Table of Contents
 About Aquaphyte
 Are aquatic herbicide permitting...
 Rare and unusual aquatic sedge...
 Preliminary note on the floating...
 New line drawing
 New regional scientific journa...
 Traditional medicinal knowledge...
 Books, manuals, and online...
 From the database

Group Title: Aquaphyte : a newsletter about aquatic, wetland and invasive plants
Title: Aquaphyte
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00083179/00010
 Material Information
Title: Aquaphyte newsletter of the IPPC Aquatic Weed Program of the University of Florida, a part of the International Plant Protection Center of the Oregon State University, which is funded by the United States Agency for International Development
Abbreviated Title: Aquaphyte
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Center for Aquatic Plants
University of Florida -- IPPC Aquatic Weed Program
University of Florida -- Center for Aquatic Weeds
Publisher: The Program
Place of Publication: Gainesville FL
Publication Date: 1981-
Frequency: semiannual
Subject: Aquatic plants -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: Newsletters   ( lcsh )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (fall 1981)-
Issuing Body: Vols. for fall 1982- issued with: University of Florida, Center for Aquatic Weeds.
Issuing Body: Vols. for <1988-> issued by: University of Florida, Center for Aquatic Plants.
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 12, no. 2 (fall 1992).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00083179
Volume ID: VID00010
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06513906
lccn - sc 84007615
issn - 0893-7702


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Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    About Aquaphyte
        Page 3
    Are aquatic herbicide permitting changes on the horizon?
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Rare and unusual aquatic sedge is invasive in Florida
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Preliminary note on the floating island of Zacaton Sinkhole, Mexico
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    New line drawing
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    New regional scientific journal
        Page 24
    Traditional medicinal knowledge about a noxious weed, jal kumbhi in Chhattisgarh
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Books, manuals, and online resources
        Page 30
    From the database
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
Full Text


A Newsletter about Aquatic, Wetland and Invasive Plants

Volume 21 Number 2 Winter 2001
Gainesville, Florida ISSN 0893-7702

Center for Aquatic and
Invasive Plants

Institute of Food and Agricultural
University of Florida
7922 N.W. 71st Street
Gainesville, Florida 32653

with support from:

The Florida Department of Environmental
Bureau of Invasive Plant Management

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,
Waterways Experiment Station,
Aquatic Plant Control Research Program

The St. Johns River Water Management District



Are Aquatic Herbicide Permitting Changes on the Horizon?
by Kathy Hamel, Washington State Department of Ecology

Rare and Unusual Aquatic Sedge is Invasive in Florida
Wright's Nut-rush Scleria lacustris
by Colette Jacono, US Geological Survey

Preliminary Note on the Floating Islands of Zacaton Sinkhole, Mexico
by Chet Van Duzer

. NEW! Line-drawing: Potamogeton crispus

NEW! Photo-Murals for K-12 Teachers and Agency Trainers
Invasive Non-Native Plants Photo-Mural
Native Freshwater Plants Photo-Mural

Southeastern Naturalist a new interdisciplinary regional scientific journal

Traditional medicinal knowledge about a noxious weed, jal kumbhi
(Eichhornia crassipes),
in Chhattisgarh (India)
by P. Oudhia, Indira Gandhi Agricultural University, India



a sampling of new additions to the APIRSdatabase

Aquaphyte page I Home

Copyright 2001 University of Florida

About Aquaphyte

This is the newsletter of the Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants and the Aquatic,
Wetland and Invasive Plant Information Retrieval System (APIRS) of the
University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS). Support
for the information system is provided by the Florida Department of Environmental
Protection, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station
Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (APCRP), the St. Johns River Water
Management District and UF/IFAS.

Victor Ramey
Karen Brown

AQUAPHYTE is sent to managers, researchers, and agencies in 71 countries.
Comments, announcements, news items and other information relevant to aquatic
plant research are solicited.

Inclusion in AQUAPHYTE does not constitute endorsement, nor does exclusion
represent criticism of any item, organization, individual, or institution by the
University of Florida.

Aquaphyte Contents I Aguaphyte page I Home

Copyright 2001 University of Florida

Are Aquatic Herbicide Permitting Changes on the


[Editor's note: During the summer of 2001, few, if any, herbicide applications to manage aquatic
plants, took place in Washington state. As a result of that state's interpretation of a federal circuit
court ruling, aquatic plant management operations using aquatic herbicides, as well as mosquito
and burrowing shrimp control activities, now require a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
System (NPDES) permit. NPDES permits were originally created by the U.S. Clean Water Act.
Though the circuit court ruling may be interpreted and implemented in different ways by the nine
states of the circuit, nonetheless, aquatic pesticides, even when registered and labeled under the
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), now are considered in one circuit
district to be a form of pollution requiring additional permitting under the Clean Water Act. The
ruling also effectively federalizes what used to be a state permitting power in the 9th Circuit.

As of now, no entity in the nine states has appealed the Talent decision to the U.S. Supreme
Court. The ruling suggests implications for all herbicide-based management operations on public
waters and lands of the U.S. Here, Ms. Hamel presents a brief review of the decision and her
department's implementation of its findings. VR]

The Impact of the Talent Irrigation District Court Decision on
Aquatic Pesticide Regulation in Washington State

by Kathy S. Hamel, Washington State Department of Ecology, P.O. Box 47600,
Olympia, WA 98504-7600, E-mail: kham461(aecy.wa.gov

M any irrigation districts in the western United States for many years have routinely applied
acrolein (Magnacide H) to their ditches and canals to control the growth of submersed aquatic
vegetation. Removing vegetation is essential to maintain water delivery to crops and to prevent
flood damage to the canals. Acrolein is highly toxic to fish, wildlife, and humans and must be
carefully applied. The districts use acrolein, instead of the less toxic aquatic herbicides used for
aquatic plant control in lakes and rivers, because acrolein treated water can be used for crop
irrigation much sooner than other aquatic herbicides.

In May 1996, the Talent Irrigation District in southwestern Oregon applied acrolein to the Talent
Canal. The next day dead fish were discovered in Bear Creek around and downstream from a
leaking canal waste gate. Over 92,000 juvenile steelhead were killed. Release of treated waters
into a fish-bearing stream clearly violated the Magnacide H label and the District was heavily
fined by Oregon agencies for the fish kill. Environmental groups (Headwaters, Inc. et al.) also
sued Talent for violating the Clean Water Act (CWA) by treating its canals without a National
Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit.

After a lower federal district court concluded that it was not necessary to obtain an NPDES
permit for treatment with acrolein, Headwaters, Inc. et al. appealed the case to the 9th Circuit
Court of Appeals. The 9th Circuit Court has jurisdiction over Alaska, Washington, Oregon,
Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Arizona, California, Hawaii, and Guam. These nine states and Guam
are bound by any decisions made by the 9th Circuit Court. On March 12, 2001, this court
reversed the lower court's ruling and found that "the registration and labeling of Magnacide H
under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) does not preclude the need
for a permit under the CWA." The Talent decision was not appealed to the Supreme Court.
[See http://www.owrc.org/litigation/tidopinion.htm]

Washington's Response to the Talent Irrigation District Decision

The state of Washington's Assistant Attorney General to the Department of Ecology (Ecology)
interpreted the Talent court decision to mean that the application of any aquatic pesticide to
Washington waterbodies requires coverage under an NPDES permit. This interpretation was
partially in response to the threat of lawsuits from environmental groups if an NPDES permit
program was not put in place. Pesticides are applied to waters of the state for the control of
mosquitoes, burrowing shrimp, some fish species, noxious submersed weeds (Eurasian
watermilfoil, hydrilla), noxious emergent weeds (purple loosestrife, spartina), nuisance native
aquatic plants, and algae.

Washington, Oregon, California, Montana, Nevada, and Hawaii have been delegated authority
from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop and administer NPDES permit
programs. Idaho, Alaska, and Arizona obtain their NPDES permit coverage from EPA. Ecology
administers Washington's NPDES programs for industrial waste discharges, sewage treatment,
municipal and industrial stormwater, and dairy waste. However, aquatic pesticide application
does not fit neatly into state and federal laws that regulate point source pollutant discharge to
water. To date EPA has provided little guidance or direction to the affected states on how to
interpret the court decision or how to develop an aquatic pesticide NPDES permitting program.

The March court decision did not allow Washington enough time to develop an aquatic pesticide
NPDES program for the 2001-treatment season. Although Ecology's existing aquatic pesticide
permitting program was not an NPDES program, Ecology continued to issue orders (permits)
under this program for 2001. Applicants were informed that these permits were not NPDES

permits and that they could be subject to third party lawsuits as a result of the Talent court
decision. Willapa Bay oyster growers (who treat oyster beds for burrowing shrimp) were
threatened with a third party lawsuit because they didn't have NPDES permit coverage. They
subsequently chose not to treat in 2001, permanently losing some oyster beds by this action. All
state-funded and most locally funded herbicide applications to control noxious aquatic weeds did
not take place. Many irrigation districts asked for coverage under Ecology's existing program,
something they had not done before.

For most NPDES permits, people are trying to dispose of unwanted wastes into a waterbody. In
the case of aquatic pesticides, people are deliberately introducing a toxic compound into a
waterbody to improve beneficial uses. Ecology is currently developing seven general NPDES
permits for aquatic pesticide application to Washington waters in 2002 and beyond. Permit
holders will include: irrigation districts; mosquito districts; Departments of Fish and Wildlife;
Agriculture; and Transportation; oyster growers; and aquatic herbicide applicators. Advisory
committees have been formed to provide oversight to each general permit and informational
meetings have been held. Each advisory committee is expected to meet twice to provide input
into the draft permit before it is made available for public review. Because of public and internal
review processes, Ecology doesn't anticipate having final permits in place until late spring or
early summer of 2002.

While most aquatic pesticide applicators are accustomed to being regulated by Ecology, there
will be some changes under the new program. Because of state law, fees will be charged to cover
the administration of the NPDES permits. Although the amounts are as yet unknown, in some
cases, permit fees could be substantial. Some type of limited monitoring of the receiving waters,
most likely for pesticide concentrations, will also be required. Requirements already in place
under the superceded permit program, such as public notification and Endangered Species Act
protections, will be incorporated into the NPDES permits where appropriate. The NPDES permits
will be at least as, or more, protective of the aquatic environment than the superseded aquatic
pesticide permitting program.

There has been great interest in Washington's aquatic pesticide NPDES program from affected
parties and environmental groups. Washington interpreted the Talent decision to mean that all
aquatic pesticide applications must be regulated under an NPDES program. Other western states
may have made different interpretations, although California has developed a general NPDES
permit for aquatic pesticide use. Several environmental groups indicated to Ecology that had
Washington continued to allow aquatic pesticide applications under the existing program we
would have been challenged in court with the Talent Irrigation District decision forming the basis
for that legal challenge. Moving forward with the development of an NPDES program for aquatic
pesticides is a necessary action for Washington.

Editor's note:The industry response to the Ninth Circuit Court's Ruling has included the
formation and funding of the Aquatic Pesticide Coalition (APC) by a group of agricultural

producers, irrigation district managers, aquatic pesticide manufacturers, mosquito control
interests and companies in the lake management industry. The APC hopes to help develop
a solution to the problem. They have hired attorneys experienced with the Clean Water
Act and have presented a Position and Background paper to the EPA. An industry
newsletter, AquaTechnex e-news, makes the following observations: "Western irrigated
agriculture depends on approximately 16,000 miles of irrigation canals and 37,000 miles
of laterals. In 1997, irrigated Western cropland produced $22 billion in sales (as compared
to national crop sales in 1997 of approximately $100 billion). ... This ruling has paralyzed
necessary aquatic plant management operations in the western United States .U.S.
EPA has had long-standing policy and guidance in place that specifies under what
circumstances an NPDES permit is needed to discharge pesticides into the waters of the U.
S. from an industrial facility. NPDES permits have not been required for the application of
aquatic pesticides to water in accordance with product labels under the Federal
Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Further, EPA has never instituted an
enforcement action against any such person for failing to have an NPDES permit under
these circumstances. The imposition of NPDES permits on the use of aquatic
herbicides could have the perverse effect of impairing water quality through the
negative consequences of aquatic invasive plant infestations." To contact the Aquatic
Pesticide Coalition, write to 1156 15th Street NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20005. KB

Federal Regulations Reviewed:

The Clean Water Act (CWA), as originated in the Federal Water Pollution Control Act
Amendments of 1972, generally prohibits the discharge of pollutants into "navigable
waters" or "waters of the United States." The CWA's objective "is to restore and maintain
the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters." It requires a
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit before any
pollutant can be discharged into navigable waters from a point source. Point sources are
defined as discrete conveyances such as discharge pipes or man-made ditches. Permits
typically are obtained for discharges of industrial wastewater, sewage treatment plant
effluent, etc.

The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) is a comprehensive
federal statute which regulates pesticide use, sales, registration and labeling, and grants
enforcement authority to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). FIFRA's
objective is to protect human health and the environment from harm from pesticides.

FIFRA establishes a national uniform labeling system to regulate pesticide use, but does
not establish a system for granting permits for individual herbicide applications. The
CWA establishes national effluent standards to regulate the discharge of all pollutants into

the waters of the United States, but also establishes a permit program that allows, under
certain circumstances, individual discharges. FIFRA's labels are the same nationwide, and
so the statute does not and cannot consider local environmental conditions. By contrast,
the NPDES program under the CWA does just that.

From the U.S. Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit, Opinions

Aquaphyte Contents | Aquaphyte page I Home

Copyright 2001 University of Florida

Rare and Unusual Aquatic Sedge is Invasive in


by Colette Jacono, US Geological Survey; E-mail: colette jacono@,usgs.gov

Heavy growth of Scleria lacustris covers several hectares in water 40 cm deep. Many
additional colonies are scattered in the distance.

What could be unusual about another invasive plant in Florida? Our most southern and
species-rich state has surely received an overly generous share of "out-of-place" plants. In fact,
Scleria lacustris C. Wright, more simply called Wright's Nut-rush, is strikingly unusual in many

As a sedge (family Cyperaceae) it is atypical in existing as an annual species, truly aquatic in
nature. The juvenile plants are well adapted to water influx during the summer growing season,
developing thick, spongy stems and rooting at the nodes when submersed. The fibrous, floating
roots help support the upright growth of plants until maturity and later the lodging that ensues
across standing water in late season.

Scleria lacustris is extraordinary for its large size and robust stature. Where late season water
levels reach 30 cm, single stemmed plants can grow to over two meters long while the stems
expand to a hefty thickness of 2.5 cm. Plants develop multiple culms and a smaller stature; yet
mature equally well where water has withdrawn in autumn.

Scleria lacustris is exceptional not only for its singular beauty but for its beastly touch. Silica
impregnated prickles along the stem and leaves impart a deep slicing wound when handled. And
finally, Scleria lacustris is rarely found in its native range, which extends across the tropics of
Africa and America.

What may not be unusual about Scleria lacustris is the time lag, in this case twelve years, that has
elapsed between early collections and the first troubling populations in Florida. Researchers
acquainted with the task of reviewing herbarium specimens to analyze invasion processes
typically find similar initial lag patterns in distribution.

Emergent with maidencane (Panicum
hemitomon) and Eleocharis spp. in 30 cm of
water, Scleria lacustris exceeds a height of 1.5

In conservation marshes of central Florida, Scleria
lacustris has demonstrated the ability to disperse rapidly
and to develop into dense colonies. Open marshes
subjected to hydroperiod fluctuations appear especially
vulnerable. It is suspected that ducks and airboats may
disperse the shining white nutlets. Nutlets may also float
through drainage systems, leaving vast open water
marshes, including the Everglades, at risk.

Recognize Scleria lacustris by its wide (-2 cm) pleated
leaves, thick, three-angled stem streaked in red, and
upright branching inflorescences full of large (to 4 x 2.5
mm), whitish shining nutlets.

Full results of findings are in press: Jacono, C.C. 2001.
Scleria lacustris (Cyperaceae), an aquatic and wetland sedge introduced to Florida. Sida,
Contributions to Botany 19(4). If you know of this plant, either in or out of its native place,
please contact:
Colette Jacono, U.S. Geological Survey, 7920 NW 71st St., Gainesville, FI 32653; (352) 378-
8181 X 315; colette jacono@usgs.gov

Go to the new USGS website about Scleria lacustris which includes detailed ID information, a
distribution map and a downloadable flyer: http://www.fcsc.usgs.gov/Nonindigenous Species/

Scleria lacustris/scleria lacustris.html

See more Scleria lacustris pictures here.

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Copyright 2001 University of Florida

Preliminary Note on the Floating Islands

of Zacaton Sinkhole, Mexico

by Chet Van Duzer, 12177 Winton Way, Los Altos Hills, California 94024; E-mail:

On El Rancho Azufrosa near the small town of Aldama (220 55'N, 980 04'W) in the state of
Tamaulipas in northeastern Mexico, there is a remarkable group of five cenotes or sinkholes,
vertical caves filled with fresh water. The water in the sinkholes is highly mineralized, smelling
strongly of sulfur, and is also quite warm, with average temperatures ranging from 28.30C to
33.80C. One of these cenotes, called Zacaton, is the world's deepest known water-filled pit, more
than 305 meters deep, and is the site of the world's deepest scuba dive, which was made by Jim
Bowden, leader of El Proyecto de Buceo Espeleologico Mexico y America Central, a group of
divers which has been exploring the sinkholes since 1989.

While the depths of Zacaton are of speleological interest, its surface is of botanical interest for
the lush floating islands that move across it. The cenote's surface is circular, about 100 m in
diameter, and is surrounded by 21 m high rocky cliffs. On the water are fifteen floating islands,
ranging in diameter from 3 to 10 m, and 1 to 1.5 m thick. Beneath the water, the edges of the
islands are essentially vertical, a result of the islands' collisions with each other and with the
vertical rock "shores." The islands are moved only by the wind; there are no currents in Zacaton.

The flora of the floating islands is dominated by a grass known as "zacate," and in fact it was the

distinctive islands of zacate that gave the cenote its name "Zacaton. "This grass has not yet been
collected and identified. The names "zacate" and "zacaton" are applied to several different
species, including Muhlenbergia robusta, Festuca amplissima, and Sporobolus wrightii, as well
as other species in these genera. A Sporobolus grass seems the most likely candidate, as
Muhlenbergia spp. and Festuca spp. are typically found in dry environments, while Sporobolus
spp. are known to grow in desert marshes, playa lakes, and floodplains. A small number of shrubs
and cacti also grow on the islands, and the islands are inhabited by turtles and snakes. I have
heard a report of floating islands of zacate grass which are called "zacatones" in Laguna Verde
near Coapilla (9309'59"W, 1707'59"N), Chiapas, Mexico. These islands might prove interesting
to compare with those of Zacaton, but information about the islands in Laguna Verde has not
been forthcoming.

Perhaps the most interesting question raised by the floating islands of Zacaton is how they
formed. There are no shelves near the water's surface on which a colony of grass might grow,
become dislodged, and float, and indeed there are no stands of this species= of grass in the
immediate vicinity of the sinkhole. Further, there are no shallow underwater shelves upon which
humus might have accumulated, become buoyant due to decompositional gasses, and then been
colonized by the grass. Marcus Gary, a hydrologist with the U.S. Geological Survey who is
studying the Rancho Azufrosa sinkholes, has suggested to me that the islands may have formed
on buoyant "skins" of travertine, a precipitate of calcium carbonate. There are other sinkholes in
the area that are now filled with travertine deposits. It seems that the chemistry of Zacaton's
waters has changed so that travertine is no longer forming, and may in fact be dissolving, but the
islands remain. Over time, dust would have accumulated on these travertine rafts, and the grass
seeds might have been carried to Zacaton by birds -- this area is well known among birdwatchers,
and many different species of birds live in and around the cenotes.

Other floating islands have formed on travertine rafts. A lake now called Lago della Regina, and
formerly known as Lacus Albuleus, La Solfatra, or Lago delle Isole Natanti, near Tivoli, Italy,
once had vegetated floating islands formed on floating masses of travertine. These were famously
described by Athanasius Kircher and Francesco Lana in the 17th century, and in more detail by
Sir Humphry Davy in the 19th century, not long before they ceased to exist, probably because
water was diverted from the lake to supply thermal baths. Lana describes these floating islands as
follows: "I myself saw several of these islands in a small lake of sulfurous water not far from the
Tiber; they were mostly circular or oval, and rose four or six inches above the water. Their
surface is flat and grassy, and at the edges of some of them a few larger plants grow, which act as
sails, so that even the slightest breeze pushes the islands from one part of the lake to another. The
largest of them are a few yards in diameter, yet nonetheless can sustain several men standing
upon them."

Hopefully an opportunity for a thorough investigation of the floating islands of Zacaton,
including a survey of their flora and fauna, will present itself soon.


Brand, Charles J., and Merrill, Jason L.,"Zacaton as a Paper-making Material," United
States Department ofAgriculture BulletinNo. 309 (November 4, 1915) (28 pp.).

Brown, David E., "Chihuahuan Desertscrub," p. 169-79 in David E. Brown, ed., Biotic
Communities of the American Southwest -- United States and Mexico (Tucson, 1982) (p.
175 on the occurrence of Sporobolus wrightii and Sporobolus airoides in wetland

Davy, Humphry, Sir, Consolations in Travel, or, The Last Days of a Philosopher
(London, 1830) (p. 122-9 gives an account of the floating islands in La Solfatara or Lago
della Regina).

Gary, Marcus, "Speleogenesis of Zacaton and Cenotes of Rancho La Azufrosa," Poster
Presentation, American Academy of Underwater Sciences 20th Annual Symposium,
"Diving for Science in the 21st Century," 11 to 15 October 2000, Sirata Beach Resort, St.
Petersburg Beach, Florida.

Kircher, Athanasius, Latium; id est, Nova & parallel Latii turn veteris turn novi
description (Amsterdam, 1671) (Book 4, Part 3, chapter 4 on the floating islands in the
Lago della Regina).

Kristovich, Ann, "Zacaton. A History," Nitrox Diver Magazine 94.4 (Nov. 1994 Jan.
1995) (on scuba diving in Zacaton; online at http://www.iantd .com/articles/94-4kristovich.

Lana Terzi, Francesco, Magisterium naturae, et artis (Brescia, 1684-92) (Vol. 3, Book
25, chapter 1, number 54 on the floating islands in the Lago della Regina).

Mr. Van Duzer is currently compiling a global bibliography on floating islands. Here follow
some additional citations from this bibliography relating to the floating islands near Tivoli:

Bacci, Andrea,Discorso delle acque Albule, bagni di Cesare Augusto a' Tivoli, delle
acque acetose press a Roma, & delle acque d'Anticoli(Rome, 1564) (32 p.; esp. p. 3-4 on
the qualities of the water and on the floating islands in Lago della Regina).

Cappello, Agostino, De' bagni mineral press Tivoli (Rome: Tipofrafia delle belle arti,
1839) (29 p., offprint from Giornale Arcadico, vol. 80; p. 15-7 on the floating islands).

Kircher, Athanasius, Latium; id est, Nova & parallel Latii turn veteris turn novi

description (Amsterdam, 1671) (describes the floating islands near Tivoli in Book 4, part 3.
chapt. 4.; the islands were known as le sedici barchette, "the sixteen little boats," and are
mistakenly depicted as boats on the map of the lake and surrounding regions in Book 3,
part 2, chapt. 1).

Gigli, Girolamo, II Gorgoleo ovvero il governatore dell'isole natanti (Sienna, 1753) (a
comedy; in Act 1, Scene 2, p. 14-5 the characters discuss the floating islands of Acque
Albule near Tivoli, mentioning some of the names of the individual islands, and that local
shepherds ride on the islands).

Viale, Benedetto, and Latini, Vincenzo, Sulle Acque Albule press Tivoli: Analisi
chimica (Rome: Tipografia di Gaetano Menicanti, 1857) (76 p.; p. 12-4, 49, 69, and 74 on
the floating islands).

Zezi, Pietro, "The Travertine and the Acque Albule in the= Neighbourhood of Tivoli," p.
83-8 in Henry James Johnston-Lavis, ed., The South Italian Volcanoes, Being the Account
of an Excursion to Them Made by English and Other Geologists in 1889 Under the
Auspices of the Geologists'Association of London (Naples, 1891) (p. 85-6 on the Lago
della Regina, with brief reference to its floating islands).

Aquaphyte Contents | Aquaphyte page I Home

Copyright 2001 University of Florida

New Line Drawing!

This non-native, invasive, submersed plant, curly pondweed (Potamogeton
crispus), was introduced from Europe more than 100 years ago and is now
widespread in the U.S. It occurs in all states (except Maine and South
Carolina) and in southern Canada. In more northerly climes where it is
particularly weedy, curly pondweed actively grows under ice and snow; is
often the first plant to emerge in the spring; forms dense floating mats;
flowers in June; and dies and "drops out" long before the end of summer. This
difficult-to-control aquatic weed is relatively easy to identify -- it is the only
pondweed with toothed leaves.

N ,

:7~1 ;6% '<
l it 'Y ,





Potamogeton crispus is an invasive non-native plant to be controlled.

This line drawings was just completed by Laura Line, Center for Aquatic
and Invasive Plants, University of Florida. With proper attribution and in not-
for-sale items only, please feel free to use these line drawings for manuals,





brochures, reports, proposals, web sites...

Aquaphyte Contents Aquaphyte page Home

Copyright 2001 University of Florida


A Collaborative Effort:
Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, University of Florida
Bureau of Invasive Plant Management, Florida Department of Environmental Protection

Classroom size, Free to Requesting Teachers (K-12)
Send your non-virtual letter for immediate delivery.

Here are two large photo-murals of 75 invasive non-native plants in the U.S. Of the plants
depicted, 100% are found in Florida, 50% are also found elsewhere in the Southeast U.S.; 50%
are also found in Hawaii; 15% are also found in the West; 15% are also found in the East; and
17% are also found in most of the rest of the U.S.

All plants are depicted in large, strikingly attractive color photographs. Here is the list of plants.

At the request of teachers and enviro-trainers, these photo-murals were produced to be
attention-grabbing teaching tools for science classes and management agency training, and for

homeowners' forums, ecology clubs, environmental advocacy groups and others concerned about
the onslaught of non-native plants in the United States. It was produced by the University of
Florida and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, with printing support from
Cerexagri. Additional printing support came from Sea Grant, the national Aquatic Plant
Management Society, the Florida Aquatic Plant Management Society, and from the U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers Jacksonville Office.

The photo-murals are available:

-- free-to-teachers:

fully laminated copies of the murals are free to teachers (U.S., K-12) and
public agency trainers (U.S.) who request them in writing, on letterhead, to
the non-virtual APIRSaddress below. there is a limited number of free
copies available -

Please do not telephone or e-mail us about the free photo-mural s offer;
we are happy to accept letters on letterhead from teachers (U.S., K-12) and
public agency trainers (U.S.) who want their free copies. Send your request
letters to: APIRS Photo-Mural, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants,
7922 NW 71 ST, Gainesville, FL 32653.

-- All four plant photo-murals are for sale to anyone from 1-800-226-1764:

They may be purchased singly or as a complete set.

1) SP-293 Native Freshwater Plants Photo-Mural fully laminated 62 in.
X 23 in.
$20 each plus S/H.

2) SP-329 MORE Native Freshwater Plants Photo-Mural fully laminated
27 in. X 39 in.
$12 each plus S/H.

3) SP-292 Invasive Non-Native Plants fully laminated 62 in. X 23 in.
$20 each plus S/H.

4) SP-328 MORE Invasive Non-Native Plants fully laminated 27 in. X
39 in.
$12 each plus S/H.


plus S/H

Purchase copies from the IFAS Publications Office, 1-800-226-1764.
(Credit cards accepted.)

Remember that WHEN YOU PURCHASE A COPY, you also are buying a copy
for a K-12 teacher!

Home |
Copyright 2003 University of Florida





A Collaborative Effort:
Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, University of Florida
Bureau of Invasive Plant Management, Florida Department of Environmental Protection

All four plant photo-murals are for sale to anyone from 1-800-226-1764; or by visiting the
IFASBOOKS website:

They may be purchased individually or as a complete set.
1) SP 293 Native Freshwater Plants Photo-Mural fully laminated 62 in. X 23 in. $20 each plus S/H.
2) SP 329 MORE Native Freshwater Plants Photo-Mural fully laminated 27 in. X 39 in. $12 each plus S/H.
3) SP 292 Invasive Non-Native Plants fully laminated 62 in. X 23 in. $20 each plus S/H.
4) SP 328 MORE Invasive Non-Native Plants fully laminated 27 in. X 39 in. $12 each plus S/H.

DESCRIBED ABOVE: $39.50 plus S/H Purchase copies from the IFAS Publications Office, 1-800-226-
1764; or visit the IFASBOOKS website (Credit cards accepted.)

These photo-murals were produced at the request of teachers and enviro-trainers to be attention-
grabbing teaching tools for science classes and management agency training, and for homeowners' forums,
ecology clubs, environmental advocacy groups and others interested in marshes, swamps and other wetlands
of the United States. The murals were produced by the University of Florida and the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection, with printing support from Cerexagri. Additional printing support came from Sea
Grant, the national Aquatic Plant Management Society, the Florida Aquatic Plant Management Society, and
from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Jacksonville Office.


Lest we forget, with so much current emphasis on invasive non-natives, most plants in the U.S. are
native; beneficial to animals, humans, and the environment; and often beautiful. So, here are two photo-
murals of 76 native freshwater plants of the U.S.. Of the plants depicted, 100% are in Florida; 97% are also
found in the rest of the Southeast U.S.; 50% are found in the Eastern U.S.; 22% are found in the West; and 22%
are found throughout most of the U.S.

Click here for the list of plants featured on the two "native" murals.






Here are two large photo-murals of 75 invasive non-native plants in the U.S. Of the
plants depicted, 100% are found in Florida, 50% are also found elsewhere in the Southeast U.S.; 50% are also
found in Hawaii; 15% are also found in the West; 15% are also found in the East; and 17% are also found in
most of the rest of the U.S. As in the other photo-murals of this series, all plants are depicted in large, strikingly
attractive color photographs.
Click here for the list of plants featured on the two "invasive" murals.

IFAS Extension
CTJJ4 r ferAit irt"i

,W we nr Mar


Copyright 2006 University of Florida




New Regional Scientific Journal -

Southeastern Naturalist announces a new interdisciplinary regional scientific
journal with its first call for papers and subscribers. The quarterly journal is
intended to serve as a standard scientific reference resource for the
southeastern United States. Manuscripts are solicited in the general categories
of original research articles; research summaries and general interest articles;
and field observations and notes. Manuscripts may focus on terrestrial,
freshwater, and marine organisms, and their habitats. Subject areas include
but are not limited to field ecology, biology, behavior, biogeography, wildlife
and fisheries management, taxonomy, evolution, anatomy, physiology,
geology, and related fields. Manuscripts on genetics, molecular biology,
archaeology, and anthropology, etc., are welcome if they provide natural
history insights that are of strategic interest to field scientists. Manuscripts
may be submitted by anyone who has a serious interest in natural history,
including university and college faculty members and their students,
researchers, field biologists, professional and amateur naturalists, and writers.

The Southeastern Naturalist has no page charges, but does encourage
contributions towards printing costs, especially when allowed by grants,
contracts, or reprint budgets of the authors. The Humboldt Field Research
Institute is a nonprofit corporation of the State of Maine.

Subscription rate per year for individuals at US addresses, $40 (students,
$30.); institutions at US addresses, $60; Canadian addresses, add $4; other
addresses outside the US, add $8. Subscription exchanges are considered.
Contact the Humboldt Field Research Institute, PO Box 9, Steuben, ME
04680-0009; Telephone 207-546-2821; FAX 207-546-3042; E-mail:
humboldt(aloa.com WWW: http://maine.maine.edu/~eaglhill

Aquaphyte Contents Aquaphyte page Home

Traditional medicinal knowledge about a noxious

weed, jal kumbhi (Eichhornia crassipes), in

Chhattisgarh (India)

by by P. Oudhia, Department of Agronomy, Indira Gandhi Agricultural University,
Raipur 492001, India, E-mail: pankaj.oudhia(@usa.net

W ater hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)
is the most predominant, persistent and .LQ',
troublesome aquatic weed in India. It was ,
first introduced as an ornamental plant in
India in 1896 from Brazil (Rao, 1988). In
Chhattisgarh, water hyacinth grows as a
pond weed and also as a rice weed in
lowland fields. In ancient Indian literature,
it is clearly mentioned that every plant on
this earth is useful for human beings,
animals and also for other plants (Oudhia,
1999a). Many medicinal, industrial and /\I .,'
allelopathic uses of common weeds have
been reported (Oudhia, 1999b; 1999c).
The natives of Chhattisgarh use many \
common weeds to treat their health .,, ,
problems (Oudhia, 1999c; 1999d).

In order to list the existing medicinal uses
of this noxious weed, a survey was /-- -J/
conducted during the year 2000. The 1' i .
survey was conducted in six selected \'
districts of Chhattisgarh state. From each
selected district, two blocks were selected
and from each block, a random sample of
four villages was taken to make a sample
of 100 respondents. Information regarding existing uses was collected through personal


The survey revealed that many natives are using the water hyacinth as a medicinal plant. It is
mainly used as a remedy to treat the goitre disease. Two basic formulations were identified as the
most frequently used:

1) Fresh water hyacinth, table salt and Pippali (Piper longum), a common herb, are mixed
in equal quantity. 12 grams of this mixture are prescribed for a patient daily until relief is

2) Dried water hyacinth is burnt and taken with fresh cow urine.

In Chhattisgarh, water hyacinth also is used as a styptic. Natives apply fresh juice of the weed in
fresh wounds. It is believed to stop the spread of infection. For rice farmers, it is one of the best
first aid remedies for minor injuries. In septic wounds, it is applied with vinegar.

The above mentioned uses of water hyacinth have not been reported in available literature. This
survey suggests there is a strong need to identify the potential medicinal uses of this obnoxious
weed so that it can be used for the welfare of human beings.


Oudhia, P.(1999a) Medicinal weeds in rice fields of Chhattisgarh (India). International
Rice Research Notes24(1):40.

Oudhia, P. (1999b) Medicinal weeds in groundnut fields of Chhattisgarh (India).
International Arachis Newsletter 19:62-64.

Oudhia, P. (1999c) Studies on allelopathy and medicinal weeds in chickpea fields.
International Chickpea and Pigeonpea Newsletter 6:29-33.

Oudhia, P. (1999d) Medicinal weeds in wheat fields of Chhattisgarh (India). Rachis 18

Rao, V.S. (1988) Principles of weed science. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd.,
New Delhi (India), 544 pp.

Aquaphyte Contents I Aquaphyte page I Home

Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants

May 15-18, 2008; Palmetto, Florida www.fnps.org
28th Annual Florida Native Plant Society Conference
Uplands to Estuaries: Celebrating Florida's Native Plant Heritage

May 20-22, 2008; Imperial Palace Casinos, Biloxi, Mississippi http://www.se-eppc.org
10th Annual Southeast EPPC Conference

June 23-27, 2008; International Weed Science Society, Vancouver, Canada http://iws.ucdavis.
International Weed Science Society

Aquatic Weed Management


Mike Netherland, USA I mdnether(@ufl .edu

Kevin Murphy, UK |I k.murphy@vbio.qla.ac.uk

June 23-26, 2008; University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida http://www.conference.ifas.ufl.edu/soils/
Biogeochemistry of Wetlands: Science and Applications Short Course

August 25-26th, 2008; LSU Energy, Coast, and Environmental Building, Baton Rouge, Louisiana http://www.
Sustainable Management of Deltaic Ecosystems: Integration of Theory and Practice

September 7-12, 2008; Daniel Boone National Forest, Olympia Springs, Kentucky http://tfce.uky.edu/wri 2008.
2008 Eastern Regional Wetland Restoration Institute

September 23-25, 2008; Austin Carey Memorial Forest Education Building, Gainesville, Fl. http://soils.ifas.ufl.
Hydric Soils Short Course Specialized Training for Wetland Specialists

October 21-23, 2008; Austin Carey Memorial Forest Education Building, Gainesville, Fl. http://soils.ifas.ufl.edu
Hydric Soils Short Course Specialized Training for Wetland Specialists

November 12-14, 2008; Stellenbosch, South Africa http://academic.sun.ac.za/cib/events/Elton CIB symposium.
Fifty Years of Invasion Ecology the Legacy of Charles Elton
Centre of Excellence for Invasion Biology, Stellenbosch University

November 18-20 2008; Austin Carey Memorial Forest Education Building, Gainesville, Fl. http://soils.ifas.ufl.
Hydric Soils Short Course Specialized Training for Wetland Specialists

June 23-26, 2009; Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico http://www.paleolim.org/index.php/symposia/
11th International Paleolimnology Symposium

August 23-27, 2009; Stellenbosch, South Africa www.emapi2009.co.za or rich@(sun.ac.za
The 10th International Conference on the Ecology and Management of Alien Plant
Invasions (EMAPI)
Centre for Invasion Biology (CIB), Department of Botany & Zoology, Stellenbosch University

WFAS Extension
C nfrv for ,.,,
colt Ptiwet'-Aipff6

''t Pnr 4A 4 .
X ^

Home I Aquaphyte page
Contact Us: CAIP-WEBSITE(ufl.edu
@2007 University of Florida

Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants

Books, Manuals, and Online Resources

New Books and Reports
8 Plant Manuals, Field Guides and Textbooks
Langeland/Burks Non-Native Plants Book
8 Online Articles and Extension Publications
Extension Publications & Articles
8 Online Books

IFAS Extension
,.ftl) ),i, j%110i'-


Copyright 2007 University of Florida


Here is a sampling of the research articles, books and reports which have been entered into
the aquatic, wetland and invasive plant database since Summer 2001. The database has
more than 55,000 citations. To receive free bibliographies on specific plants and/or
subjects, contact APIRS at 352-392-1799 or use the database online at http://plants.ifas.ufl.

To obtain articles, contact your nearest state or university library.

Ailstock, M.S., Norman, C.M., Bushmann, P.J.
Common reed Phragmites australis: control and effects upon biodiversity in
freshwater nontidal wetlands.
RESTORATION ECOL. 9(1):49-59. 2001.

Al-Owaimer, A.N.
Effect of dietary halophyte Salicornia bigelovii Torr. on carcass characteristics,
minerals, fatty acids and amino acids profile of camel meat.
J. APP. ANIM. RES. 18(2):185-192. 2000.

Amiaud, B., Bonis, A., Bouzill6, J.-B.
Conditions de germination et role des herbivores dans la dispersion et le recrutement
d'une espece clonale: Juncus gerardi Lois.
CAN. J. BOT. 78(11):1430-1439. (IN FRENCH; ENGLISH SUMMARY) 2000.

Angradi, T.R., Hagan, S.M., Able, K.W.
Vegetation type and the intertidal macroinvertebrate fauna of a brackish marsh:
Phragmites vs Spartina.
WETLANDS 21(1):75-92. 2001.

Antunes, A.P.M., Watkins, G.M., Duncan, J.R.
Batch studies on the removal of gold (III) from aqueous solution by Azolla

BIOTECHNOL. LETTERS 23(4):249-251. 2001.

Aziz, A., Sharmin, S.
Growth and nitrogenase activity of Azollapinnata var. pinnata R. Brown as affected
by some environmental factors.
BANGLADESH J. BOT. 29(2):125-131. 2000.

Baattrup-Pedersen, A., Riis, T., Hansen, H.O., Friberg, N.
Restoration of a Danish headwater stream: short-term changes in plant species
abundance and composition.

Baskin, C.C., Milberg, P., Andersson, L., Baskin, J.M.
Seed dormancy-breaking and germination requirements of Drosera angelica, an
insectivorous species of the northern hemisphere.
ACTA OECOLOGIA 22(1):1-8. 2001.

Basu, B.K., Kalff, J., Pinel-Alloul, B.
The influence of macrophyte beds on plankton communities and their export from
fluvial lakes in the St. Lawrence River.
FRESHWATER BIOL. 45(4):373-382. 2000.

Behcet, L., Ozgokce, F.
The vegetation of some lakes in East Anatolia (Turkey).
BULL. PURE AND APPLIED SCI. 17B(1):1-15. 1998.

Bennion, H., Monteith, D., Appleby, P.
Temporal and geographical variation in lake trophic status in the English Lake
District: evidence from (sub)fossil diatoms and aquatic macrophytes.
FRESHWATER BIOL. 45(4):394-412. 2000.

Best, E.P.H., Boyd, W.A.
Valla (Version 1.0): a simulation model for growth of American wildcelery.

Broussaud-Le Strat, F.
Historique et bibliographie du genre Utricularia.

J. BOT. SOC. BOT. FRANCE 7:83-87. (IN FRENCH) 1998.

Canfield, D.E., Bachmann, R.W., Hoyer, M.V.
A management alternative for Lake Apopka.
LAKE AND RESERVOIR MANAGE. 16(3):205-221. 2000.

Casati, P., Lara, M.V., Andreo, C.S.
Induction of a C4-like mechanism of C02 fixation in Egeria densa, a submersed
aquatic species.
PLANT PHYSIOL. 123(4): 1611-1621. 2000.

Center, T.D., Van, T.K., Rayachhetry, M., Buckingham, G.R., et al
Field colonization of the Melaleuca snout beetle (Oxyops vitiosa) in South Florida.
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL 19(2):112-123. 2000.

Cieslak, E., Ilnicki, T., Flis, M.
Cytotaxonomical studies on the Caltha palustris complex (Ranunculaceae) in
Poland. Preliminary report.

Clark, D.L., Wilson, M.V.
Fire, mowing, and hand-removal of woody species in restoring a native wetland
prairie in the Willamette Valley of Oregon.
WETLANDS 21(1):135-144. 2001.

Conway, V.M.
Growth rates and water loss in Cladium mariscus R. Br.
ANNALS OF BOTANY 4(13):151-164. 1940.

Cordes, K.B., Mehra, A., Farago, M.E., Banerjee, D.K.
Uptake of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn by the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.)
Solms from pulverised fuel ash (PFA) leachates and slurries.
ENVIRON. GEOCHEM. HEALTH 22(4):297-316. 2000.

Dalby, R.
Three bee plants: purple loosestrife, vetch, and safflower.
AMERICAN BEE J. 141(1):53-55. 2001.

Davies, C.M., Sakadevan, K., Bavor, H.J.

Removal of stormwater-associated nutrients and bacteria in constructed wetland and
water pollution control pond systems.

Deonier, D.L.
North American ephydrid habitat types and probable ephydrid inhabitants (Diptera:

Egan, T.P., Ungar, I.A.
Similarity between seed banks and above-ground vegetation along a salinity
J. VEG. SCI. 11:189-194. 2000.

El-Kahloun, M., Boeye, D., Verhagen, B., Van Haesebroeck, V.
A comparison of the nutrient status of Molinia caerulea and neighboring
vegetation in a rich fen.
BELGIAN J. BOT. 133(1-2):91-102. 2000.

Faubert, J.
Les Potamogetonaceae du Quebec meridional: identification et repartition.
CANADIAN FIELD-NATURALIST 114(3):359-380. 2000.

Fischer, M., Husi, R., Prati, D., Peintinger, M., et al
RAPD variation among and within small and large populations of the rare clonal
plant Ranunculus reptans (Ranunculaceae).
AMER. J. BOT. 87(8):1128-1137. 2000.

Fourqurean, J.W., Willsie, A., Rose, C.D., Rutten, L.M.
Spatial and temporal pattern in seagrass community composition and productivity in
south Florida.
MARINE BIOLOGY 138(2):341-354. 2001.

Frankly, R., Schmeidl, H.
Vegetation change in a south German raised bog: ecosystem engineering by plant
species, vegetation switch or ecosystem level feedback mechanisms?
FLORA 195(3):267-276. 2000.

Gabrey, S.W., Afton, A.D.
Effects of winter marsh burning on abundance and nesting activity of Louisiana
seaside sparrows in the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain.
WILSON BULL. 112(3):365-372. 2000.

Gao, J., Garrison, A.W., Hoehamer, C., Mazur, C.S., et al
Uptake and phytotransformation of organophosphorus pesticides by axenically
cultivated aquatic plants.
J. AGRIC. FOOD CHEM. 48(12):6114-6120. 2000.

Garcia-Hernandez, J., Glenn, E.P., Artiola, J., Baumgartner, D.J.
Bioaccumulation of selenium (Se) in the Cienega de Santa Clara Wetland, Sonora,
ECOTOXICOL. ENVIRON. SAFETY 46(3):298-304. 2000.

Gomez Mendez, C.E.
Evaluaci6n de maleza acuitica con relaci6n a parimetros quimicos de agua y
sedimento en el DR-086 soto la marina, mediante sig y bioestadistica.
SUMMARY) 2000.

Grabas, G.P., Laverty, T.M.
The effect of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.; Lythraceae) on the pollination
and reproductive success of sympatric co-flowering wetland plants.
ECOSCI. 6(2):230-242. 1999.

Grodowitz, M.J., Freedman, J.E., Jones, H., Jeffers, L., et al
Status of waterhyacinth/hydrilla infestations and associated biological control agents
in Lower Rio Grande Valley cooperating Irrigation Districts.
VICKSBURG, MS, 33 PP. 2000.

Hauxwell, J., Cebrian, J., Furlong, C., Valiela, I.
Macroalgal canopies contribute to eelgrass (Zostera marina) decline in temperate
estuarine ecosystems.
ECOLOGY 82(4):1007-1022. 2001.

Haynes, D., Ralph, P., Pranges, J., Dennison, B.

The impact of the herbicide diuron on photosynthesis in three species of tropical
MAR. POLL. BULL. 41(7-12):288-293. 2000.

Hesler, L.S., Oraze, M.J., Grigarick, A.A., Palrang, A.T.
Numbers of rice water weevil larvae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and rice plant
growth in relation to adult infestation levels and broadleaf herbicide applications.
J. AGRIC. URBAN ENTOMOL. 17(2):99-108. 2000.

Hildebrandt, U., Janetta, K., Ouziad, F., Renne, B., et al
Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of halophytes in central European salt marshes.
MYCORRHIZA 10(4):175-183. 2001.

Hill, N.M., Boates, J.S., Elderkin, M.F.
Low catchment area lakes: new records for rare coastal plain shrubs and Utricularia
species in Nova Scotia.
RHODORA 102(912):518-522. 2000.

Hollingsworth, M.L.
Evidence for massive clonal growth in the invasive weed Fallopiajaponica
(Japanese knotweed).
BOTANICAL J. LINNEAN SOC. 133(4):463-472. 2000.

Hood, W.G., Naiman, R.J.
Vulnerability of riparian zones to invasion by exotic vascular plants.
PLANT ECOL. 148(1):105-114. 2000.

Humburg, D.D., Bataille, K., Helmers, D.L., Brunet, D.A.
Evaluation of seasonal habitat use by waterbirds on the Missouri River floodplain.

Hwang, Y.-H., Liou, C.-F., Weng, I.-S.
Nutrient dynamics of two aquatic angiosperms in an alpine lake, Taiwan.
BOT. BULL. ACAD. SIN. 41(4):275-282. 2000.

lida, S., Kadono, Y.
Population genetics structure of Potamogeton anguillanus in Lake Shinji, Japan.
LIMNOL. 2:51-53. 2001.

James, W.F., Barko, J.W., Eakin, H.L.
Direct and indirect impacts of submersed aquatic vegetation on the nutrient budget
of an urban oxbow lake.

Karjalainen, H., Stefansdottir, G., Tuominen, L., Kairesalo, T.
Do submersed plants enhance microbial activity in sediment?
AQUATIC BOT. 69(1):1-13. 2001.

Karunaratne, S., Asaeda, T.
Verification of a mathematical growth model of Phragmites australis using field
data from two Scottish lochs.
FOLIA GEOBOTANICA 35:419-432. 2000.

Kathiresan, R.M., Ramah, K.
Impact of weed management in rice-fish farming systems.
INDIAN J. WEED SCI. 32(1-2):39-43. 2000.

Kendle, A.D., Rose, J.E.
The aliens have landed! What are the justifications for 'native only' policies in
landscape plantings?
LANDSCAPE AND URBAN PLANNING 47(1-2): 19-31. 2000.

Kilbride, K.M., Paveglio, F.L.
Long-term fate of glyphosate associated with repeated Rodeo applications to control
control smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) in Willapa Bay, Washington.
ARCH. ENVIRON. CONTAM. TOXICOL. 40(2):179-183. 2001.

Knight, R.L., Payne, V.W.E., Borer, R.E., Clarke, R.A., et al
Constructed wetlands for livestock wastewater management.
ECOLOGICAL ENGIN. 15:41-55. 2000.

Knight, R.L., Walton, W.E., O'Meara, G., Reisen, W.K., et al
Design strategies for effective mosquito control in constructed treatment wetlands.
GAINESVILLE, NOV. 11-16, LAKE BUENA VISTA, FL., PP. 425-440. 2000.

Larsen, L., Jorgensen, C., Aamand, J.
Potential mineralization of four herbicides in a ground water-fed wetland area.
J. ENVIRON. QUAL. 30(1):24-30. 2001.

Lewis, M.A., Weber, D.E., Stanley, R.S., Moore, J.C.
The relevance of rooted vascular plants as indicators of estuarine sediment quality.
ARCH. ENVIRON. CONTAM. TOXICOL. 40(1):25-34. 2001.

Lowe, E.F., Battoe, L.E., Coveney, M., Stites, D.
Setting water quality goals for restoration of Lake Apopka: inferring past conditions.
LAKE AND RESERVOIR MANAGE. 15(2):103-120. 1999.

Lynn, D.E., Waldren, S.
Morphological variation in populations of Ranunculus repens from the temporary
limestone lakes (turloughs) in the west of Ireland.
ANNALS OF BOT. 87(1):9-17. 2001.

Madsen, J.D., Getsinger, K.D., Steward, R.M., Skogerboe, J.G., et al
Evaluation of transparency and light attenuation by Aquashade.
LAKE AND RESERVOIR MANAGE. 15(2):142-147. 1999.

Miller, S.P., Sharitz, R.R.
Manipulation of flooding and arbuscular mycorrhiza formation influences growth
and nutrition of two semiaquatic grass species.
FUNCTIONAL ECOL. 14(6):738-748. 2000.

Morison, J.I.L., Piedade, M.T.F., Muller, E., Long, S.P., et al
Very high productivity of the C4 aquatic grass Echinochloa polystachya in the
Amazon floodplain confirmed by net ecosystem C02 flux measurements.
OECOLOGIA 125(3):400-411. 2000.

Naugle, D.E., Johnson, R.R., Estey, M.E., Higgins, K.F.
A landscape approach to conserving wetland bird habitat in the prairie pothole
region of eastern South Dakota.
WETLANDS 21(1):1-17. 2001.

Nealson, P.A., Gregory, J.
Hydroacoustic differentiation of adult Atlantic salmon and aquatic macrophytes in
the River Wye, Wales.

AQUATIC LIVING RESOURCES 13(5):331-339. 2000.

Notestein, S.K.
Physical, chemical, and vegetative characteristics of the Chassahowitzka River.

Ogden, R.W.
Modern and historical variation in aquatic macrophyte cover of billabongs
associated with catchment development.
REGUL. RIVERS: RES. AND MANAGE. 16(5):497-512. 2000.

Olckers, T.
Biology, host specificity and risk assessment of Gargaphia decoris, the first agent to
be released in South Africa for the biological control of the invasive tree Solanum
BIOCONTROL 45(3):373-388. 2000.

Olivares, E., Colonnello, G.
Salinity gradient in the Manamo River, a dammed distributary of the Orinoco Delta,
and its influence on the presence of Eichhornia crassipes and Paspalum repens.
INTERCIENCIA 25(5):242-248. 2000.

Petersen, R.L., Faust, A., Nagawa, J., Thomas, C., et al
Foreign mosquito survivorship in the pitcher plant Sarraceniapurpurea the role of
the pitcher-plant midge Metriocnemus knabi.
HYDROBIOLOGIA 439(1-3):13-19. 2000.

Plasencia Fraga, J., Hurtado, A., Chateloin, T.
Cambios en la composici6n floristica de la Laguna del Tesoro, Cuba.

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