• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Table of Contents
 About Aquaphyte
 New fossil aquatic plant disco...
 Macrophyte ecology within experimental...
 Know Nymphoides
 New line drawings
 Murals
 Native plants
 Collection of aquatic and wetland...
 Meetings
 Books, manuals, and online...
 From the database






Group Title: Aquaphyte : a newsletter about aquatic, wetland and invasive plants
Title: Aquaphyte
ALL VOLUMES CITATION PDF VIEWER THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00083179/00009
 Material Information
Title: Aquaphyte newsletter of the IPPC Aquatic Weed Program of the University of Florida, a part of the International Plant Protection Center of the Oregon State University, which is funded by the United States Agency for International Development
Abbreviated Title: Aquaphyte
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Center for Aquatic Plants
University of Florida -- IPPC Aquatic Weed Program
University of Florida -- Center for Aquatic Weeds
Publisher: The Program
Place of Publication: Gainesville FL
Publication Date: 1981-
Frequency: semiannual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Aquatic plants -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: Newsletters   ( lcsh )
Newsletters.
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (fall 1981)-
Issuing Body: Vols. for fall 1982- issued with: University of Florida, Center for Aquatic Weeds.
Issuing Body: Vols. for <1988-> issued by: University of Florida, Center for Aquatic Plants.
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 12, no. 2 (fall 1992).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00083179
Volume ID: VID00009
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06513906
lccn - sc 84007615
issn - 0893-7702

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This item has the following downloads:

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Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    About Aquaphyte
        Page 3
    New fossil aquatic plant discovered
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Macrophyte ecology within experimental reed best applied for heavy metal removal
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Know Nymphoides
        Page 11
    New line drawings
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Murals
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Native plants
        Page 21
    Collection of aquatic and wetland plants of the Czech Republic
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Meetings
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Books, manuals, and online resources
        Page 28
    From the database
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
Full Text


AQUAPHYTE Online


A Newsletter about Aquatic, Wetland and Invasive Plants

Volume 22 Number 1 Summer 2002
Gainesville, Florida
ISSN 0893-7702


Center for Aquatic and
Invasive Plants

Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences
University of Florida
7922 N.W. 71st Street
Gainesville, Florida 32653
352-392-1799


with support from:

The Florida Department of Environmental
Protection,
Bureau of Invasive Plant Management

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,
Waterways Experiment Station,
Aquatic Plant Control Research Program

The St. Johns River Water Management District


Contents

About AQUAPHYTE

New Fossil Aquatic Plant Discovered

Macrophyte Ecology Within Experimental Reed Beds Applied for Heavy
Metal Removal
by Miklas Scholz, University of Bradford, United Kingdom

Know Nymphoides
by Colette Jacono, U.S. Geological Survey




. NEW! Line-drawings: Ardisia escallonioides and Ardisia elliptica


NEW! Photo-Murals for K-12 Teachers and Agency Trainers
Invasive Non-Native Plants Photo-Mural
Native Freshwater Plants Photo-Mural

Native Plants Journal and Native Plants Network

The Collection of Aquatic and Wetland Plants of the Czech Republic
by L. Adamec and S. Husak, Institute of Botany, Czech Republic

BE THERE, DO THAT

BOOKS/REPORTS

FROM THE DATABASE
a sampling of new additions to the APIRSdatabase


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About Aquaphyte



This is the newsletter of the Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants and the Aquatic,
Wetland and Invasive Plant Information Retrieval System (APIRS) of the
University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS). Support
for the information system is provided by the Florida Department of Environmental
Protection, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station
Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (APCRP), the St. Johns River Water
Management District and UF/IFAS.

EDITORS:
Victor Ramey
Karen Brown

AQUAPHYTE is sent to managers, researchers, and agencies in 71 countries.
Comments, announcements, news items and other information relevant to aquatic
plant research are solicited.

Inclusion in AQUAPHYTE does not constitute endorsement, nor does exclusion
represent criticism of any item, organization, individual, or institution by the
University of Florida.



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New Fossil Aquatic Plant Discovered


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Using the oldest, most complete fossil angiosperm on record, Dr. David Dilcher,
a palaeobotanist with the Florida Museum of Natural History at the University of
Florida, recently announced the discovery of a new basal angiosperm family of
aquatic plant, Archaefructaceae. The announcement was published in the journal
Science with coauthors Ge Sun of the Research Center of Palaeontology at Jilin
University, Qiang Ji of the Geological Institute of the Chinese Academy of
Geosciences at Beijing and three others (full citation below).

The new family consists of a single genus, Archaefructus, with two species, A.
liaoningensis and A. sinensis sp. nov. from the Yixian Formation in Liaoning,
northeastern China. The fossils are believed to be at least 124.6 million years old
and possibly as old as 145 million years (corresponding with Lower Cretaceous to
the uppermost Upper Jurassic periods). A specimen is deposited with the Geological
Institute of the Chinese Academy of Geosciences at Beijing. Five nearly complete
fossil plant specimens in various stages of reproductive maturity were examined.




When all characters of the two species were analyzed using a combined matrix of
morphology and molecular data, it was determined that a new family of flowering
plants was required, Archaefructaceae, which should be considered a sister taxon to
extant angiosperms.

The Archaefructaceae are believed to have been aquatic plants because of the long,
thin, herbaceous stems that would have required water for support. The finely
dissected compound leaves also suggest an aquatic habitat. In addition, the leaves
have a swollen petiole base, especially the leaves closest to the reproductive organs
and farthest from the base of the plant. This feature would have provided buoyancy
to the plant and aided in supporting the reproductive organs above the water during
pollination and possibly seed dispersal. Numerous fish (Lycoptera davidi Sauvage)
are preserved with the fossil plants, further supporting the conclusion that
Archaefructus was aquatic.

The researchers state that Archaefructus is part of a complex basal group in
angiosperm evolution and does not represent the original angiosperm. They suggest
that the original angiosperm may have been a submerged aquatic plant such as some
Nymphaeales.


See Science Vol. 296 (3 May 2002):899-904, Archaefructaceae, a New Basal
Angiosperm Family by Ge Sun, Qiang Ji, David L. Dilcher, Shaolin Zheng, Kevin
C. Nixon, Xinfu Wang.

For further information, contact Dr. Dilcher at the University of Florida, Florida
Museum of Natural History, POB 117800, Gainesville, FL 32611; E-mail:
dilcher(flmnh.ufl.edu


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Macrophyte Ecology within Experimental Reed
Beds Applied for Heavy Metal Removal

by Miklas Scholz, University of Bradford, School of Engineering, Environmental Water
Engineering Research Group, West Yorkshire BD7 1DP, UK; E-mail: m.scholz(bradford.
ac.uk



Background

Wetlands can be applied for passive treatment of diffuse pollution including mine
wastewater drainage (Kadlec and Knight, 1995). The functions of macrophytes in
terms of their physical effect on wetlands have been reviewed extensively (Brix,
1994). The biology of Phragmites australis was reviewed in 'Biological Flora of the
British Isles' (e.g.; Haslam 1972). However, the role of macrophytes within complex
reed bed ecosystems treating heavy metal pollution has not yet been fully reported.
The aim of this paper is to compare experimental wetland filters of different
composition.

Materials and Methods

Wetland habitats were simulated on a laboratory scale with six vertical-flow wetland
buckets. The empty bucket volume was 59.2 dm Table 1 indicates the packing
order of filter media and plant roots in January 2000.

The experiment ran continuously with modified inflow water taken from a nearby
beck. In order to simulate metal contamination such as may be found in process
water from mining, copper sulfate and lead sulfate were added to the inflow water to
give concentrations of 1.000 and 1.277 mg dm-3, respectively.

The range of the hydraulic load per filter bucket was between 1.35 and 2.02 cm d-
(mean: 1.91 cm d- ). In June 2000, water evaporation accounted for approx. 0.08 cm




d- Phragmites australis evapotranspiration for approx. 0.15 cm d- and Typha
latifolia evapotranspiration for a value between 0.12 and 0.17 cm d .

TABLE 1. Packing order of vertical-flow filter buckets simulating wetlands.
SHeight (cm) Filter 1 Filter 2 Filter 3 1 Filter 4 Filter 5 1 Filter 6
56-58 (Water/air) [(Water/air) (Water/air) (Water/air) (Water/air) (Water/air)
49-55 Water + C Water + C Water + C Water + C Water + C Water + C
47-48 6 6+A 6+A+B 8+A+B 8+A+B 9+A+B+Fs
41-46 6 6+A 6+A+B 8+A+B 8+A+B 8+A+B
37-40 5 5+A 5+A+B 6+A+B 7+A+B 7+A+B
35-36 5 5 5+B 6+B 7+B 7+B
33-34 4 4 4+B 6+B 6+B 6+B
29-32 4 4 4 5 6 6
25-28 4 4 4 5 5 5
21-24 3 3 3 4 5 5
17-20 3 3 3 4 4 4
15-16 3 3 3 3 4 4
9-14 2 2 2 3 3 3
0-8 1+2 1+2 1+2 1+2 1+2 1+2
1 = cobblestones; 2 = coarse gravel; 3 = fine gravel; 4 = pea-gravel; 5 = coarse sand;
6 = fine sand; 7 = Filtralite; 8 = activated carbon; 9 = charcoal; A = Phragmites australis;
B = Typha latifolia; C = marginal, floating and submerged plants; Fs = Osmocote fertilizer

Discussion and Conclusions

Standardized set-up cost ratios in England (Spring 2000) for Filters 1 to 6 (Table 1)
are 1 : 2 : 3 : 37 : 41 : 42, respectively. However, the overall reduction performance
of all filters in terms of lead, copper, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD),
suspended solids, turbidity and bacteria was substantially great and similar for all
filters during the first five months of operation (Table 2).

TABLE 2. Filter efficiencies: reduction of parameters for Filters 1 to 6.

Performance variables (outflow F Inflow Water Reduction (%) per wetland filter
water)




IMean Unit
Lead reduction 1.4 mg dm-3

Copper reduction 1.0 mg dm-3
BOD 2.2 mg dm-3
SS reduction 17.0 mg dm-3
Turbidity reduction 2.3 NTU
DO reduction 8.5 mg dm-3
THB reduction 2948 number per ml


TC reduction


1368 Inumber per ml


1 2 3 4 5 6
98 99 99 99 99 99
96 98 97 99 98 99
60 57 41 45 53 41
55 42 50 53 51 33
95 87 68 80 97 99
46 68 74 77 72 78
88 98 92 94 91 88
100 98 69 89 98 96


- biochemical oxygen demand; S S
total heterotrophic bacteria; TC =


= suspended solids; DO = dissolved oxygen;
total coliforms


Table 3 presents a summary of the performance parameter for Phragmites australis.
Filter 3 showed a relative poor performance (Tables 2 and 3) which may have
resulted from a high level of plant decay indicated by mid leaf color transformation
(Pavey, 1978). Shoot density was high, stem diameters were sufficiently large and
leaf/stem ratios were low (Table 3). These are indicators of good general
performance (defined by Haslam, 1972). The strong normal plant diameter
distribution shows that the physical strength and growth performance of Phragmites
is independent of filter media and fertilizer application. However, shading decreased
the stem diameters (Haslam, 1972) of Phragmites growing in fertilized filter media
(Table 3).

The filters containing macrophytes contributed artificially to the inflow BOD. The
real inflow BOD to the filter media was, therefore, the sum of the natural inflow
BOD (10 40%) and the BOD resulting from plant decay (60 90%). BOD
resulting from plant decay was greatest for filters containing Typha. The addition of
fertilizer (Filter 6 only) increased the degradation rate.

TABLE 3. Performance parameter of Phragmites australis
for Filters 2 to 6.


Performance Parameter


Filter
| 2 3 |4 F5 F6


BOD
THB




iTotal plant number F54 |34 48 |39
Mean plant height (cm) 46.7 47.6 54.7 45.5
IMedian plant height (cm) 46.0 47.5 55.5 41.0
Leaf/stem ratio 4.66 3.62 5.65 4.44
jAverage node number 2.04 -2.00 2-90 2.33
jAverage stem diameter (mm) 2.65 2.8 2.61 2.63
jAverage stem and branch number 1.11 1.21 1.40 1.23


Growth density (number per m2 )


434 273 386


Cluster density (number per m2) 30 16 3F2
lColor: plate; green variations 28.6 28.7 28.6
jColor: column; intensity E (%) 30 10 30
jColor: column; intensity F (%) 70 90 70


Color: row; darkness


I6.3 5.5


314
24
28.8
F30
70
F6.6


6.6


72
46.0
46.0
5.68
2.14
2.55
1.51
579
48
28.5
F20
80
FTTo~


The presence of Phragmites (dominant stands) and Typha in all reed beds does not
lead to an overall increase of the wetland performance in laboratory scale
experiments. Plant decay within all reed beds resulted in increases in biochemical
oxygen demand and bacteria numbers within the water layer on top of the litter zone.


References

Brix, H. (1994) Functions of macrophytes in constructed wetlands. Wat. Sci.
Tech. 29(4): 71-78.

Haslam, S. M. (1972) Phragmites communis Trin. [Arundo phragmites L.,
Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. Ex. Steudel].- In Biological flora of the
British Isles. J. of Ecol. 60: 585-610.

Kadlec, R. H., Knight R. L. (1995) Treatment wetlands. Lewis Publishers,
Boca Raton, Florida, USA.

Pavey, D. (1978) Methuen handbook of color. 3rd edition, Eyre Methuen
Ltd., Norfolk, UK.








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Know Nymph oides

by Colette Jacono, United States Geological Survey;
E-mail: colette jacono(aiusgs.gov


Frequently non-native invasive plants look very similar to desirable native plants. Managers and
citizens ask, "How do you tell them apart? Which should we promote and which should we
destroy?"

Included with this issue of AQUAPHYTE is a color ID flyer that demonstrates which two
Nymphoides species in Florida are native and which two species are non-native. Its printing and
distribution was funded by two herbicide companies: SePRO and Helena Chemical Company.


HERE IS

the link to the downloadable PDF file of this colorful flyer.


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New Line Drawings!


A Case of MISTAKEN IDENTITY?

It is easily possible to confuse the two small trees shown here. However,
one is a desirable native to be left alone in Florida; the other is a highly
invasive non-native in the state. Both are Ardisia species. Both grow in the
same habitats of southern Florida. They grow to about the same height (up to
20 feet), have relatively large, leathery, simple leaves with smooth margins,
and both produce hanging clusters of black fruits.

(These line drawings are by Sandra Murphy-Pak, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants,
University of Florida. With proper attribution, and in not-for-sale-items only, please feel free to
use these two line drawings for manuals, brochures, reports, proposals, web sites...)



Marlberry
Ardisia escallonioides
Native in Florida

The native plant, marlberry (Ardisia escallonioides), is somewhat less robust and less
leafy, although it may be taller, than shoebutton. Marlberry flowers and fruit clusters are
terminal, hanging at the ends of branches. Color pictures of marlberry may be found here.








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Shoebutton
Ardisia elliptica
Non-Native Invasive in Florida


The invasive, non-native shoebutton (Ardisia elliptica), is somewhat different: 1) its
flowers are tinged mauve (between red and pink); 2) its new leaves are reddish; and 3) its
flowers and fruit clusters hang from leaf axils along the branches, rather than at the ends
of the branches. Color pictures of marlberry may be found here.


^ --,..
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Copyright 2002 University of Florida
"'.'., ,. *.. jtU.














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NEW!
Two PHOTO-MURALS
INVASIVE NON-NATIVE PLANTS

A Collaborative Effort:
Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, University of Florida
Bureau of Invasive Plant Management, Florida Department of Environmental Protection
and
Cerexagri

Classroom size, Free to Requesting Teachers (K-12)
Send your non-virtual letter for immediate delivery.


Here are two large photo-murals of 75 invasive non-native plants in the U.S. Of the plants
depicted, 100% are found in Florida, 50% are also found elsewhere in the Southeast U.S.; 50%
are also found in Hawaii; 15% are also found in the West; 15% are also found in the East; and
17% are also found in most of the rest of the U.S.

All plants are depicted in large, strikingly attractive color photographs. Here is the list of plants.

At the request of teachers and enviro-trainers, these photo-murals were produced to be
attention-grabbing teaching tools for science classes and management agency training, and for




homeowners' forums, ecology clubs, environmental advocacy groups and others concerned about
the onslaught of non-native plants in the United States. It was produced by the University of
Florida and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, with printing support from
Cerexagri. Additional printing support came from Sea Grant, the national Aquatic Plant
Management Society, the Florida Aquatic Plant Management Society, and from the U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers Jacksonville Office.

The photo-murals are available:

-- free-to-teachers:

fully laminated copies of the murals are free to teachers (U.S., K-12) and
public agency trainers (U.S.) who request them in writing, on letterhead, to
the non-virtual APIRSaddress below. there is a limited number of free
copies available -

Please do not telephone or e-mail us about the free photo-mural s offer;
we are happy to accept letters on letterhead from teachers (U.S., K-12) and
public agency trainers (U.S.) who want their free copies. Send your request
letters to: APIRS Photo-Mural, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants,
7922 NW 71 ST, Gainesville, FL 32653.

-- All four plant photo-murals are for sale to anyone from 1-800-226-1764:

They may be purchased singly or as a complete set.

1) SP-293 Native Freshwater Plants Photo-Mural fully laminated 62 in.
X 23 in.
$20 each plus S/H.

2) SP-329 MORE Native Freshwater Plants Photo-Mural fully laminated
27 in. X 39 in.
$12 each plus S/H.

3) SP-292 Invasive Non-Native Plants fully laminated 62 in. X 23 in.
$20 each plus S/H.

4) SP-328 MORE Invasive Non-Native Plants fully laminated 27 in. X
39 in.
$12 each plus S/H.


OR SAVE MONEY BUY ALL FOUR!





SP-336 ALL FOUR PHOTO-MURALS AS DESCRIBED ABOVE: $39.50
plus S/H

Purchase copies from the IFAS Publications Office, 1-800-226-1764.
(Credit cards accepted.)

Remember that WHEN YOU PURCHASE A COPY, you also are buying a copy
for a K-12 teacher!




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FOUR CLASSROOM-SIZE, LAMINATED
PHOTO-MURALS FOR YOU!



Two NATIVE FRESHWATER PLANTS

and

Two INVASIVE PLANTS, AQUATIC AND TERRESTRIAL

A Collaborative Effort:
Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, University of Florida
Bureau of Invasive Plant Management, Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Cerexagri



All four plant photo-murals are for sale to anyone from 1-800-226-1764; or by visiting the
IFASBOOKS website:

They may be purchased individually or as a complete set.
1) SP 293 Native Freshwater Plants Photo-Mural fully laminated 62 in. X 23 in. $20 each plus S/H.
2) SP 329 MORE Native Freshwater Plants Photo-Mural fully laminated 27 in. X 39 in. $12 each plus S/H.
3) SP 292 Invasive Non-Native Plants fully laminated 62 in. X 23 in. $20 each plus S/H.
4) SP 328 MORE Invasive Non-Native Plants fully laminated 27 in. X 39 in. $12 each plus S/H.

OR SAVE MONEY BUY ALL FOUR! SP-336 ALL FOUR PHOTO-MURALS AS
DESCRIBED ABOVE: $39.50 plus S/H Purchase copies from the IFAS Publications Office, 1-800-226-
1764; or visit the IFASBOOKS website (Credit cards accepted.)

These photo-murals were produced at the request of teachers and enviro-trainers to be attention-
grabbing teaching tools for science classes and management agency training, and for homeowners' forums,
ecology clubs, environmental advocacy groups and others interested in marshes, swamps and other wetlands
of the United States. The murals were produced by the University of Florida and the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection, with printing support from Cerexagri. Additional printing support came from Sea
Grant, the national Aquatic Plant Management Society, the Florida Aquatic Plant Management Society, and
from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Jacksonville Office.


NATIVE AQUATIC PLANTS


























Lest we forget, with so much current emphasis on invasive non-natives, most plants in the U.S. are
native; beneficial to animals, humans, and the environment; and often beautiful. So, here are two photo-
murals of 76 native freshwater plants of the U.S.. Of the plants depicted, 100% are in Florida; 97% are also
found in the rest of the Southeast U.S.; 50% are found in the Eastern U.S.; 22% are found in the West; and 22%
are found throughout most of the U.S.

Click here for the list of plants featured on the two "native" murals.



NON-NATIVE INVASIVE PLANTS,
AQUATIC AND TERRESTRIAL




INVAJSVB
NON4NAT
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El
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Here are two large photo-murals of 75 invasive non-native plants in the U.S. Of the
plants depicted, 100% are found in Florida, 50% are also found elsewhere in the Southeast U.S.; 50% are also
found in Hawaii; 15% are also found in the West; 15% are also found in the East; and 17% are also found in
most of the rest of the U.S. As in the other photo-murals of this series, all plants are depicted in large, strikingly
attractive color photographs.
Click here for the list of plants featured on the two "invasive" murals.


W UNIVERSITY of
UrF LORIDA
IFAS Extension
Itm fWI w)li)f


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I

I





NA TIVE PLANTS JO URNAL


Native Plants Journal is a cooperative effort of the USDA Forest Service and
the University of Idaho, with assistance from the USDA Agricultural
Research Service and the Natural Resources Conservation Service. Our goal
is to provide technical and practical information on the growing and planting of
North American (Canada, U.S. and Mexico) native plants for restoration,
conservation, reforestation, landscaping, roadsides, and so on. Our first issue
was printed in January 2000.

We need contributions from scientists, academics, field personnel, nursery
managers, and others concerning all aspects of growing and planting native
plants. Papers are published either refereed or general technical. Please
contact Kas Dumroese (kdumroese(fs.fed.us) if you have a contribution.




NATIVE PLANTS NETWORK


The Native Plants Network is devoted to the sharing of information on how
to propagate native plants. Feel free to search the database for species you
have interest in, and please take the time to upload protocols of species you
successfully grow. You will receive full credit for your entry and have the
opportunity to add your company logo to the protocol. If you would like to
share some propagation techniques, entry is easy using the Protocol Interface.

For more information, go to http://nativeplants.for.uidaho.edu


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The Collection of Aquatic and Wetland Plants of

the Czech Republic

by Lubomir Adamec and Stepin Husik, Institute of Botany of the Academy of
Sciences of the Czech Republic, Section of Plant Ecology, Dukelska 135, CZ-37982
Trebon, Czech Republic, E-mail: adamec@(gbutbn.cas.czhusak(@butbn.cas.cz



The Collection of Aquatic and Wetland Plants (CAWP) was started in 1976 as a living
collection of Czechoslovak aquatic higher plant species as part of the Section of Plant Ecology of
the Institute of Botany at the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (known as the
Department of Hydrobotany before 1987). Research has been conducted continuously at the
Institute in the fields of ecophysiology, production ecology, geobotany, phytosociology, and
taxonomy of higher aquatic and wetland plants (and also algae). It became necessary to establish
a limited plant collection to aid in this research.

The range of species in the Collection has widened markedly since its establishment. In 2001,
about 350 species, hybrids, or cultivars were kept in the CAWP. The dominant majority of these
species (>90 %) are indigenous in the Czech Republic; the others are mainly from Central
Europe. Thus, the CAWP is focused on aquatic and wetland temperate plant species of Central
Europe; the proportion of subtropical species or species from other continents is marginal. Taking
into account the great number of items kept in the CAWP, it is evident that it is by far the greatest
collection of native aquatic and wetland plants in Europe and one of the greatest in the world.

Many dozens of native aquatic and wetland plants can usually be found in several distinguished
botanical gardens in Western Europe but the collection in such gardens is mainly focused on
conspicuous ornamental species. The CAWP contains both higher plants and Charophytes
(stoneworts). All ecological forms of aquatic and wetland plants are represented in the collection:
rooted and rootless submersed, floating-leaved, free floating, and emergent plants, perennial
species as well as annuals. The CAWP contains all Czech carnivorous plant species and many
bog and fen plant species. Very common, as well as critically endangered, rare plant species are
part of the Collection; some of the endangered plant species are almost extinct in the Czech flora.
Importantly, the CAWP also contains species which were extinct in the Czech flora in the last
decades (e.g., Aldrovanda vesiculosa, Pilularia globulifera, Typha minima). In spite of the
continuous renewal of species in the CAWP, approximately 15-30 susceptible plant species may
be lacking from the species list every year. The species most difficult to keep are aquatic annual




species, lemnids, or those growing mostly in cold running waters (e.g., Ranunculus subgenus
Batrachium spp.). A specific section of the CAWP is represented by ephemeral plants growing in
wet denuded soils. These species (e.g., Centunculus minimus, Illecebrum verticillatum,
Coleanthus subtilis, Cyperus flavescens, Juncus capitatus, J. tenageia ) belong to the most
endangered taxa not only in the flora of the Czech Republic but also in Europe and to species
most rapidly vanishing from natural sites. Some of them are grown and reproduced with
difficulty.

Although for practical reasons the CAWP is not open to the general public as a botanical garden,
our purpose has been to make the Collection accessible to as many specialists and students as
possible. Every year, the staff guides dozens of school excursions through the CAWP, including
primary school pupils, inland and foreign university students and staff, and participants of the
UNESCO Training Course on Limnology. Moreover, the CAWP serves as a gene pool for rare
and endangered species, provides plant material for experiments and studies, comparative
material for determinations and botanical illustrations, and is used for the teaching of botany and
plant ecology. Also, conservation-based (i.e., rescue) cultivations of ca. 30 endangered species
originated with plant specimens from the CAWP. Plants of 17 species from these cultivations
have been used for reintroductions mostly to the Trebonsko Biosphere Reserve in the last six
years. In addition to the CAWP, a (sub)tropical carnivorous plant collection (ca. 55 species) is
situated in a heated greenhouse.

The CAWP covers an area of ca. 0.04 ha. The temperate-zone plants are grown outdoors, while
the several (sub)tropical species are in a heated greenhouse. Each plant species is usually grown
in plastic pots, which are put in bigger containers. Robust helophyte species (e.g., reeds, cattails,
sedges) grow individually in smaller plastic containers. All plastic containers are sunken and
embedded in the ground to minimize thermal fluctuations, both in summer and winter. Smaller
aquatic Utricularia species grow in 3-1 miniaquaria floating in cooling water of a big container.
Their winter buds (turions) overwinter in small flasks in a refrigerator. Rooted aquatic plants
growing in deeper containers (65 cm) overwinter under water. During periods of frost, ice cover
in these containers may be up to 40 cm thick but the dominant majority of aquatic plants survive
these conditions without being damaged. Frost-sensitive (sub)Atlantic species (e.g., Pilularia
globulifera, Littorella uniflora, Luronium natans) are overwintered for safety in a cool
compartment of a greenhouse. During the summer, seasonal shading by wooden bands protects
the plants from overheating and reduces the growth of filamentous algae. Nevertheless, the
growth of filamentous algae (mainly of genera Oedogoniumn, Cladophora, Spirogyra ) is a crucial
problem for growing submersed species. The only effective control is to repeatedly remove the
mats gently and with patience by hand. On summer days, pH values in some containers may
exceed 10 due to algal photosynthesis. We sometimes add ethanol (ca. 10-20 microliters per liter)
or starch (ca. 20 mg. per liter) to the containers to decrease high pH by enhanced respiration. Soft
tap water is used for watering the plants. In helophytes, sandy substrates are renewed every 2-3
years. One technical assistant and two curators (authors of this paper) look after the CAWP.


Using the Collection





We welcome interested colleagues to the Section of Plant Ecology at Trebon and are glad to
guide them through our Collection and conservation-based cultivations. Our plant material may
be offered for exchange to other plant collections or sent to colleagues abroad for study purposes.
The complete species list of the CAWP is available on request by e-mail to the curators, or online
at the CAWP web site at http://www.butbn.cas.cz Please send us your species list.

In our species list, all species are classed within three groups. A) species bearing seeds or spores
more or less regularly; it is possible to mail them in the form of seeds or spores; B) species which
may be mailed in vegetative form (turions, rhizomes, tubers, bulbs, parts of clones, shoots); C)
problematic species which are difficult to grow and, thus, are not always at our disposal; they
may be represented e.g. by annual terophytes, which do not set seeds in the CAWP, lemnids, and
some other susceptible species.

Since 1998/1999, the seeds of CAWP (ca. 120-200 items) have been listed in the Index Seminum
which is regularly issued by the Institute of Botany at Pruhonice (see http://www.ibot.cas.cz)).

We would prefer your visit and personal selection and transport of the plants to their mailing by
post.

Simply, we look forward to communication and cooperation with you!




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Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants
Meetings


May 15-18, 2008; Palmetto, Florida www.fnps.org
28th Annual Florida Native Plant Society Conference
Uplands to Estuaries: Celebrating Florida's Native Plant Heritage



May 20-22, 2008; Imperial Palace Casinos, Biloxi, Mississippi http://www.se-eppc.org
10th Annual Southeast EPPC Conference



June 23-27, 2008; International Weed Science Society, Vancouver, Canada http://iws.ucdavis.
edu/5intlweedcong.htm
International Weed Science Society

Aquatic Weed Management

Contacts:

Mike Netherland, USA I mdnether(@ufl .edu

Kevin Murphy, UK |I k.murphy@vbio.qla.ac.uk



June 23-26, 2008; University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida http://www.conference.ifas.ufl.edu/soils/
wetland082/site.htm
Biogeochemistry of Wetlands: Science and Applications Short Course



August 25-26th, 2008; LSU Energy, Coast, and Environmental Building, Baton Rouge, Louisiana http://www.
sce.Isu.edu/conference
Sustainable Management of Deltaic Ecosystems: Integration of Theory and Practice






September 7-12, 2008; Daniel Boone National Forest, Olympia Springs, Kentucky http://tfce.uky.edu/wri 2008.
htm
2008 Eastern Regional Wetland Restoration Institute



September 23-25, 2008; Austin Carey Memorial Forest Education Building, Gainesville, Fl. http://soils.ifas.ufl.
edu
Hydric Soils Short Course Specialized Training for Wetland Specialists
UF/IFAS



October 21-23, 2008; Austin Carey Memorial Forest Education Building, Gainesville, Fl. http://soils.ifas.ufl.edu
Hydric Soils Short Course Specialized Training for Wetland Specialists
UF/IFAS



November 12-14, 2008; Stellenbosch, South Africa http://academic.sun.ac.za/cib/events/Elton CIB symposium.
htm
Fifty Years of Invasion Ecology the Legacy of Charles Elton
Centre of Excellence for Invasion Biology, Stellenbosch University



November 18-20 2008; Austin Carey Memorial Forest Education Building, Gainesville, Fl. http://soils.ifas.ufl.
edu
Hydric Soils Short Course Specialized Training for Wetland Specialists
UF/IFAS



June 23-26, 2009; Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico http://www.paleolim.org/index.php/symposia/
11th International Paleolimnology Symposium



August 23-27, 2009; Stellenbosch, South Africa www.emapi2009.co.za or rich@(sun.ac.za
The 10th International Conference on the Ecology and Management of Alien Plant
Invasions (EMAPI)
Centre for Invasion Biology (CIB), Department of Botany & Zoology, Stellenbosch University







po"w Purtlan


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w FLORIDA
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Books, Manuals, and Online Resources


New Books and Reports
8 Plant Manuals, Field Guides and Textbooks
Langeland/Burks Non-Native Plants Book
8 Online Articles and Extension Publications
Extension Publications & Articles
8 Online Books


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FROM THE DATABASE


Here is a sampling of the research articles, books and reports which have been entered into
the aquatic, wetland and invasive plant database since Winter 2001. The database has
more than 57,000 citations. To receive free bibliographies on specific plants and/or
subjects, contact APIRS at 352-392-1799 or use the database online at http://plants.ifas.ufl.
edu/database.html

To obtain articles, contact your nearest state or university library.



Bailey, J.K., Schweitzer, J.A., Whitham, T.G.
Salt cedar negatively affects biodiversity of aquatic macroinvertebrates.
WETLANDS 21(3):442-447. 2001.

Barreto, R.W., Evans, H.C., Ellison, C.A.
The mycobiota of the weed Lantana camera in Brazil, with particular reference to
biological control.
MYCOL. RES. 99(7):769-782. 1995.

Bartleman, A.-P., Miyanishi, K., Burn, C.R., Cote, M.M.
Development of vegetation communities in a retrogressive thaw slump near Mayo,
Yukon Territory: a 10-year assessment.
ARCTIC 54(2):149-156. 2001.

Bartoszek, J.E., Schneider, T.A., Snyder, S.R.
Donor soils jumpstart revegetation of created wetlands (Ohio).
ECOL. RESTORATION 20(1):52-53. 2002.

Beckett, P.M., Armstrong, W., Armstrong, J.
Mathematical modelling of methane transport by Phragmites: the potential for
diffusion within the roots and rhizosphere.
AQUATIC BOTANY 69(2-4):293-312. 2001.




Bennike, 0., Jensen, J.B., Lemke, W.
Late quaternary records of Najas spp. (Najadaceae) from the southwestern Baltic
region.
REV. PALEOBOT. PALYNOL. 114(3-4):259-267. 2001.

Bradley, P.
The Madagascar lace plant.
AQUATIC GARDENER 14(2):206-209. 2001.

Brown,W.T., Krasny, M.E., Schoch, N.
Volunteer monitoring of nonindigenous invasive plant species in the Adirondack
Park, New York, USA.
NATURAL AREAS J. 21(2):189-196. 2001.

Buckingham, G.R.
Quarantine host range studies with Lophyrotoma zonalis, an Australian sawfly of
interest for biological control of Melaleuca, Melaleuca quinquenervia, in Florida.
BIOCONTROL 46:363-386. 2001.

Burzycki, G.
The use of GIS/GPS technology to map invasive exotic plant distribution in the
south Dade wetlands, southeastern Florida.
ABSTRACT, 28TH ANNUAL NATURAL AREAS ASSOC. CONF., CAPE CANAVERAL, FL, PP. 8-
9. 2001.

Capers, R.S., Les, D.H.
An unusual population of Podostemum ceratophyllum (Podostemaceae) in a tidal
Connecticut River.
RHODORA 103(914):219-223. 2001.

Castellanos, D.L., Rozas, L.P.
Nekton use of submerged aquatic vegetation, marsh, and shallow unvegetated
bottom in the Atchafalaya River Delta, a Louisiana tidal freshwater ecosystem.
ESTUARIES 24(2):184-197. 2001.

Chatterjee, A., Roux, S.J.
Ceratopteris richardii: a productive model for revealing secrets of signaling and
development.
J. PLANT GROWTH REGUL. 19(3):284-289. 2000.





Chikwenhere, G.P., Vestergaard, S.
Potential effects of Beauveria bassiana (Balsmo) Vuillemin on Neochetina bruchi
Hustache (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a biological control agent of water hyacinth.
BIOL. CONTROL 21:105-110. 2001.

Cooper, A., McCann, T.P., Hamill, B.
Vegetation regeneration on blanket mire after mechanized peat-cutting.
GLOBAL ECOL. & BIOGEOGR. 10(3):275-289. 2001.

Creed, J.C., Monteiro, R.L.C.
An analysis of the phenotypic variation in the seagrass Halodule wrightii Aschers.
LEANDRA 15:1-9. 2000.

Crow, G.E.
Utricularia myriocista (Lentibulariaceae) in Costa Rica: a new record for central
America.
RHODORA 103(914):227-232. 2001.

Daane, L.L., Harjano, I., Zylstra, G.J., Haggblom, M.M.
Isolation and characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading
bacteria associated with the rhizosphere of salt marsh plants.
APPL. ENVIRON. MICROBIOL. 67(6):2683-2691. 2001.

D'Antonio, C.M., Tunison, J.T., Loh, R.K.
Variation in the impact of exotic grasses on native plant composition in relation to
fire across an elevation gradient in Hawaii.
AUSTRAL ECOL. 25:507-522. 2000.

Da Silva, E.T., Asmus, M.L.
A dynamic simulation model of the widgeon grass Ruppia maritima and its
epiphytes in the estuary of the Patos Lagoon, RS, Brazil.
ECOL. MODELLING 137(2-3): 161-179. 2001.

Domning, D.P.
Sirenians, seagrasses, and cenozoic ecological change in the Caribbean.
PALAEOGEOGR., PALAEOCLIMATOL., PALAEOECOL. 166:27-50. 2001.


Duggan, I.C., Green, J.D., Thompson, K., Shiel, R.J.




The influence of macrophytes on the spatial distribution of littoral rotifers.
FRESHWATER BIOL. 46(6):777-786. 2001.

Dyckman, L.J., Hoy, J.B., Brown, G., Cook, J., et al
Invasive species: obstacles hinder federal rapid response to growing threat.
U.S. GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE, REPT. CONGRESSIONAL REQUESTORS, GAO-01-724,
48 PP. 2001.

Eiswerth, M.E., Donaldson, S.G., Johnson, W.S.
Potential environmental impacts and economic damages of Eurasian water-milfoil
(Myriophyllum spicatum) in western Nevada and northeastern California.
WEED TECHNOL. 14(3):511-518. 2000.

Eiten, L.T.
Egleria, a new genus of Cyperaceae from Brazil.
PHYTOLOGIA 9(8):481-487. 1964.

Fermor, P.M., Hedges, P.D., Gilbert, J.C., Gowing, D.J.G.
Reedbed evapotranspiration rates in England.
HYDROL. PROCESSES 15(4):621-631. 2001.

Forni, C., Chen, J., Tancioni, L., Grilli Caiola, M.
Evaluation of the fern Azolla for growth, nitrogen and phosphorus removal from
wastewater.
WATER RES. 35(6):1592-1598. 2001.

Goergen, E., Daehler, C.C.
Reproductive ecology of a native Hawaiian grass (Heteropogon contortus; Poaceae)
versus its invasive alien competitor (Pennisetum setaceum; Poaceae).
INT. J. PLANT SCI. 162(2):317-326. 2001.

Goulet, R.R., Pick, F.R.
Changes in dissolved and total Fe and Mn in a young constructed wetland:
implications for retention performance.
ECOL. ENGINEERING 17:373-384. 2001.

Grenouillet, G., Pont, D.
Juvenile fishes in macrophyte beds: influence of food resources, habitat structure
and body size.




J. FISH BIOL. 59(4):939-959. 2001.


Heijmans, M.M.P.D., Berendse, F., Arp, W.J., Masselink, A.K., et al
Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and increased nitrogen deposition on bog
vegetation in the Netherlands.
J. ECOLOGY 89(2):268-279. 2001.

Higgins, S.I., Richardson, D.M., Cowling, R.M.
Validation of a spatial simulation model of a spreading alien plant population.
J. APPL. ECOL. 38(3):571-584. 2001.

Hinojosa-Huerta, 0., Destefano, S., Shaw, W.W.
Distribution and abundance of the Yuma clapper rail (Rallus longirostris
Yumanensis) in the Colorado River delta.
J. ARID ENVIRON. 49(1):171-182. 2001.

Horinouchi, M., Sano, M.
Effects of changes in seagrass shoot density and leaf height on the abundance of
juveniles ofAcentrogobius pflaumii in a Zostera marina bed.
ICHTHYOL. RES. 48(2): 179-185. 2001.

Ivey, C.T., Richards, J.H.
Genotypic diversity and clonal structure of Everglades sawgrass, Cladium
jamaicense (Cyperaceae).
INT. J. PLANT SCI. 162(6):1327-1335. 2001.

Jacono, C.C., Davern, T.R., Center, T.D.
The adventive status of Salvinia minima and S. molesta in the southern United
States and the related distribution of the weevil Cyrtobagous salviniae.
CASTANEA 66(3):214-226. 2001.

Jager-Zurn, I.
Developmental morphology of Podostemum munnarense (Podostemaceae -
Podostemoideae) as compared to related taxa. Part IX of the series 'Morphology of
Podostemaceae'.
BOT. JAHRB. SYST. 122(3):341-355. 2000.

James, W.F., Barko, J.W., Eakin, H.L.
Macrophyte management via mechanical shredding: effects on water quality in Lake




Champlain (Vermont-New York).
AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL RES. PROG. (APCRP), TECH. NOTES COLL. (ERDC TN-APCRP-MI-
05), US ARMY ENGIN. RES. AND DEVELOP. CTR., VICKSBURG, MS, 14 PP. 2000.

Jiang, M., Kadono, Y.
Seasonal growth and reproductive ecology of two threatened aquatic macrophytes,
Blyxa aubertii and B. echinosperma (Hydrocharitaceae), in irrigation ponds of south-
western Japan.
ECOL. RES. 16(2):249-256. 2001.

Kaufman, S.R., Smouse, P.E.
Comparing indigenous and introduced populations of Melaleuca quinquenervia
(Cav.) Blake: response of seedlings to water and pH levels.
OECOLOGIA 127(4):487-494. 2001.

Kay, S.H., Hoyle, S.T.
Mail order, the Internet, and invasive aquatic weeds.
J. AQUATIC PLANT MANAGE. 39:88-91. 2001.

Koster, D., Hubener, T.
Application of diatom indices in a planted ditch constructed for tertiary sewage
treatment in Schwaan, Germany.
INTERNAT. REV. HYDROBIOL. 86(2):241-252. 2001.

Kudoh, H., Whigham, D.F.
A genetic analysis of hydrologically dispersed seeds of Hibiscus moscheutos
(Malvaceae).
AMER. J. BOT. 88(4):588-593. 2001.

Kuo, J., Shibuno, T., Kanamoto, Z., Noro, T.
Halophila ovalis (R. Br.) Hook. F. from a submarine hot spring in southern Japan.
AQUATIC BOT. 70(4):329-335. 2001.

Kuzmichev, A.I., Krasnova, A.N.
Diminutive grasses of sandbars; history of formation and structure of floristic
complex of floodplain Nanoephemeretum.
BIOLOGY OF INLAND WATERS 2:22-25. 2001. (IN RUSSIAN; ENGLISH SUMMARY)


Laubhan, M.K., Gammonley, J.H.




Density and foraging habitat selection of waterbirds breeding in the San Luis Valley
of Colorado.
J. WILDL. MANAGE. 64(3):808-819. 2000.

Li, W.
Utilization of aquatic macrophytes in grass carp farming in Chinese shallow lakes.
ECOL. ENGIN. 11(1-4):61-72. 1998.

Li, Y., Norland, M.
The role of soil fertility in invasion of Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthi-folius) in
Everglades National Park, Florida.
SOIL SCI. 166(6):400-405. 2001.

Lockwood, J.L., Simberloff, D., McKinney, M.L., Von Holle, B.
How many, and which, plants will invade natural areas?
BIOLOGICAL INVASIONS 3:1-8. 2001.

Ludsin, S.A., Wolfe, A.D.
Biological invasion theory: Darwin's contribution from The Origin of Species.
BIOSCIENCE 51(9):780-789. 2001.

Lukina, G.A., Papchenkov, V.G.
Seed germination ecology of flowering rush (Butomus umbellatus L.) and its
influence on subsequent plant development.
RUSSIAN J. ECOL. 30(3):196-198. 1999.

Luz, C.F.P., Barth, O.M.
Palynomorphs as indicators of types of vegetation in holocenic sediments from the
Lagoa de Cima, north of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Dicotyledoneae.
LEANDRA 15:11-34. 2000. (IN PORTUGUESE; ENGLISH SUMMARY)

Macia, M.J.
Economic use of totorilla (Juncus arcticus, Juncaceae) in Ecuador.
ECON. BOT. 55(2):236-242. 2001.

Mann, H., Proctor, V.W., Taylor, A.S.
Towards a biogeography of North American charophytes.
AUST. J. BOT. 47(3):445-458. 1999.




Martins, A.T.
Efeitos do control de plants daninhas aquaticas com 2,4-D sobre alguns
indicadores de qualidade da aqua de mesocosmos.
THESIS, UNIVERSIDADE ESTADUAL PAULISTA, CAMPUS DE JABOTICABAL SP, BRAZIL,
64 PP. 2001.

Masifwa, W.F., Twongo, T., Denny, P.
The impact of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms on the abundance
and diversity of aquatic macroinvertebrates along the shores of northern Lake
Victoria, Uganda.
HYDROBIOLOGIA 452(1-3):79-88. 2001.

Masuda, M., Maki, M., Yahara, T.
Effects of salinity and temperature on seed germination in a Japanese endangered
halophyte Triglochin maritimum (Juncaginaceae).
J. PLANT RES. 112(1108):457-461. 1999.

Mathur, S.M., Singh, P.
Pressure-density relationships in compression of water hyacinth.
J. INST. ENGINEERS 81:49-51. 2000.

Mineeva, N.M., Ed.
Modern ecological situation in Rybinsk and Gorky Reservoirs: the state of
biological communities and perspectives of fish reproduction.
RUSSIAN ACAD. SCI., I.D. PAPANIN INST. BIOLOGY INLAND WATERS, YAROSLAVL, 284 PP.
2000. (IN RUSSIAN; ENGLISH SUMMARY)

Moreau, J., ed.
Advances in the ecology of Lake Kariba.
UNIVERSITY OF ZIMBABWE PUBL., HARARE, 271 PP. 1997.

Nagid, E.J., Canfield, D.E., Hoyer, M.V.
Wind-induced increases in trophic state characteristics of a large (27 km2), shallow
(1.5 m mean depth) Florida lake.
HYDROBIOLOGIA 455:97-110. 2001.

Nakaoka, M., Aioi, K.
Growth of seagrass Halophila ovalis at dugong trails compared to existing within-
patch variation in a Thailand intertidal flat.




MAR. ECOL. PROG. SER. 184:97-103. 1999.


Nurminen, L., Horppila, J., Tallberg,P.
Seasonal development of the Cladoceran assemblage in a turbid lake: the role of
emergent macrophytes.
ARCH. HYDROBIOL. 151(1): 127-140. 2001.

Okurut, T.O., Rijs, G.B.J., van Bruggen, J.J.A.
Design and performance of experimental constructed wetlands in Uganda, planted
with Cyperus papyrus and Phragmites mauritianus.
WATER SCI. TECH. 40(3):265-271. 1999.

Olliff, T., Renkin, R., McClure, C., Miller, P., et al
Managing a complex exotic vegetation program in Yellowstone National Park.
WESTERN NORTH AMER. NATURALIST 61(3):347-358. 2001.

Olofsdotter, M.
Rice a step toward use of allelopathy.
AGRON. J. 93(1):3-8. 2001.

Osborn, J.M., El-Ghazaly, G., Cooper, R.L.
Development of the exineless pollen wall in Callitriche truncata (Callitrichaceae)
and the evolution of underwater pollination.
PLANT SYST. EVOL. 228:81-87. 2001.

Perry, L.G., Galatowich, S.M.
Lowering nitrogen availability may control reed canarygrass in restored prairie
pothole wetlands (Minnesota).
ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION 20(1):60-61. 2002.

Peterson, B.J., Heck, K.L.
Positive interactions between suspension-feeding bivalves and seagrass a
facultative mutualism.
MAR. ECOL. PROG. SER. 213:143-155. 2001.

Petty, D.G., Skogerboe, J.G., Getsinger, K.D., Foster, D.R., et al
The aquatic fate of triclopyr in whole-pond treatments.
PEST MANAGEMENT SCI. 57:764-775. 2001.




Philip, L.J., Posluszny, U., Klironomos, J.N.
The influence of mycorrhizal colonization on the vegetative growth and sexual
reproductive potential of Lythrum salicaria L.
CAN. J. BOT. 79(4):381-388. 2001.

Prieur-Richard, A.-H., Lavorel, S.
Invasions: the perspective of diverse plant communities.
AUSTRAL ECOL. 25:1-7. 2000.

Ray, A.M., Rebertus, A.J., Ray, H.L.
Macrophyte succession in Minnesota beaver ponds.
CAN. J. BOT. 79(4):487-499. 2001.

Reichard, S.H., White, P.
Horticulture as a pathway of invasive plant introductions in the United States.
BIOSCIENCE 51(2):103-113. 2001.

Renne, I.J., Spira, T.P., Bridges, W.C.
Effects of habitat, burial, age and passage through birds on germination and
establishment of Chinese tallow tree in coastal South Carolina.
J. TORREY BOT. SOC. 128(2):109-119. 2001.

Reut, M.S., Fineran, B.A.
An evaluation of the taxonomy of Utricularia dichotoma Labill., U. monanthos
Hook. F., and U. novae-zelandiae Hook. F. (Lentibulariaceae).
NEW ZEALAND J. BOT. 37(2):243-255. 1999.

Risvold, A.M., Fonda, R.W.
Community composition and floristic relationships in montane wetlands in the north
Cascades, Washington.
NORTHWEST SCI. 75(2):157-167. 2001.

Rodgers, J.A., Smith, H.T., Thayer, D.D.
Integrating nonindigenous aquatic plant control with protection of snail kite nests in
Florida.
ENVIRON. MANAGE. 28(1):31-37. 2001.

Rogers, S.M.D., Beech, J., Sarma, K.S.
Tissue culture and transient gene expression studies in freshwater wetland monocots.




IN: BIOTECHNOLOGY IN AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 48: TRANSGENIC CROPS III, ED. Y.
P.S. BAJAJ, SPRINGER-VERLAG, BERLIN, PP. 337.351. 2001.

Ross, M.S., Meeder, J.F., Sah, J.P., Ruiz, P.L., et al
The southeast saline Everglades revisited: 50 years of coastal vegetation change.
J. VEG. SCI. 11:101-112. 2000.

Rozas, L.P., Minello, T.J.
Marsh terracing as a wetland restoration tool for creating fishery habitat.
WETLANDS 21(3):327-341. 2001.

Rybicki, N.B.
Relationships between environmental variables and submersed aquatic vegetation in
the Potomac River, 1985-1997.
PH. D. DISSERTATION, GEORGE MASON UNIVERSITY, FAIRFAX, VA. 2000.

Sabol, B.M., Melton, R.E., Chamberlain, R., Doering, P., Haunert, K.
Evaluation of a digital echo sounder system for detection of submersed aquatic
vegetation.
ESTUARIES 25(1):133-141. 2002.

Salinas, M.J., Blanca, G., Romero, A.T.
Riparian vegetation and water chemistry in a basin under semiarid Mediterranean
climate, Andarax River, Spain.
ENVIRON. MANAGE. 26(5):539-552. 2000.

Sanchez-Carrillo, S., Alvarez-Cobelas, M., Cirujano, S., Riolobos, P., et al
Rainfall-driven changes in the biomass of a semi-arid wetland.
VERH. INTERNAL. VEREIN. LIMNOL. 27:1690-1694. 2000.

Schmitz, D.C., Simberloff, D.
Needed: a national center for biological invasions.
ISSUES IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 17(4):57-62. 2001.

Shrestha, P., Janauer, G.A.
Management of aquatic macrophyte resource: a case of Phewa Lake, Nepal.
IN: ENVIRONMENT AND AGRICULTURE: BIODIVERSITY, AGRICULTURE AND POLLUTION
IN SOUTH ASIA, ED. P.K. JHA, S.B. KARMACHARYA, ET AL, ECOLOGICAL SOCIETY (ECOS),
KATHMANDU, NEPAL, PP. 99-107. 2001.




Singh, A., Sharma, O.P., Bhat, T.K., Vats, S.K., et al
Fungal degradation of lantadene A, the pentacyclic triterpenoid hepatotoxin on
lantana plant.
INTERNAT'L. BIODETERIORATION & BIODEGRADATION 47:239-242. 2001.

Small, J.K.
Botanical exploration in Florida in 1917.
J. NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN 19(227):279-290. 1918.

Smith, R.D., Wakeley, J.S.
Hydrogeomorphic approach to assessing wetland functions: guidelines for
developing regional guidebooks. Chapter 4: Developing assessment models.
US ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS, WETLANDS RESEARCH PROG. VICKSBURG, MS, ERDC/
EL TR-01-30, 24 PP. 2001.

Steinbauer, M.J., Wanjura, W.J.
Christmas beetles (Anoplognathus spp., Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) mistake
peppercorn trees for eucalypts.
J. NATURAL HISTORY 36:119-125. 2002.

Stott, R., Jenkins, T., Bahgat, M., Shalaby, I.
Capacity of constructed wetlands to remove parasite eggs from wastewater in Egypt.
WATER SCI. TECH. 40(3): 117-123. 1999.

Talley, T.S., Levin, L.A.
Modification of sediments and macrofauna by an invasive marsh plant.
BIOLOGICAL INVASIONS 3:51-68. 2001.

Tamura, S., Kuramochi, H., Ishizawa, K.
Involvement of calcium ion in the stimulated shoot elongation of arrowhead tubers
under anaerobic conditions.
PLANT CELL PHYSIOL. 42(7):717-722. 2001.

Taylor, K., Rowland, A.P., Jones, H.E.
Molinia caerulea (L.) Moench.
J. ECOL. 89(1):126-144. 2001.

Teeter, A.M., Johnson, B.H., Berger, C., Stelling, G., et al
Hydrodynamic and sediment transport modeling with emphasis on shallow-water,




vegetated areas (lakes, reservoirs, estuaries and lagoons).
HYDROBIOLOGIA 444(1-3): 1-23. 2001.

Tewksbury, L., Casagrande, R., Blossey, B., Hafliger, P.
Potential for biological control of Phragmites australis in North America.
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL 23:191-212. 2002.

Ueno, S., Kadono, Y.
Monoecious plants of Myriophyllum ussuriense (Regel) Maxim. in Japan.
J. PLANT RES. 114:375-376. 2001.

Vanderpoorten, A., Lambinon, J., Tignon, M.
Morphological and molecular evidence of the confusion between Elodea
callitrichoides and E. nuttallii in Belgium and northern France.
BELG. J. BOT. 133(1-2):41-52. 2000.

Van Ginkel, L.C., Bowes, G., Reiskind, J.B., Prins, H.B.A.
A C02-flux mechanism operating via pH-polarity in Hydrilla verticillata leaves
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Warren, R.S., Fell, P.E., Grimsby, J.L., Buck, E.L., et al
Rates, patterns, and impacts of Phragmites australis expansion and effects of
experimental Phragmites control on vegetation, macroinvertebrates, and fish within
tidelands of the lower Connecticut River.
ESTUARIES 24(1):90-107. 2001.

Watts, B.D.
The impact of highway median plantings on bird mortality.
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Weber, E.F.
The alien flora of Europe: a taxonomic and biogeographic review.
J. VEG. SCI. 8:565-572. 1997.

Wheeler, G.S., Center, T.D.
Impact of the biological control agent Hydrellia pakistanae (Diptera: Ephydridae)
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BIOLOGICAL CONTROL 21:168-181. 2001.




Worley, A.C., Barrett, S.C.H.
Evolution of floral display in Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiacea): genetic
correlations between flower size and number.
J. EVOL. BIOL. 14(3):469-481. 2001.

Xu, J., Yang, Y., Pu, Y., Ayad, W.G., et al
Genetic diversity in taro (Colocasia esculenta Schott, Araceae) in China: an
ethnobotanical and genetic approach.
ECON. BOT. 55(1):14-31. 2001.

Yamada, T., Imaichi, R., Kato, M.
Developmental morphology of ovules and seeds of Nymphaeales.
AMER. J. BOT. 88(6):963-974. 2001.

Zhang, J.-X.
Feeding ecology of two wintering geese species at Poyang Lake, China.
J. FRESHWATER ECOL. 14(4):439-445. 1999.

Zulijevic, A., Thibaut, T., Elloukal, H., Meinesz, A.
Sea slug disperses the invasive Caulerpa taxifolia.
J. MAR. BIOL. ASSOC. U.K. 81(2):343-344. 2001.



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