Plants
University of Florida -- IPPC Aquatic Weed Program
University of Florida -- Center for Aquatic Weeds
Publisher: The Program
Place of Publication: Gainesville FL
Publication Date: 1981-
Frequency: semiannual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Aquatic plants -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: Newsletters   ( lcsh )
Newsletters.
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (fall 1981)-
Issuing Body: Vols. for fall 1982- issued with: University of Florida, Center for Aquatic Weeds.
Issuing Body: Vols. for <1988-> issued by: University of Florida, Center for Aquatic Plants.
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 12, no. 2 (fall 1992).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00083179
Volume ID: VID00016
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06513906
lccn - sc 84007615
issn - 0893-7702

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Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    About Aquaphyte
        Page 3
    Update on APIRS
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Freshwater aquatic fruit: water chestnut
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Odds n' ends
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 15
    Water chestnuts for sale
        Page 16
    More aquatic and wetland plants in pen-and-ink
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Electronic media page
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Meetings
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Books, manuals, and online resources
        Page 24
    From the database
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
Full Text


AQUAPHYTE Online

Volume 18 Number 1 Summer 1998


Center for Aquatic and
Invasive Plants
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida
7922 N.W. 71st Street
Gainesville, Florida 32653
352-392-1799


with support from
The Florida Department of Environmental
Protection,
Bureau of Aquatic Plant Management

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,
Waterways Experiment Station,
Aquatic Plant Control Research Program

The St. Johns River Water Management District


Contents

About AQUAPHYTE
Update on APIRS

The Freshwater Aquatic Fruit: Water chestnut By Syed Hasib Ahmad and Arun Kumar
Singh, Bihar, India

Odds n' Ends
Some Current Research at The Center
The Back Page

More Aquatic and Wetland Plants in Pen-and-Ink

The Electronic Media Review Page

BE THERE, DO THAT

BOOKS/REPORTS





. FROM THE DATABASE
a sampling of new additions to the APIRS database



Aquaphyte page I Home

CAIP-WEBSITE(Sufl.edu
Copyright 1998 University of Florida





About Aquaphyte



This is the newsletter of the Center for Aquatic Plants and the Aquatic and Wetland
Plant Information Retrieval System (APIRS) of the University of Florida Institute
of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS). Support for the information system is
provided by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, the U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station Aquatic Plant Control Research
Program (APCRP), the St. Johns River Water Management District and UF/IFAS.

EDITORS:
Victor Ramey
Karen Brown

AQUAPHYTE is sent to managers, researchers, and agencies around the world.
Comments, announcements, news items and other information relevant to aquatic
plant research are solicited.

Inclusion in AQUAPHYTE does not constitute endorsement, nor does exclusion
represent criticism of any item, organization, individual, or institution by the
University of Florida.



Aquaphyte Contents I Aquaphyte page I Home


CAIP-WEBSITE@ufl.edu
Copyright 1998 University of Florida





Update On APIRS


The Aquatic, Wetland and Invasive Plant Information Retrieval
System (APIRS) continues to grow and change with the rest of the electronic
information world, although some things stay the same.

We continue to collect, catalog and make available published literature on the
subjects of aquatic, wetland and invasive plant biology, ecology, management,
conservation, utilization and much, much more. During the past year, almost 2,000
new items were cataloged and entered into the database, which now contains almost
47,000 items. As many of you already know, APIRS went online three years ago
and is heavily accessed by users around the world via the World Wide Web. To use
the APIRS database online, go to http://aquatl.ifas.ufl.edu/ and follow the
instructions. Some people still prefer to have literature searches performed for them.
During the past year, approximately 300 custom bibliographies were prepared for
over 200 patrons. Bibliographies can be prepared and sent to users via electronic
mail or the postal service, usually the same day of the request. To request a
personalized literature search and bibliography, contact Karen Brown at kpb@gnv.
ifas.ufl.edu Although a lack of funding is an ever-present problem, for now
database services continue to be available free of charge.

Other products of the APIRS information office continue to be popular among
researchers, students, agency managers and personnel, schoolteachers,
environmental groups and the general public. They are available from the IFAS
Publications Office, University of Florida, P.O. Box 110011, Gainesville, FL
32611-0011, (352) 392-1764, Toll-free (800) 226-1764.

The Aquatic Plant ID Deck is a 3" x 4" card deck containing color photographs of
67 aquatic and wetland plant species with identification information on the back.
The cards are laminated for water resistance and bound with a screw and fastener,
making them suitable for in-the-field reference. Decks are $10 plus shipping.

Aquatic Plants in Pen-and-Ink is a collection of 115 original line drawings which




may be used without copyright permission once purchased. The package costs $35
plus shipping. A 1997 Supplement of 25 additional drawings is available for $10
plus shipping.

The Freshwater Plants Poster depicts 63 aquatic plants in a natural setting and
shows both common and scientific names. The 2' x 3' poster costs $7 plus shipping,
although it is available for free to Florida schoolteachers by request.

Over 15 educational videotapes are available on topics ranging from aquatic and
wetland plant identification to training for aquatic pest control applicators to careers
in Florida's freshwater environments. Programs may be borrowed, or purchased for
$15 each, plus shipping.

All of these items, plus a lot more, are described in detail on the Center for Aquatic
and Invasive Plants' World Wide Web site. Examples of information to be found at
the site include information on invasive, nonindigenous plants in Florida,
photographs of aquatic plants; two online books; a photo gallery; AQUAPHYTE
Online; an aquatic and wetland plant glossary; information on biological control
insects; a comprehensive list of aquatic and wetland plant manuals, field guides and
textbooks; a resource guide for water gardeners and aquarium enthusiasts; links to
other relevant web sites; and much more. Visit us online at http://aquatl.ifas.ufl.
edu/ or contact us at the address on the back page of this newsletter.

On the horizon are a few new products including a field identification deck on
aquatic grasses and a CD-ROM of aquatic and wetland plant photographs. Don't
call us yet... we promise to keep you posted!



Aquaphyte Contents Aquaphyte page Home


Copyright 1998 University of Florida





The Freshwater Aquatic Fruit: Water chestnut

by Syed Hasib Ahmad, Advisor, Aquaculture & Fisheries, Institutional Finance &
Programme Implementation Dept., Government of Bihar, India, and Arun Kumar
Singh, Senior Lecturer, B.D.E. College, Magadh University, Patna, Bihar, India



Water chestnut (Trapa bispinosa) is an edible aquatic plant that grows
abundantly in the lakes of Kashmir. At Wular Lake it is said to yield 4-5 million kilograms
(approximately 4,000-5,000 tons) of nuts annually. These are scooped up from the bottom
of the lake in small nets and constitute almost the only food for at least 30,000 persons for
five months of the year. Water chestnut has been commercially cultivated in many parts of
India from the most ancient times, particularly in the eastern and southern regions. Water
chestnut is also known as water nut, horn chestnut, bull nut, and buffalo-head fruit. The
plant is commercially cultivated in tropical parts of the world such as Pakistan, Sri Lanka,
Indonesia, and Africa. The plant is abundant in Indonesia, southeast Asia, the southern
part of China, and in the eutrophic waters of Japan, Italy and tropical America. It has
become naturalized in a few places in the eastern United States, apparently through its use
as a decorative aquatic plant.


Waiter chestnut


SThis annual floating-leaved aquatic
,/ x herb belongs to the natural order
S" Trapanaceae, family Trapaceae. The genus
--....* 4r*il Trapa comprises some 30 species that
S.. -exclusively grow in eutrophic water.
Trapa natans Linn. var. bispinosa Makino
is a native of China. The Chinese name of
the nut is Ling Ko, meaning "spiritual
horn." Ling Ko is found all over China. It




is harvested and consumed during the mid-
autumn festival in September to celebrate
the overthrow of the Mongolians during
the Yuan Dynasty in ancient China. Trapa bispinosa Roxb. grows in India and also in
Ceylon. The nut has two (sometimes four) short slender spines in place of the pronounced
horns of the Chinese plant. The fruit with two spines is known as Trapa bispinosa Roxb.,
and the four-spined fruit is known as Trapa quadrispinosa Wall. There is also a four-
spined European species, Trapa natans, commonly known as Jesuit nut, water caltrops, or
water chestnut. These nuts are of a slate brown color whereas the Chinese nut is black.
Based on the color of the husks, water chestnut is categorized into three types: completely
green, completely red, and green blended with red.

About 2/3 of the water chestnut plant floats just beneath the water surface and thus forms a
thick mat in the water column. Only its upper leaves float over the water surface in an
artistic radial pattern with swollen, air-filled petioles that keep the upper part of the plant
afloat. The reddish green leaves are villous on the dorsal side, and 6-8 cm in size. The
submerged leaves (occurring on young plants and not shown in drawing) are laterally
dissected into capillary segments.

Trapa has no primary root. The plant stem remains in the water and has one node of about
3-5 cm in thickness. The submerged stem bears two types of adventitious root. Those near
the base of the stem fix the plant to the muddy substrate. The rest are free-floating fibrous
roots borne in pairs below the leaf bases and are unusual in being green and
photosynthetic.

The flowers are axillary, white in color, with a solitary peduncle. They open above the
surface of the water towards the afternoon. After pollination, the flowers submerge to
facilitate fruit formation. Fruits appear in September in the State of Bihar, and continue up
to December and January, fully ripening in the cold season.

The plant bears edible nuts in hard-shelled fruits which resemble the head of a water
buffalo with its two large curved horns. The fruit has four angles and two out of four
develop in the case of Trapa bispinosa. The fruit is a bony one-seeded nut having very
unequal cotyledons and a top-shaped drupe. The fleshy pericarp covers a large 2-4 horned,
stony endocarp. When ripe, the nuts fall to the bottom of the pond where they remain all
winter as they must be kept moist to retain their viability.




Cultivation
Ponds which are otherwise unsuitable for fish culture are being utilized for farming of this
fruit crop. It is best grown in shallow perennial ponds which hold abundant water
throughout the year.

Trapa can germinate under a wide range of water depths and grows best at .5-1 m. The
maximum water depth should never be more than 1 m, though the plant can grow to a
depth of around 3 m. The plant requires full sunlight and the water level should be full by
August. The pond water must have a high organic content and should be free of high
concentrations of salts. Neutral to somewhat alkaline pH are best for proper growth of the
plant.

In India, the traditional palm tree toddy collector known as "Pasi" by caste and also the
fisher community are engaged in cultivating and marketing of water chestnut. Two
methods are used in cultivation: natural seeding from previous crops, and preparation and
transplanting of seedlings. After the harvest of the seed crop, disease-free, healthy and
large sized fruits are selected for raising in the nursery. While selecting fruits for seeds,
spines of the spinous variety are cut with sharp knives to prevent damaging the outer shell
of seeds during curing and storage.

Selected seeds are stored only after curing with a special technique. The seeding material
should be kept in large barrels or in earthen pitchers which are filled with freshwater and
left undisturbed for two to three days. Afterwards water is changed daily for at least 5-6
days. This is one of the most essential operations. The practice is continued until the hard,
thick outer skin of the fruit rots and the loose coating of the seed detaches from the fruits
and the thin, stony, inner coat is visible. The curing of seed material is done at room
temperature and is completed in about 35-40 days. The objective of curing the seeds is to
prevent spoilage due to rotting of the loose outer shell of the fruits.

Seeds so cured can easily be stored in the same earthen pitcher or barrel, but without water
and covered with a moist cloth or gunny bag to provide high humidity and low
temperature. These containers are kept in a cool, shady place and can be stored for up to 3-
4 months, without affecting seed viability. The seed nuts procured from 1/100 of a hectare
of a normal crop are sufficient to raise seedlings for one hectare.

During the months of March-April, just after the seeds have started germinating, they are
broadcast into small nursery ponds or in small, shallow ditches having 45-60 cm of water.




Before broadcasting, the seeds are coated with a layer of soil on the opposite face of the
germinated portion in order to add extra weight on the non-germinated face and to assure
that after broadcasting, in the manner of a shuttle-cock, the seeds will settle at the bottom
with the germinated face up and the coated face down. They also can be manually sown.
The stem starts emerging and gradually spreads out. During the months of June-July,
seedlings are lifted from the nursery pond and transplanted into larger ponds, ditches, or
reservoirs. For transplantation, the uprooted stems are cut into several smaller pieces.
Some growers fasten 3-4 seedlings together in a bunch, which is thrashed into the pond
bottom by feet.

Lateral shoots commonly known as suckers can be detached from the main mother seed
nut for transplanting. Single seeded water nuts can develop 20-30 and sometimes even up
to 50 such lateral suckers. Each of these laterally developed suckers may very well be able
to send out 5-10 further shoots after transplanting. From sowing to later such formations
takes about 40-50 days. Shoots also arise from the nodes, forming roots and new plants.
Thus, within a month or so, the entire water area gets covered with the luxurious growth of
brownish-green leaves.

Fertilizing the pond with urea is a common practice. This is applied at the rate of 40-50 kg/
ha of pond surface area in two installments at fortnightly intervals, with the first dose
about 20 days after transplanting. The application of 40 kg of nitrogen, 40 kg of
phosphate, and 60 kg of potash per hectare produces better results.

Pests of water chestnut include the beetle, Galerucella birmanica, which is reported to
consume up to 40% of the leaf tissue. Insect pests are controlled by shaking the plants
vigorously under water, by hand-picking, and by dusting or spraying exposed parts of the
plants. Snails are another destructive pest, particularly during the later stage of growth.
Growers remove the snails by hand. Rats also eat nuts and vegetative parts of the plant.

Harvesting of fruit is from September/October through December/January. The entire crop
is harvested in four installments at intervals of 8-10 days because the fruits ripen in
batches. At the time of harvesting, the size, softness of the pulp, greenness of color, and
easy separation of the outer hard cover are the most important characteristics taken into
consideration. Each fruit is plucked by hand after lifting the plants from the surface of the
water. The plant is then put back in position for the next batch of fruits to ripen during the
8 day interval. Quantitatively, the maximum yield is obtained on the second and third
installments of harvesting operations.




In traditional culture, the yield from 1 bigha (4 bigha=l hectare) of pond area, on average,
ranges from 2.4-2.6 quintals (quintal=100 kg. or 220 lbs.). With the application of
inorganic fertilizer and pest control measures, an average yield of 10-12 quintals/bigha has
been obtained.

The commercial marketing of water chestnut has not been fully investigated. Water
chestnuts are sold fresh on the pond bank, or in local markets, where prices and profits
tend to be low.

Editor's Note: All Trapa species are prohibited in the state of Florida. Trapa natans,
introduced to New York State in the late 1800s, now infests sites throughout the
northeastern United States. The plant has aggressive growth habits and forms extensive
surface mats, restricting both recreational and commercial uses of infested water bodies. It
is reported that seeds may remain viable for up to twelve years, making eradication of the
plant especially difficult. Research continues on control methods for this species.

The Chinese water chestnut, Eleocharis dulcis, is grown legally and successfully in
Florida as a food crop. Confusion is frequent since both plants share the same common
name of water chestnut.



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Copyright 1998 University of Florida





Odds n' Ends



National Directory of Wetland Plant Vendors. A directory of several hundred
wetland plant vendors in the United States will soon be published by the USDA-
Natural Resources Conservation Service at the Jamie L. Whitten Plant Materials
Center (PMC) in Coffeeville, Mississippi. The user of this updated obligate and
facultative wetland plant directory will be able to look up a plant and find the listed
nurseries. It also will be available online sometime in 1999. For information, call the
PMC at (601) 675-2588.

Earn pesticide applicator CEUs at home or in the office. In Florida, pesticide
applicators may earn CEUs for license renewal via "distance learning". The CEU
"modules" consist of educational materials, worksheets and instructions. Applicators
complete the worksheets on their own time and submit them directly to the Pesticide
Certification Office to obtain their CEUs. For more information, contact Pamela D.
Houmere, Environmetal Specialist/Coordinator, Bureau of Compliance Monitoring,
Division of Agricultural Envrionmental Services, Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services, 3125 Conner Blvd., Md-1 (L33), Tallahassee, FL 32399-
1650. (850) 488-6838. E-mail: houmerp@doacs.state.fl.us

Bugs for sale. A biological control insect for Eurasian water milfoil, the milfoil
weevil, Euhrychiopsis lecontei, is commercially available from EnviroScience, Inc.
1212 Portage Trail, Cuyahoga Falls, OH 44223, (800) 840-4025. The insects are
sold as the "Middfoil process".

Aquatic weed harvesters online. Aquarius Systems, a leading manufacturer of
aquatic plant harvesting equipment, now has a web site: http://www.aquarius-
systems.com

"Springs of Florida" book online. Florida has 27 "first magnitude" freshwater
springs. (First magnitude springs discharge more than 100 cubic feet per second.)
Some 300 Florida springs discharge more than 8 billion gallons per day. This




famous and informative book (Florida Geological Survey, Bulletin No. 31, 1977)
lists, pictures and describes the springs of Florida. Thanks to the Preservation
Department of the University of Florida Libraries, this excellent resource can be
downloaded in its entirety from http://karamelik.eastlib.ufl.edu/projects/forum/
aaj7320/index.html

Report deformed frogs. Finally. A place to report those one-eyed, six-legged
amphibians: the North American Reporting Center for Amphibian Malformations, is
a project of the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center of the U.S. Geological
Survey. Although deformed frog reports date back to the 1700s, it is possible that
malformation frequency is increasing. This web site tells you what all the hubbub's
about, shows pics of deformed frogs, has a clickable map showing where
malformations have been reported, etc. Online report forms for biologists and non-
biologists alike make it easy to help track this possibly serious problem. http://www.
npwrc.usgs.gov/narcam/

Water bug video and fact sheet. Want to introduce students to aquatic
entomology? This video and fact sheet are intended to serve as tools to be used in
aquatic ecosystem teaching units. The 18-minute video includes close-up and
underwater photography, and covers habitats, sampling methods, taxonomy and life
histories. It was produced by the Wisconsin Lake Superious Water Watch program
at the University of Wisconsin-Superior. $7 for the set; contact Media Resources
Center, University of Wisconsin-Superior, (715) 394-8340.

Aquatic nonindigenous list server. Find that you're talking to yourself a lot about
aquatic nonindigenous species in the Pacific Northwest? How about talking to a
virtual self about these important issues? Perhaps you should join the new list server
meant to "facilitate discussion of invasion, impacts, and management" of aquatic
invaders in the northwestern corner of the U.S. The list owner is Mark Sytsma. Send
the message: subscribe PNWANS-L to listserv@freya.cc.pdx.edu Contact Sytsma
at sytsmam@pdx.edu

Download Florida's most invasive species. According to the Florida Exotic Pest
Plant Council (FEPPC), there are plants that are invading and disrupting native plant
communities in Florida (Category I) and there are plants that have shown a potential
to disrupt native plant communities (Category II). Download both lists, from Abrus
precatorius to Tradescantia fluminensis, and from Adenanthera pavonina to




Xanthosoma sagittifolium, from their web site: http://www.fleppc.org/971ist.htm

Swamp buggies for sale. Sometimes airboats are just too loud, cumbersome,
expensive or unmaneuverable for work in aquatic and wetland situations. Consider
the Argo 6- and 8-wheeled, or tracked, amphibious vehicle, big enough to hold 4
people and a payload. Manufactured by Ontario Drive and Gear Limited, POB 280,
Bleams Road, New Hamburg, ON, CANADA NOB 2GO. E-mail: sales@odg.com
WWW: http://www.argoatv.com

Join the rare plant search team. The Lake Wales Ridge of south central Florida is
a strange place of brilliant white sand dunes dotted with rosemary and oak scrub
bushes. It also has a few wet depressions that have wetland plants. The ridge is
home to quite a few endangered and threatened plant species. The area is being
studied by Dawn Berry of the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission and
by the Nature Conservancy, and they need volunteers for the rare plant search team.
For information, contact The Nature Conservancy, 225 E. Stuart Avenue, Lake
Wales, FL 33853, (941) 678-1551; or contact Ms. Berry at (941) 699-2469.

About Ramsar. The objectives of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, an
international treaty signed in 1971, are "to ensure the wise use and conservation of
wetlands because of their abundant richness in flora and fauna and their
economically important functions and values." 112 member countries have
designated 931 sites (69 million hectares) of wetlands that have "international
significance in terms of ecology, botany, zoology, limnology or hydrology". Their
comprehensive web site is at http://ramsar.org

Overwhelmed with duckweed questions? Visit The Duckweed Clearinghouse web
site at http://www.prism-usa.org The site is maintained by PRISM-USA, a "tax-
exempt charity for the promotion of Lemnaceae technology in the developing
world." As of a year ago (the time of the last update), this site had a bibliography list
of 800 annotated citations, a couple of full text publications about duckweed
aquaculture, and links to dozens of duckweed web sites (including ours).


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Some Current Research at the Center


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CAIP-WEBSITE(A&ufl.edu
Copyright 1998 University of Florida





Water chestnuts for sale -


A fisherwoman peels husks from water chestnuts (Trapa bispinosa) for sale
in a street market in India. Water chestnuts are sold both fresh and boiled. The immature
pulp of the fruit, called milky water chestnut, is eaten raw or cooked. Mature pulp is used
in preparing delicious dishes after drying through boiling. Fresh and boiled water
chestnuts are used as vegetables and in making various curry preparations. Water chestnut
kernels are dried and sold as nuts, and also are ground into flour for bread and sweet
dishes. Water chestnuts also are used for making colored powder and dye, and serve as
indispensable items for offering deities in certain important festivals. The outer hard
covers of water chestnuts can be used as fuel for cooking. In Burma, the fruits of Trapa
natans are made into rosaries and offered for sale in Italy. For information on the
cultivation of water chestnuts in India, see in this issue of AQUAPHYTE, The
Freshwater Aquatic Fruit: Water chestnut.

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CAIP-WEBSITEAufl.edu
Copyright 1998 University of Florida





More Aquatic and Wetland Plants in Pen-and-Ink




Additional line drawings of aquatic and wetland plants have been added to the
APIRS collection and, when purchased, may be used in any and all publications
without need for further copyright permissions. All were drawn by artist, Ann
Murray.

The original package of 115 aquatic plant species is being sold as Aquatic Plants in
Pen-and-Ink (IFAS Pub. No. SP233). Refer to the Winter 1996 issue of
AQUAPHYTE (or visit our Web site) for a complete listing of the 115 plants. It
costs $35 plus S/H.

The additional 21 drawings are known as, Aquatic Plants in Pen-and-Ink, 1997
Supplement (IFAS Pub. No. SP243). The Supplement costs $10 plus S/H.

Orders for either must be placed with IFAS Publications, University of Florida,
POB 110011, Gainesville, FL 32611-0011, 1-800-226-1764.

The new 8 1/2" X 11" drawings included in 1997 Supplement (IFAS Pub No.
SP243) are of:

1 Aletrisfarinosa colic-root
2 Allium canadense Canada garlic
3 Asclepias lanceolata milkweed
4 Asimina reticulata pawpaw
5 Cyperus alopecuroides
6 Cyperus difformis smallflower umbrella sedge
7 Cyperus iria rice flatsedge
8 Cyperus prolifer dwarf papyrus
9 Echinodorus cordifolius creeping burhead
10 Eleocharis equisetoides spikerush
11 Equisetum hyemale scouring rush horsetail




12 Eriocaulon decangulare pipewort
13 Fuirena scirpoidea rush fuirena
14 Iris virginica southern blue flag
15 Juncus megacephalus bog rush
16 Lygodium microphyllum Old World climbing fern
17 Mayacafluviatilis bog moss
18 Micranthemum glomeratum baby's-tears
19 Nymphoides aquatica banana lily
20 Potamogeton diversifolius variable-leaved pondweed
21 Potamogeton pusillus pondweed
22 Proserpinaca palustris mermaid weed
23 Proserpinaca pectinata mermaid weed
24 Sambucus canadensis elderberry
25 Sapium sebiferum Chinese tallow


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Copyright 1998 University of Florida





The Electronic Media Page



CD -- Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants
A single CD for Microsoft Windows and Macintosh, produced by the University of South Florida

Produced by the University of South Florida Institute of Systematic Botany, this CD
contains distribution maps for 4,000 taxa of plants in Florida, and shows which
counties they occur in. The CD can be searched by species, sysnonym, plant name
author, plant family, endangered listing, and pest plant council listing. It can be used
to generate maps which illustrate the distribution of each species of group of
species, generate plant checklists for each county, and generate lists of endangered
or wetland species for each county. The CD contains no plant description
information, nor does it have photos or drawings. The information contained on the
CD is the same as is on the online version at: http://www.usf.edu/~isb/index.html

Order from Richard Wunderlin, Institute for Systematic Botany, Department of
Biology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620-5150. (813) 974-2359. E-
mail: rwunder(chuma. cas.usf.edu



CD -- Noxious and Nuisance Plant Management Information
System--PMIS
A single CD for Microsoft Windows, produced byt he U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

This well-produced CD is full of information on 34 species of noxious and nuisance
vegetation, including about a dozen wetland and aquatic species. "List clickable" by
scientific and common name, the plants are described in words, range maps and
basic photos. Management methods for each plant are presented, including very
complete information on herbicides and their use. Biological and mechanical
options also are presented for plants for which these are options. Though the
expected CD interactivity does not work so well in this application, the user can




eventually locate needed information by clicking on alternative icons and following
other information routes on the CD.

Order from Dr. Michael Grodowitz, CEWES-ER-A, 3909 Halls Ferry Road,
Vicksburg, MS 39180; (601)634-2972. E-mail: grodowm@exl.wes.army.mil



CD -- Banks and Buffers A guide to selecting native plants for
streambanks and shorelines
A CD for Microsoft Windows, produced by the Tennessee Valley Authority

This CD consists of a 14-page color booklet and a disk which is the "Riparian Plant
Selector", a database of 117 species of native trees, shrubs, vines and herbaceous
plants. It contains more than 400 color photographs and a listing of more than 400
nurseries. The guide is specifically designed for the Tennessee Valley, which
includes parts of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia,
Alabama, Mississippi and Kentucky. To use the plant selector, the user answers
questions as to the site in which the plants would grow, tolerances for water, light
and pH, as well as whether the user wants to plant plants that have wildlife value or
commericail value. Then the plant selector presents a list of plants that match site
conditions and personal preferences.

Order from TVA Water Management Library, 1101 Market Street, SCT 7B
Chattanooga, TN 37402-2801. (423) 751-7338. E-mail: cadavisAtva.gov



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Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants
Meetings


May 15-18, 2008; Palmetto, Florida www.fnps.org
28th Annual Florida Native Plant Society Conference
Uplands to Estuaries: Celebrating Florida's Native Plant Heritage



May 20-22, 2008; Imperial Palace Casinos, Biloxi, Mississippi http://www.se-eppc.org
10th Annual Southeast EPPC Conference



June 23-27, 2008; International Weed Science Society, Vancouver, Canada http://iws.ucdavis.
edu/5intlweedcong.htm
International Weed Science Society

Aquatic Weed Management

Contacts:

Mike Netherland, USA I mdnether(@ufl .edu

Kevin Murphy, UK |I k.murphy@vbio.qla.ac.uk



June 23-26, 2008; University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida http://www.conference.ifas.ufl.edu/soils/
wetland082/site.htm
Biogeochemistry of Wetlands: Science and Applications Short Course



August 25-26th, 2008; LSU Energy, Coast, and Environmental Building, Baton Rouge, Louisiana http://www.
sce.Isu.edu/conference
Sustainable Management of Deltaic Ecosystems: Integration of Theory and Practice






September 7-12, 2008; Daniel Boone National Forest, Olympia Springs, Kentucky http://tfce.uky.edu/wri 2008.
htm
2008 Eastern Regional Wetland Restoration Institute



September 23-25, 2008; Austin Carey Memorial Forest Education Building, Gainesville, Fl. http://soils.ifas.ufl.
edu
Hydric Soils Short Course Specialized Training for Wetland Specialists
UF/IFAS



October 21-23, 2008; Austin Carey Memorial Forest Education Building, Gainesville, Fl. http://soils.ifas.ufl.edu
Hydric Soils Short Course Specialized Training for Wetland Specialists
UF/IFAS



November 12-14, 2008; Stellenbosch, South Africa http://academic.sun.ac.za/cib/events/Elton CIB symposium.
htm
Fifty Years of Invasion Ecology the Legacy of Charles Elton
Centre of Excellence for Invasion Biology, Stellenbosch University



November 18-20 2008; Austin Carey Memorial Forest Education Building, Gainesville, Fl. http://soils.ifas.ufl.
edu
Hydric Soils Short Course Specialized Training for Wetland Specialists
UF/IFAS



June 23-26, 2009; Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico http://www.paleolim.org/index.php/symposia/
11th International Paleolimnology Symposium



August 23-27, 2009; Stellenbosch, South Africa www.emapi2009.co.za or rich@(sun.ac.za
The 10th International Conference on the Ecology and Management of Alien Plant
Invasions (EMAPI)
Centre for Invasion Biology (CIB), Department of Botany & Zoology, Stellenbosch University






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FROM THE DATABASE


Here is a sampling of the research articles, books and reports which have been entered into
the aquatic plant database since January 1998. The database has more than 46,000
citations. To receive free bibliographies on specific plants and/or subjects, contact APIRS
at 352-392-1799 or use the database online at http://aquatl.ifas.ufl.edu/database.html

To obtain articles, contact your nearest state or university library.



Ackerman, J.D.
Submarine pollination in the marine angiosperm Zostera marina (Zosteraceae) II. Pollen
transport in flow fields and capture by stigmas.
AM. J. BOT. 84(8):1110-1119. 1997.

Agarie, S.; Kai, M.; Takatsuji, H.; Ueno, 0.
Expression of C3 and C4 photosynthetic characteristics in the amphibious plant
Eleocharis vivipara: structure and analysis of the expression of isogenes for pyruvate,
orthophosphate dikinase.
PLANT MOLECULAR BIOL. 34(2):363-369. 1997.

Arnone, J.A.; Korner, C.
Temperature adaptation and acclimation potential of leaf dark respiration in two species of
Ranunculus from warm and cold habitats.
ARCTIC ALPINE RES. 29(1):122-125. 1997.

Ashworth,S.M.
Comparison between restored and reference sedge meadow wetlands in south-central
Wisconsin.
WETLANDS 17(4):518-527. 1997.

Banks, J.A.
Sex determination in the fern Ceratopteris.
TRENDS PLANT SCI. 2(5):175-180. 1997.





Barko, J.W.; James, W.F.
Effects of submerged aquatic macrophytes on nutrient dynamics, sedimentation, and
resuspension.
IN: THE STRUCTURING ROLE OF SUBMERGED MACROPHYTES IN LAKES, JEPPESEN,E.,
SONDERGAARD, M., ET AL, EDS., ECOLOGICAL STUDIES VOL. 131, SPRINGER-VERLAG, NEW
YORK, PP. 197-214. 1998.

Barrett,S.C.H.; Husband,B.C.
Ecology and genetics of ephemeral plant populations: Eichhorniapaniculata
(Pontederiaceae) in northeast Brazil.
J. HEREDITY 88(4):277-284. 1997.

Bass, J.A.B.; Leach, D.V.; Pinder, L.C.V.
The invertebrate community of submerged Nuphar lutea (L.) leaves in the river Great
Ouse.
REGULATED RIVERS: RES. & MANAGE. 13(3):259-266. 1997.

Bell, F.W.
The economic valuation of saltwater marsh supporting marine recreational fishing in the
southeastern United States.
ECOL. ECONOMICS 21(3):243-254. 1997.

Best, T.L.; Cvilikas, W.S.; Goebel, A.B., Hass, T.D.; et al
Foraging ecology of the endangered gray bat at Guntersville Reservoir, Alabama.
JOINT AGENCY REPORT, GUNTERSVILLE PROJECT, AQUATIC PLANT MANAGE., TVA, U.S. ARMY
CORPS ENGR., 295 PP. 1995.

Betts, K.S.
Native aquatic plants remove explosives.
ENVIRON. SCI. TECHNOL. NEWS 31(7):304. 1997.

Blossey, B.; Schat, M.
Performance of Galerucella calmariensis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on different North
American populations of purple loosestrife.
ENVIRON. ENTOMOL. 26(2):439-445. 1997.

Bronmark, C.; Vermaat, J.E.
Complex fish-snail-epiphyton interactions and their effects on submerged freshwater




macrophytes.
IN: THE STRUCTURING ROLE OF SUBMERGED MACROPHYTES IN LAKES, JEPPESEN,E.,
SONDERGAARD, M., ET AL, EDS., ECOLOGICAL STUDIES VOL. 131, SPRINGER-VERLAG, NEW
YORK, PP. 47-68. 1998.

Buckingham,G.R.
Biological control of alligatorweed, Alternantheraphiloxeroides, the world's first aquatic
weed success story.
CASTANEA 61(3):232-243. 1996.

Calhoun, A.; King, G.M.
Regulation of root-associated methanotrophy by oxygen availability in the rhizosphere of
two aquatic macrophytes.
APPL. ENVIRON. MICROBIOL. 63(8):3051-3058. 1997.

Callaway, J.C.; DeLaune, R.D.; Patrick, W.H.
Sediment accretion rates from four coastal wetlands along the Gulf of Mexico.
J. COASTAL RES. 13(1):181-191. 1997.

Cantalejo, M.J.
Analysis of volatile components derived from raw and roasted earth-almond (Cyperus
esculentus L.).
J. AGRIC. FOOD CHEM. 45(5):1853-1860. 1997.

Chambers,R.M.
Porewater chemistry associated with Phragmites and Spartina in a Connecticut tidal
marsh.
WETLANDS 17(3):360-367. 1997.

Chanton,J.P.; Whiting,G.J.; Blair,N.E., et al
Methane emission from rice: stable isotopes, diurnal variations, and C02 exchange.
GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES 11(1): 15-27. 1997.

Chikwenhere, G.P.; Keswani, C.L.
Economics of biological control of Kariba weed (Salvinia molesta Mitchell) at Tengwe in
north-western Zimbabwe -- a case study.
INTERNAT. J. PEST MANAGE. 43(2):109-112. 1997.


Cirujano,S.; Medina,L.




Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx. (Haloragaceae), naturalized in Spain.
ANALES JARDIN BOTANICO DE MADRID 55(1):164-165. 1997. (IN SPANISH)

Cook, C.D.K.
Wasserpflanzen im Botanischen Garten Zurich.
UNIVERSITAS TURICENSIS, VEREINIGUNG DER FREUNDE DES BOTANISCHEN GARTENS
ZURICH, 31 PP. (IN GERMAN) 1997.

Cuda, J.P.; Hornby, J.A.; Cotterill, B.; Cattell, M.
Evaluation of Lagenidium giganteum for biocontrol of Mansonia mosquitoes in Florida
(Diptera: Culicidae).
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL 8:124-130. 1997.

Daehler, C.C.; Strong, D.R.
Hybridization between introduced smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora; Poaceae) and
native California cordgrass (S. foliosa) in San Francisco Bay, California, USA.
AM. J. BOT. 84(5):607-611. 1997.

De Klerk, P.; Janssen, C.R.; Joosten, J.H.J.
Patterns and processes in natural wetland vegetation in the Dutch fluvial area: a
palaeoecological study.
ACTA BOT. NEERL. 46(2):147-159. 1997.

Dimalexis, A.; Pyrovetsi, M.
Effect of water level fluctuations on wading bird foraging habitat use at an irrigation
reservoir, Lake Kerkini, Greece.
COLONIAL WATERBIRDS 20(2):244-252. 1997.

Dobrynskiy, V.A.; Pasichnyy, A.P.
A heuristic mathematical model of the bioelectric response of aquatic macrophytes to
changes in illumination.
HYDROBIOL. J. 29(5):41-43. 1993.

Dudley, T.L.; Grimm, N.B.
Modification of macrophyte resistance to disturbance by an exotic grass, and implications
for desert stream succession.
VERH. INTERNAT. VEREIN. LIMNOL. 25(3):1456-1460. 1994.


Dunne, K.P.; Rodrigo, A.H.; Samanns, E.




Engineering specification guidelines for wetland plant establishment and subgrade
preparation.
TECH. REPT. WRP-RE-19, FINAL REPORT, WETLANDS RESEARCH PROGRAM, U.S. ARMY CORPS
OF ENGINEERS, WATERWAYS EXPT. STN., VICKSBURG, MS, 300 PP. 1998.

Falconer, I.R.; Burch, M.D.; Steffensen, D.A.; et al
Toxicity of the blue-green alga (Cyanobacterium) Microcystis aeruginosa in drinking
water to growing pigs, as an animal model for human injury and risk assessment.
ENVIRON. TOXICOL. WATER QUAL. 9(2): 131-139. 1994.

Fox, A.M.; Bryson, C.T.
Wetland nightshade (Solanum tampicense): a threat to wetlands in the United States.
WEED TECHNOLOGY 12:410-413. 1998.

Gallardo, M.T.; Martin, B.B.; Martin, D.F.
Why cattails spread in Florida waters.
AQUATICS 19(4):4,6,8. 1997.

Getsinger, K.D.; Turner, E.G.; Madsen, J.D.; Netherland, M.D.
Restoring native vegetation in a Eurasian water milfoil-dominated plant community using
the herbicide triclopyr.
REGULATED RIVERS: RES. & MANAGE. 13(4):357-375. 1997.

Goncalves Teixeira Giovannini, S.
Establishment and development of aquatic macrophytes Scirpus californicus, Typha
subulata and Zizaniopsis bonariensis under different experimental water regimes.
DISSERTATION, UNIV. FEDERAL RIO GRANDE DO SUL, INST. PESQUISAS HIDRAULICAS, PORTO
ALEGRE, BRAZIL, 153 PP. (IN PORTUGUESE; ENGLISH SUMMARY). 1997.

Grodowitz, M.J.; Cofrancesco, A.F.; Freedman, J.E.; Center, T.D.
Release and establishment of Hydrellia balciunasi (Diptera: Ephydridae) for the biological
control of the submersed aquatic plant Hydrilla verticillata (Hydrocharitaceae) in the
United States.
MISC. PAPER A-97-5, AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL RES. PROG., U.S. ARMY CORPS ENGR.,
WATERWAYS EXPT. STN., VICKSBURG, MS, 14 PP. 1997.

Grosse, W.; Buchel, H.B.; Lattermann, S.
Root aeration in wetland trees and its ecophysiological significance.
IN: COASTALLY RESTRICTED FORESTS, OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, NEW YORK, PP. 293-305.
1998.





Grout, J.A.; Levings, C.D.; Richardson, J.S.
Decomposition rates of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) and Lyngbyei's sedge
(Carex lyngbyei) in the Fraser River estuary.
ESTUARIES 20(1):96-102. 1997.

Gurnell, A.M.; Midgley, P.
Aquatic weed growth and flow resistance: influence of the relationship between discharge
and stage over a 25 year river gauging station record.
HYDROL. PROCESSES 8(1):63-73. 1994.

Habeck, D.H.; Thompson, C.R.
Waterlettuce caterpillar, Namangana pectinicornis Hampson, for biological control of
waterlettuce, Pistia stratiotes L.
TECH. REPT. A-97-2, AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL RES. PROG., U.S. ARMY CORPS ENGR.,
WATERWAYS EXPT. STN., VICKSBURG, MS., 34 PP. 1997.

Hannon, G.E.; Gaillard, M.-J.
The plant-macrofossil record of past lake-level changes.
J. PALEOLIMNOLOGY 18:15-28. 1997.

Haslam,S.M.
The precarious state of the rivers of Malta.
FRESENIUS ENVIR. BULL. 6:343-348. 1997.

Hernden, M.N.; Kay, B.H.
Importance of Hydrilla verticillata (Hydrocharitaceae) as habitat for immature mosquitoes
at the Ross River Reservoir, Australia.
J. AMER. MOSQUITO CONTROL ASSOC. 13(2):164-170. 1997.

Herzka, S.Z.; Dunton, K.H.
Seasonal photosynthetic patterns of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum in the western Gulf
of Mexico.
MAR. ECOL. PROG. SER. 152(1-3):103-117. 1997.

Hodges, K.B.; Miranda, L.E.
Effects of herbicide application on fish abundance within aquatic macrophytes.
IN: COMPLETION REPT., MISSISSIPPI COOP. FISH & WILDLIFE RES. UNIT, ALABAMA DEPT.
CONSERV. NATURAL RESOURCES, JAN. 1996, PP. 86-117. 1996.




Horvath, T.G.; Lamberti, G.A.
Drifting macrophytes as a mechanism for zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) invasion
of lake-outlet streams.
AM. MIDL. NAT. 138(1):29-36. 1997.

Ibarra-Obando, S.E.; Boudouresque, C.-F.; Roux, M.
Leaf dynamics and production of a Zostera marina bed near its southern distributional
limit.
AQUATIC BOTANY 58(2):99-112. 1997.

Jiro, K.; Yamamoto, R.; Fujii, S., et al
Graviresponse in Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) II. Hormone involvement in
graviresponse in the peduncle.
J. PLANT PHYSIOL. 150(6):679-684. 1997.

Kelly, J.
Effect of soil and micronutrient additions on the growth of Ludwigia repens.
AQUATIC GARDENER 10(6): 159-168. 1997.

Kneib, R.T.; Newell, S.Y.; Hermeno, E.T.
Survival, growth and reproduction of salt-marsh amphipod Uhlorchestia spartinophila
reared on natural diets of senescent and dead Spartina alterniflora leaves.
MAR. BIOL. 128(3):423-431. 1997.

Koppitz, H.; Kuhl, H.; Hesse, K.; Kohl, J.-G.
Some aspects of the importance of genetic diversity in Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin.
ex Steudel for the development of reed stands.
BOT. ACTA 110(3):217-223. 1997.

Korhola, A.A.
Radiocarbon evidence for rates of lateral expansion in raised mires in southern Finland.
QUATERNARY RES. 42(3):299-307. 1994.

Langeland, K.A.; Stocker, R.K.
Control of non-native plants in natural areas of Florida.
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, COOP. EXT. SERV., GAINESVILLE, PUBL. NO. 242, 38 PP. 1997.

Langeland, K.A.
Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle (Hydrocharitaceae), "The Perfect Aquatic Weed".




CASTANEA 61(3):293-304. 1996.


Les, D.H.; Mehrhoff, L.J.; Cleland, M.A.; Gabel, J.D.
Hydrilla verticillata (Hydrocharitaceae) in Connecticut.
J. AQUAT. PLANT MANAGE. 35:10-14. 1997.

Ley, S.; Dolger, K.; Appenroth, K.-J.
Carbohydrate metabolism as a possible physiological modulator of dormancy in turions of
Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleiden.
PLANT SCI. 129:1-7. 1997.

Lillie, R.A.; Budd, J.; Rasmussen, P.W.
Spatial and temporal variability in biomass density of Myriophyllum spicatum L. in a
northern temperate lake.
HYDROBIOLOGIA 347:69-74. 1997.

Lodge, D.M.; Cronin, G.; Van Donk, E.; Froelich, A.J.
Impact of herbivory on plant standing crop: comparisons among biomes, between vascular
and nonvascular plants, and among freshwater herbivore taxa.
IN: THE STRUCTURING ROLE OF SUBMERGED MACROPHYTES IN LAKES, JEPPESEN,E.,
SONDERGAARD, M., ET AL, EDS., ECOLOGICAL STUDIES VOL. 131, SPRINGER-VERLAG, NEW
YORK, PP. 149-174. 1998.

Madsen, J.D.
Methods for management of nonindigenous aquatic plants.
IN: ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF PLANT INVASIONS, J.O. LUKEN, J.W. THIERET, EDS.,
SPRINGER-VERLAG, NEW YORK, PP. 145-171. 1997.

Mal, T.K.; Lovett-Doust, J.; Lovett-Doust, L.
Time-dependent competitive displacement of Typha angustifolia by Lythrum salicaria.
OIKOS 79(1):26-33. 1997.

Metcalf, F.P.
Wild-duck foods of North Dakota lakes.
TECH. BULL. NO. 221, U.S. DEPT. AGRIC., WASHINGTON, D.C., 72 PP. 1931.

Miao, S.L.; Borer, R.E.; Sklar, F.H.
Sawgrass seedling responses to transplanting and nutrient additions.
RESTORATION ECOL. 5(2):162-168. 1997.




Miyazaki, A.; Tokuda, S.; et al
On the photosynthetic production and water cleaning ability of Cyperus alternifolius L.
grown by the floating culture system.
JAPANESE J. CROP SCI. 66(2):325-326 (IN JAPANESE) 1997.

Mjelde, M.; Faafeng, B.A.
Ceratophyllum demersum hampers phytoplankton development in some small Norwegian
lakes over a wide range of phosphorus concentrations and geographical latitude.
FRESHWATER BIOL. 37(2):355-365. 1997.

Moeller, R.E.; Wetzel, R.G.; Osenberg, C.W.
Concordance of phosphorus limitation in lakes: bacterioplankton, phytoplankton, epiphyte-
snail consumers, and rooted macrophytes.
IN: THE STRUCTURING ROLE OF SUBMERGED MACROPHYTES IN LAKES, E. JEPPESEN, M.
SONDERGAARD, ET AL, EDS. ECOLOGICAL STUDIES, VOL. 131, SPRINGER-VERLAG, NEW YORK,
pp.318-325. 1998.

Neinhuis, C.; Barthlott, W.
Characterization and distribution of water-repellent, self-cleaning plant surfaces.
ANNALS OF BOTANY 79:667-677. 1997.

Newall, A.M.
The microflow environments of aquatic plants an ecological perspective.
IN: THE ECOLOGICAL BASIS FOR RIVER MANAGEMENT, D.M. HARPER, A.J.D. FERGUSON, EDS.,
JOHN WILEY & SONS, PP. 79-92. 1995.

Newman, J.M.; Clausen, J.C.
Seasonal effectiveness of a constructed wetland for processing milkhouse wastewater.
WETLANDS 17(3):375-382. 1997.

Newman, S.; Grace, J.B.; Koebel, J.W.
Effects of nutrients and hydroperiod on Typha, Cladium, and Eleocharis: implications for
Everglades restoration.
ECOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS 6(3):774-783. 1996.

Pasqualini, V.; Pergent-Martini, C.; Fernandez, C.; Pergent, G.
The use of airborne remote sensing for benthic cartography: advantages and reliability.
INT. J. REMOTE SENSING 18(5):1167-1177. 1997.


Portnoy, J.W.; Giblin, A.E.




Biogeochemical effects of seawater restoration to diked salt marshes.
ECOL. APPL. 7(3):1054-1063. 1997.

Poschlod, P.; Matthies, D.; Jordan, S.; Mengel, C.
The biological flora of central Europe an ecological bibliography.
IN: BULL. GEOBOTANICAL INST. ETH, P.J. EDWARDS, ET AL, EDS., ZURICH, PP. 89-108. 1996.

Prach, K.
Vegetation succession on river gravel bars across the northwestern Himalayas, India.
ARCTIC & ALPINE RES. 26(4):349-353. 1994.

Prieditis, N.
Vegetation of wetland forests in Latvia: a synopsis.
ANN. BOT. FENNICI 34:91-108. 1997.

Purcell, M.F.; Balciunas, J.K.; Jones, P.
Biology and host-range of Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), potential
biological control agent for Melaleuca quinquenervia (Myrtaceae).
ENVIRON. ENTOMOL. 26(2):366-372. 1997.

Qin, P.; Xie, M.; Jiang, Y.; Chung, C.-H.
Estimation of the ecological-economic benefits of two Spartina alterniflora plantations in
North Jiangsu, China.
ECOL. ENGR. 8(1):5-17. 1997.

Richardson, J.R.; Hamouda, E.
GIS modeling of hydroperiod, vegetation, and soil nutrient relationships in the Lake
Okeechobee marsh ecosystem.
ARCH. HYDROBIOL., SPEC. ISSUES IN ADVANCED LIMNOL. 45:95-115. 1995.

Rushton, B.; Miller, C.; Hull, C.; Cunningham, J.
Three design alternatives for stormwater detention ponds.
SOUTHWEST FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT, BROOKSVILLE, FL, 240 PP. 1997.

Rutishauser, R.
Structural and developmental diversity in Podostemaceae (river-weeds).
AQUATIC BOTANY 57(1-4):29-70. 1997.


Ryu, J.-H.; Mizuno, K.; Takagi, S.; Nagai, R.




Extracellular components implicated in the stationary organization of the actin
cytoskeleton in mesophyll cells of Vallisneria.
PLANT CELL PHYSIOL. 38(4):420-432. 1997.

Shabana, Y.M.; Baka, Z.A.M.; Abdel-Fattah, G.M.
Alternaria eichhorniae, a biological control agent for waterhyacinth: mycoherbicidal
formulation and physiological and ultrastructural host responses.
EUROPEAN J. PLANT PATHOL. 103(2):99-111. 1997.

Siesko, M.M.; Fleming, W.J.; Grossfeld, R.M.
Stress protein synthesis and peroxidase activity in a submersed aquatic macrophyte
exposed to cadmium.
ENVIRON. TOXICOL. CHEM. 16(8):1755-1760. 1997.

Sievers, D.M.
Potential reduction of struvite formation from anaerobic swine lagoon effluent by
treatment in constructed wetlands.
TRANS. AM. SOC. AGRIC. ENGR. (ASAE) 40(3):803-805. 1997.

Singh, O.K.
Agriculture in floating fields on Loktak Lake, Manipur.
CURRENT SCI. 72(12):902-903. 1997.

Smart, R.M.; Doyle, R.D.; Madsen, J.D.; Dick, G.O.
Establishing native submersed aquatic plant communities for fish habitat.
AM. FISHERIES SOC. SYMP. 16:347-356. 1996.

Smit, H.; van der Velde, G.; Smits, R.; Coops, H.
Ecosystem responses in the Rhine-Meuse Delta during two decades after enclosure and
steps toward estuary restoration.
ESTUARIES 20(3):504-520. 1997.

Sondergaard, M.; Lauridsen, T.L.; Jeppesen, E.; Bruun, L.
Macrophyte-waterfowl interactions: tracking a variable resource and the impact of
herbivory on plant growth.
IN: THE STRUCTURING ROLE OF SUBMERGED MACROPHYTES IN LAKES, E. JEPPESEN, M.
SONDERGAARD, ET AL, EDS. ECOLOGICAL STUDIES, VOL. 131, SPRINGER-VERLAG, NEW YORK,
PP. 298-306. 1998.




Spink, A.J.; Murphy, K.J.; Westlake, D.F.
Distribution and environmental regulation of species of Ranunculus subgenus Batrachium
in British rivers.
ARCH. HYDROBIOL. 139(4):509-525. 1997.

Stoltzfus, D.L.; Good, R.E.
Plant community structure in Chamaecyparis thyoides swamps in the New Jersey
pinelands biosphere reserve, USA.
IN: COASTALLY RESTRICTED FORESTS, OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, NEW YORK. PP. 142-155.
1998.

Sutter, T.J.; Newman, R.M.
Is predation by sunfish (Lepomis spp.) an important source of mortality for the Eurasian
watermilfoil biocontrol agent Euhrychiopsis lecontei?
J. FRESHWATER ECOL. 12(2):225-234. 1997.

Thakore, J.N.; Haller, W.T.; Shilling, D.G.
Short-day exposure period for subterranean turion formation in dioecious Hydrilla.
J. AQUAT. PLANT MANAGE. 35:60-63. 1997.

Thomas, J.D.; Kowalczyk, C.
Utilization of dissolved organic matter (DOM), from living macrophytes, by pulmonate
snails: implications to the "food web" and "module" concepts.
COMP. BIOCHEM. PHYSIOL. 117A(1): 105-119. 1997.

Thorpe, A.G.; Jones, R.C.; Kelso, D.P.
A comparison of water-column macroinvertebrate communities in beds of differing
submersed aquatic vegetation in the tidal freshwater Potomac River.
ESTUARIES 20(1):86-95. 1997.

Timoney, K.; Zoltai, S.C.; Goldsborough, L.G.
Boreal diatom ponds: a rare wetland associated with nesting whooping cranes.
WETLANDS 17(4):539-551. 1997.

Tuba, Z.
Overview of the flora and vegetation of the Hungarian Bodrogkoz.
TISCIA 29:11-17. 1995.


Ueda, K.; Hanyuda, T.; Nakano, A.; et al




Molecular phylogenetic position of Podostemaceae, a marvelous aquatic flowering plant
family.
J. PLANT RES. 110(1097):87-92. 1997.

Ussery, T.A.; Eakin, H.L.; et al
Effects of benthic barriers on aquatic habitat conditions and macroinvertebrate
communities.
J. AQUAT. PLANT MANAGE. 35:69-73. 1997.

Van Den Brink, P.J.; Hartgers, E.M.; et al
Sensitivity of macrophyte-dominated freshwater microcosms to chronic levels of the
herbicide Linuron. I. Primary producers.
ECOTOXICOL. ENVIRON. SAFETY 38:13-24. 1997.

Vandevender, K.W.; Costello, T.A.; Smith, R.J.
Model of rice (Oryza sativa) yield reduction as a function of weed interference.
WEED SCI. 45(2):218-224. 1997.

Viaroli, P.; Bartoli, M.; Bondavalli, C.; Christian, R.R.; et al
Macrophyte communities and their impact on benthic fluxes of oxygen, sulphide and
nutrients in shallow eutrophic environments.
HYDROBIOLOGIA 329:105-119. 1996.

Voge, M.
Plant size and fertility of Isoetes lacustris L. in twenty lakes of Scandinavia: a field study.
ARCH. HYDROBIOL. 139(2):171-185. 1997.

Vymazal, J.
Subsurface horizontal-flow constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: the Czech
experience.
WETLANDS ECOL. MANAGE. 4:199-206. 1997.

Wester, L.
Weed management and the habitat protection of rare species: a case study of the endemic
Hawaiian fern Marsilea villosa.
BIOL. CONSERV. 68(1):1-9. 1994.

Wittgren, H.B.; Maehlum, T.
Wastewater treatment wetlands in cold climates.




WATER SCI. TECH. 35(5):45-53. 1997.


Wrong, M.
Uganda tries to combat a new enemy.
LONDON FINANCIAL TIMES, MARCH 19, 1996.

Ye, Z.H.; Baker, A.J.M.; Wong, M.H.; Willis, A.J.
Zinc, lead and cadmium tolerance, uptake and accumulation by Typha latifolia.
NEW PHYTOL. 136(3):469-480. 1997.

Yin, Q.; Carmichael, W.W.; Evans, W.R.
Factors influencing growth and toxin production by cultures of the freshwater
cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei Farlow ex Gomont.
J. APPL. PHYCOLOGY 9(1):55-63. 1997.



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