• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Table of Contents
 About Aquaphyte
 Wildlife, wetlands and those "other...
 New identification tool
 Literature on seagrasses
 Johnson's seagrass listed...
 Odds n' ends
 Salvinia molesta found in U.S.
 Meetings
 Books, manuals, and online...
 From the database
 Some responses to our last...






Group Title: Aquaphyte : a newsletter about aquatic, wetland and invasive plants
Title: Aquaphyte
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00083179/00015
 Material Information
Title: Aquaphyte newsletter of the IPPC Aquatic Weed Program of the University of Florida, a part of the International Plant Protection Center of the Oregon State University, which is funded by the United States Agency for International Development
Abbreviated Title: Aquaphyte
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Center for Aquatic Plants
University of Florida -- IPPC Aquatic Weed Program
University of Florida -- Center for Aquatic Weeds
Publisher: The Program
Place of Publication: Gainesville FL
Publication Date: 1981-
Frequency: semiannual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Aquatic plants -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: Newsletters   ( lcsh )
Newsletters.
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (fall 1981)-
Issuing Body: Vols. for fall 1982- issued with: University of Florida, Center for Aquatic Weeds.
Issuing Body: Vols. for <1988-> issued by: University of Florida, Center for Aquatic Plants.
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 12, no. 2 (fall 1992).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00083179
Volume ID: VID00015
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06513906
lccn - sc 84007615
issn - 0893-7702

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Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    About Aquaphyte
        Page 3
    Wildlife, wetlands and those "other plants"
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    New identification tool
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Literature on seagrasses
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Johnson's seagrass listed as threatened
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Odds n' ends
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Salvinia molesta found in U.S.
        Page 25
    Meetings
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Books, manuals, and online resources
        Page 29
    From the database
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Some responses to our last issue
        Page 44
Full Text


AQUAPHYTE Online

Volume 19 Number 1 Spring 1999


Center for Aquatic and
Invasive Plants
Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences
University of Florida
7922 N.W. 71st Street
Gainesville, Florida 32653
352-392-1799


with support from
The Florida Department of Environmental
Protection,
Bureau of Invasive Plant Management

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,
Waterways Experiment Station,
Aquatic Plant Control Research Program

The St. Johns River Water Management District


Contents

About AQUAPHYTE

Wildlife, Wetlands and Those "Other Plants" Grasses, sedges and rushes.

New ID Tool! Grasses, sedges and rushes ID deck.

The Literature on Seagrasses

Johnson's Seagrass Listed as Threatened

Odds n' Ends

Some Current Research at The Center Downy rose myrtle invades Florida.


. The Back Page. Salvinia molesta found in U.S.




BE THERE, DO THAT

BOOKS/REPORTS

FROM THE DATABASE
a sampling of new additions to the APIRSdatabase

Some responses to our last issue...



Aquaphyte page Home

CAIP-WEBSITE(aufl.edu
Copyright 1999 University of Florida





About Aquaphyte



This is the newsletter of the Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants and the Aquatic,
Wetland and Invasive Plant Information Retrieval System (APIRS) of the
University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS). Support
for the information system is provided by the Florida Department of Environmental
Protection, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station
Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (APCRP), the St. Johns River Water
Management District and UF/IFAS.

EDITORS:
Victor Ramey
Karen Brown

AQUAPHYTE is sent to more than 2,500 managers, researchers, and agencies in
71 countries. Comments, announcements, news items and other information relevant
to aquatic plant research are solicited.

Inclusion in AQUAPHYTE does not constitute endorsement, nor does exclusion
represent criticism of any item, organization, individual, or institution by the
University of Florida.



Aquaphyte Contents I Aguaphyte page I Home


CAIP-WEBSITEAufl.edu
Copyright 1999 University of Florida





Wildlife, Wetlands and Those "Other Plants"

by Victor Ramey, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, University of
Florida

Here is a link to info and pics about the plants in this
article.


There are thousands of men and women whose job it is to venture into the
wetlands and do work on behalf of the environment. Their job is to "manage" or
"preserve" or "restore" swamps and woodlands, marshes and prairies, rivers and
lakes, to promote biodiversity, and to encourage the growth of native plants and
animals in an effort to preserve our ecosystems.

These "front-line" environmental field workers typically are the ones who take the
soil and water samples, who count the plants and animals, and who use the
herbicides and tractors. They are the ones who first notice when a single plant
species is taking over, or when a duck species does not return the next year; they are
the ones who report to the rest of us what's happening in the real world. Therefore,
they need to know as much as possible about the wetlands they work in. These
workers must know about the conspicuous invaders and the reclusive rarities, and
also those "other plants" that are so important to the health and functioning of
wetland ecosystems. They need to know about the grasses, sedges and rushes.

Grasses, sedges and rushes are often thought of, and frequently listed as "other
plants" by workers in the "natural resource management" world. This is because
grasses, sedges and rushes are difficult to identify, they don't get much press, and
there are very many species.

Even professional managers of wetlands, mostly non-botanists, often cannot tell a
rush from a sedge or a beneficial native grass from an unchecked invader. This is
actually very understandable. Nature managers must focus on "invasions" by
hundreds of new species and are less able to pay attention to the "other plants".




Consider also the "common name problem": short things are "sedges" (whether they
are or not); tall things are "big grasses."

We could have a problem here.

One reason why managers should pay close attention to the grasses, sedges and
rushes that grow in their marshes, lakes and rivers is that these plants are very
important to the diets of many waterfowl such as ducks and geese. If the necessary
grasses, sedges and rushes disappear from a wetland or lake or river, so could many
of the kinds of birds and other animals that depend on them for food and shelter.
Natural resource management personnel, especially field workers, must be able to
recognize native and non-native grasses, sedges and rushes in order to control only
the non-native invasive plants and to promote the growth of these native plants that
wild animals depend on.

This article lists some of the published research about several of the specific grasses,
sedges and rushes that are preferred foods of ducks, geese and other waterfowl. The
research cited here was identified in the APIRS database of the University of
Florida. Though this database is about aquatic, wetland and invasive plants, it
naturally includes much information about the animals that use them.

For the birds
Actually, it's not just for the birds. Research shows that the wild grasses, sedges and
rushes of our wetlands are eaten and otherwise used by all kinds of animals
including mammals as diverse as deer, rabbits, moose, cattle, alligators, beavers and
boar. And, of course, birds.

Like other classes of animals, the birds include some species that are mostly
vegetarian, some that are mostly carnivorous, and some that eat both plants and
animals. Among the waterfowl, for example, wetland plant matter is very important
to the diets of American widgeon, ring-necked ducks, redheads, gadwalls, mallards,
pintails, wood ducks and canvasbacks; plant parts also are important to the diets of
fulvous whistling ducks, green- and blue-winged teal, black ducks, spoonbill ducks,
coots, moorhen, soras, Canada geese, snow geese, greylag geese, sandhill cranes,
mourning doves, white-winged doves and other birds. Certain wetland grasses,
sedges and rushes are also important as habitat and nesting materials. For example,
American woodcocks have a special affinity for switch cane habitat (Arundinaria




gigantea), and clapper rails prefer to nest in black needle rush (Juncus roemerianus)
(46).

Management objectives
The literature shows that there are many issues that wetlands managers must deal
with, such as development, pollution, recreational uses ("consumptive" uses such as
hunting and "non-consumptive" uses such as tourism), and non-native species
invasions. All of these challenges also affect the wetland's populations of grasses,
sedges and rushes, and the animals that depend on them.

"The first step to accomplishing the goal of marsh management for wildlife is to
conduct a food habit study to determine if the best plants are growing in the
marshes," according to H.F. Percival. To help answer this question for a South
Carolina wetland, researchers investigated the conditions necessary for the growth
of important wildlife plants such as soil nutrition, soluble salts concentrations and
water level (40).

It is surprising how much wildlife food is produced in an acre of productive
wetland. In a 1951 study by J.R. Singleton of the east Texas gulf coast, researchers
found that in a single acre, Scirpus robustus produced an average of about 300 lbs.
(dry weight) of seeds per acre per year; Echinochloa walteri produced about 800
lbs. of seeds per acre, Cladiumjamaicense and Polygonum hydropiperoides each
produced about 600 lbs. of seeds per acre, Leersia oryzoides produced about 150
lbs. of seeds per acre, Rhynchospora corniculata produced about 900 lbs. of seeds
per acre, and each acre produced about 5 tons of plant corms (44).

Among their other responsibilities, wetland resource managers must control non-
native invasive plants, lest they take over a wetland and replace native wildlife food
plants. For example, F.A. Johnson noted that in central Florida, the very invasive
torpedograss (Panicum repens) can become "dense enough to discourage waterfowl
use". However, managers need to realize that when they are herbiciding, burning,
chopping and otherwise controlling undesirable plants, they may also be killing very
important grasses, sedges and rushes. According to Reid et al., "herbicide use has
reduced grasses in the field" (46). When managers are controlling those familiar
invaders such as cat-tail (Typha), silk reed (Neyraudia reynaudiana), elephant grass
(Pennisetum purpurea) and para grass (Brachiaria mutica), they should take care
that their herbicides and flames are not also killing those unfamiliar "other plants."




Food plants and birds
Birds are known to consume all parts of grasses, sedges and rushes, including
tubers, rhizomes, stems, foliage, inflorescences and seeds. Therefore, work on the
nutritional value and digestibility of wild plant parts has been conducted on Scirpus
americanus, Spartina spp., Juncus gerardi and other grasses, sedges and rushes.
(26).

In one unmatched study of mallard duck diets from 1918, W.L. McAtee reported
collecting animals in 22 states and finding that mallards are mostly vegetarian, with
more than 90% of their food being plant parts. Sedges (Scirpus cubensis and Scirpus
fluviatilis), and Fimbristylis, Cyperus and Cladium comprised about a quarter of the
mallard diet; with grasses (Zizania aquatica, Echinochloa, Panicum and Spartina)
making up another 13%. The remainder of the mallard diet consisted of
"smartweeds, 10%; pondweeds 8%; duckweeds 6%, coontail, 6%; wild celery 5%;
sagittaria 5%; with the rest being acorns and berries" (30).

While some species of ducks eat more animals than plants, and some eat more
plants than animals, for others the ratio depends on the habitat, food availability, and
seasonality.

Seasonality in bird diets has been documented for several waterfowl species. Some
kinds of ducks eat more animals during breeding/nesting season, and the same ones
might prefer plant seeds during migration. For example, blue-winged teal change
their diets seasonally, from eating aquatic invertebrates (such as gnats and small
snails) in the breeding season, to eating mostly plant seeds during fall and winter
(33). This may be due to the fact that animal foods provide more protein, possibly
needed for egg development, etc., while plant seeds, rich in carbohydrates, provide
more "quick energy" needed for flying.

In a study of gut contents of Wisconsin redhead ducks (Aythya americana),
researchers found 34 animal species and 30 plant species. Seeds predominated in
pre-laying birds; Scirpus seeds and Potamogeton tubers were the primary
components of laying redheads (22).

Duck diets change not just seasonally, but also according to location and food
availability. For example, a study found that canvasbacks in Louisiana ate lots of
grasses, sedges and rushes (17), but in another study in Maryland they ate mostly




widgeongrass (Ruppia spp.) and Potamogeton perfoliatus (41).


Redhead ducks are so-called "diving ducks", so one might presume that redheads eat
only underwater plants and animals. However, a study in North Dakota found that as
much as 30% of the redhead duck diet was plant material, most of which was
Scirpus seeds (11%), and seeds from a variety of other emergent plants including
Eleocharis and Echinochloa. In fact, overall, redhead ducks ate more emersed plant
food than submersed plant food (48).

Grasses sedges and rushes are important foods even to very aquatic birds, such as
the bottom-sifting shoal-water spoonbill duck (Spatula clypeata). In one study, 16%
of the spoonbill diet was Scirpus, Carex and Cladium, 11% was Potamogeton and
8% was Panicum spp. (31).

The most important "staging area" for migrating greater snow geese (Chen
caerulescens) is a 3750-ha Scirpus americanus marsh, where rhizomes, shoots and
stems make up about half their entire diet during the several weeks of both
migration seasons (5).

Coots (Fulica atra) also are major wetland plant consumers. In one study on a
Polish lake, two-thirds of the coot diet was plant parts and one-third was animals.
Even though coots spend much of their time s swimming and diving, the second-
most important plant in the coot diet was Phragmites australis (after the bottom-
growing Chara spp) (8).

Grow more grasses, sedges and rushes
In 1917, McAtee called for more dealers to grow and offer plants and seeds of
various species of bur-reeds, pondweeds, cord grasses, bulrushes, saw grass, and
sedges in order to supply wildlife managers who wanted to grow the right plants for
birds (29).

In this booklet, McAtee tells managers how to propagate Zizania aquatica because
wild rice, "in every stage of its growth is eaten by one or another of the North
American ducks and geese, and practically all ducks feed on its ripened grain." It is
"the staple fall food of many ducks in the numerous rice marshes of eastern U.S."
This booklet also explains how to propagate chufas (Cyperus esculentus) and wild
millet (Echinochloa crus-galli) (29).




Information abounds
Natural resource managers, including those workers who maintain and protect
wetlands, lakes and rivers, should remember the importance of the "other plants" in
their charge. Managers should learn about the grasses, sedges and rushes, and
promote these and other plants that are essential to so many species of birds and
other animals.



GRASSES, SEDGES AND RUSHES USED BY WATERFOWL --CITED
RESEARCH ARTICLES

The following is a list of some of the feeding studies of water birds taken from the
APIRS database:

Arundinaria gigantea stands -- a preferred habitat of American woodcock (Straw et
al, (46))

Brachiaria extensa seeds -- a major part of the diet of fulvous whistling ducks in
Louisiana ricefields. (20)

Carex spp. -- common snipe habitat (Arnold, (46))
Carex subspathacea -- a favorite food of geese (11)

Cladiumjamaicense seeds -- very important to wintering gadwalls in Louisiana
(39); a major food of ducks in SE Texas (44); a major food of mallards in the US
(30)

Cyperus spp. -- a major part of the diet of fulvous whistling ducks in Louisiana
(20); tubers are a major part of canvasback diet in Mississippi River Delta (17)

Distichlis spp. -- a food of sandhill cranes (46); among favorite food of gadwalls in
Utah (13); eaten by mourning doves (46)

Echinochloa spp. -- eaten by mourning doves (46)
Echinochloa crus-galli -- a preferred food of pintail ducks in California (9), (10); a
preferred food of green-winged teal (10); a major food of mallard ducks in the US




(30)
Echinochloa walteri -- a major food of ducks in SE Texas (44)

Eleocharis spp. -- a favorite food of gadwalls in Utah (13), and of ruddy ducks (48)
Eleocharis cellulosa -- a major food plant of ducks in Texas (44)
Eleocharis equisetoides and E. quadrangulata -- important foods to overwintering
waterfowl in South Carolina (40)
Eleocharis parvula -- leaves eaten by wintering gadwalls in Louisiana (39); a major
food plant of ducks in Texas (44)
Eleocharis quadrangulata -- a major food of ducks in Texas (44)

Fimbristylis spp. -- a major food of mallard ducks (30)

Juncus roemerianus -- favored clapper rail nesting habitat (Eddleman and Conway,
(46))

Leersia spp. -- a major part of diet in 3-year study of redhead ducks in Wisconsin.
(22)

Panicum spp. -- preferred food of mourning doves and white-winged doves (46); a
major food of mallard ducks (30)

Paspalum distichum -- used by greylag and barheaded geese (36)

Phalaris arundinacea -- a major food of ring-necked ducks in Minnesota (16)

Phragmites communis -- a major plant food of coots in Poland (8)

Rhynchospora spp. -- a major food of fulvous whistling ducks in Louisiana (20)

Scirpus spp. -- a major component of the diet of ruddy ducks (48) and common
moorhen (Griej, (46)), soras (Melvin and Gibbs, (46)), seeds very important to
overwintering gadwalls in Louisiana, to redheads in Wisconsin (22); a major food of
spoonbill ducks (31)
Scirpus acutus -- among favorite foods of gadwalls in Utah (13)
Scirpus americanus -- rhizomes and seeds a major part of diet in canvasbacks in the
Mississippi River Delta (17)




Scirpus cubensis -- a major food of mallard ducks in US (30)
Scirpusfluviatilis -- a major food of mallard ducks in US (30)
Scirpus littoralis and Scirpus maritimus -- tubers eaten by wintering greylag geese
in Spain (1)
Scirpus robustus and Scirpus validus -- important foods to overwintering birds in
South Carolina. (40)
Scirpus subterminalis and Scirpus torreyi -- constituted 30% of the fall food diet of
black ducks in Maine (34)

Setaria spp. -- preferred food of mourning doves and white-winged doves in
southwestern U.S. (46)

Zizania aquatica -- "eaten by practically all ducks" (29); a favorite food of soras in
upper midwest U.S. (Melvin and Gibbs, (46)); a major food of mallard ducks in U.S.
(30); a major food of black ducks and wood ducks (29)



BIBLIOGRAPHY

The following publications were identified by a search of the APIRS (aquatic,
wetland and invasive plant) database, searching for information about the food
preferences and consumption rates of waterfowl.

1) Amat, J.A. 1995. Effects of wintering greylag geese Anser anser on their Scirpus
food plants. Ecography 18:155-163.

2) Belanger, L; J.-F. Giroux and J. Bedard. 1990. Effects of goose grazing on the
quality of Scirpus americanus rhizomes. Can. J. Zool. 68:1012-1014.

3) Belanger, L. and J. Bedard. 1994. Foraging ecology of greater snow geese,
Chen caerulescense atlantica, in different Scirpus marsh plant communities. Can.
Field-Naturl. 108(3):271-281.

4) Belanger, L. and J. Bedard. 1994. Role of ice scouring and goose grubbing in
marsh plant dynamics. J. Ecol. 82:437-445.

5) Belanger, L. and D. Lehoux. 1994. Use of a tidal saltmarsh and coastal




impoundments by sympatric breeding and staging American black ducks, Anas
rubripes, and mallards, A. platyrhynchos. Can. Field-Naturl. 108(3):311-317.

6) Beltzer, A.H. and J.J. Neiff. Bird distribution in the Parana River floodplain.
Relationship with hydrological regime and vegetation. Ambiente Subtropical 2:77-
102. In Spanish; English summary.

7) Bogiatto, R.J. 1990. Fall and winter food habits of American coots in the
northern Sacramento Valley, California. Calif. Fish Game 76(4):211-215.

8) Borowiec, E. 1975. Food of the coot (Fulica atra L.) in different phenological
periods. Pol. Arch. Hydrobiol. 22(2):157-166.

9) Connelly, D.P. and D.L. Chesemore. 1980. Food habits of pintails, Anas acuta,
wintering on seasonally flooded wetlands in the northern San Joaquin Valley,
California. Calif. Fish Game 66(4):233-237.

10) Euliss, N.H. and S.W. Harris. 1987. Feeding ecology of northern pintails and
green-winged teal wintering in California. J. Wildl. Manage. 51(4):724-732.

11) Gadallah, F.L. and R.L. Jefferies. 1995. Comparison of the nutrient contents
of the principal forage plants utilized by lesser snow geese on summer breeding
grounds. J. Appl. Ecol. 32(2):263-275.

12) Gadallah, F.L. and R.L. Jefferies. 1995. Forage quality in brood rearing areas
of the lesser snow goose and the growth of captive goslings. J. Appl. Ecol. 32
(2):276-287.

13) Gates, J.M. 1957. Autumn food habits of the gadwall in northern Utah. Utah
Acad. Proc. 34:69-71.

14) Hartman, F.E. 1963. Estuarine wintering habitat for black ducks. J. Wildl.
Manage. 27(3):339-347.

15) Hocutt, G.E. and R.W. Dimmick. 1971. Summer food habits of juvenile wood
ducks in east Tennessee. J. Wildl. Manage. 35(2):286-292.

16) Hohman, W.L. 1985. Feeding ecology of ring-necked ducks in northwestern




Minnesota. J. Wildl. Manage. 49(3):546-557.


17) Hohman, W.L.; D.W. Woolington and J.H. Devries. 1990. Food habits of
wintering canvasbacks in Louisiana. Can. J. Zool. 68(12):2605-2609.

18) Hohman, W.L.; C.D. Ankney; and D.L. Roster. 1992. Body condition, food
habits, and molt status of late-wintering ruddy ducks in California. Southwestern
Naturalist 37(3):268-273.

19) Hohman, W.L. and C.D. Ankney. 1994. Body size and condition, age,
plumage quality, and foods of prenesting male cinnamon teal in relation to pair
status. Can. J. Zool. 72:2172-2176.

20) Hohman, W.L.; T.M. Stark and J.L. Moore. 1996. Food availability and
feeding preferences of breeding fulvous whistling-ducks in Louisiana ricefields.
Wilson Bull. 108(1):137-150.

21) Hudec, K. 1973. The food of the greylag goose, Anser anser, in southern
Moravia, Czechoslovakia. Zool. Listy 22(1):41-58. In German.

22) Kenow, K.P. and D.H. Rusch. 1996. Food habits of redheads at the Horicon
Marsh, Wisconsin. J. Field Ornithol. 67(4):649-659.

23) Kerekes, J.J. editor. 1994. Aquatic Birds in the Trophic Web of Lakes.
Developments in Hydrobiology. Proceeding of a Symposium... Kluwer Academic
Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 524 pp.

24) Knapton, R.W. and K. Pauls. 1994. Fall food habits of American wigeon at
Long Point, Lake Erie, Ontario. J. Great Lakes Res. 20(1):271-276.

25) Krapu, G.L. 1974. Foods of breeding pintails in North Dakota. J. Wildl.
Manage. 38(3):408-417.

26) Krapu, G.L. and K.J. Reinecke. 1992. Foraging ecology and nutrition. IN:
Ecology and Management of Breeding Waterfowl, B.D.J. Batt, et al., editors, Univ.
Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, pp. 1-29.




27) Lemly, A.D. 1994. Irrigated agriculture and freshwater wetlands: a struggle for
coexistence in the western United States. Wetlands Ecol. Manage. 3(1):3-15.

28) McAtee, W.L. 1915. Eleven important wild-duck foods. Bull. U.S. Dept. Agric.
No. 205, Washington, D.C. 25 pp.

29) McAtee, W.L. 1917. Propagation of wild-duck foods. Bull. U.S. Dept. Agric.
No. 465, Washington, D.C. 40 pp.

30) McAtee, W.L. 1918. Food habits of the mallard ducks of the United States.
Bull. U.S. Dept. Agric., No. 720, Washington, D.C. 36 pp.

31) McAtee, W.L. 1922. Notes on food habits of the shoveller or spoonbill duck
(Spatula clypeata). Auk 39(3):380-386.

32) McAtee, W.L. 1925. Notes on drift, vegetable balls, and aquatic insects as a
food product of inland waters. Ecology 6(3):288-302.

33) Manley, S.W.; W.L. Hohman; J.L. Moore; and D. Richard. 1992. Food
preferences of spring-migrating blue-winged teal in southwestern Louisiana. Proc.
Annu. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Fish Wildl. Agenices 46:46-56.

34) Mendall, H.L. 1949. Food habits in relation to black duck management in
Maine. J. Wildl. Manage. 13(1):64-101.

35) Middleton, B.A. 1992. Seed herbivory by nilgai, feral cattle, and wild boar in
the Keoladeo National Park, India. Biotropica 24(4):538-543.

36) Middleton, B.A. 1994. Management of monsoonal wetlands for greylag (Anser
anser L.) and barheaded geese (Anser indicus L.) in the Keoladeo National Park,
India. Internat. J. Ecol. Environ. Sci. 20:163-171.

37) Nummi, P. 1989. Simulated effects of the beaver on vegetation, invertebrates
and ducks. Ann. Zool. Fennici 26:43-52.

38) Patten, B.C. editor. 1990. Wetlands and Shallow Continental Water Bodies.
Volume 1. Natural and Human Relationships. SPB Academic Publishing, 759 pp.




39) Paulus, S.L. 1982. Feeding ecology of gadwalls in Louisiana in winter. J.
Wildl. Manage. 46(1):71-79.

40) Percival, F.H.; L.G. Webb and N.R. Page. 1970. Some ecological conditions
under which selected waterfowl food plants grow in South Carolina. Proc. SE
Assoc. Game & Fish Comm. 24:121-126.

41) Perry, M.C. and F.M. Uhler. 1988. Food habits and distribution of wintering
canvasbacks, Aythya valisineria, on Chesapeake Bay. Estuaries 11(1):57-67.

42) Ringelman, J.K. 1990. Managing agricultural foods for waterfowl. Fish
Wildlife Leaflet 133.4.3. Waterfowl Management Handbook, Fish Wildlife Serv., U.
S. Dept. Interior, Washington, D.C. 4 pp.

43) Ringelman, J.K. 1992. Ecology of montane wetlands. Fish Wildlife Leaflet
133.3.6. Waterfowl Management Handbook, Fish Widlife Serv., U.S. Dept. Interior,
Washington, D.C. 7 pp.

44) Singleton, J.R. 1951. Production and utilization of waterfowl food plants on the
east Texas gulf coast. J. Wildl. Manage. 15(1):46-56.

45) Sjoberg, K.; K. Danell. 1981. Food availability and utilization by ducks of a
shallow brackish-water bay in the northern Bothnian Bay. Ann. Zool. Fennici
18:253-261.

46) Tacha, T.C. and C.E. Braun, editors. 1994. Migratory Shore and Upland
Game Bird Management in North America. International Association of Fish and
Wildlife Agencies, Washington, D.C. 223 pp.

47) Verhoeven, J.T.A. 1980. The ecology of Ruppia-dominated communities in
western Europe. III. Aspects of production, consumption and decomposition. Aquat.
Bot. 8:209-253.

48) Woodin, M.C.; G.A. Swanson. 1989. Foods and dietary strategies of prairie-
nesting ruddy ducks and redheads. Condor 91:280-297.

49) Weller, M.W. 1994. Freshwater Marshes. Ecology and Wildlife Management.




U Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 3rd ed. 155 pp.


Although the APIRS database collects literature on aquatic, wetland and invasive
plants, this necessarily includes peripheral subjects such as animals which use these
plants for food, habitat, nesting, etc. For example, the database contains over 1,000
references with the following keywords: (duck or ducks or birds or waterfowl or
avian or geese or goose). (NOTE: if you use duck$, you will retrieve a few hundred
duckweed articles that don't necessarily pertain to ducks.) If you combine this
search with (food$ or feed$ or diet$ or consum$ or graz$ or herbiv$), you will
retrieve over 300 references. With (habitat or host plant$ or nest$ or breed$) over
680 references. With ((primary production) or productivity) over 180 references
that might report on the effects of herbivory on productivity, or the effects of
productivity on bird habitat, foods, etc.



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NEW IDENTIFICATION TOOL!



Grasses, Sedges and Rushes of Wetlands Identification Deck --
With notes about wildlife use

A handy new identification tool, similar to the very popular Aquatic Plants
Identification Deck, is "at the printer" and is expected to be for sale in April, 1999.
The Grasses, Sedges and Rushes of Wetlands Identification Deck is a stack of 3"
X 4" laminated cards, bound with two rings to open as a book. The deck is sturdy
enough to withstand extensive field use in a wetland environment. It has
identification text and line drawings on one page facing color photographs of the
plants on the other.

Written by Victor Ramey, with the cooperation of botanist and noted wetland plant
expert, David Hall, this ID deck treats 84 species of the most common and/or
important grasses, sedges and rushes that occur in wetlands, including 22 non-native
species. Each plant is well-described in terms that are readily understood by non-
botanists. The ID deck is illustrated with 150 color photographs and 70 line
drawings by Ann Murray, and is indexed according to scientific names, common
names, and inflorescence shapes.

Incidental notes on each plant include its documented use by ducks, geese, swans
and other waterfowl, since native grasses, sedges and rushes provide food, shelter
and nesting habitat to many kinds of birds and other wildlife. The deck will teach
managers, field personnel, students, and other wetlands enthusiasts to distinguish
between the exotic elephant grass and native panic grasses, exotic para grass and
native maidencane, and to identify and distinguish between 80 other grasses, sedges
and rushes from Amphicarpum muhlenbergianum (blue maidencane) to Zizaniopsis
miliacea (giant cut grass).

Each Grasses, Sedges and Rushes of Wetlands Identification Deck (Publication
Number SP255) is $12 plus S/H. It will be available from the University of Florida,




IFAS Publications, 1-800-226-1764. Please note that this item will not be
available until April, 1999!


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The Literature on Seagrasses


A seemingly little known nugget of information within the
Aquatic and Wetland (and now Invasive) Plant Information
Retrieval System (APIRS) is the literature collection on
seagrasses.

Probably due to our increasingly complex yet still not completely accurate name,
few people seem to realize that we also collect the literature on our saltier friends,
the seagrasses. This little-used body of literature on seagrasses constitutes
approximately 10% of our collection, or approximately 5,000 references. We plan to
increase the visibility of the seagrass collection to broader circles of researchers
with hopes of increasing the use of the collection and possibly finding financial
support to continue it. Please feel free to share this newsletter with any colleagues
working on any aspect of seagrasses.

For those who work in the marine environment, here is a list of the number of
references in the APIRS database on some of the various species of seagrass. The
first number given indicates the number of citations where the species name is found
in the text but not the title of the reference; the second number indicates the number
of citations where the species name is found in the title of the reference (e.g., more
specific or relevant references). Of course, many references refer to more than one
species of seagrass.

Zostera 670 (text), 510 (title) (total=1,180)
Ruppia 627, 130 (total=757)
Thalassia 479, 131 (total=610)
Halodule 429, 67 (total=496)
Syringodium 307, 33 (total=340)
Halophila 294, 77 (total=372)
Cymodocea 195, 62 (total=257)
Posidonia 176, 238 (total=414)
Enhalus 92, 5 (total=97)




Phyllospadix 58, 17 (total=75)
Amphibolis 55, 18 (total=73)
Thalassodendron 48, 17 (total=65)

Total records in this list: 4,736

Sample keywords that can be used in combination with these plant species include
'host plants' (over 700 references), 'physiology/photosynthesis' (over 650
references), 'reproduction' (over 300 references), 'fish$' (over 300 references), and
epiphytess' (over 250 references). Any keyword may be used when searching the
APIRS database.

The APIRS collection contains hard copies of over ninety percent of the references
listed in the database, and is available for the free use of researchers. In exchange,
we expect those researchers to contribute reprints of their published work to APIRS.
To access the database, go to our website at http://aquatl.ifas.ufl.edu/ and click on
the Online APIRS Database link. You must have a telnet application specified in
your Internet browser. To request free searches of the database, contact Karen
Brown at kpb@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu or use the address on the back page of this issue.
Bibliographies can be printed and mailed, or sent via e-mail.



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Johnson's Seagrass Listed as Threatened


Agents of the National Marine Fisheries Service have issued a
final rule (63 FR 49035) listing Johnson's seagrass, Halophila
johnsonii, as a threatened species under the Endangered Species
Act, with the conclusion that it is likely to become an endangered species within
the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range. Johnson's
seagrass has one of the smallest geographic distributions of any seagrass; it is found
only in lagoons on the southeastern coast of Florida.

Halophila johnsonii is dioecious (contains flowers of only a single sex on one
plant). However, the male flower has never been recorded in the field or in
laboratory culture. The absence of male flowers supports the hypothesis that sexual
reproduction is absent in this species. Scientists have not observed new Halophila
plants growing from root or stem fragments. Rather, the plant extends by branching
and by growth of the rhizomes. This limited reproductive capacity further threatens
the ability of the rare plant to survive human-induced or natural disturbances.
Because it is most abundant amidst the heavy boating traffic of south Florida coastal
area inlets and channels, potential threats to the diminuitive seagrass include
dredging activities, boat propellor and anchor damage, and storm events.

Identifying characteristics of H. johnsonii include smooth linear leaves with entire
margins. Leaves are 10-20 mm long on long petioles and occur in pairs at each
node. The plant has a creeping rhizome and sessile female flowers. The plant
tolerates broad ranges of salinity, temperatures, and water levels. It is found on
sandy intertidal shoals where it is exposed to drying, intense sunlight and extreme
temperature changes during low tide. It also is found in deeper channels with swift,
eroding currents.

Johnson's seagrass is one of twelve species of the genus Halophila. Most Halophila
species are less than four inches tall, shallow rooted, and have two to three orders of
magnitude less biomass per unit area compared to all other seagrasses. In contrast to
the restricted range of Johnson's seagrass, other members of the genus have a




pantropical range. In addition, Halophila seagrasses cover the greatest range of
water depths for seagrasses. They have been found growing in water depths of more
than 100 feet deep, as well as in shallow estuaries and intertidal shoals. These
seagrasses are known to provide a food source to green sea turtles, West Indian
manatees, and dugongs.

References:
1) Durako, M. and F. Wettstein. 1994. Johnson's seagrass. The Palmetto, Winter
1994, pp. 3-5.
2) Eiseman, N.J. and C. McMillan. 1980. A new species of seagrass, Halophila
johnsonii, from the Atlantic coast of Florida. Aquatic Botany 9:15-19.
3) U.S. Federal Register 63(177):49035. 1998.

NOTE: The APIRS database contains 27 references on Halophila johnsonii.



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Odds n' Ends

Sprayer Technology News, an online bi-monthly magazine for the agricultural
chemical applicator, has quite a bit of good, useful information. The current issue,
for example, includes articles about the necessity of agitating the spray mix (and
why), news about low rate spray technology, what it is about surfactants, and even
how to take off your spray gloves. Recommended for those in the bidness. http://
www.spraytec.com

Everglades restoration plan. The goal of the Central and Southern Florida Project
Comprehensive Review Study, the "restudy", is to develop plans to spend several
billion dollars to restore the Everglades and Florida Bay ecosystems, while
providing for the other water-related needs of the region and the 5 million people
who live there. The final plan is to be presented to Congress by July 1, 1999. The
"draft implementation plan" and much more information about this huge
restructuring of south Florida's landscape is online at: http://www.restudy.org

Korean Wetland Alliance, is a South Korean "umbrella organization committed to
wetland conservation through research, education and action," and, apparently, is
also very committed to political lobbying. The web site includes reports about all
aspects of the wetlands of South Korea, including plants and animals that live in
them, and maintains an online forum. http://ecoserve.kfem.or.kr/wetland/

Noxious Times. This is the online newsletter of the California Interagency Noxious
Weed Coordinating Committee, and includes information about specific weeds and
their control, legislation, and activities of the Committee. Nothing fancy (in fact, the
type is almost too small to read); just lots of information: http://pi.cdfa.ca.gov/
noxioustimes/

Minnesota Lakes Asociation is a statewide organization of more than 10,000
shoreland property owners. Its web site includes an online bibliography of 600 lake
management and planning resources, and dozens of articles and publications about
lakes, aquatic plants, lake improvement projects, freshwater festivals, advisories,




grants information... http://www.mnlakesassn.org

Friends of Lake Apopka, founded in 1991, is a citizen advocacy group dedicated
to the "continued restoration of Lake Apopka", a large lake north of Orlando,
Florida. The web site documents restoration work, nearby land purchases, has a
history section which includes newspaper articles, and otherwise provides a forum
for citizens who are concerned for the lake. http://www.fola.org


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Salvinia molesta found in U.S.


The famously disruptive floating plant, giant salvinia (Salvinia
molesta), has finally been discovered established in the United States, covering
significant areas of rivers in the states of Texas and Louisiana. Efforts are underway
to eliminate these infestations. In an effort to identify new infestations of this very
aggressive aquatic weed, and to help speed the deployment of management actions
against the plant, the U.S. Geological Survey has issued a special alert to aquatics
managers: REPORT SUSPECTED SIGHTINGS.

Giant salvinia has oblong floating leaves, /2 to 1-/2 inches, often folded and
compressed into upright chains. Leaf surfaces have white bristles or hairs joined at
the tips to form a "cage", visable with a hand lens. Bristles give a velvety
appearance and repel wetting.

Please report suspected giant salvinia occurrences to your state department of
wildlife or environmental protection, and also please report to the U.S. Geological
Survey. Ms. Colette Jacono, a biologist with the USGS, is mapping new occurrences
and also acting as a clearing house of identification and occurrence information. In
addition, informative flyers are available from her for distribution to water and
wetland management agencies, fish camps, sports organizations, homeowners
associations and others likely to encounter giant salvinia.

For more information, contact Ms. Jacono (toll free) at 1-877- 786-7267, or view
their web site at: http://nas.er.usgs.gov/ferns

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Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants
Meetings


May 15-18, 2008; Palmetto, Florida www.fnps.org
28th Annual Florida Native Plant Society Conference
Uplands to Estuaries: Celebrating Florida's Native Plant Heritage



May 20-22, 2008; Imperial Palace Casinos, Biloxi, Mississippi http://www.se-eppc.org
10th Annual Southeast EPPC Conference



June 23-27, 2008; International Weed Science Society, Vancouver, Canada http://iws.ucdavis.
edu/5intlweedcong.htm
International Weed Science Society

Aquatic Weed Management

Contacts:

Mike Netherland, USA I mdnether(@ufl .edu

Kevin Murphy, UK |I k.murphy@vbio.qla.ac.uk



June 23-26, 2008; University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida http://www.conference.ifas.ufl.edu/soils/
wetland082/site.htm
Biogeochemistry of Wetlands: Science and Applications Short Course



August 25-26th, 2008; LSU Energy, Coast, and Environmental Building, Baton Rouge, Louisiana http://www.
sce.Isu.edu/conference
Sustainable Management of Deltaic Ecosystems: Integration of Theory and Practice






September 7-12, 2008; Daniel Boone National Forest, Olympia Springs, Kentucky http://tfce.uky.edu/wri 2008.
htm
2008 Eastern Regional Wetland Restoration Institute



September 23-25, 2008; Austin Carey Memorial Forest Education Building, Gainesville, Fl. http://soils.ifas.ufl.
edu
Hydric Soils Short Course Specialized Training for Wetland Specialists
UF/IFAS



October 21-23, 2008; Austin Carey Memorial Forest Education Building, Gainesville, Fl. http://soils.ifas.ufl.edu
Hydric Soils Short Course Specialized Training for Wetland Specialists
UF/IFAS



November 12-14, 2008; Stellenbosch, South Africa http://academic.sun.ac.za/cib/events/Elton CIB symposium.
htm
Fifty Years of Invasion Ecology the Legacy of Charles Elton
Centre of Excellence for Invasion Biology, Stellenbosch University



November 18-20 2008; Austin Carey Memorial Forest Education Building, Gainesville, Fl. http://soils.ifas.ufl.
edu
Hydric Soils Short Course Specialized Training for Wetland Specialists
UF/IFAS



June 23-26, 2009; Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico http://www.paleolim.org/index.php/symposia/
11th International Paleolimnology Symposium



August 23-27, 2009; Stellenbosch, South Africa www.emapi2009.co.za or rich@(sun.ac.za
The 10th International Conference on the Ecology and Management of Alien Plant
Invasions (EMAPI)
Centre for Invasion Biology (CIB), Department of Botany & Zoology, Stellenbosch University







V UNIVERSITY of
W FLORIDA
IFAS Extension
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@2007 University of Florida




Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants

Books, Manuals, and Online Resources


New Books and Reports
Plant Manuals, Field Guides and Textbooks
Langeland/Burks Non-Native Plants Book
Online Articles and Extension Publications
Extension Publications & Articles
Online Books


S UNIVER 5SITY of
UrFLORIDA
IFAS Extension
4V?41 rfr 1J .4 .'.,%1.0


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FROM THE DATABASE


Here is a sampling of the research articles, books and reports which have been entered into
the aquatic plant database since September 1998. The database has more than 48,000
citations. To receive free bibliographies on specific plants and/or subjects, contact APIRS
at 352-392-1799 or use the database online at http://aquatl.ifas.ufl.edu/database.html

To obtain articles, contact your nearest state or university library.


Alam, M.K., Ager, L.A., Rosegger, T.M., Lange, T.R., et al
Effects of mechanical harvesting of floating plant communities on water quality in
Lake Istokpoga, Florida.
IN: 1998 PROC. 23RD ANN. CONF. ECOSYSTEMS RESTORATION AND CREATION,
HILLSBOROUGH COMMUNITY COLLEGE, TAMPA, FL, P.J. CANNIZZARO, ED., PP. 171-186.
1998.

Bachmann, R.W., Hoyer, M.V., Canfield, D.E.


Fluid mud, the marsh flow-way and the restoration of Lake
IN: PROC. SEVENTH ANN. SE LAKES MGMT. CONF., 15-18 APRIL
DARLING, H.H. HARPER, EDS., PP. A99-100 (ABSTRACT). 1998.

Baird, R.A., Jackson, B.
The use of alum to restore Class III water quality standards
lakes.
IN: PROC. SEVENTH ANN. SE LAKES MGMT. CONF., 15-18 APRIL
DARLING, H.H. HARPER, EDS., PP. A141-142 (ABSTRACT). 1998.


Apopka.
1998, ORLANDO, FL, S.H.



in highly urbanized

1998, ORLANDO, FL, S.H.


Barbour, J.G., Kiviat, E.
Introduced purple loosestrife as host of native Saturniidae (Lepidoptera).
GREAT LAKES ENTOMOLOGIST 30(3): 115-122. 1997.

Barrett, P.R.F., Littlejohn, J.W., Curnow, J.
The long-term control of diatom and cyanobacterial blooms in reservoirs using




barley straw.
IN: PROC. 10TH EWRS INTERNAT'L. SYMP. AQUATIC WEEDS, EUROPEAN WEED RESEARCH
SOC., 21-25 SEPTEMBER 1998, LISBON, PP. 311-314. 1998.

Bellando, M., Sacco, S., Albergoni, F., Rocco, P., et al.
Transient stimulation of oxygen uptake induced by sulfhydryl reagents in Egeria
densa and Potamogeton crispus leaves.
BOT. ACTA 110(5):388-394. 1997.

Bentivegna, D.J., Sabbatini, M.R., Curvetto, N.R., Fernandez, O.A..
Effect of acrolein on Potamogeton pectinatus L. in irrigation channels.
IN: PROC. 10TH EWRS INTERNAT'L. SYMP. AQUATIC WEEDS, EUROPEAN WEED RESEARCH
SOC., 21-25 SEPTEMBER 1998, LISBON, PP. 319-322. 1998.

Blanch, S.J., Ganf, G.G., Walker, K.F.
Growth and recruitment in Vallisneria americana as related to average irradiance in
the water column.
AQUATIC BOTANY 61:181-205. 1998.

Bliss, S.A., Zedler, P.H.
The germination process in vernal pools: sensitivity to environmental conditions and
effects on community structure.
OECOLOGIA 113(1):67-73. 1998.

Boeger, M.R.
Comparative study of the lacunar systems of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms.
and Pistia stratiotes L.
ARQ. BIOL. TECHNOL. 40(4):915-925 (IN PORTUGUESE; ENGLISH SUMMARY). 1997.

Boeye, D., Verhagen, B., Van Haesebroeck, V., Verheyen, R.F.
Nutrient limitation in species-rich lowland fens.
J. VEGETATION SCI. 8:415-424. 1997.

Bona, C., Lange de Morretes, B.
Comparative stem anatomy ofAlternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. and A.
aquatica (Parodi) Chodat. (Amaranthaceae).
ARQ. DE BIOLOGIA E TECNOLOGIA 40(2):285-296 (IN PORTUGUESE; ENGLISH SUMMARYY.
1997.


Bonifacio, R.S., Montano, M.N.E.




Inhibitory effects of mercury and cadmium on seed germination of Enhalus
acoroides (L.f.) Royle.
BULL. ENVIRON. CONTAM. TOXICOL. 60(1):45-51. 1998.

Bontje, M.P.
The establishment of recovery thresholds in a petroleum impacted tidal marsh.
IN: 1998 PROC. 23RD ANN. CONF. ECOSYSTEMS RESTORATION AND CREATION,
HILLSBOROUGH COMMUNITY COLLEGE, TAMPA, FL, P.J. CANNIZZARO, ED., PP. 1-12. 1998.

Boyer, K.E., Zedler, J.B.
Effects of nitrogen additions on the vertical structure of a constructed cordgrass
marsh.
ECOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS 8(3):692-705. 1998.

Brewer, J.S., Levine, J.M., Bertness, M.D.
Effects of biomass removal and elevation on species richness in a New England salt
marsh.
OIKOS 80:333-341. 1997.

Brock, M.A., Casanova, M.T.
Plant life at the edge of wetlands: ecological responses to wetting and drying
patterns.
IN: FRONTIERS IN ECOLOGY: BUILDING THE LINKS, N. KLOMP, I. LUNT, EDS., ELSEVIER
SCI., OXFORD, PP. 181-192. 1997.

Brown, K.M.
Temporal and spatial patterns of abundance in the gastropod assemblage of a
macrophyte bed.
AMER. MALACOLOGICAL BULL. 14(1):27-33. 1997.

Browning, J., Gordon-Gray, K.D., Smith, S.G., Van Staden, J.
Bolboschoenus maritimus s.l. in The Netherlands: A study of pericarp anatomy
based on the work of Irene Robertus-Koster.
ANN. BOT. FENNICI 34:115-126. 1997.

Brunton, D.F., Britton, D.M.
Appalachian quillwort (Isoetes appalachiana, sp. nov.; Isoetaceae), a new
pteridophyte from the eastern United States.
RHODORA 99(898):118-133. 1997.




Buckingham, G.R.
Surveys for insects that feed on Eurasian watermilfoil, Myriophyllum spicatum, and
hydrilla, Hydrilla verticillata, in the People's Republic of China, Japan, and Korea.
TECH. REPT. A-98-5, AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL RES. PROG., WATERWAYS EXPT. STN., U.
S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS, VICKSBURG, MS, 36 PP. 1998.

Bunting, M.J., Duthie, H.C., Campbell, D.R., Warner, B.G., et al.
A palaeoecological record of recent environmental change at Big Creek Marsh,
Long Point, Lake Erie.
J. GREAT LAKES RES. 23(3):349-368. 1997.

Busch, D.E., Loftus, W.F., Bass, O.L.
Long-term hydrologic effects on marsh plant community structure in the southern
Everglades.
WETLANDS 18(2):230-241. 1998.

Carbonell, A.A., Aarabi, M.A., DeLaune, R.D., Gambrell, R.P., et al.
Arsenic in wetland vegetation: availability, phytotoxicity, uptake and effects on
plant growth and nutrition..
SCI. TOTAL ENVIRON. 217:189-199. 1998.

Christensen, K.K., Andersen, F.O., Jensen, H.S.
Comparison of iron, manganese, and phosphorus retention in freshwater littoral
sediment with growth of Littorella uniflora and benthic microalgae.
BIOGEOCHEM. 38:149-171. 1997.

Cilliers, C.J.
First attempt at the biological control of the weed, Myriophyllum aquaticum, in
South Africa.
IN: PROC. 10TH EWRS INTERNAT'L. SYMP. AQUATIC WEEDS, EUROPEAN WEED RESEARCH
SOC., 21-25 SEPTEMBER 1998, LISBON, PP. 331-334. 1998.

Davis, R.C., Short, F.T.
Restoring eelgrass, Zostera marina L., habitat using a new transplanting technique:
the horizontal rhizome method.
AQUATIC BOTANY 59:1-15. 1997.

Dean, T.A., Stekoll, M.S., Jewett, S.C., Smith, R.O., et al
Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in Prince William Sound, Alaska: effects of the Exxon




Valdez oil spill.
MARINE POLL. BULL. 36(3):201-210. 1998.

Doud, C.W., Wilson, S.W., Tsai, J.H.
Descriptions of nymphs of the cat-tail feeding Delphacid planthopper Pygospina
spinata (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea).
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST 80(4):443-450. 1997.

Duncan, T.M., Renzaglia, K.S., Gargary, D.J.
Ultrastructure and phylogeny of the spermatozoid of Chara vulgaris
(Charophyceae).
PL. SYST. EVOL. 204:125-140. 1997.

Erwin, K.L., Doherty, S.J., Brown, M.T., Best, G.R., eds.
Evaluation of constructed wetlands on phosphate mined lands in Florida Vol. 1,
Project Summary. Vol. II, Hydrology, Soils, Water Quality, and Aquatic Fauna.
Vol. III, Vegetation, Wildlife, and Ecosystem and Landscape Organization.
FLORIDA INST. PHOSPHATE RESEARCH (FIPR) PUBL. NO. 03-103-139, BARTOW, FL. 1997.

Fell, P.E., Weissbach, S.P., Jones, D.A., Fallon, M.A., et al
Does invasion of oligohaline tidal marshes by reed grass, Phragmites australis
(Cav.) Trin. ex Steud., affect the availability of prey resources for the mummichog,
Fundulus heteroclitus L.?
J. EXP. MAR. BIOL. ECOL. 222:59-77. 1998.

Frazier, K., Colvin, B., Styer, E., Hullinger, G., et al
Microcystin toxicosis in cattle due to overgrowth of blue-green algae.
VETERINARY AND HUMAN TOXICOL. 40(1):23-24. 1998.

Guimaraes, J.R.D., Meili, M., Malm, 0., de Souza Brito, E.M.
Hg methylation in sediments and floating meadows of a tropical lake in the Pantanal
floodplain, Brazil.
SCI. TOTAL ENVIRON. 213:165-175. 1998.

Hargis, F.
Use of the exotic plant Oenanthe javanica in plant/rock filters for on-site
wastewater disposal.
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH 60(10): 18-25. 1998.




Hill, D.T., Payne, V.W.E., Rogers, J.W., Kown, S.R.
Ammonia effects on the biomass production of five constructed wetland plant
species.
BIORESOURCE TECH. 62(3):109-113. 1997.

Hollingsworth, P.M., Preston, C.D., Gornall, R.J.
Euploid and aneuploid evolution in Potamogeton (Potamogetonaceae): a factual
basis for interpretation.
AQUATIC BOTANY 60:337-358. 1998.

Hafez, N., Abdalla, S., Ramadan, Y.S.
Accumulation of phenol by Potamogeton crispus from aqueous industrial waste.
BULL. ENVIRON. CONTAM. TOXICOL. 60:944-948. 1998.

Janauer, G.A.
Macrophytes, hydrology, and aquatic ecotones: a GIS-supported ecological survey.
AQUATIC BOTANY 58:379-3 91. 1997.

Kalmbacher, R., Mullahey, J., Hill, K.
Limpograss and Hymenachne grown on flatwoods range pond margins.
J. RANGE MANAGE. 51:282-287. 1998.

Keeley, J.E.
C4 photosynthetic modifications in the evolutionary transition from land to water in
aquatic grasses.
OECOLOGIA 116:85-97. 1998.

Killgore, K.J., Kirk, J.P., Foltz, J.W.
Response of littoral fishes in upper Lake Marion, South Carolina following hydrilla
control by triploid grass carp.
J. AQUAT. PLANT MANAGE. 36:82-87. 1998.

Kim, B.J., Smith, E.D.
Evaluation of sludge dewatering reed beds: a niche for small systems.
WAT. SCI. TECH. 35(6):21-28. 1997.

Kinlan, B., Duffy, E., Cebrian, J., Hauxwell, J., et al
Control of periphyton on Zostera marina by the eastern mudsnail, Ilyanassa
obsoleta (Say), in a shallow temperate estuary.




BIOL. BULL. 193:286-287. 1997.


Kivaisi, A.K., Mtila, M.
Production of biogas from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart) (Solms) in
a two-stage bioreactor.
WORLD J. MICROBIOL. BIOTECH. 14(1):125-131. 1998.

Kolesik, P., Mills, A., Sedgley, M.
Anatomical characteristics affecting the musical performance of clarinet reeds made
from Arundo donax L. (Gramineae).
ANNALS OF BOTANY 81(1):151-155. 1998.

Krolikowska, J.
Eutrophication processes in a shallow, macrophyte-dominated lake -- species
differentiation, biomass and the distribution of submerged macrophytes in Lake
Luknajno (Poland).
HYDROBIOLOGIA 342/343:411-416. 1997.

Kudoh, H., Whigham, D.F.
Microgeographic genetic structure and gene flow in Hibiscus moscheutos
(Malvaceae) populations.
AMER. J. BOT. 84(9):1285-1293. 1997.

Lane, A.M., Williams, R.J., Muller, W.J., Lonsdale, W.M.
The effects of the herbicide tebuthiuron on seedlings of Mimosa pigra and native
floodplain vegetation in northern Australia.
AUSTRALIAN J. ECOL. 22:439-447. 1997.

Leitch, J.A., Linz, G.M., Baltezore, J.F.
Economics of cattail (Typha spp.) control to reduce blackbird damage to sunflower.
AGRICULTURE, ECOSYSTEMS AND ENVIRON. 65:141-149. 1997.

Lembi, C.A.
A message to our public: why aquatic herbicides affect aquatic plants and not us.
IN: AQUATIC PLANT MANAGE. SOC., 38TH ANN. MEETING, 12-15 JULY 1998, MEMPHIS, TN,
P. 2 (ABSTRACT). 1998.

Lemon, G.D., Posluszny, U.
Shoot morphology and organogenesis of the aquatic floating fern Salvinia molesta D.




S. Mitchell, examined with the aid of laser scanning confocal microscopy.
INTERNAT'L. J. PLANT SCI. 158(6):693-703. 1997.

Leon, B., Young, K.R.
Aquatic plants of Peru: diversity, distribution and conservation.
BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION 5:1169-1190. 1996.

Leonard, V., Breyne, C., Micha, J-C., Larondelle, Y.
Digestibility and transit time ofAzollafiliculoides Lamarch in Oreochromis aureus
(Steindachner).
AQUACULTURE RESEARCH 29:159-165. 1998.

Les, D.H., Landolt, E., Crawford, D.J.
Systematics of the Lemnaceae (Duckweeds): inferences from micromolecular and
morphological data.
PL. SYST. EVOL. 204:161-177. 1997.

Lewis, M.A., Wang, W.
Water quality and aquatic plants.
IN: PLANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES, W. WANG, J.W. GORSUCH, J.S. HUGHES, EDS.,
CRC LEWIS PUBLISHERS, NEW YORK, PP. 141-175. 1997.

Lindgren, C.J., Gabor, T.S., Murkin, H.R.
Impact of triclopyr amine on Galerucella calmariensis L. (Coleoptera:
Chrysomelidae) and a step toward integrated management of purple loosestrife
Lythrum salicaria L.
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL 12:14-19. 1998.

Madden, C.J., Kemp, W.M.
Ecosystem model of an estuarine submersed plant community: calibration and
simulation of eutrophication responses.
ESTUARIES 19(2B):457-474. 1996.

Manyin, T., Williams, F.M., Stark, L.R.
Effects of iron concentration and flow rate on treatment of coal mine drainage in
wetland mesocosms: an experimental approach to sizing of constructed wetlands.
ECOL. ENGINEERING 9(3-4):171-185. 1997.


McCarron, J.K., McLeod, K.W., Conner, W.H.




Flood and salinity stress of wetland woody species, buttonbush (Cephalanthus
occidentalis) and swamp tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora).
WETLANDS 18(2):165-175. 1998.

Monteiro, A., Vasconcelos, T., Catarino, L., eds.
Management and ecology of aquatic plants.
PROC. 10TH EWRS INTERNAT'L. SYMP. AQUATIC WEEDS, EUROPEAN WEED RESEARCH
SOC., 21-25 SEPTEMBER 1998, LISBON, 444 PP.

Morris, J.T., Jensen, A.
The carbon balance of grazed and non-grazed Spartina anglica saltmarshes at
Skallingen, Denmark.
J. ECOL. 86:229-242. 1998.

Moteetee, A., Nagendran, C.R.
Comparative anatomical studies in five southern African species of Crassula: II.
Structure of the leaf and the occurrence of transfer cells.
SOUTH AFRICAN J. BOT. 63(2):95-99. 1997.

Muenchow, G.E.
Subandrodioecy and male fitness in Sagittaria lancifolia subsp. lancifolia
(Alismataceae).
AMER. J. BOT. 85(4):513-520. 1998.

Mumby, P.J., Green, E.P., Edwards, A.J., Clark, C.D.
Measurement of seagrass standing crop using satellite and digital airborne remote
sensing.
MARINE ECOL. PROG. SER. 159:51-60. 1997.

Neely, R.K., Wetzel, R.G.
Autumnal production by bacteria and autotrophs attached to Typha latifolia L.
detritus.
J. FRESHWATER ECOL. 12(2):253-267. 1997.

Netherland, M.D., Sisneros, D., Fox, A.M., Haller, W.T.
Field evaluation of low-dose metering and polymer endothall applications and
comparison of fluridone degradation from liquid and slow-release pellet
applications.
TECH. REPT. A-98-2, AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL RES. PROG., U.S. ARMY CORPS OF




ENGINEERS, WATERWAYS EXPT. STN., VICKSBURG, MS, 55 PP. 1998.


Newman, S., Schuette, J., Grace, J.B., Rutchey, K., et al
Factors influencing cattail abundance in the northern Everglades.
AQUATIC BOTANY 60:265-280. 1998.

Nohara, S., Kimura, M.
Growth characteristics of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. in response to water depth and
flooding.
ECOL. RESEARCH 12:11-20. 1997.

Norris, J.G., Wyllie-Echeverria, S.
Estimating maximum depth distribution of seagrass using underwater videography.
IN: PROC. FOURTH INTERNAT'L. CONF., REMOTE SENSING FOR MARINE AND COASTAL
ENVIRONMENTS: TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS, ORLANDO, FLORIDA, 17-19 MARCH
1997, 8 PP. 1997.

Notzold, R., Blossey, B., Newton, E.
The influence of below ground herbivory and plant competition on growth and
biomass allocation of purple loosestrife.
OECOLOGIA 113:82-93. 1998.

Orban, I., Bouharmont, J.
Megagametophyte development of Nymphaea nouchali Burm. F. (Nymphaeaceae).
BOT. J. LINNEAN SOC. 126:339-348. 1998.

Parkes, M.E., McBride, A.D., Waalkens, A.
Treatment of dilute piggery effluent with vertical flow reed beds.
J. ENVIRON. QUAL. 27(4):783-788. 1998.

Pedersen, 0., Jorgensen, L.B., Sand-Jensen, K.
Through-flow of water in leaves of a submerged plant is influenced by the apical
opening.
PLANTA 202:43-50. 1997.

Peinado, M., De Henares, A., Alcaraz, F., Delgadillo, J.
Syntaxonomy of some halophilous communities of North and Central America.
PHYTOCOENOLOGIA 25(1):23-31. 1995.


Pelton, D.K., Levine, S.N., Braner, M.




Measurements of phosphorus uptake by macrophytes and epiphytes from the
LaPlatte River (VT) using 32P in stream microcosms.
FRESHWATER BIOL. 39:285-299. 1998.

Perrow, M.R., Schutten, J.H., Howes, J.R., Holzer, T., et al
Interactions between coot (Fulica atra) and submerged macrophytes: the role of
birds in the restoration process.
HYDROBIOLOGIA 342/343:241-255. 1997.

Pollock, M.M., Naiman, R.J., Hanley, T.A.
Plant species richness in riparian wetlands a test of biodiversity theory.
ECOLOGY 79(1):94-105. 1998.

Ramelow, G.J., Yao, H., Zhuang, W.
Metal ion binding by biomass derived from nonliving algae, lichens, water hyacinth
root and sphagnum moss.
IN: WASTEWATER TREATMENT WITH ALGAE, Y.S. WONG, N.F.Y. TAM, EDS., SPRINGER-
VERLAG BERLIN, PP. 93-110. 1998.

Raspopov, I.M.
Aquatic vascular plants of Russian water bodies.
IN: PROC. 10TH EWRS INTERNAT'L. SYMP. AQUATIC WEEDS, EUROPEAN WEED RESEARCH
SOC., 21-25 SEPTEMBER 1998, LISBON, PP. 107-109. 1998.

Robach, F., Eglin, I., Tremolieres, M.
Species richness of aquatic macrophytes in former channels connected to a river: a
comparison between two fluvial hydrosystems differing in their regime and
regulation.
GLOBAL ECOLOGY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY LETTERS 6:267-274. 1997.

Rogers, S.D.
Growing the Madagascar lace plant.
AQUATIC GARDENER 11(1): 17-18. 1998.

Root, B.G.
Alkaline wetland vegetation dynamics at North Dakota piping plover nesting
beaches.
PH. D. DISSERTATION, UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI, COLUMBIA, 332 PP. 1996.




Rout, N.P., Tripathi, S.B., Shaw, B.P.
Effect of salinity on chlorophyll and proline contents in three aquatic macrophytes.
BIOLOGIA PLANTARUM 40(3):453-458. 1998.

Salmon, C., Crabos, J.L., Sambuco, J.P., Bessiere, J.M., et al
Artificial wetland performances in the purification efficiency of hydrocarbon
wastewater.
WATER, AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION 104:313-329. 1998.

Schrenk, C., Pflugmacher, S., Bruggemann, R., Sandermann, H., et al
Glutathione S-transferase activity in aquatic macrophytes with emphasis on habitat
dependence.
ECOTOXIC. ENVIRON. SAFETY 40:226-233. 1998.

Schutz, W.
Seed dormancy cycles and germination phenologies in sedges (Carex) from various
habitats.
WETLANDS 18(2):288-297. 1998.

Schwarz, A.M., Paskewitz, S.M., Orth, A.P., Tesch, M.J., et al
The lethal effects of Cyperus iria on Aedes aegypti.
J. AMER. MOSQUITO CONTROL ASSOC. 14(1):78-82. 1998.

Shearer, J.F.
Biological control of hydrilla using an endemic fungal pathogen.
J. AQUAT. PLANT MANAGE. 36:54-56. 1998.

Shrestha, P., Janauer, G.A.
Spatial variation in abundance pattern of aquatic plants by using Kohler index in
Lake Phewa, Nepal.
IN: PROC. 10TH EWRS INTERNAT'L. SYMP. AQUATIC WEEDS, EUROPEAN WEED RESEARCH
SOC., 21-25 SEPTEMBER 1998, LISBON, PP. 123-126. 1998.

Sidorkewicj, N.S., Lopez Cazorla, A.C., Fernandez, O.A., Mockel, G.C., et al
Effects of Cyprinus carpio on Potamogetonpectinatus in experimental culture: the
incidence of the periphyton.
IN: PROC. 10TH EWRS INTERNAT'L. SYMP. AQUATIC WEEDS, EUROPEAN WEED RESEARCH
SOC., 21-25 SEPTEMBER 1998, LISBON, PP. 127-130. 1998.




Sisneros, D., Lichtwardt, M., Greene, T.
Low-dose metering of endothall for aquatic plant control in flowing water.
J. AQUAT. PLANT MANAGE. 36:69-72. 1998.

Sloey, D., Schenck, T., Narf, R.
Distribution of aquatic invertebrates within a dense bed of Eurasian watermilfoil
(Myriophyllum spicatum L.).
J. FRESHWATER ECOL. 12(2):303-313. 1997.

Smart, R.M., Dick, G.O., Doyle, R.D.
Techniques for establishing native aquatic plants.
J. AQUAT. PLANT MANAGE. 36:44-49. 1998.

Ssymank, A., Hauke, U.
Landscape ecology of calcarious fens (Caricion davallianae) and the Cladietum
marisci in the lowlands of NE-Germany and their relevance for nature conservation
in the European Union Habitats Directive.
PHYTOCOENOLOGIA 28(1):105-142. 1998.

Wang, W., Lewis, M.A.
Metal accumulation by aquatic macrophytes.
IN: PLANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES, W. WANG, J.W. GORSUCH, J.S. HUGHES, EDS.,
CRC LEWIS PUBLISHERS, NEW YORK, PP. 367-416. 1997.

Weaver, M.J., Magnuson, J.J., Clayton, M.K.
Distribution of littoral fishes in structurally complex macrophytes.
CAN. J. FISH. AQUATIC SCI. 54(10):2277-2289. 1997.

Weil, C., Kollaard, W., Malcolm, I., Fankhauser, 0.
Constructed wetlands for the treatment of farmstead runoff in eastern Ontario,
Canada.
FOURTH INTERNAT'L. DAIRY HOUSING CONF., ASAE, 28-30 JAN. 1998, ST. LOUIS, MO, J.P.
CHASTAIN, ED., PP. 157-164. 1998.

Wells, R.D.S., de Winton, M.D., Clayton, J.S.
Successive macrophyte invasions within the submerged flora of Lake Tarawera,
Central North Island, New Zealand.
NEW ZEALAND J. MAR. FRESHWATER RES. 31(4):449-459. 1997.




Wu, J., Seliskar, D.M.
Salinity adaptation of plasma membrane H+-ATPase in the salt marsh plant
Spartinapatens: ATP hydrolysis and enzyme kinetics.
J. EXPER. BOT. 49(323):1005-1013. 1998.

Yang, Y-P., Yen, S-H.
Notes on Limnophila (Scrophulariaceae) of Taiwan.
BOT. BULL. ACAD. SIN. 38:285-295. 1997.

Yoshimura, T., Kuramochi, H., Konnai, M., Seto, H., et al
Effects of plant growth regulators on shoot growth and flowering of a perennial
paddy weed, Sagittaria pygmaea Miq.
BIOSCI. BIOTECH. BIOCHEM. 61(11): 1896-1900. 1997.

Zhulidov, A.V., Headley, J.V., Robarts, R.D., Nikanorov, A.M., et al
Concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu in contaminated wetlands of the Russian
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MARINE POLL. BULL. 35(7-12):252-259. 1997.



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Some responses to our last issue:




"The interesting article on the edibility of Trapa bispinosa reminded me of
something I saw during a recent trip to the Landesmuseum in Zurich, Switzerland. A
display of the foods used by the ancient Celtic tribes and Swiss lake-dwellers of the
area included a Trapa nut, apparently T. natans."
Dr. Susan Sprecher, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment
Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi.

"It was funny reading about the fruits of Trapa natans from Burma made into
rosaries and sold in Italy, because I remembered that Trapa natans is an invasive
plant proliferating in one of the lakes in North Italy."
Dr. Francisco Comin, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain.



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