Table of Contents
 About Aquaphyte
 Plant invasion
 New line drawings
 Some charophytes from the Orlando...
 CKD Cook honored
 Books, manuals, and online...
 From the database

Group Title: Aquaphyte : a newsletter about aquatic, wetland and invasive plants
Title: Aquaphyte
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00083179/00011
 Material Information
Title: Aquaphyte newsletter of the IPPC Aquatic Weed Program of the University of Florida, a part of the International Plant Protection Center of the Oregon State University, which is funded by the United States Agency for International Development
Abbreviated Title: Aquaphyte
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Center for Aquatic Plants
University of Florida -- IPPC Aquatic Weed Program
University of Florida -- Center for Aquatic Weeds
Publisher: The Program
Place of Publication: Gainesville FL
Publication Date: 1981-
Frequency: semiannual
Subject: Aquatic plants -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: Newsletters   ( lcsh )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (fall 1981)-
Issuing Body: Vols. for fall 1982- issued with: University of Florida, Center for Aquatic Weeds.
Issuing Body: Vols. for <1988-> issued by: University of Florida, Center for Aquatic Plants.
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 12, no. 2 (fall 1992).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00083179
Volume ID: VID00011
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06513906
lccn - sc 84007615
issn - 0893-7702


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Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    About Aquaphyte
        Page 3
    Plant invasion
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    New line drawings
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Some charophytes from the Orlando area in Florida, USA
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    CKD Cook honored
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Books, manuals, and online resources
        Page 31
    From the database
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
Full Text


A Newsletter about Aquatic, Wetland and Invasive Plants

Volume 21 Number 1 Summer 2001
Gainesville, Florida ISSN 0893-7702

Center for Aquatic and
Invasive Plants

Institute of Food and Agricultural
University of Florida
7922 N.W. 71st Street
Gainesville, Florida 32653

with support from:

The Florida Department of Environmental
Bureau of Invasive Plant Management

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,
Waterways Experiment Station,
Aquatic Plant Control Research Program

The St. Johns River Water Management District



It's Been Happening for Quite a While: Their Plants Invade Here, Our Plants
Invade There

NEW! Line-drawings: Hymenachne amplexicaulis and Sacciolepis striata

NEW! Photo-Murals for K-12 Teachers and Agency Trainers
Invasive Non-Native Plants Photo-Mural
Native Freshwater Plants Photo-Mural

Some Charonhvtes from the Orlando Area in Florida. USA

. Explorer, Taxonomist, Teacher Honored



a sampling of new additions to the APIRSdatabase

Aquaphyte page Home

Copyright 2001 University of Florida

About Aquaphyte

This is the newsletter of the Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants and the Aquatic,
Wetland and Invasive Plant Information Retrieval System (APIRS) of the
University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS). Support
for the information system is provided by the Florida Department of Environmental
Protection, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station
Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (APCRP), the St. Johns River Water
Management District and UF/IFAS.

Victor Ramey
Karen Brown

AQUAPHYTE is sent to managers, researchers, and agencies in 71 countries.
Comments, announcements, news items and other information relevant to aquatic
plant research are solicited.

Inclusion in AQUAPHYTE does not constitute endorsement, nor does exclusion
represent criticism of any item, organization, individual, or institution by the
University of Florida.

Aquaphyte Contents I Aguaphyte page I Home

Copyright 2001 University of Florida

It's Been Happening for Quite A While:
Their Plants Invade Here, Our Plants Invade There

"One of the major problems in the fight against harmful aquatic plants in Africa, as
in other parts of the world, is that infestations of particular species have often
spread alarmingly before their danger is realized. This may be because the
botanical identity of the plant is not known early enough, or alternatively, because it
is not recognized that the plant constitutes a potential danger as a harmful plant."
H. Wild, Scientific Council for Africa South of the Sahara, Project No. 14, 1961.

The problems of invasive non-native plants have been recognized and studied
around the world for quite some time--the Spartina invasion of England and France
in the late 1800s; the Salvinia invasion of Ceylon in the 1940s; the current Lantana
invasion of South Africa. And for more than 100 years, an official war has been
waged against water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in the U.S., recently resulting
in "maintenance control" of this plant in the U.S. Now, by Presidential decree and
federal law, the water hyacinth war has been expanded to include hundreds of
invasive non-native plants, aquatic and terrestrial, which are invading the wildlands
and waters of America.

To gain perspective on invasive plant problems and their solutions, wouldn't it
behoove us to learn of the experiences of others, past and present, successes and
failures, aquatic and terrestrial, in the U.S. and elsewhere? That's why the APIRS
plant literature database was created: to gather from myriad scientific sources the
insights and answers gleaned by invasive plant researchers around the world.
Invasive plant research published in several hundred journals and books is included
in this database of more than 53,000 items.

While there are many fine new books being published about invasive non-native
plants (listed at http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/books.html), the information in these books
generally is extracted from the research. The following publications represent a
fraction of the thousands of research items in the APIRS collection that are

specifically about plant invasions, ecology and biology. Although the APIRS
collection originally was devoted to aquatic plants, we are now tracking the
literature of all invasive plants as well, aquatic, wetland and terrestrial. The
following titles merely suggest the variety of invasive plant problems and
management projects around the world. You are welcome to query the online
database http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/database.html or have us do it for you kpb@gnv.
ifas.ufl.edu, to obtain citation bibliographies on any invasive plants in the world.


Animal Plant Control Commission, South Australia. 1994. Prohibited Aquarium
and Pond Plants. Proclaimed Plant Notes, APCC-5/Aquatic/Ver2/July121994.

(Australia's prohibited plant list includes some plants that are beneficial
natives in the U.S., such as Cabomba caroliniana, Hydrocotyle
ranunculoides, Ceratophyllum demersum, and Sagittaria graminea; some
plants prohibited in the U.S. are beneficial natives in Australia, plants such as
Melaleuca quinquenervia.)

Ashton, P.J., D.S. Mitchell. 1989. Aquatic Plants: Patterns and Modes of Invasion,
Attributes of Invading Species and Assess- ment of Control Programmes. In:
Biological Invasions: A Global Perspective, pp. 111-154. Drake, J.A. and H.A.
Mooney (eds.), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester.

(A review of modes.)

Baki, B.B. 2000. Biological invasions of noxious weeds in a man-made reservoir. A
case study of Timah Tasuh, Perlis, Malaysia. In: Abstracts, Third Internat'l. Weed
Sci. Congress, A. Legere (ed.), Foz do Iguassu, Brazil, June 6-11; pp. 5-6.

(Leersia hexandra, a bird food native in the U.S., is unwanted in Malaysia.)

Baldwin, J.R., J.R. Lovvorn. 1994. Expansion of seagrass habitat by the exotic
Zosterajaponica, and its use by dabbling ducks and brant in Boundary Bay, British
Columbia. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 103(1-2):119-127.

Barreto, R.W., H.C. Evans. 1995. The mycobiota of the weed Mikania micrantha
in southern Brazil with particular reference to fungal pathogens for biological
control. Mycol. Res. 99(3):343-352.

Bentivegna, D.J., O.A. Fernandez, M.A. Burgos, M.R. Sabbatini Cerzos. 2000.
Growth of Potamogetonpectinatus L. in the irrigation system of the Rio Colorado,
Argentina. In: Abstracts, Third Internat'l. Weed Sci. Congress, A. Legere, (ed.), Foz
do Iguassu, Brazil, pp. 219-220.

(Native in North America, invasive in South America.)

Blossey, B., J. Kamil. 1996. What determines the increased competitive ability of
invasive non-indigenous plants? In: Proceedings of the IX Internat'l. Symp. on
Biological Control of Weeds, pp. 3-9. V.C. Moran and J.H. Hoffmann (eds.). 19-26
January 1996, Stellenbosch, South Africa. University of Cape Town.

(Lythrum salicaria is also attacking South Africa.)

Bossard, C.C., J.M. Randall, M.C. Hoshovsky, eds. 2000. Invasive Plants of
California's Wildlands. University of California Press, Berkeley. 360 pp.

(Some invasive plants in California, such as Spartina alterniflora and
Spartina patens, are desirable natives in the eastern U.S.)

Chapman, V.J., J.M.A. Brown, C.F. Hill, J.L. Carr. 1974. Biology of excessive
weed growth in the hydro-electric lakes of the Waikato River, New Zealand.
Hydrobiologia 44(4):349- 363.

(Invasive Ceratophyllum demersum shut down the Ohakuri power plant in
1965; however, it is a desirable native in the southeastern U.S.)

Cody, W.J., K.L. MacInnes, J. Cayouette, S. Darbyshire. 2000. Alien and
invasive native vascular plants along the Norman Wells pipeline, District of
Mackenzie, Northwest Territories. Canadian Field Naturalist 114(1): 126-137.

Crowder, A.A., J.P. Smol, R. Dalrymple, R. Gilbert, et al. 1996. Rates of natural
and anthropogenic change in shoreline habitats in the Kingston Basin, Lake Ontario.

Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 53(Suppl.1):121-135.

Dawson, F.H., D. Holland. 1999. The distribution in bankside habitats of three
alien invasive plants in the U.K. in relation to the development of control strategies.
In: Developments in Hydrobiology, J. Caffrey, P.R.F. Barrett, et al., eds. Kluwer
Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 193-201.

Del Fosse, E.S. (ed.) 1980. Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on
Biological Control of Weeds. 22-29 July 1980. Brisbane, Australia.

(Biological control and management of Salvinia molesta, Rumex crispus,
Hypericum perforatum, and Seneciojacobaea, among other invasive plants.)

Deloach, C.J. 1991. Past successes and current prospects in biological control of
weeds in the United States and Canada. Natural Areas J. 11(3):129-142.

Duncan, K.W. 1997. A case study in Tamarix ramosissima control: Spring Lake,
New Mexico. In: Plant Invasions: Studies from North America and Europe, J.H.
Brock, M. Wade, P. Pysek and D. Green, (eds.), Backhuys Publ., Leiden, pp. 115-

Elton, C.S. 1958/2000. The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants.
University of Chicago Press. 181 pp.

(One of the first seers in the field.)

Ferreira, M.T., I.S. Moreira. 1995. The invasive component of a river flora under
the influence of Mediterranean agricultural systems. In: Plant Invasions General
Aspects and Special Problems, pp. 117-127. P. Pysek, K. Prach, M. Rejmanek and
M. Wade (eds). SPB Academic Publishing, Amsterdam.

(Paspalum distichum, a beneficial knotgrass native to the U.S., is unwanted in

Gopal, B. 1987. Water hyacinth. Aquatic Plant Studies 1. Elsevier Sci. Publ.,
Amsterdam. 471 pp. (A monograph.)

Gritten, R.H. 1995. Rhododendron ponticum and some other invasive plants in the

Snowdonia National Park. In: Plant Invasions General Aspects and Special
Problems, pp. 213-219. P. Pysek, K. Prach, et al (eds). 1995. SPB Academic
Publishing, Amsterdam.

(Rhododendron ponticum, native to Spain and Portugal, is unwanted in North

Groves, R.H. 1986. Plant invasions of Australia: An overview. In: Ecology of
Biological Invasions, R.H. Groves and J.J. Burdon (eds.). Cambridge University
Press, London, pp. 137- 149.

(Sagittaria graminea, Cabomba caroliniana, Eichhornia crassipes, Hydrilla
verticillata, Lantana camera, Myriophyllum aquaticum and M. spicatum are
unwanted in Australia.)

Hamabata, E. 1997. Distribution, stand structure and yearly biomass fluctuation of
Elodea nuttallii, an alien species in Lake Biwa. Jpn. J. Limnol. 58(2):173-190.

(A North American species in a Japanese lake.)

Hatting, E.R. 1961. Problem of Salvinia auriculata Aubl. and associated aquatic
weeds on Kariba Lake. Weed Research 1(4):303-306.

(Salvinia has been an invader for years.)

Hedge, P., L.K. Kriwoken. 2000. Evidence for effects of Spartina anglica invasion
on benthic macrofauna in Little Swanport Estuary, Tasmania. Austral Ecology 25

(Spartina anglica has made it to the other side of the world.)

Henderson, L. 1999. The Southern African Plant Invaders Atlas (SAPIA) and its
contribution to biological control. African Entomol. Memoir 1:159-163.

(Lantana camera, Melia azederach and Lonicerajaponica are blacklisted
both in Florida and in South Africa.)

Jenkins, P.T. 2000. Global policy changes needed to stop biological invasions
caused by international trade. In: Third Internat'l. Weed Sci. Congress, A. Legere,
(ed.), Foz do Iguassu, Brazil, p. 214.

Kartesz, J.T., C.A. Meacham. 1999. Synthesis of the North American Flora. CD,
North Carolina Botanical Garden.

Kissmann, K.G. 1987. 0 problema das plants invasoras na cultural do arroz.
Atualidades Agricolas 1(1):4-11.

(Polygonum hydropiperoides, native in Florida, is unwanted in Portuguese
rice fields.)

Kornas, J. 1996. Five centuries of exchange of synanthropic flora between the Old
and the New World. Wiadomsci Botaniczne 40(1): 11-19. (In Polish; English

(Humans and post- Columbian plant migrations.)

Kozhova, O.M., L.A. Izhboldina. 1992. Spread of Elodea canadensis in Lake
Baikal. Hydrobiologia 239(1):43-52.

Les, D.H., L.J. Mehrhoff. 1999. Introduction of nonindigenous aquatic vascular
plants in southern New England: a historical perspective. Biological Invasions

(Cabomba caroliniana and Limnobium spongia, natives to the southeastern U.
S., are unwanted in the northeastern U.S.)

Monteiro, A., T. Vasconcelos, L. Catarino, eds. 1998. Proc. 10th EWRS
International Symposium on Aquatic Weeds. European Weed Research Society,
September 1998, Lisbon.

(Since 1967, the European Weed Research Society has met over invasive

Nohara, S., M. Hiroki. 1996. Effects of land use in the surrounding area on
bamboo grass invasion into Akaiyachi Mire. In: Mires of Japan, T. Iwakuma, ed.,

National Inst. Environ. Studies, Tsukuba, pp. 95-98.

Pieterse, A.H., K.J. Murphy. 1990. Aquatic Weeds: The Ecology and
Management of Nuisance Aquatic Vegetation. Oxford University Press, New York.
593 pp.

(Information about 372 aquatic species around the world.)

Prach, K., S. Husak. 1996. Invasion of alien plants. In: Floodplain Ecology and
Management, pp. 93-98. Prach, H., J. Jenick, et al, (eds.). SPB Academic Publ.,

(Among others, Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hog weed) is a problem
plant for river managers in Ireland, is prohibited in Washington state, and is
invading Canada.)

Pysek, P. 1998. Alien and native species in Central European urban floras: a
quantitative comparison. J. Biogeog. 25:155-163.

Roberts, D.E., A.G. Church, S.P. Cummins. 1999. Invasion of Egeria into the
Hawkesbury-Nepean River, Australia. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 37:31-34.

(Egeria is displacing "native" Vallisneria americana in Australia.)

Ruiz-Avila, R.J., V.V. Klemm. 1996. Management of Hydrocotyle ranunculoides
L.f., an aquatic invasive weed of urban waterways in Western Austra- lia.
Hydrobiologia 340:187-190.

(Hydrocotyle ranunculoides, floating marsh pennywort, is native to the U.S.
but is unwanted on Australian rivers.)

Sandlund, O.T., P.J. Schei, A. Viken, eds. 1999. Invasive Species and
Biodiversity Management. Kluwer Academic Publishing, Boston. 431 pp.

Stone, C.P., C.W. Smith, et al., eds. 1992. Alien Plant Invasions in Native
Ecosystems of Hawaiii--Management and Research. University of Hawaii,

(A continent and half an ocean apart, Florida and Hawaii share some of the
same invasive plants: Psidium guajava, P. cattleianum, Schinus
terebinthifolius, Ficus microcarpa, Sacciolepis indica and others.)

Thompson, K., J.G. Hodgson, T.C.G. Rich. 1995. Native and alien invasive
plants: more of the same? Ecography 18:390-402. Copenhagen.

(A list of many non-native plants in Europe.)

Tjitrosoedirdjo, S.S., E.T. Wahyu. 1994. Weed Information Sheets. Southeast
Asia Weed Information Center, SEAMEO BIOTROP, Bogor, Indonesia.

(Eleusine indica, Indian goosegrass, is an invasive plant in the crops of
Indonesia, as well as the U.S. and eastern Canada.)

Tsuyuzaki, S., T. Tsujii. 1992. Size and shape of Carex mayeriana tussocks in an
alpine wetland, northern Sichuan Province, China. Can. J. Bot. 70:2310-2312.

Usher, J.F. 1971. Salvinia--a rival for water hyacinth? Cane Growers Quarterly
Bull. 34:137-138.

(Salvinia in Australia since the 1960s.)

van Wilgen, B.W., F. van der Heyden, H.G. Zimmermann, D. Magadlela, T.
Willems. 2000. Big returns from small organisms: developing a strategy for the
biological control of invasive alien plants in South Africa. South African J. Science

(The "Working for Water" program led to the establishment of over 200 alien
plant control projects in South Africa against plants such as Acacia longifolia,
Lantana camera and Solanum mauritianum.)

van der Wal, R., S. van Lieshout, D. Bos, R.H. Drent. 2000. Are spring staging
brent geese evicted by vegetation succession? Ecography (23(1):60-69.

(Migrating waterfowl may not be able to eat invading plants in The

Velu, G., A. Rajagopal. 1996. Response of rice (Oryza sativa) to infestation of
barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli). Indian J. Agric. Sci. 66(6):360-362.

Wisheu, I.C., P.A. Keddy. 1994. The low competitive ability of Canada's Atlantic
coastal plain shoreline flora: Implications for conservation. Biological Conserv. 68

Wild, H. 1961. Harmful aquatic plants in Africa and Madagascar. CSA/CCTA Joint
Publ. No. 73, Salisbury. 68 pp.

Zalba, S.M., M.I. Sonaglioni, C.A. Compagnoni, C.J. Belenguer. 2000. Using a
habitat model to assess the risk of invasion by an exotic plant. Biological Conserv.

(Atriplex nummularia invasion in Argentina.)

Aquaphyte Contents I Aquaphyte page I Home

Copyright 2001 University of Florida

New Line Drawings!

These are new drawings of two aquatic plants in Florida that eco-managers
need to carefully distinguish:

Hymenachne amplexicaulis is an invasive non-native plant to be
controlled in Florida.

Sacciolepis striata is a native plant to be promoted in Florida.

t p

\" >y r

1 ,1

__ ,::.., S

These line drawings are by Laura Line, Center for Aquatic and Invasive
Plants, University of Florida. With proper attribution and in not-for-sale items
only, please feel free to use these line drawings for manuals, brochures,
reports, proposals, web sites...

Aquaphyte Contents I Aquaphyte page I Home

Copyright 2001 University of Florida


A Collaborative Effort:
Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, University of Florida
Bureau of Invasive Plant Management, Florida Department of Environmental Protection

Classroom size, Free to Requesting Teachers (K-12)
Send your non-virtual letter for immediate delivery.

Here are two large photo-murals of 75 invasive non-native plants in the U.S. Of the plants
depicted, 100% are found in Florida, 50% are also found elsewhere in the Southeast U.S.; 50%
are also found in Hawaii; 15% are also found in the West; 15% are also found in the East; and
17% are also found in most of the rest of the U.S.

All plants are depicted in large, strikingly attractive color photographs. Here is the list of plants.

At the request of teachers and enviro-trainers, these photo-murals were produced to be
attention-grabbing teaching tools for science classes and management agency training, and for

homeowners' forums, ecology clubs, environmental advocacy groups and others concerned about
the onslaught of non-native plants in the United States. It was produced by the University of
Florida and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, with printing support from
Cerexagri. Additional printing support came from Sea Grant, the national Aquatic Plant
Management Society, the Florida Aquatic Plant Management Society, and from the U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers Jacksonville Office.

The photo-murals are available:

-- free-to-teachers:

fully laminated copies of the murals are free to teachers (U.S., K-12) and
public agency trainers (U.S.) who request them in writing, on letterhead, to
the non-virtual APIRSaddress below. there is a limited number of free
copies available -

Please do not telephone or e-mail us about the free photo-mural s offer;
we are happy to accept letters on letterhead from teachers (U.S., K-12) and
public agency trainers (U.S.) who want their free copies. Send your request
letters to: APIRS Photo-Mural, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants,
7922 NW 71 ST, Gainesville, FL 32653.

-- All four plant photo-murals are for sale to anyone from 1-800-226-1764:

They may be purchased singly or as a complete set.

1) SP-293 Native Freshwater Plants Photo-Mural fully laminated 62 in.
X 23 in.
$20 each plus S/H.

2) SP-329 MORE Native Freshwater Plants Photo-Mural fully laminated
27 in. X 39 in.
$12 each plus S/H.

3) SP-292 Invasive Non-Native Plants fully laminated 62 in. X 23 in.
$20 each plus S/H.

4) SP-328 MORE Invasive Non-Native Plants fully laminated 27 in. X
39 in.
$12 each plus S/H.


plus S/H

Purchase copies from the IFAS Publications Office, 1-800-226-1764.
(Credit cards accepted.)

Remember that WHEN YOU PURCHASE A COPY, you also are buying a copy
for a K-12 teacher!

Home |
Copyright 2003 University of Florida





A Collaborative Effort:
Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, University of Florida
Bureau of Invasive Plant Management, Florida Department of Environmental Protection

All four plant photo-murals are for sale to anyone from 1-800-226-1764; or by visiting the
IFASBOOKS website:

They may be purchased individually or as a complete set.
1) SP 293 Native Freshwater Plants Photo-Mural fully laminated 62 in. X 23 in. $20 each plus S/H.
2) SP 329 MORE Native Freshwater Plants Photo-Mural fully laminated 27 in. X 39 in. $12 each plus S/H.
3) SP 292 Invasive Non-Native Plants fully laminated 62 in. X 23 in. $20 each plus S/H.
4) SP 328 MORE Invasive Non-Native Plants fully laminated 27 in. X 39 in. $12 each plus S/H.

DESCRIBED ABOVE: $39.50 plus S/H Purchase copies from the IFAS Publications Office, 1-800-226-
1764; or visit the IFASBOOKS website (Credit cards accepted.)

These photo-murals were produced at the request of teachers and enviro-trainers to be attention-
grabbing teaching tools for science classes and management agency training, and for homeowners' forums,
ecology clubs, environmental advocacy groups and others interested in marshes, swamps and other wetlands
of the United States. The murals were produced by the University of Florida and the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection, with printing support from Cerexagri. Additional printing support came from Sea
Grant, the national Aquatic Plant Management Society, the Florida Aquatic Plant Management Society, and
from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Jacksonville Office.


Lest we forget, with so much current emphasis on invasive non-natives, most plants in the U.S. are
native; beneficial to animals, humans, and the environment; and often beautiful. So, here are two photo-
murals of 76 native freshwater plants of the U.S.. Of the plants depicted, 100% are in Florida; 97% are also
found in the rest of the Southeast U.S.; 50% are found in the Eastern U.S.; 22% are found in the West; and 22%
are found throughout most of the U.S.

Click here for the list of plants featured on the two "native" murals.



* I


Eu -

Here are two large photo-murals of 75 invasive non-native plants in the U.S. Of the
plants depicted, 100% are found in Florida, 50% are also found elsewhere in the Southeast U.S.; 50% are also
found in Hawaii; 15% are also found in the West; 15% are also found in the East; and 17% are also found in
most of the rest of the U.S. As in the other photo-murals of this series, all plants are depicted in large, strikingly
attractive color photographs.
Click here for the list of plants featured on the two "invasive" murals.

IFAS Extension
Ci e r/i r A.i.fiy i-
4-, itm !fw iw 'lif

&,ave Prri
C.^ r

Copyright 2006 University of Florida




Some charophytes from the Orlando area in

Florida, USA

by Anders Langangen, Hallagerbakken 82b, 1256 Oslo, Norway

On vacation in eastern parts of USA last summer I had a few days in Orlando, where
I got the opportunity to visit a few lakes in the area. In two of these lakes I found several
interesting charophytes which I would like to report.

The North American charophytes have been studied for more than one hundred years
(from Allen, 1880 to Mann, et al., 1999). Still, there is much to find out, both concerning
which species occur and their ecology and distribution. There is no modem flora covering
the group in North America and my determinations are based on common knowledge of
the group, and especially three articles which together cover the different genera of
charophytes (Robinson, 1906, Allen, 1954, and Wood, 1948). Later works by the eminent
American charologist Richard D. Wood (Wood 1965, 1968) have a species concept which
is different from that which is in common use today. In Wood (1965) the number of
species is reduced from 395 to 81, but the "old" species are still partly found as forms or
microspecies. The descriptions of these are useful. Excellent drawings of many species
can be found in Wood and Imahori (1964).

Florida is a tropical part of USA. The soil is rich in lime, and in the Orlando area there are
a great number of lakes of different sizes. One should therefore expect to find charophytes
in many of these lakes. All such finds are of interest. Material for determination can be
sent to me. Determined specimens will be kept in the Botanical Museum, University of
Oslo (Herb. 0). Specimens can be treated as angiosperms or conserved in 70% alcohol
and later put in small plastic envelopes (without alcohol) and sent.

Visited sites:

1. Florida: Osceola County: Kissimmee: Lake Cecilie, June 29, 2000. A eutrophic
medium lime-rich lake with a fine white sandy bottom. Charophytes were growing in
dense, mixed stands in shallow parts of the lake. Water analyses (analysed in Norway):
specific resistance 316 uS/cm, chloride 20 mg/L, and calcium 14 mg/L/

2. Florida: Orange County: Orlando: Lake Crescent (at the entrance to Disney MGM

Studios), June 30, 2000. A mesotrophic lake which presumably is artificial. Nitella was
growing in shallow parts competing with phanerogames and filamentous algae.

3. Orlando: Lake Lucerne, July 1, 2000. Eutrophic lake. No charophytes were found.

4. Orlando: Lake Copeland, July 1, 2000. A strongly polluted lake without charophytes.
Lakes 3 and 4 are close to the Orlando Railway Station.

The charophytes found:

1. Nitella transilis T.F. Allen (Icon 308 in Wood & Imahori 1964)

Locality: USA: Florida: Orlando: Lake Crescent July 30, 2000.

Specimens monoecious to 10 cm high, green. Axes to 150 um in diameter. Internodes 1-
2x the length of branchlets, to 1 cm. Both sterile and fertile branchlets 6 in a whorl, 2 (3)
furcate, to 0.4 cm long. Primary rays 0.5x of branchlet length, secondaries of 4-5, of
which one is a central secondary ray or antheridium. Dactyls two celled, to 1.2 mm, of
which end cell is 50 um. Gametangia solitary, conjoined at (1)-2 node. Oogonium 450 um
long. Oronula 100 um long and 100 um wide. Convolutions 8. Oospore 200 um long, 150
um wide. Brown reticulated membrane. Fossae 34 um. Antheridium 150 um wide.


Nitella trajnili is a species very close to N. tenuissima Kutzing and is separated from this
by having much shorter internodes which gives the species a more compact look. The
species has been accepted by Wood (1948, 1949, and 1952). In Wood and Muenscher
(1956) it is regarded as a variety of N. tenuissima. Allen (1954) does not accept it as a
species, only as part of the variability of N. tenuissima. In Wood (1965) it is N. tenuissima
f. transilis (Allen) R.D. Wood.


Lake Crescent is a mesotrophic lake and the charophytes were found on shallow places
inside a belt of different water plants. Wood (1952) reported the species from three
localities -- one oligotrophic lake on sand bottom and two mesotrophic ponds and sand-
muck bottom. The species was associated with oligotrophic/mesotrophic species such as
Nitellaflexilis (L.) Agardh, N. megacarpa T.F. Allen, and Chara braunii Gmelin.


North American species.

2. Nitella leibergii T.F. Allen (Icon 315 in Wood & Imahori 1964)

Locality: USA: Florida: Orlando: Lake Cecilie June 29, 2000.

Specimens monoecious to 9 cm high, green. Axes to 400 um in diameter. Internodes 1-2x
the length of branchlets to 1.5 cm long. Fertile branchlets 7 in a whorl, 1-2-(3)(very few)
furcate, 0.6 cm long. Primaries 0.5x branchlet length, secondaries 7 (short 1/6 of
primaries) again furcate into 1-2 tertiaries. Sterile branchlets 7 in a whorl, 1 and 2 (3)
furcate to 1.1 cm. (Small heads with fertile whorls found on many shoots). Dactyls 4-5,
uniformly 2-celled (end-cell 50 um, penultimate 0.9 mm). Gametangia conjoined at
second branchlet nodes. Without mucus. Oogonia 400 um long, 300 um wide with 7
convolutions. Coronula small. Oospore 250-300 um long, 200-250 um wide with 5-6
ridges. Membrane granulate. Dark brown to golden brown oospores. Fossae 50 um.
Antheridia unripe, and only found in the small undeveloped heads on some whorls.


This species is or is close to Nitella gracilis (Smith) Agardh. It differs from this by having
strictly 2-celled dactyls. Other similar species are N. intermedia Nordstedt in Allen and N.
minute Allen.


Lake Cecilie is a eutrophic lake and Nitella were growing here in dense stands.


North American species.

3. Chara sejuncta A. Braun (Icons 99 and 100 in Wood & Imahori 1964)

(= C. compact Robinson)

Locality: USA: Florida: Orlando: Lake Cecilie June 29, 2000.

Plants to 6 cm high, green. Axes 550 um in diameter. Internodes to 1 mm. Cortex
regularly triplostichous, isostichous. Spine-cells solitary to 250 um long, commonly
shorter, acute, at older internodes not visible. Stipulodes in two rows. Upper row to 750
um long, lower row 250 um. 10-11 branchlets in each whorl, to 1-2x the length of the

internodes. Number of branchlet segments 11. Lowest branchlet segment ecorticate, others
corticated. Anterior bract-cells two, bracteoles two, both as long as the oogonium,
posterior bract-cells five?, short, to 150 um long. Monoecious, sejoined. Oogonium 1000
um long; including coronula, 600 um wide. Antheridium 300 um wide.


This is a species similar to the widespread Chara zeylanica Klein ex. Willd., but differs
from this by having sejoined (at different branchlet nodes) gametangia.


Little is known about this species. In eutrophic Lake Cecilie a few specimens were found
together with Nitella and Chara gymnopitys. The species is also found in "lakes in the
lowlands of the Mississippi Illinois, opposite St. Louis" (Robinson 1906).


American species, see Allen (1894).

4. Chara gymnopitys A. Braun (Icons 125, 127, 129, and 130 in Wood & Imahori 1964)

(= C. cardias Allen ex. Robinson, C. coronatiformisRobinson)

Locality: USA: Florida: Orlando: Lake Cecilie June 29, 2000.

Plants 4-15 cm high. Axes to 500 um in diameter. Internodes to 10 mm long. Root bulbils.
Cortex diplostichous to subtriplostichous, isostichous to strongly tylacanthous on younger
internodes. Spine-cells solitary from papillous to as long as stem diameter scattered and
not dominating. On small specimens spine-cells are appressed to the stem both up and
down. Stipulodes in one row (haplostephanous), acute, 900-1250 um long, 100 um wide,
24 stipulodes in 12 pairs. Number of branchlets in each whorl 9-12, to 10 mm, 0.5-2x the
length of internodes. Number of segments 3-6, end-segment 1-celled, to 1 mm long.
Branchlets total ecorticated. Bract-cells verticillate as long as or longer than the segments.
Rich fertile, monoecious, conjoined at 1-3 segment. Oogonium 850 um long, to 450 um
wide. Convolutions 10-13. Coronula 100 um long, 150 um wide. Oospore 550 um long,
350 um wide, black, 10-13 ridges. Fossae 50 um. Antheridium 300 um wide.


The original description of Chara cardias was based on material collected in Volusia

County in Florida. A similar species, C. flaccida A. Braun is reported from Latin America
(Horn af Rantzien 1950).


According to Zaneveld (1940) Chara gymnopitys is a prominent element in the rice-
fields or paddies of the tropics and subtropics."


Southeastern coast of USA (Tindall 1966). Asia (Zaneveld 1940).


Allen, G.O. 1954. An annotated key to the Nitellae of North America. Bull. Torrey
Bot. Club 81: 35-60.

Allen, T.F. 1880. The Characeae of America. Part 1. New York.

Allen, T.F. 1894. Note on Chara sejuncta A. Br. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 21: 526.

Horn af Rantzien, H. 1950. Charophyta reported from Latin America. Arkiv for
Botanik 1: 355-411.

Mann, H., Proctor, V.W., and Taylor, A.S. 1999. Towards a biogeography of
North American charophytes. Aust. J. Bot. 47:445-458.

Robinson, C.B. 1906. The Characeae of North America. Bull. New York Bot.
Garden 4: 244-308.

Tindall, D.R. 1966. The Systematics and Ecology of the Characeae (Chara and
Nitella) of the Southwestern United States and Northern Mexico. Ph.D. Thesis
University of Louisville, pp. 134-145/Chara hydropitys Reichenbach.

Wood, R.D. 1948. A review of the genus Nitella (Characeae) of North America.
Farlowia 3: 331-398.

Wood, R.D. 1949. The Characeae of Woods Hole Region, Massachusetts. Biol.
Bull. 96: 179-203.

Wood, R.D. 1952. An analysis of ecological factors in the occurrence of
Characeae of the Woods Hole Region, Massachusetts. Ecology 33: 104-109.

Wood, R.D. 1964. Monograph of the Characeae. In: Wood, R.D. & Imahori, K., A
revision of the Characeae. Vol. I. 904 pp. J. Cramer, Weinheim.

Wood, R.D. 1967. Charophytes of North America. A Guide to the Species of
Charophyta of North America, Central America, and the West Indies. 72 pp.
University of Rhode Island, Kingston, USA.

Wood, R.D. and Imahori, K. 1964. Iconograph of the Characeae. In: Wood, R.D.
and Imahori, K., A Revision of the Characeae. Vol. II. J. Cramer, Weinheim.

Wood, R.D. & Muenscher, W.C. 1956. The Characeae of the State of New York.
Mem. 338, Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta.: 3-77.

Zaneveld, J.S. 1940. The Charophyta of Malaysia and adjacent countries. Blumea
4: 1-223.

Aquaphyte Contents I Aquaphyte page Home


CDK Cook Honored

From left to right: Paul Cox, Director, NTBG; C.D.K. Cook, Honoree; Douglas
McBryde Kinney, Chairman, NTBG Board of Trustees

Christopher D.K. Cook, explorer, taxonomist and teacher, who is also the global
authority on aquatic vascular plants, has been awarded the David Fairchild Medal
for Plant Exploration. The Fairchild Medal is the world's most prestigious award
for plant discovery and conservation, an award which "honors distinguished service
to humanity." The ceremony took place February 9, 2001, in Coconut Grove
(Miami), Florida at The Kampong, an exquisite home overlooking Biscayne Bay and
the former home of David Fairchild.

Presenting the medal (as well as a citation and a check) were Paul Alan Cox,
director of the National Tropical Botanical Garden (NTBG), and Douglas McBryde
Kinney, Chairman of the NTBG Board of Trustees. The NTBG is comprised of five
gardens and three preserves in Florida and Hawaii and is dedicated to conservation,
research and education relating to the world's tropical plants.

Professor Cook is the well-known and well-traveled author of numerous books and
scientific articles on aquatic plants of the world, including Waterplants of the World,
first published in 1974. He also developed Switzerland's Institute for Systematic
Botany and the Botanic Gardens at the University of Zurich.

Aquaphyte Contents Aquaphyte page Home

Copyright 2001 University of Florida

Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants

May 15-18, 2008; Palmetto, Florida www.fnps.org
28th Annual Florida Native Plant Society Conference
Uplands to Estuaries: Celebrating Florida's Native Plant Heritage

May 20-22, 2008; Imperial Palace Casinos, Biloxi, Mississippi http://www.se-eppc.org
10th Annual Southeast EPPC Conference

June 23-27, 2008; International Weed Science Society, Vancouver, Canada http://iws.ucdavis.
International Weed Science Society

Aquatic Weed Management


Mike Netherland, USA I mdnether(@ufl .edu

Kevin Murphy, UK |I k.murphy@vbio.qla.ac.uk

June 23-26, 2008; University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida http://www.conference.ifas.ufl.edu/soils/
Biogeochemistry of Wetlands: Science and Applications Short Course

August 25-26th, 2008; LSU Energy, Coast, and Environmental Building, Baton Rouge, Louisiana http://www.
Sustainable Management of Deltaic Ecosystems: Integration of Theory and Practice

September 7-12, 2008; Daniel Boone National Forest, Olympia Springs, Kentucky http://tfce.uky.edu/wri 2008.
2008 Eastern Regional Wetland Restoration Institute

September 23-25, 2008; Austin Carey Memorial Forest Education Building, Gainesville, Fl. http://soils.ifas.ufl.
Hydric Soils Short Course Specialized Training for Wetland Specialists

October 21-23, 2008; Austin Carey Memorial Forest Education Building, Gainesville, Fl. http://soils.ifas.ufl.edu
Hydric Soils Short Course Specialized Training for Wetland Specialists

November 12-14, 2008; Stellenbosch, South Africa http://academic.sun.ac.za/cib/events/Elton CIB symposium.
Fifty Years of Invasion Ecology the Legacy of Charles Elton
Centre of Excellence for Invasion Biology, Stellenbosch University

November 18-20 2008; Austin Carey Memorial Forest Education Building, Gainesville, Fl. http://soils.ifas.ufl.
Hydric Soils Short Course Specialized Training for Wetland Specialists

June 23-26, 2009; Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico http://www.paleolim.org/index.php/symposia/
11th International Paleolimnology Symposium

August 23-27, 2009; Stellenbosch, South Africa www.emapi2009.co.za or rich@(sun.ac.za
The 10th International Conference on the Ecology and Management of Alien Plant
Invasions (EMAPI)
Centre for Invasion Biology (CIB), Department of Botany & Zoology, Stellenbosch University

WFAS Extension
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Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants

Books, Manuals, and Online Resources

New Books and Reports
8 Plant Manuals, Field Guides and Textbooks
Langeland/Burks Non-Native Plants Book
8 Online Articles and Extension Publications
Extension Publications & Articles
8 Online Books

. 5 rPt PAnr

A'*I h ^ "

IFAS Extension
I.'r',t ,i- r r l i,', i',

Copyright 2007 University of Florida


Here is a sampling of the research articles, books and reports which have been entered into
the APIRS aquatic, wetland and invasive plant database since Winter 2000. The database
has more than 53,000 citations. To receive free bibliographies on specific plants and/or
subjects, contact APIRS at 352-392-1799 or use the database online at http://plants.ifas.ufl.

To obtain articles, contact your nearest state or university library.

Ali, M.M., Murphy, K.J., Abernethy, V.J.
Macrophyte functional variables versus species assemblages as predictors of trophic
status in flowing waters.
HYDROBIOLOGIA 415:131-138. 1999.

Amoros, C., Bornette, G., Henry, C.P.
Environmental auditing: a vegetation based method for ecological diagnosis of
riverine wetlands.
ENVIRON. MANAGE. 25(2):211-227. 2000.

Abe, K., Ozaki, Y., Mizuta, K.
Evaluation of useful plants for the treatment of polluted pond water with low N and
P concentrations.
SOIL SCI. PLANT NUTRITION 45(2):409-417. 1999.

Ambrogio, D.M., Gallardo, M.T., Benson, R.F., Martin, D.F.
Use of a computer-interfaced system for determination of the inhibition of oxygen
production by selected aquatic weeds in the presence of cattail (Typha domingensis)
FLORIDA SCIENTIST 63(2): 118-122. 2000.

Antuniassi, U.R., Velini, E.D., Martins, D.

Mechanical removal of aquatic weeds: operational and economic analysis.
BRAZIL, JUNE 2000, P. 219 (ABSTRACT). 2000.

Araki, S.
Variation of sterility and fertility in Utricularia australis F. australis in Hokkaido,
northern Japan.
ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH 15(2):193-201. 2000.

Azza, N.G.T., Kansiime, F., Nalubega, M., Denny, P.
Differential permeability of papyrus and Miscanthidium root mats in Nakivubo
Swamp, Uganda.
AQUATIC BOTANY 67:169-178. 2000.

Bagwell, C.E., Lovell, C.R.
Microdiversity of culturable diazotrophs from the rhizoplanes of the salt marsh
grasses Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus.
MICROBIAL ECOLOGY 39(2):128-136. 2000.

Baki, B.B.
Biological invasions of noxious weeds in a man-made reservoir. A case study of
Timah Tasuh, Perlis, Malaysia.
BRAZIL, JUNE 2000, PP. 5-6 (ABSTRACT). 2000.

Balashov, L.S., Zub, L.N., Savitsky, A.L.
Types of Kiev waterbodies according to floristic composition of higher aquatic

Banziger, R.
Spatio-temporal distribution of size classes and larval instars of aquatic insects
(Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Lepidoptera) in a Potamogeton pectinatus L. bed
(Lake Geneva, Switzerland).
REVUE SUISSE DE ZOOLOGIE 107(1):139-151. 2000.

Barrat-Segretain, M.-H., Henry, C.P., Bornette, G.
Regeneration and colonization of aquatic plant fragments in relation to the
disturbance frequency of their habitats.

ARCH. HYDROBIOL. 145(1):111-127. 1999.

Batson, W.T.
The rushes of North and South Carolina.
J. ELISHA MITCHELL SCI. SOC. 68(1):93-101. 1952.

Bennett, A.
Potamogeton polygonifolius in Newfoundland.
BOTANICAL GAZETTE 32:58-59. 1901.

Bergmann, B.A., Cheng, J., Classen, J., Stomp, A.-M.
Nutrient removal from swine lagoon effluent by duckweed.
TRANS. AMER. SOC. AGRIC. ENG. (ASAE) 43(2):263-269. 2000.

Bessey, C.E.
The yellow water crowfoot.

Blazencic, J., Blazencic, Z., Cvijan, M.
Floristical and ecological study of Charophyta in water ecosystems of National Park
"Durmitor" (Montenegro, Yugoslavia).

Blindow, I., Hargeby, A., Wagner, B.M.A., Andersson, G.
How important is the crustacean plankton for the maintenance of water clarity in
shallow lakes with abundant submerged vegetation?
FRESHWATER BIOLOGY 44(2): 185-197. 2000.

Broughton, S.
Impact of the seed-fly, Ophiomyia lantanae (Froggatt) (Diptera: Agromy-zidae), on
the viability of lantana fruit in Southeast Queensland, Australia.
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL 15:168-172. 1999.

Browning, J., Gordon-Gray, K.D.
Patterns of fruit morphology in Bolboschoenus (Cyperaceae) and their global
SOUTH AFRICAN J. BOT. 66(1):63-71. 2000.

Cameron, G.N., Glumac, E.G., Eshelman, B.D.

Germination and dormancy in seeds of Sapium sebiferum (Chinese tallow tree).
J. COASTAL RESEARCH 16(2):391-395. 2000.

Capers, R.S.
A comparison of two sampling techniques in the study of submersed macrophyte
richness and abundance.
AQUATIC BOTANY 68:87-92. 2000.

Caplen, C.A., Werth, C.R.
Isozymes of the Isoetes riparia complex, II. Ancestry and relationships of
SYSTEMATIC BOT. 25(2):260-280. 2000.

Castell, J.
Farming the waters: bringing aquatic plant and animal species to agriculture.
CAN. J. ANIMAL SCI. 80(2):235-243. 2000.

Chang, E.R., Dickinson, T.A., Jefferies, R.L.
Seed flora of La Perouse Bay, Manitoba, Canada: a DELTA database of
morphological and ecological characters.
CANADIAN J. BOT. 78(4):481-496. 2000.

Charlton, W.A.
Studies in the Alismataceae. X. Floral organogenesis in Luronium natans (L.) Raf.
CAN. J. BOT. 77:1560-1568. 1999.

Crous, P.W., El-Gholl, N.E., Walker, S.E., Schubert, T.S.
Angular leaf spot disease of Saururus caused by Phaeoramularia saururi Comb.
MYCOTAXON 72:7-13. 1999.

Davis, M.A., Grime, J.P., Thompson, K.
Fluctuating resources in plant communities: a general theory of invasibility.
J. ECOLOGY 88(3):528-534. 2000.

Donabaum, K., Schagerl, M., Dokulil, M.T.
Integrated management to restore macrophyte domination.
HYDROBIOLOGIA 395/396:87-97. 1999.

Dos Santos, M.C., Lenzi, E.
The use of aquatic macrophytes (Eichhornia crassipes) as a biological filter in the
treatment of lead contaminated effluents.
ENVIRON. TECHNOL. 21(6):615-622. 2000.

Duke, D., O'Quinn, P., Sutton, D.L.
Control of Hygrophila and other aquatic weeds in the Old Plantation Water Control
AQUATICS 22(3):4,7-8,10. 2000.

Dyck, B.S., Shay, J.M.
Biomass and carbon pool of two bogs in the experimental lakes area, northwestern
CAN. J. BOT. 77(2):291-304. 1999.

Epler, J.H., Cuda, J.P., Center, T.D.
Redescription of Cricotopus lebetis (Diptera: Chironomidae), a potential biocontrol
agent of the aquatic weed Hydrilla (Hydrocharitaceae).
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST 83(2):171-180. 2000.

Ervin, G.N., Wetzel, R.G.
Allelochemical autotoxicity in the emergent wetland macrophyte Juncus effusus
AMERICAN J. BOT. 87(6):853-860. 2000.

Everitt, J.H., Escobar, D.E., Webster, C.F., Lonard, R.I.
Light reflectance characteristics and film image relations among three aquatic plant
TEXAS J. SCI. 52(2):153-158. 2000.

Feist, B.E., Simenstad, C.A.
Expansion rates and recruitment frequency of exotic smooth cordgrass, Spartina
alterniflora (Loisel), colonizing unvegetated littoral flats in Willapa Bay,
ESTUARIES 23(2):267-274. 2000.

Fonseca, M.S., Julius, B.E., Kenworthy, W.J.
Integrating biology and economics in seagrass restoration: how much is enough and

ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING 15(3-4):227-237. 2000.

Franzaring, J., Tonneijck, A.E.G., Kooijman, A.W.N., Dueck, T.A.
Growth response to ozone in plant species from wetlands.
ENVIRON. EXPER. BOT. 44(1):39-48. 2000.

G6mez Mendez, C.E.
Evaluaci6n de maleza acuatica con relaci6n a parametros quimicos de aqua y
sedimento en el DR-086 Soto La Marina, mediante SIG y Bioestadistica.
SUMMARY). 2000.

Gould, W.A., Walker, M.D.
Plant communities and landscape diversity along a Canadian arctic river.
J. VEG. SCI. 10(4):537-548. 1999.

Greulich, S., Bornette, G., Amoros, C., Roelofs, J.G.M.
Investigation on the fundamental niche of a rare species: an experiment on
establishment of Luronium natans.
AQUATIC BOTANY 66(3):209-224. 2000.

Hach, C.V., Chin, D.V., Nhiem, N.T., Mortimer, M., et al
Effect of tillage practices on weed infestations and soil seed banks in wet-seeded
BRAZIL, JUNE 2000, PP. 51-52 (ABSTRACT). 2000.

Hattink, J.
Accumulation of technetium in duckweed.

Hedge, P., Kriwoken, L.K.
Evidence for effects of Spartina anglica invasion on benthic macrofauna in Little
Swanport Estuary, Tasmania.
AUSTRAL ECOL. 25(2):150-159. 2000.

Henderson, L.
The Southern African Plant Invaders Atlas (SAPIA) and its contribution to
biological control.

AFRICAN ENTOMOL. MEMOIR 1:159-163. 1999.

Hofstra, D.E., Clayton, J.S., Getsinger, K.D.
Evaluation of new herbicides for the control of submerged weeds in New Zealand.
(ABSTRACT). 2000.

Hoven, H.M., Gaudette, H.E., Short, F.T.
Isotope ratios of 206Pb/207Pb in eelgrass, Zostera marina, indicate sources of Pb in
an estuary.
MAR. ENVIRON. RES. 48(4-5):377-387. 1999.

Hudon, C., Lalonde, S., Gagnon, P.
Ranking the effects of site exposure, plant growth form, water depth, and
transparency on aquatic plant biomass.
CAN. J. FISH. AQUATIC SCI. 57 (SUPPL. 1):31-42. 2000.

Idso, S.B., Kimball, B.A., Pettit, G.R., Garner, L.C., et al
Effects of atmospheric C02 enrichment on the growth and development of
Hymenocallis littoralis (Amaryllidaceae) and the concentrations of several
antineoplastic and antiviral constituents of its bulbs.
AMERICAN J. BOT. 87(6):769-773. 2000.

James, M.R., Hawes, I., Weatherhead, M.
Removal of settled sediments and periphyton from macrophytes by grazing
invertebrates in the littoral zone of a large oligotrophic lake.
FRESHWATER BIOL. 44(2):311-326. 2000.

Jayakumar, M., Eyini, M., Selvinthangadurai, P.
Changes in pigment composition and photosynthetic activity of aquatic fern (Azolla
microphylla Kaulf.) exposed to low doses of UV-C (254nm) radiation.
PHOTOSYNTHETICA 37(1):33-38. 1999.

Karpiscak, M.M., Freitas, R.J., Gerba, C.P., Sanchez, L.R., Shamir, E.
Management of dairy waste in the Sonoran Desert using constructed wetland
WATER SCI. TECHNOL. 40(3):57-65. 1999.

Karst, T.L., Smol, J.P.

Paleolimnological evidence of limnetic nutrient concentration equilibrium in a
shallow, macrophyte-dominated lake.
AQUAT. SCI. 62(1):20-38. 2000.

Kaufman, L.N., Landis, D.A.
Host specificity testing of Galerucella calmariensis L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)
on wild and ornamental plant species.
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL 18(2):157-164. 2000.

Kubanek, J., Fenical, W., Hay, M.E., Brown, P.J., et al
Two antifeedant lignans from the freshwater macrophyte Saururus cernuus.
PHYTOCHEM. 54(3):281-287. 2000.

Kurniadie, D., Kunze, C.
Constructed wetlands to treat house wastewater in Bandung, Indonesia.
J. APPLIED BOT. 74(1-2):87-91. 2000.

Lippok, B., Gardine, A.A., Williamson, P.S., Renner, S.S.
Pollination by flies, bees, and beetles of Nuphar ozarkana and N. advena
AMERICAN J. BOT. 87(6):898-902. 2000.

Lonsdale, W.M.
Global patterns of plant invasions and the concept of invasibility.
ECOLOGY 80(5):1522-1536. 1999.

Maceina, M.J., Slipke, J.W., Grizzle, J.M.
Effectiveness of three barrier types for confining grass carp in embayments of Lake
Seminole, Georgia.
NORTH AMER. J. FISHERIES MGMT. 19:968-976. 1999.

Macia, M.J., Balslev, H.
Use and management of Totora (Schoenoplectus californicus, Cyperaceae) in
ECONOMIC BOTANY 54(1):82-89. 2000.

Mack, R.N., Simberloff, D., Lonsdale, W.M., Evans, H., et al
Biotic invasions: causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control.
ECOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS 10(3):689-710. 2000.

Marklund, 0.
A new sampler for collecting invertebrates in submerged vegetation.
HYDROBIOLOGIA 432:229-231. 2000.

Martins, R.P., Borges, J.C.
Use of Ludwigia (Onagraceae) pollen by a specialist bee, Diadasina distinct
(Hymenoptera: Apidae), at a nesting site in southeastern Brazil.
BIOTROPICA 31(3):530-534. 1999.

Mattila, E., Kuitunen, M.T.
Nutrient versus pollination limitation in Platanthera bifolia and Dactylorhiza
incarnata (Orchidaceae).
OIKOS 89(2):360-366. 2000.

McMaster, R.T., McMaster, N.D.
Vascular flora of beaver wetlands in western Massachusetts.
RHODORA 102(910):175-197. 2000.

Meschiatti, A.J., Arcifa, M.S., Fenerich-Verani, N.
Fish communities associated with macrophytes in Brazilian floodplain lakes.

Micheli, F., Peterson, C.H.
Estuarine vegetated habitats as corridors for predator movements.
CONSERV. BIOL. 13(4):869-881. 1999.

Miranda, L.E., Hodges, K.B.
Role of aquatic vegetation coverage on hypoxia and sunfish abundance in bays of a
eutrophic reservoir.
HYDROBIOLOGIA 427(1-3):51-57. 2000.

Mitsch, W.J., Wang, N.
Large-scale coastal wetland restoration on the Laurentian Great Lakes: determining
the potential for water quality improvement.
ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING 15(3-4):267-282. 2000.

Moore, K.A., Wilcox, D.J., Orth, R.J.
Analysis of the abundance of submersed aquatic vegetation communities in the
Chesapeake Bay.

ESTUARIES 23(1):115-127. 2000.

Morris, J., Gowing, D.J.G., Mills, J., Dunderdale, J.A.L.
Reconciling agricultural economic and environmental objectives: the case of
recreating wetlands in the Fenland area of eastern England.

Muller, U.
Periphytic primary production during spring: a sink or source of oxygen in the
littoral zone?
LIMNOLOGIA 30:169-174. 2000.

Mullin, B.H., Anderson, L.W.J., Ditomaso, J.M., Eplee, R.E., et al
Invasive plant species.

Norton, G.P.
Shore vegetation of Flathead Lake, Montana.
PLANT WORLD 22:355-362. 1919.

Olesen, B., Madsen, T.V.
Growth and physiological acclimation to temperature and inorganic carbon
availability by two submerged aquatic macrophyte species, Callitriche cophocarpa
and Elodea canadensis.
FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY 14(2):252-260. 2000.

Paling, E.I., van Keulen, M., Wheeler, K., Walker, C.
Effects of depth on manual transplantation of the seagrass Amphibolis griffithii, (J.
M. Black) Den Hartog on Success Bank, Western Australia.
PACIFIC CONSERV. BIOL. 5:314-320. 2000.

Palma-Silva, C., Albertoni, E.F., Esteves, F.A.
Eleocharis mutata (L.) Roem. et Schult. subject to drawdowns in a tropical coastal
lagoon, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
PLANT ECOL. 148(2):157-164. 2000.

Palmer, W.A., Willson, B.W., Pullen, K.R.
Introduction, rearing, and host range of Aerenicopsis champion Bates (Coleoptera:
Cerambycidae) for the biological control of Lantana camera L. in Australia.

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL 17(3):227-233. 2000.

Paradis, G., Lorenzoni, C.
Description dans un but de gestion conservatoire des stations corses de l'espece rare
Cressa cretica L.

Parker, J.E., Maberly, S.C.
Biological response to lake remediation by phosphate stripping: control of
FRESHWATER BIOLOGY 44(2):303-309. 2000.

Pezeshki, S.R., Anderson, P.H., DeLaune, R.D.
Effects of nursery pre-conditioning on Panicum hemitomon and Sagittaria lancifolia
used for wetland restoration.
RESTORATION ECOL. 8(1):57-64. 2000.

Pitelli, R.A., Nachtigal, G.F., Pereira, A.M., Borsari, R., et al
Macrophyte population changes in Santana Reservoir, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: five
years of history.
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Pollard, C.L.
The families of flowering plants II. The cat-tails, pondweeds and arrowheads.
PLANT WORLD 1:19-20. 1897.

Raven, P.J., Holmes, N.T.H., Naura, M., Dawson, F.H.
River habitat survey and its use in environmental assessment and integrated river
basin management in the UK.
VIENNA, NOV. 1998, 20 PP.

Reichard, S.H., Hamilton, C.W.
Predicting invasions of woody plants introduced into North America.
CONSERV. BIOL. 11(1): 193-203. 1997.

Richardson, D.M., Pysek, P., Rejmanek, M., Barbour, M.G., et al
Naturalization and invasion of alien plants: concepts and definitions.

Roalson, E.H., Friar, E.A.
Infrageneric classification of Eleocharis (Cyperaceae) revisited: evidence from the
internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA.
SYSTEMATIC BOT. 25(2):323-336. 2000.

Roberts, D., Sainty, G., Cummins, S., Hunter, G., et al
Managing excessive aquatic plant growth in a lake down-under: build it and they
shall proliferate.
(ABSTRACT). 2000.

Sanchiz, C., Garcia-Carrascosa, A.M., Pastor, A.
Bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd, Pb and Zn in four marine phanerogams and the alga
Caulerpa prolifera (Forsskal) Lamouroux from the east coast of Spain.
BOTANICA MARINA 42:157-164. 1999.

Santiago, L.S., Lau, T.S., Melcher, P.J., Steele, O.C., et al
Morphological and physiological responses of Hawaiian Hibiscus tiliaceus
populations to light and salinity.
INTERN. J. PLANT SCI. 161(1):99-106. 2000.

Schmidt, K., Jensen, K.
Genetic structure and AFLP variation of remnant populations in the rare plant
Pedicularis palustris (Scrophulariaceae) and its relation to population size and
reproductive components.
AMER. J. BOTANY 87(5):678-689. 2000.

Schmidt-Mumm, U., Posada, J.A.
Adiciones a las Haloragaceae de Colombia: Proserpinacapalustris.
CALDASIA 22(1):146-149 (IN SPANISH). 2000.

Schutten, J., Davy, A.J.
Predicting the hydraulic forces on submerged macrophytes from current velocity,
biomass and morphology.
OECOLOGIA 123(4):445-452. 2000.

Schwarz, A.-M., Howard-Williams, C., Clayton, J.
Analysis of relationships between maximum depth limits of aquatic plants and

underwater light in 63 New Zealand lakes.
NEW ZEALAND J. MAR. FRESHWATER RES. 34(1):157-174. 2000.

Seago, J.L., Peterson, C.A., Enstone, D.E.
Cortical development in roots of the aquatic plant Pontederia cordata
AMER. J. BOTANY 87(8):1116-1127. 2000.

Searcy, K.B., Hickler, M.G.
The plant communities and vascular flora of the peatland within Poutwater Pond
Nature Preserve.
RHODORA 101(908):341-359. 1999.

Stadler, J., Trefflich, A., Klotz, S., Brandl, R.
Exotic plant species invade diversity hot spots: the alien flora of northwestern
ECOGRAPHY 23(2): 169-176. 2000.

St-Cyr, L., Campbell, P.G.C.
Bioavailability of sediment-bound metals for Vallisneria americana Michx, a
submerged aquatic plant, in the St. Lawrence River.
CAN. J. FISH. AQUAT. SCI. 57:1330-1341. 2000.

Titus, J.H., Titus, P.J., del Moral, R.
Wetland development in primary and secondary successional substrates fourteen
years after the eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, USA.
NORTHWEST SCI. 73(3):186-204. 1999.

Valentine, J.F., Heck, K.L., Kirsch, K.D., Webb, D.
Role of sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus grazing in regulating subtropical
turtlegrass Thalassia testudinum meadows in the Florida Keys (USA).
MAR. ECOL. PROG. SER. 200:213-228. 2000.

Virolainen, K.M., Suomi, T., Suhonen, J., Kuitunen, M.
Conservation of vascular plants in single large and several small mires: species
richness, rarity and taxonomic diversity.
J. APPLIED ECOL. 35(5):700-707. 1998.

Whigham, D.F.

Ecological issues related to wetland preservation, restoration, creation and
SCI. TOTAL ENVIRON. 240(1-3):31-40. 1999.

White, S.D., Ganf, G.G.
Lacunal anatomy and resistance to convective flow in Typha domingensis and
Phragmites australis.
AQUATIC BOTANY 68:165-177. 2000.

Wingfield, R., Murphy, K.
Invasive Elodea problems impacting Najasflexilis, a rare native macrophyte in
Scottish lochs.
(ABSTRACT). 2000.

Woomer, P.L., Muzira, R., Bwamiki, D., Mutetikka, D., et al
Biological management of water hyacinth waste in Uganda.
BIOLOGICAL AGRIC. AND HORTIC. 17(3):181-196. 2000.

Workman, P.D., Walton, W.E.
Emergence patterns of Culex mosquitoes at an experimental constructed treatment
wetland in southern California.
J. AMER. MOSQUITO CONTROL ASSOC. 16(2):124-130. 2000.

Zaitchik, B.F., Leroux, L.G., Kellogg, E.A.
Development of male flowers in Zizania aquatica (North American wild-rice:
INTERN. J. PLANT SCI. 161(3):345-351. 2000.

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