Table of Contents
 About Aquaphyte
 Over the top
 Hydrilla in Guatemala
 Three new line drawings
 APIRS picks
 Tempest invades a teapot
 Is Arundo donax "e-grass"?
 Odds n' ends
 Invasive aquatic and wetland plants...
 Biology of inland waters
 EWRS-Aquatic Weeds 2002 meeting...
 Books, manuals, and online...
 From the database

Group Title: Aquaphyte : a newsletter about aquatic, wetland and invasive plants
Title: Aquaphyte
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00083179/00008
 Material Information
Title: Aquaphyte newsletter of the IPPC Aquatic Weed Program of the University of Florida, a part of the International Plant Protection Center of the Oregon State University, which is funded by the United States Agency for International Development
Abbreviated Title: Aquaphyte
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Center for Aquatic Plants
University of Florida -- IPPC Aquatic Weed Program
University of Florida -- Center for Aquatic Weeds
Publisher: The Program
Place of Publication: Gainesville FL
Publication Date: 1981-
Frequency: semiannual
Subject: Aquatic plants -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: Newsletters   ( lcsh )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (fall 1981)-
Issuing Body: Vols. for fall 1982- issued with: University of Florida, Center for Aquatic Weeds.
Issuing Body: Vols. for <1988-> issued by: University of Florida, Center for Aquatic Plants.
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 12, no. 2 (fall 1992).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00083179
Volume ID: VID00008
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06513906
lccn - sc 84007615
issn - 0893-7702


This item has the following downloads:

00001 ( PDF )

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    About Aquaphyte
        Page 3
    Over the top
        Page 4
    Hydrilla in Guatemala
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Three new line drawings
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    APIRS picks
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Tempest invades a teapot
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Is Arundo donax "e-grass"?
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Odds n' ends
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Invasive aquatic and wetland plants field guide
        Page 29
    Biology of inland waters
        Page 30
        Page 31
    EWRS-Aquatic Weeds 2002 meeting held in France
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Books, manuals, and online resources
        Page 36
    From the database
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
Full Text


A Newsletter about Aquatic, Wetland and Invasive Plants

Volume 22 Number 2 Winter 2002
Gainesville, Florida
ISSN 0893-7702

Center for Aquatic and
Invasive Plants

Institute of Food and Agricultural
University of Florida
7922 N.W. 71st Street
Gainesville, Florida 32653

with support from:

The Florida Department of Environmental
Bureau of Invasive Plant Management

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,
Waterways Experiment Station,
Aquatic Plant Control Research Program

The St. Johns River Water Management District



Over The TOP One Million Hits a Month!

Hydrilla in Guatemala

THREE NEW Line-drawings: Trapa natans, Hydrocharis morsus-ranae and
Nymphoides peltata

APIRS Picks: Particularly Interesting New Items in the Database

Large Photo-Murals for K-12 Teachers and Agency Trainers
Invasive Non-Native Plants Photo-Mural
Native Freshwater Plants Photo-Mural

Tempest Invades a Teapot (Word Distinctions, Fine and Not-So-Fine)

Is Arundo donax "e-grass"?

Odds n' Ends

New Book: Invasive Aquatic and Wetland Plants Field Guide

Journal: Biology of Inland Waters

EWRS Aquatic Weeds Meeting 2002 held in France



a sampling of new additions to the APIRSdatabase

Aquaphyte page Home

Copyright 2002 University of Florida

About Aquaphyte

This is the newsletter of the Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants and the Aquatic,
Wetland and Invasive Plant Information Retrieval System (APIRS) of the
University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS). Support
for the information system is provided by the Florida Department of Environmental
Protection, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station
Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (APCRP), the St. Johns River Water
Management District and UF/IFAS.

Victor Ramey
Karen Brown

AQUAPHYTE is sent to managers, researchers, and agencies in 71 countries.
Comments, announcements, news items and other information relevant to aquatic
plant research are solicited.

Inclusion in AQUAPHYTE does not constitute endorsement, nor does exclusion
represent criticism of any item, organization, individual, or institution by the
University of Florida.

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Copyright 2002 University of Florida


During the summer of 2002, this APIRS web site attained a cyber milestone: we now receive
more than 1 million hits per month. ("Hits" are defined as pages viewed.) We know this because
our brand new Sun/Unix dual processor server tells us so. It also tells us that most people access
our web site on Tuesdays between 11 AM and 2 PM. (Nonetheless, about 120,000 hits/month
occur between midnight and 4 AM: pings from our users on the other side of the planet no
doubt.) The most popular pages on our 7,000 page web site include our plant photopages (twice
as many hits as any others); our line drawings pages; our Sea Grant sponsored pages; aquatic
birds pages; and our online glossary.

The online APIRS database receives around 2,100 hits per month, which is quite high
considering the rigmarole users must go through to use it. By January 2003, the database should
be accessible through a new web-style interface that will make it easier to use.

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Copyright 2002 University of Florida

Hydrilla in Guatemala

Dr. William Haller, University of Florida, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, recently
visited Guatemala as a USAID (United States Agency for International Development) consultant
to evaluate the current status and potential problems of Hydrilla verticillata in that country.
Following are excerpts from his final report.

Here is Haller's entire report, with photographs.

Here are PDF reports in Spanish by Alejandro Arrivillaga,
to CONAP and the Scientific Commission

Final Report, October 21, 2002
Anexo I, Datos de Campo
Maps and Figures
Distribution of Infestations

The native home of hydrilla is not known with certainty. Cook reports that
he believes hydrilla is native to the Indian subcontinent which is particularly
rich in Hydrocharitaceae species, but is not strongly opposed to the theory that
hydrilla may be native to east Africa. Hydrilla also was reported in Europe
early in the 1900s, and most recently in Poland and Lithuania, but only
isolated and small populations currently exist. Though classified as a single
taxonomic species worldwide, recent enzymatic and DNA analyses suggest
the existence of several "types" of hydrilla including monoecious and
dioecious plants (Madeira et al. 1997). Hydrilla produces excessive growth,
causing problems in the western hemisphere, Asia and Australia, but it is not a
problem in Europe and Africa.

Dr. Margaret Dix, University del Valle, indicated that she had collected
hydrilla outside the Polochic watershed in Guatemala in approximately 1990.
Fishermen noted that hydrilla was first observed in Lake Izabal in

approximately 2000. This date seems correct based upon the current
characteristics of the distribution in Lake Izabal. Hydrilla now occurs in many
locations, with some areas of growth approaching 400-500 acres in size, and
other areas of less thanI acre, suggesting that hydrilla is in an early
colonization mode. Likely, hydrilla was present in the watershed, in a pond or
isolated area, in 1998 when flood water from Hurricane Mitch moved it into
the lake.

In Florida, the "type" of hydrilla is the dioecious female plant which only
produces female flowers twice a year near the fall and spring equinox.
Hydrilla in Lake Izabal was flowering during early September 2002 and no
rhizomes suggestive of tuber production were located. Consequently I believe
that the hydrilla in Lake Izabal is the same type as that in Florida, Texas,
Mexico and Panama. This could be confirmed by planting hydrilla in shallow
pans in October to determine if tuber production occurs during October
through April, indicative of dioecious female plants in the southern USA
where hydrilla produces tubers during short day conditions (<12-13 hours of
day length).

Hydrilla in Lake Izabal
Recent surveys conducted by Alejandro Arrivillaga for the Scientific
Commission and CONAP (Consejo Nacional de Areas Protegidas) show over
2,000 ha (5,000 acres) currently growing in the 170,000 acre lake. The lake is
sustained by several rivers, primarily the Polochic entering Lake Izabal from
the west. The lake outlet to the east is a heavily populated area, the Rio Dulce,
which after approximately 3-4 miles widens into the Golfete. The Golfete is a
large (approximately 15,000 acre) shallow, tidally influenced area which
contains a manatee preserve and is largely surrounded by public lands. Further
east, the Golfete narrows once again and passes through the "Gorges" area for
approximately 4-6 miles, emptying into the Gulf of Honduras at the City of

My visit coincided with the end of the wet season and water flows in the Rio
Dulce were high with whirlpools and strong currents very noticeable wherever
the river was narrow. During and for a period after the wet season, the system
from the shallow Golfete through the Upper Rio Dulce is essentially fresh
water, with salinities sufficiently low for hydrilla growth. (Additional data are

needed on the salinity levels in the Golfete during the dry season (Nov-May)).
Hydrilla was present to the water surface in the upper Rio Dulce and western
Golfete during September 2002, near the end of the wet season. It is possible
that salinity will control this growth during the dry season, but it appears
hydrilla will become a problem in the Golfete for 2-3 months at the end of the
wet season and persist until killed by saltwater intrusion in the dry season.
The water depth of the Golfete appears to be suitable for hydrilla growth; the
limiting factor in this area will be the effects of salinity as hydrilla cannot
tolerate extended periods in excess of 6 parts per thousand or 20% of the salt
concentration of seawater. The Rio Dulce east of the Golfete is too deep and
too saline (I believe) for hydrilla to cause problems, though it may grow into
creek deltas of inflowing fresh water in the lower Rio Dulce and interfere with
local boat traffic. Research on the salinity and water depths of the Rio Dulce
and Golfete will permit more accurate prediction of the future extent of
hydrilla growth downstream of the Central Golfete.

Extent of Problem
At the current level of infestation, primarily in beds in Lake Izabal, hydrilla is
causing relatively minor problems to fishing and transportation. Hydrilla is
currently growing to water depths of approximately 15 feet. If hydrilla
continues to expand to cover the 15-18 foot contour of the lake bed, it is
estimated that it will cover 10-15% of the lake surface (20-30,000 acres of the
170,000 acre lake). While this level of infestation may appear small, it will
cause access and navigation problems for villagers and create problems for

The major concern I envision is if hydrilla were to establish in the upper Rio
Dulce, near the river bridge, where marinas, transportation, and tourism would
be severely impacted. Many people in this area rely upon river transport for
commerce, and tourism and recreation is a significant industry. Though water
flow in this area is high during the wet season, flows are negligible during the
dry season which will permit hydrilla to become established in these shallow
waters. In fact, hydrilla beds have already been found in the upper Rio Dulce
and western Golfete. The Golfete provides access to the transportation and
commerce center of the upper Rio Dulce and is likely to be severely impacted
as well. It is in these areas, the western Golfete and the upper Rio Dulce that I
fear hydrilla will cause severe economic hardship.

Hydrilla is currently too widespread to be eradicated from this system and
Guatemala needs to be prepared for expansion of hydrilla into areas which
will be economically affected. While we can hope hydrilla does not spread
further, historically it has and likely will continue expansion.

The Scientific Committee and concerned Guatemalan officials and agencies
have already initiated much needed research, monitoring, and evaluation of
management options. The following information is critically needed to be able
to accurately predict the ultimate effects of hydrilla: vegetation surveys; a new
bathymetric map (Hurricane Mitch in 1998 may have changed the depth
contours of the lake); fisheries surveys; salinity monitoring; insect surveys;
herbicide acute toxicity studies; and baseline limnological studies. While the
current hydrilla infestation is causing problems in the lake, it has not invaded
what I consider high priority economic sites, and it is critical to be prepared
for this event. This a very large and dynamic system in which it is impossible
to predict with certainty the ultimate infestation.

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Copyright 2002 University of Florida

Three New Line Drawings!

A Trio of Northern U.S. Aquatic Weeds

All drawings are by Dale Johnson, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants,
University of Florida, Gainesville.

Water chestnut
Trapa natans
This invasive non-native is present in Delaware, Virginia, Maryland,
Massachusetts, Pennsylvania (?), New Jersey, New York and Vermont (Kartesz,
1999). It is native to Eurasia.

Water chestnut features a rosette of floating, fan-shaped leaves, each leaf having a
slightly inflated petiole (stem); the roots are fine, long and profuse; the small 4-
petalled flower is white; the fruit is a large nut having 4 sharp spines.

Color pictures of water chestnut may be found here.

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European frog-bit
Hydrocharis morsus-ranae
This invasive non-native is present in shallow, slow-moving waters of New York,
Quebec and Ontario (Kartesz, 1999). It was introduced from Europe.

European frog-bit leaves may be floating or emersed. The heart-shaped leaves are
on long stems. The single 3-petalled flower is white. This plant looks similar to the
native American frog-bit, Limnobium spongia.

Color pictures of European frog-bit may be found here.



* I::


A. -

Yellow floating-heart
Nymphoides peltata
This invasive non-native is present in a diagonal line from Texas to New
Hampshire, and into Quebec; also present in Arizona, California and Washington
(Kartesz, 1999). It was introduced as an ornamental from eastern Asia.

Yellow floating-heart is a floating-leaved plant with large yellow flowers, and
adventitious roots along an underwater stem.

Color pictures of yellow floating-heart may be found here.

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Copyright 2002 University of Florida





Particularly interesting new items in the APIRS database

Selections by reader/cataloger, Mary Langeland; elaborated by Vic Ramey

The most likely invaders of natural areas include aquatic or semi-aquatic plants,
grasses, nitrogen-fixers, climbing plants, and clonal trees, according to an analysis of
almost 2,800 agricultural weeds and natural area invaders world-wide. The analysis also
found that only 25% of natural area invaders were also serious agricultural weeds.
Daehler, C.C. 1998. The Taxonomic Distribution of Invasive Angiosperm Plants:
Ecological Insights and Comparison to Agricultural Weeds. Biol. Cons. 84:167-180.

A "greenhouse insect," Orthezia insignis, is a serious, non-native pest now infesting
Florida landscape plants, including cultivated lantanas (Lantana sp.). This study compares
susceptibility to this invasive insect by Florida's two native lantana species and 38
cultivars of two non-native lantana species. It was found that our native Lantana depressa
and Lantana involucrata are much more susceptible to this insect threat than are any of
the 38 exotic nursery cultivars.
Boschat, T.K. and Weissling, T.J. 2001. Susceptibility ofLantana Cultivars to Orthezia
insignis. HortTechnology 11(3):460-462.

An endangered butterfly in the U.S. is becoming more endangered because its host
plant, a wetland sedge, Carex stricta, is being paved over and drained by new highway
and dredging projects. In 1997 only eleven populations were known; we wonder how
many there are now.
Shuey, J.A. 1997. Conservation Status and Natural History ofMitchell's Satyr,
Neonympha mitchellii mitchellii French (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Natural
Areas Journal 17(2):153-163.

Read about "lag phase": "The promotion of new plants in the nursery trade creates an
increasing incentive to only briefly evaluate and then immediately introduce new plants...
It may be possible to effectively evaluate some herbaceous species in a given region
within a few years, but woody plants may require twenty, thirty, or more years to
effectively evaluate them."
McWilliams, E.L. and Arnold, M.A. 1998. Horticultural History Repeating Itself
Dispersal and the Invasion Lag Phase of Exotic Plants on the TAMU Campus. In: Proc.
10th Conf., Metropolitan Tree Improvement Alliance, St. Louis, MO, Sept 30-Oct 1,

Is this "the foundation for building a general theory of seed plant invasiveness"? The
author reviews Darwin's explanation for invasion success, presents certain characteristics
that may be required for invasiveness (seed size and periodicity, vertebrate availability,
latitudinal range and genome size), and propounds a theory of plant invasiveness.
Rejmanek, M. 1996. A Theory of Seed Plant Invasiveness: The First Sketch. Biol. Cons.

Watermilfoil Hybrids. DNA studies of invasive watermilfoil species reveal distinct
sequences acquired from both nonindigenous and native North American species; that is,
they are hybrids of native and non-native plants.
Moody, M.L. and Les, D.H. 2002. Evidence ofHybridity in Invasive Watermilfoil
(Myriophyllum) Populations, Proc. National Academy of Sciences 99(23): 14867-14871,
November 12, 2002.

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A Collaborative Effort:
Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, University of Florida
Bureau of Invasive Plant Management, Florida Department of Environmental Protection

Classroom size, Free to Requesting Teachers (K-12)
Send your non-virtual letter for immediate delivery.

Here are two large photo-murals of 75 invasive non-native plants in the U.S. Of the plants
depicted, 100% are found in Florida, 50% are also found elsewhere in the Southeast U.S.; 50%
are also found in Hawaii; 15% are also found in the West; 15% are also found in the East; and
17% are also found in most of the rest of the U.S.

All plants are depicted in large, strikingly attractive color photographs. Here is the list of plants.

At the request of teachers and enviro-trainers, these photo-murals were produced to be
attention-grabbing teaching tools for science classes and management agency training, and for

homeowners' forums, ecology clubs, environmental advocacy groups and others concerned about
the onslaught of non-native plants in the United States. It was produced by the University of
Florida and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, with printing support from
Cerexagri. Additional printing support came from Sea Grant, the national Aquatic Plant
Management Society, the Florida Aquatic Plant Management Society, and from the U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers Jacksonville Office.

The photo-murals are available:

-- free-to-teachers:

fully laminated copies of the murals are free to teachers (U.S., K-12) and
public agency trainers (U.S.) who request them in writing, on letterhead, to
the non-virtual APIRSaddress below. there is a limited number of free
copies available -

Please do not telephone or e-mail us about the free photo-mural s offer;
we are happy to accept letters on letterhead from teachers (U.S., K-12) and
public agency trainers (U.S.) who want their free copies. Send your request
letters to: APIRS Photo-Mural, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants,
7922 NW 71 ST, Gainesville, FL 32653.

-- All four plant photo-murals are for sale to anyone from 1-800-226-1764:

They may be purchased singly or as a complete set.

1) SP-293 Native Freshwater Plants Photo-Mural fully laminated 62 in.
X 23 in.
$20 each plus S/H.

2) SP-329 MORE Native Freshwater Plants Photo-Mural fully laminated
27 in. X 39 in.
$12 each plus S/H.

3) SP-292 Invasive Non-Native Plants fully laminated 62 in. X 23 in.
$20 each plus S/H.

4) SP-328 MORE Invasive Non-Native Plants fully laminated 27 in. X
39 in.
$12 each plus S/H.


plus S/H

Purchase copies from the IFAS Publications Office, 1-800-226-1764.
(Credit cards accepted.)

Remember that WHEN YOU PURCHASE A COPY, you also are buying a copy
for a K-12 teacher!

Home |
Copyright 2003 University of Florida





A Collaborative Effort:
Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, University of Florida
Bureau of Invasive Plant Management, Florida Department of Environmental Protection

All four plant photo-murals are for sale to anyone from 1-800-226-1764; or by visiting the
IFASBOOKS website:

They may be purchased individually or as a complete set.
1) SP 293 Native Freshwater Plants Photo-Mural fully laminated 62 in. X 23 in. $20 each plus S/H.
2) SP 329 MORE Native Freshwater Plants Photo-Mural fully laminated 27 in. X 39 in. $12 each plus S/H.
3) SP 292 Invasive Non-Native Plants fully laminated 62 in. X 23 in. $20 each plus S/H.
4) SP 328 MORE Invasive Non-Native Plants fully laminated 27 in. X 39 in. $12 each plus S/H.

DESCRIBED ABOVE: $39.50 plus S/H Purchase copies from the IFAS Publications Office, 1-800-226-
1764; or visit the IFASBOOKS website (Credit cards accepted.)

These photo-murals were produced at the request of teachers and enviro-trainers to be attention-
grabbing teaching tools for science classes and management agency training, and for homeowners' forums,
ecology clubs, environmental advocacy groups and others interested in marshes, swamps and other wetlands
of the United States. The murals were produced by the University of Florida and the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection, with printing support from Cerexagri. Additional printing support came from Sea
Grant, the national Aquatic Plant Management Society, the Florida Aquatic Plant Management Society, and
from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Jacksonville Office.


Lest we forget, with so much current emphasis on invasive non-natives, most plants in the U.S. are
native; beneficial to animals, humans, and the environment; and often beautiful. So, here are two photo-
murals of 76 native freshwater plants of the U.S.. Of the plants depicted, 100% are in Florida; 97% are also
found in the rest of the Southeast U.S.; 50% are found in the Eastern U.S.; 22% are found in the West; and 22%
are found throughout most of the U.S.

Click here for the list of plants featured on the two "native" murals.





Here are two large photo-murals of 75 invasive non-native plants in the U.S. Of the
plants depicted, 100% are found in Florida, 50% are also found elsewhere in the Southeast U.S.; 50% are also
found in Hawaii; 15% are also found in the West; 15% are also found in the East; and 17% are also found in
most of the rest of the U.S. As in the other photo-murals of this series, all plants are depicted in large, strikingly
attractive color photographs.
Click here for the list of plants featured on the two "invasive" murals.

IFAS Extension
ICrh7r f)ir A, pa,,
itfl4fIi fwtw iw )'lijf-

Copyright 2006 University of Florida






Tempest Invades a Teapot

Following are excerpts from the Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America which form a
dialog regarding use of the term invader in the field of ecology. The ESA Bulletin publishes
"letters, longer commentaries, and philosophical and methodological items related to the science
of ecology." The Ecological Society of America also publishes the journals Ecology, Ecological
Monographs, and Ecological Applications. For more information, go to http://www.esa.org/.

From "Eight Ways to be a Colonizer; Two Ways to be an Invader: A Proposed
Nomenclature Scheme for Invasion Ecology" by M.A. Davis and K. Thompson, ESA
Bulletin 81(3), July 2000, "We believe that inconsistent and imprecise use of invasion
terminology is one factor that is contributing to the ongoing difficulties of the field ....
Depending on the author, a species in the invasion literature might be referred to as alien,
exotic, invasive, nonindigenous, imported, weedy, introduced, non-native, immigrant,
colonizer, native, naturalized, endemic, or indigenous [references omitted-Ed.]. In many
cases, these terms are not defined, or if they are defined, they are not always defined
consistently. Until a commonly accepted vocabulary is adopted by invasion ecologists, we
think the field will continue to have difficulty developing reliable generalizations, partly
due to misunderstandings and misinterpretations among investigators. Clearly, an
invader is not just any newcomer, but one that has a large impact on the new environment.
This impact could involve community, ecosystem, and/or economic effects."

January 2001: From "Two Ways to Be an Invader, But One is More Suitable for
Ecology" by C.C. Daehler, ESA Bulletin 82(1), "Some invading species have greater
ecological impacts than others, but defining invaders as those species with the largest
impacts is an exercise in subjectivity that will be unlikely to contribute to clarity. For
ecology, defining invader based on population growth and spread in a new region is
preferable. It captures a general ecological process that can be confirmed with simple
measurements, leading to greater agreement among ecologists, and greater progress in
understanding invasions as ecological phenomena."

July 2001: From "Invasion Terminology: Should Ecologists Define Their Terms
Differently Than Others? No, Not if We Want to be of Any Help!" by M.A. Davis and K.
Thompson, ESA Bulletin 82(3), "We believe that there are compelling practical and

conceptual reasons for impact to be a part of the defining criteria for an invading species.
The primary practical reason is that, outside of the discipline of ecology, "invasive
species" are usually explicitly defined on the basis of their impact... it would be
counterproductive to the field and to society if ecologists were to define the terms
"invader" and "invasive" differently than the rest of society, and not include "impact" as
part of their definitions."

April 2002: From "Biological Invaioin% Politics and the Discontinuity of Ecological
Terminology" by M. Rejmanek, D.M. Richardson, et al, ESA Bulletin 83(2), "According
to these authors [Davis and Thompson], invasion always implies some kind of impact, and
all "invasive" taxa are harmful. There are several problems with their proposal. there is
much confusion, especially in the recent literature, particularly because many newcomers
to the burgeoning field of invasion ecology ignore existing terminology and instead rely
on the highly emotional negative connotations of the word "invasion" in relation to war
and other aggressive human activities. This is especially true for the popular literature on
invasions. Unfortunately, such sloppy terminology has permeated what should be
authoritative documents on this topic .. "

July 2002: From "Newcomers" Invade the Field of Invasion Ecology: Question the Field's
Future" by M.A. Davis and K. Thompson, ESA Bulletin 83(3), "We developed our
proposed nomenclature on the explicit recognition that some new species "have a
negligible effect on the new environment, whereas some have a very large impact (Davis
and Thompson 2000)." We proposed that usage of the word "invasion" be confined to
those circumstances in which the newcomers have a large impact on the community,
ecosystem, or economy. ... To most readers, this argument over the usage of a couple of
words must seem like a tempest in a teapot. However, there may be more at stake here
than just vocabulary. Invasion ecology clearly has been a hot area of research in recent
years, spawning invasion journals, invasion symposia, special grant initiatives, and
countless books and articles on the topic. Yet, despite all this activity, very little progress
in understanding the ecology of these new introductions has been gained, beyond that
which could already be acquired using existing ecological models and knowledge. We
fear that, despite original good intentions, the emergence of invasion ecology as a distinct
subdiscipline has hindered more than helped our efforts to understand the ecology of these
new introductions (Davis et al 2001). Paradoxically, ecology may contribute more
constructively to society's efforts to deal with the ecological, economic, and health
problems caused by some of these new species if the field proceeds without the language
and paradigms promoted in invasion ecology."

Personal communication from M.A. Davis, Nov. 2002: My feeling now is that if for
some reason we continue to feel compelled to use the word 'invader', it would make more
pragmatic sense if we used the word in the way that the public and policy members have
been using it, i.e., defined in terms of impact. How-ever, personally, I've come to the
conclusion that both scientific research and conservation efforts would be facilitated if we

dropped the native/exotic/invader paradigm and language completely and referred to
species as 'long-term residents' or 'recently introduced species' or 'problem
species' (which can include either long-term residents or recently introduced species).


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Is Arundo donax "e-grass"?

Here is more info about Arundo donax.

The front page of the Wall Street Journal recently featured an article entitled, Arundo
Has Two Lives: A Pest in California, a Boon to Florida (Wed., October 16, 2002). The
article, about Arundo donax, giant reed, states that "Environmentalists here [in Florida]
see the plant as a godsend, offering a fast-growing replacement for coal and wood
products without gouging the earth or chopping down forests." The article goes on to
explain that a company, Biomass Industries, "with the blessings of the Northern Florida
Sierra Club," has secured a contract with Jacksonville city utilities to deliver electricity
derived from the burning (gasification) of tons of giant reed. The giant reed is to be grown
on an 8,000 acre Arundo farm on "leased land near the Everglades." Reportedly, a
gasification plant will be built on the farm and the electricity it produces will be
transmitted from there to Jacksonville. According to the Journal, the eight thousand acres
ofArundo are to be planted in Spring, 2003.

In California, there exists a "multimillion-dollar federal and state effort" to rid the state of
Arundo, which is listed in the A-1, Most Invasive Wildland Pest Plants Widespread list
of the California Exotic Pest Plant Council. "State officials, along with local Sierra Club
chapters and other environ-mental groups, blame the reed for fueling wildfires, causing
floods and killing fish. Arundo ranks near the top of the state's list of botanical pests." In
Florida, it is not listed as an invasive plant, although it may be found locally around the


For its purposes, the Arundo donax-growing company's Web site and literature refers to
the plant as "e-grass." http://www.egrass.com

Team Arundo del Norte (California), a forum of local, state, and federal organizations
dedicated to the control of Arundo donax (giant reed): http://www.teamarundo.org/

The Nature Conservancy Wildland Invasive Species Team on Arundo donax: http://

Editor's note: The North Florida Sierra Club has stated that they were misrepresented in
the Wall Street Journal article and that they do not support the introduction of Arundo
donax or any other species without a review ... to understand the implications of

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Odds n' Ends

Teaching Points available. Created especially for science teachers, eco-trainers
and others responsible for answering questions and presenting basic information
about invasive plants and native plants, the Teaching Points is a four-page list of
questions and answers that may be adapted for use in a 50-minute classroom-style
presentation. So that this useful document might be used over and over, year after
year, it is printed on plastic paper. The Teaching Points are even more meaningful
when used in conjunction with the plant photo-murals (described next). Available
free-of-charge from APIRS, CAIP-WEBSITE(aufl.edu

Murals Aplenty. During the past 12 months, nearly 2,500 K-12 science teachers
around the U.S. have requested and obtained free copies of the two giveaway
photo-murals produced by the University of Florida and the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection. The laminated photo-murals, Invasive Non-Native
Plants and Native Freshwater Plants, feature many "classroom size" photos. Used
with the accompanying Teaching Points, science teachers may tailor their own
science lessons about invasive plants for students of any grade. Besides being free
to K-12 teachers, they also are for sale to anyone else. http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu

The St. Louis Declaration. "To curb the use and distribution of invasive plant
species," these are rules to live by for nurserymen, plant sellers, botanic gardens,
landscape architects and the gardening public, as promulgated and agreed upon by
nurserymen, plant sellers, botanic gardens, landscape architects and members of
the gardening public. Read your own Code of Conduct at http://www.mobot.org/iss

Oklahoma Aquatic Weeds Poster. A new poster, Don't Free Lily! An Aid For
the Responsible Handling ofAquatic Plants, depicts and describes Oklahoma's 23
Prohibited Aquatic Plant Species. It also shows recommended native species which
should be used instead. It was produced by the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife
Conservation, Langston University, and the University of Oklahoma. To obtain a

free copy of the poster, contact Gene Gilliland, Oklahoma Fishery Research
Laboratory, 500 E. Constellation, Norman, OK 73072; ggillokla(aiaol.com

Acting Locally. The Wolf River Conservancy is one of the original eco-advocacy
groups of its kind. Established in 1985, the goal of its 1,500 members is "to
establish a protected public greenway along the 90-mile Wolf River from its
headwaters near Holly Springs, Mississippi, to its mouth at the Mississippi River in
Memphis, Tennessee." Over the years, WRC has purchased and otherwise helped
protect 8,000 acres of the river's "unmatched natural beauty and large pockets of
undisturbed forest." Visit: http://www.wolfriver.org

Florida Keys GreenSweep. For the past three years, The Nature Conservancy has
run a "volunteer-based habitat restoration initiative" in the Keys. Named
GreenSweep, the volunteer workers clear invasive plants from four National
Wildlife Refuges, 11 state parks, 5 CARL properties and countless municipal
conservation lands. Alison Higgins, Land Stewardship Coordinator, The Nature
Conservancy, POB 420237, Summerland Key, FL 33042. 305-745-8402.

Botanical Dermatology Database. This interesting and easy-to-use online
database presents text and citations regarding toxicity of plants. Click on "BoDD
Search Engine"; type in the word melaleucaa", retrieve a large file about the
Myrtaceae, scroll down past Eucalyptus and Eugenia, and find toxicity references
for six species of melaleuca. Visit: http://bodd.cf.ac.uk/index.html

K-12 Teachers A California Priority. When it comes to invasive species, many
organizations forget to enlist the support of professional science teachers, even
though it is well known that what teachers teach their students, the students teach
their parents. The California Department of Food and Agriculture recognizes this
simple yet effective cycle, and the Department specifically targets school teachers
and classrooms in the effort to teach the public about invasive species and what to
do about them. Visit http://www.cdfa.ca.gov/phpps/ipc/weededucation/k-
12 education/k-12 ed hp.htm

Know Your Watershed. The stream down the street, the rain on that hillside:
where does the water go? Are you sure? Call up this Purdue University web site;
learn about watersheds; scroll down; type in your city, county or zip code, and see
an EPA map of the watershed that you live in. http://www.ctic.purdue.edu/KYW/

Izaak Walton League Rocks! One of the oldest conservation orgs in the U.S. (it
was founded in 1922), the Izaak Walton League seeks to conserve, maintain,
protect and restore the soil, air, woods, water and wildlife of the United States.
Among other activities, it has strong initiatives in Save Our Streams and in the
American Wetlands Campaign. For information, visit: http://www.iwla.org

New England Invasives. This web site maintains the Invasive Plant Atlas of New
England, a place to report and retrieve sightings, and to download distribution
maps. The Atlas is in its early stages, but much technical effort has been put into its
preparation. With continued user participation, this Atlas promises to be a first-rate
resource in the fight against invaders: http://invasives.eeb.uconn.edu/ipane

250 ft. long native plant mural. The City of Titusville (FL) has taken yet another
approach to public education by painting a plant mural on a 250 ft. retaining wall
alongside a city street. The mural illustrates the plant communities of Florida's
various ecosystems; each plant is labeled with its common name. The wall is used
as a teaching aid for various conservation outreach programs, including
encouraging the use of native plants and Florida-friendly landscaping techniques to

reduce water use. It is located at 2836 Garden Street, Titusville, Florida. For more
information, contact Maureen Phillips at maureen.phillips@titusville.com


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by S.H. Kay; edited by B. Doll. 2002. 42 pp.
(The Guide is available to certain individuals by contacting North Carolina Sea
Grant at North Carolina State University, 919-515-2454; WWW: http://www.ncsu.

This field guide was produced to help extension agents, regulatory and
environmental agency field personnel, and plant nursery and water garden
industry personnel to recognize the most invasive noxious aquatic and
wetland weeds being sold and distributed in the United States. Twenty-one
species are treated using color photographs and line drawings. Their origin,
growth habit, ecological threat, ID characteristics, reproduction method and
similarity to other plants is presented.

The guide was prepared by North Carolina Sea Grant and was funded by the
U.S. Sea Grant's Aquatic Nuisance Species Research and Outreach Initiative.

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Editorial Board. The Russian Academy of Sciences
Editor-in-Chief" D.S. Pavlov, Professor, Academician of Russian Academy of
Sciences, Institute of Ecology & Evolution, Moscow, 117071, Russia.

The Journal was founded in 2000 by the Russian Academy of Sciences
and is published quarterly. The Journal is publishing problematic, review and
original papers dealing with various aspects of the biology of aquatic
ecosystems, in particular flora and fauna of water bodies, biology,
morphology, systematics of aquatic organisms, ecology, ecological
physiology and biochemistry of aquatic animals, behaviour of aquatic
organisms, their populations and communities, aquatic toxicology, biological
cycles, structure and function of aquatic ecosystems, anthropogenic impact on
aquatic organisms and aquatic ecosystems, protection of aquatic ecosystems
and organisms, and methods of hydrobiological and ichthyological studies.

The Journal is a successor and continues traditions of the publication of the
same name of the Institute for Biology of Inland Waters RAS and of the
"Russian Journal of Aquatic Ecology." In the nearest future an English
version of the Journal "Biology of Inland Waters" is to be published. It will
contribute to better information exchange between Russian and foreign
scientists. The English version of the Journal "Biology of Inland Waters" will
offer foreign investigators an opportunity to obtain regular information about
the scientific results of Russian colleagues. The English version of the Journal
will be published by the "International Academical Publishing House Nauka/
Interperiodicals." Tentative annual subscription rate (4 issues) -US$ 300-400.

Orders and inquiries regarding subscription should be addressed to Nina A.
Ziminova, Executive Secretary, Institute for Biology of Inland Waters RAS,
Borok, Yaroslavl, 152742, Russia; phone/fax (08547) 2-40-42,
E-mail: isdat(aibiw.varoslavl.ru WWW: htto://www.ibiw.varoslavl.ru/en2/


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Copyright 2002 University of Florida

EWRS-Aquatic Weeds 2002 meeting held in


The European Weed Research Society's 11th International Symposium on Aquatic Weeds
took place in Moliets et Mad in the Landes region of France from 2-6 September 2002. The
symposium was organized by Cemagref (http://www.cemagref.fr/), in partnership with INRA
(http://www.inra.fr/) and ENSA of Rennes (http://agro.roazhon. inra.fr/), a national scientific
group working on macrophytes of continental waters of France, and the Conseil G6n6ral des
Landes. Previous symposia have taken place in different European countries since 1964.

Approximately 150 participants from 27 countries presented more than 100 papers at the five-day
meeting. Topics ranged from biology (16 papers), environmental relationships (36 papers),
bioindication (14 papers), management (17 papers), control (20 papers), and invasions (8 papers).
Presentations were given in French or English, with simultaneous translation available via
wireless headphones. Hydrobiologia will be publishing a special issue for papers presented at the

Two field trips during the meeting showcased the Basque country, the rivers of the Pyren6es
Piedmont, and the lakes and wetlands of the Aquitaine coast.

The sumptuous gala dinner was preceded by a jai-alai demonstration (a traditional Basque sport),
and concluded with an anonymous late paper presented by Dr. Max Wade (UK) titled
"Observations of the invasion by alien aquatic weed scientists on the ecology of Moliets et Mad,
France." This fascinating paper was one of the highlights of the evening.

The 12th International EWRS Symposium on Aquatic Weeds is expected to be held in Poland.


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Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants

May 15-18, 2008; Palmetto, Florida www.fnps.org
28th Annual Florida Native Plant Society Conference
Uplands to Estuaries: Celebrating Florida's Native Plant Heritage

May 20-22, 2008; Imperial Palace Casinos, Biloxi, Mississippi http://www.se-eppc.org
10th Annual Southeast EPPC Conference

June 23-27, 2008; International Weed Science Society, Vancouver, Canada http://iws.ucdavis.
International Weed Science Society

Aquatic Weed Management


Mike Netherland, USA I mdnether(@ufl .edu

Kevin Murphy, UK |I k.murphy@vbio.qla.ac.uk

June 23-26, 2008; University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida http://www.conference.ifas.ufl.edu/soils/
Biogeochemistry of Wetlands: Science and Applications Short Course

August 25-26th, 2008; LSU Energy, Coast, and Environmental Building, Baton Rouge, Louisiana http://www.
Sustainable Management of Deltaic Ecosystems: Integration of Theory and Practice

September 7-12, 2008; Daniel Boone National Forest, Olympia Springs, Kentucky http://tfce.uky.edu/wri 2008.
2008 Eastern Regional Wetland Restoration Institute

September 23-25, 2008; Austin Carey Memorial Forest Education Building, Gainesville, Fl. http://soils.ifas.ufl.
Hydric Soils Short Course Specialized Training for Wetland Specialists

October 21-23, 2008; Austin Carey Memorial Forest Education Building, Gainesville, Fl. http://soils.ifas.ufl.edu
Hydric Soils Short Course Specialized Training for Wetland Specialists

November 12-14, 2008; Stellenbosch, South Africa http://academic.sun.ac.za/cib/events/Elton CIB symposium.
Fifty Years of Invasion Ecology the Legacy of Charles Elton
Centre of Excellence for Invasion Biology, Stellenbosch University

November 18-20 2008; Austin Carey Memorial Forest Education Building, Gainesville, Fl. http://soils.ifas.ufl.
Hydric Soils Short Course Specialized Training for Wetland Specialists

June 23-26, 2009; Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico http://www.paleolim.org/index.php/symposia/
11th International Paleolimnology Symposium

August 23-27, 2009; Stellenbosch, South Africa www.emapi2009.co.za or rich@(sun.ac.za
The 10th International Conference on the Ecology and Management of Alien Plant
Invasions (EMAPI)
Centre for Invasion Biology (CIB), Department of Botany & Zoology, Stellenbosch University

IFAS Extension
CcOwfr-fr Aimfit
AVUS r It ','-'i( .



Home I Aquaphyte page
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@2007 University of Florida

Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants

Books, Manuals, and Online Resources

New Books and Reports
8 Plant Manuals, Field Guides and Textbooks
Langeland/Burks Non-Native Plants Book
8 Online Articles and Extension Publications
Extension Publications & Articles
8 Online Books

. 5 rPt PAnr

A'*I h ^ "

IFAS Extension
I.'r',t ,i- r r l i,', i',

Copyright 2007 University of Florida


Here is a sampling of the research articles, books and reports which have been entered into
the aquatic, wetland and invasive plant database since Summer 2002. The database has
more than 58,000 citations. To receive free bibliographies on specific plants and/or
subjects, contact APIRS at kpb@mail.ifas.ufl.edu or use the database online at http://
plants. ifas.ufl.edu/database.html

To obtain articles, contact your nearest state or university library.

Andersson, B.
Macrophyte development and habitat characteristics in Sweden's large lakes.
AMBIO 30(8):503-513. 2001.

Austin, D.
Sundews: discovering Florida's ethnobotany.
PALMETTO 21(3):12-13. 2002.

Ayres, D.R., Strong, D.R.
The Spartina invasion of San Francisco Bay.

Bergholz, P.W., Bagwell, C.E., Lovell, C.R.
Physiological diversity of rhizoplane diazotrophs of the saltmeadow cordgrass,
Spartina patens: implications for host specific ecotypes.
MICROBIAL ECOL. 42(3):466-473. 2001.

Bernez, I., Haury, J., Ferreira, M.T.
Downstream effects of a hydroelectric reservoir on aquatic plant assemblages.
SCIENTIFIC WORLD J. 2:740-750. 2002.

Birks, H.H., Peglar, S.M., Boomer, I., Flower, R.J., et al

Palaeolimnological responses of nine North Africa lakes in the Cassarina Project to
recent environmental changes and human impact detected by plant macrofossil,
pollen, and faunal analyses.
AQUATIC ECOLOGY 35:405-430. 2001.

Boehm, R., Kruse, C., Voeste, D., Barth, S., et al
A transient transformation system for duckweed (Wolffia columbiana) using
agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer.
J. APPL BOT. 75(3-4):107-111. 2001.

Boyette, C.D., Abbas, H.K., Walker, H.L.
Control of kudzu with a fungal pathogen derived from Myrothecium verrucaria.
UNITED STATES PATENT NO. US 6,274,534 Bl, 4 PP. 2001.

Braskerud, B.C.
Factors affecting nitrogen retention in small constructed wetlands treating
agricultural non-point source pollution.
ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING 18(3):351-370. 2002.

Brown, B.J., Mitchell, R.J.
Competition for pollination: effects of pollen of an invasive plant on seed set of a
native congener.
OECOLOGIA 129(1):43-49. 2001.

Brown, S.J., Maceina, M.J.
The influence of disparate levels of submersed aquatic vegetation on largemouth
bass population characteristics in a Georgia reservoir.
J. AQUATIC PLANT MANAGE. 40:28-35. 2002.

Brzosko, E.
The life history of Carex cespitosa.
KRAKOW, 60 PP. 1999.

Burdick, D.M., Buchsbaum, R., Holt, E.
Variation in soil salinity associated with expansion of Phragmites australis in salt
ENVIRON. EXPER. BOT. 46(3):247-261. 2001.

Burks, K.C.
Nymphoides cristata (Roxb.) Kuntze, a recent adventive expanding as a pest plant in
CASTANEA 67(2):206-211. 2002.

Busch, J.
Canopy transpiration rates in eutrophic wetlands dominated by sedges (Carex spp.)
differ in a species specific way.
PHYS. CHEM. EARTH (B) 25(7-8):605-610. 2000.

Cardona, L., Royo, P., Torras, X.
Effects of leaping grey mullet Liza saliens (Osteichthyes, Mugilidae) in the
macrophyte beds of oligohaline Mediterranean coastal lagoons.
HYDROBIOLOGIA 462:233-240. 2001.

Chabbi, A., Hines, M.E., Rumpel, C.
The role or organic carbon excretion by bulbous rush roots and its turnover and
utilization by bacteria under iron plaques in extremely acid sediments.
ENVIRON. EXPER. BOT. 46:237-245. 2001.

Chawanje, C.M., Barbeau, W.E., Grun, I.
Nutrient and antinutrient content of an underexploited Malawian water tuber
Nymphaea petersiana (Nyika).
ECOL. FOOD AND NUTRITION 40(4):347-366. 2001.

Clairain, E.J.
Hydrogeomorphic approach to assessing wetland functions: guidelines for
developing regional guidebooks; Chapter 1, Introduction and overview of the
hydrogeomorphic approach.

Collier, M.H., Vankat, J.L., Hughes, M.R.
Diminished plant richness and abundance below Lonicera maackii, an invasive
AMER. MIDL. NATURALIST 147(1):60-71. 2002.

Collins, P.E.F., Turner, S.D., Cundy, A.B.
High-resolution reconstruction of recent vegetation dynamics in a Mediterranean
microtidal wetland: implications for site sensitivity and palaeoenvironmental

J. COASTAL RES. 17(3):684-693. 2001.

Daehler, C.C.
The taxonomic distribution of invasive angiosperm plants: ecological insights and
comparison to agricultural weeds.

Darokar, M.P., Khanuja, S.P.S., Shasany, A.K., Kumar, S.
Low levels of genetic diversity detected by RAPD analysis in geographically
distinct accessions of Bacopa monnieri.

DellaGreca, M., Fiorentino, A., Isidori, M., Monaco, P., et al
Antialgal furano-diterpenes from Potamogeton natans L.
PHYTOCHEMISTRY 58(2):299-304. 2001.

Despain, D.G., Weaver, T., Aspinall, R.J.
A rule-based model for mapping potential exotic plant distribution.
WESTERN NO. AMER. NATURALIST 61(4):428-433. 2001.

Duffy, J.E., MacDonald, K.S., Rhode, J.M., Parker, J.D.
Grazer diversity, functional redundancy, and productivity in seagrass beds: an
experimental test.
ECOLOGY 82(9):2417-2434. 2001.

Dusek, J.
Saccharide reserves, growth and mineral composition of Calamagrostic epigejos
growing in alluvial meadows.

Duvall, R.J., Anderson, L.W.J.
Laboratory and greenhouse studies of microbial products used to biologically
control algae.
J. AQUAT. PLANT MANAGE. 39:95-98. 2001.

Ensminger, I., Xylander, M., Hagen, C., Braune, W.
Strategies providing success in a variable habitat: III. Dynamic control of
photosynthesis in Cladophora glomerata.

PLANT, CELL AND ENVIRON. 24(8):769-779. 2001.

Eriksson, P.G.
Interaction effects of flow velocity and oxygen metabolism on nitrification and
denitrification in biofilms on submersed macrophytes.
BIOGEOCHEMISTRY 55(1):29-44. 2001.

Ervin, G.N., Wetzel, R.G.
Seed fall and field germination of needlerush, Juncus effusus L.
AQUATIC BOTANY 71(3):233-237. 2001.

Esguerra, N.M., Diopulos, K.J., Samuel, R.P., William, J.D.
Establishment of the leaf mining fly, Calycomyza lantanae Frick, on the weed
Lantana camera L. on Pohnpei.
MICRONESICA 30(2):417-419. 1997.

Everitt, J.H., Yang, C., Helton, R.J., Hartmann, L.H., et al
Remote sensing of giant salvinia in Texas waterways.
J. AQUATIC PLANT MANAGE. 40:11-16. 2002.

Fant, J.B., Preston, C.D., Barrett, J.A.
Isozyme evidence of the parental origin and possible fertility of the hybrid
Potamogeton xfluitans Roth.
PLANT SYST. EVOL. 229(1-2):45-57. 2001.

Farr, D.F., Rossman, A.Y.
Harknessia lythri, a new species on purple loosestrife.
MYCOLOGIA 93(5):997-1001. 2001.

Feldman, R.S.
Taxonomic and size structures of phytophilous macroinvertebrate communities in
Vallisneria and Trapa beds of the Hudson River, New York.
HYDROBIOLOGIA 452(1-3):233-245. 2001.

Frenot, Y., Gloaguen, J.C., Masse, L., Lebouvier, M.
Human activities, ecosystem disturbance and plant invasions in subantarctic Crozet,
Kerguelen and Amsterdam Islands.
BIOL. CONSERV. 101(1):33-50. 2001.

Garono, R.J., Kooser, J.G.
The relationship between patterns in flying adult insect assemblages and vegetation
structure in wetlands of Ohio and Texas.
OHIO J. SCI. 101(2):12-21. 2001.

Gould, S.J.
An evolutionary perspective on strengths, fallacies, and confusions in the concept of
native plants.

Griffis, T.J., Rouse, W.R.
Modelling the interannual variability of net ecosystem C02 exchange at a subarctic
sedge fen.
GLOBAL CHANGE BIOL. 7(5):511-530. 2001.

Gustafson, S., Wang, D.
Effects of agricultural runoff on vegetation composition of a priority conservation
wetland, Vermont, USA.
J. ENVIRON. QUALITY 31(1):350-357. 2002.

Hamaker, T.L., Tompkins, M.R., Mengel, D., O'Brien, M.
Channel realignment and bank revegetation enhance fish habitat at Best Slough
ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION 19(4):257-258. 2001.

Harrel, S.L., Dibble, E.D.
Factors affecting foraging patterns of juvenile bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) in
vegetated habitats of a Wisconsin lake.
J. FRESHWATER ECOL. 16(4):581-589. 2001.

Hattink, J., de Goeij, J.J.M., Wolterbeek, H.T.
Evaluation of the transfer factor of technetium from water to aquatic plants.
J. RADIOANAL. NUCLEAR CHEM. 249(1):221-225. 2001.

Hill, J.E., Cichra, C.E.
The effects of water levels on fish populations: minimum flows and levels criteria
development, evaluation of the importance of water depth and frequency of water
levels/flows on fish population dynamics, and literature review and summary.


Hofstra, D.E., Clayton, J.S.
Evaluation of selected herbicides for the control of exotic submerged weeds in New
Zealand: I. The use of endothal, triclopyr and dichlobenil.
J. AQUATIC PLANT MANAGE. 39:20-24. 2001.

Holguin, G., Vazquez, P., Bashan, Y.
The role of sediment microorganisms in the productivity, conservation, and
rehabilitation of mangrove ecosystems: an overview.
BIOL. FERTIL. SOILS 33:265-278. 2001.

Hoque, A., Rahman, S.M., Arima, S., Takagi, Y.
Efficient in vitro germination and shoot proliferation of chilling-treated water
chestnut (Trapajaponica Flerov) embryonal explants.
IN VITRO CELL. DEV. BIOL.-PLANT 37(3):369-374. 2001.

Hrivnak, R., Otahelova, H., Husak, S.
Nitella mucronata and N. translucens contribution to occurrence and ecology in
BIOLOGIA, BRATISLAVA 56(1): 13-15. 2001.

Hsu, T.-C., Liu, H.-C., Wang, J.-S., Chen, R.-W., et al
Early genes responsive to abscisic acid during heterophyllous induction in Marsilea
PLANT MOLEC. BIOL. 47(6):703-715. 2001.

lida, A., Kadono, Y.
Genetic diversity and origin of Potamogeton anguillanus (Potamogetonaceae) in
Lake Biwa, Japan.
J. PLANT RES. 115:11-16. 2002.

Jacono, C.C.
Scleria lacustris (Cyperaceae), an aquatic and wetland sedge introduced to Florida.
SIDA 19(4):1163-1170. 2001.

James, W.F., Best, E.P.H., Barko, J.W.
Suspended sediment dynamics and light attenuation characteristics in Peoria Lake,

Illinois: Can submersed macro-phyte communities improve water quality in this
shallow system?

Jiang, M., Kadono, Y.
Growth and reproductive characteristics of an aquatic macrophyte Ottellia
alismoides (L.) Pers. (Hydrocharitaceae).
ECOL. RESEARCH 16:687-695. 2001.

Kathiresan, R.M., Ramah, K., Sivakumar, C.
Integration of Azolla, fish and herbicides for rice weed management.
UK, PP. 625-632. 2001.

Kennard, W.C., Phillips, R.L., Porter, R.A., Grombacher, A.W.
A comparative map of wild rice (Zizania palustris L. 2N=2X=30).
THEOR. APPL. GENET. 101:677-684. 2000.

Koehler, S., Bove, C.P.
Hydrocharitaceae from central Brazil: a new species of Egeria and a note on
Apalanthe granatensis.
NOVON 11(1):63-66. 2001.

Korner, S.
Development of submerged macrophytes in shallow Lake Muggelsee (Berlin,
Germany) before and after its switch to the phytoplankton-dominated state.
ARCH. HYDROBIOL. 152(3):395-409. 2001.

Kristofik, J.
Small mammal communities in reed stands.
BIOLOGIA, BRATISLAVA 56(5):557-563. 2001.

Laman, T.G.
The impact of seed harvesting ants (Pheidole sp. nov.) on Ficus establishment in the
BIOTROPICA 28(4B):777-781. 1996.

Langeland, K.A.
Natural area weeds: Chinese tallow (Sapium sebiferum L.)


Lapin, M., Engstrom, B.
Triglochin maritima (Juncaginaceae) discovered in Vermont.
RHODORA 103(913):117-119. 2001.

Lara, M.V., Casati, P., Andreo, C.S.
In vivo phosphorylation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in Egeria densa, a
submersed aquatic species.
PLANT CELL PHYSIOL. 42(4):441-445. 2001.

Lienert, J., Fischer, M., Diemer, M.
Local extinctions of the wetland specialist Swertia perennis L. (Gentianaceae) in
Switzerland: a revisitation study based on herbarium records.

Mahujchariyawong, J., Ikeda, S.
Modelling of environmental phytoremediation in eutrophic river the case of water
hyacinth harvest in Tha-Chin River, Thailand.
ECOLOGICAL MODELLING 142(1-2): 121-134. 2001.

Martinez Jimenez, M., Gutierrez Lopez, E., Huerto Delgadillo, R., Ruiz
Franco, E.
Importation, rearing, release and establishment of Neochetina bruchi (Coleoptera
Curculionidae) for the biological control of water hyacinth in Mexico.
J. AQUAT. PLANT MANAGE. 39:140-143. 2001.

Martins, A.T.
Efeitos do control de plants daninhas aquaticas com 2,4-D sobre alguns
indicadores de qualidade da agua de mesocosmos.

McMaster, R.T., McMaster, N.D.
Composition, structure, and dynamics of vegetation in fifteen beaver-impacted
wetlands in western Massachusetts.
RHODORA 103(915):293-320. 2001.

Meisenburg, M.J., Fox, A.M.
What role do birds play in dispersal of invasive plants?
WILDLAND WEEDS 5(3):8-14. 2002.

Mendelssohn, I.A., McKee, K.L., Kong, T.
A comparison of physiological indicators of sublethal cadmium stress in wetland
ENVIRON. EXPER. BOT. 46(3):263-275. 2001.

Minno, M.C., Snyder, K.L., Ponzio, K.J.
Tumid spider mites damage water hyacinth at the Sixmile Creek Marsh Restoration
Area, Brevard County, Florida.
AQUATICS 23(4):12-13. 2001.

Molina, J.A.
Oligotrophic spring vegetation in Spanish mountain ranges.
FOLIA GEOBOTANICA 36:281-291. 2001.

Morrison, J.A.
Wetland vegetation before and after experimental purple loosestrife removal.
WETLANDS 22(1):159-169. 2002.

Mullahey, J., Williams, M.
Application of herbicides using the Burch wet blade mower.
17. 2002.

Mushet, D.M., Euliss, N.H., Shaffer, T.L.
Floristic quality assessment of one natural and three restored wetland complexes in
North Dakota, USA.
WETLANDS 22(1):126-138. 2002.

Nagel, J.M., Griffin, K.L.
Construction cost and invasive potential: comparing Lythrum salicaria (Lythraceae)
with co-occurring native species along pond banks.
AMER. J. BOT. 88(12):2252-2258. 2001.

Nakai, S., Inoue, Y., Hosomi, M.
Allelopathic effects of polyphenols released by Myriophyllum spicatum on the

growth of cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.
ALLELOPATHY J. 8(2):201-210. 2001.

Nieva, F.J.J., Diaz-Espejo, A., Castellanos, E.M., Figueroa, M.E.
Field variability of invading populations of Spartina densiflora Brong. in different
habitats of the Odiel marshes (SW Spain).
ESTUARINE, COASTAL AND SHELF SCI. 52(4):515-527. 2001.

Noordhuis, R., Van der Molen, D.T., Van den Berg, M.S.
Response of herbivorous water-birds to the return of Chara in Lake Veluwemeer,
the Netherlands.
AQUATIC BOTANY 72(3-4):349-367. 2002.

Oka, T., Matsuda, H., Kadono, Y.
Ecological risk-benefit analysis of a wetland development based on risk assessment
using "expected loss of bio-diversity."
RISK ANALYSIS 21(6):1011-1023. 2001.

Osborne, N.J.T., Webb, P.M., Shaw, G.R.
The toxins of Lyngbya majuscula and their human and ecological health effects.
ENVIRONMENT INTERNAT'L. 27(5):381-392. 2001.

Paling, E.I., Van Keulen, M., Wheeler, K.D., Phillips, J., et al
Improving mechanical seagrass transplantation.
ECOL. ENGINEERING 18(1):107-113. 2001.

Pandey, S., Pandey, A.K.
Mycoherbicidal potential of some fungi against Lantana camera L.: a preliminary
J. TROP. FORESTRY 16(1):28-32. 2000.

Parsons, J.K., Hamel, K.S., Madsen, J.D., Getsinger, K.D.
The use of 2,4-D for selective control of an early infestation of Eurasian water-
milfoil in Loon Lake, Washington.
J. AQUAT. PLANT MANAGE. 39:117-125. 2001.

Peterson, B.J., Fourqurean, J.W.
Large-scale patterns in seagrass (Thalassia testudinum) demographics in south

LIMNOL. OCEANOGR. 46(5): 1077-1090. 2001.

Piegay, H., Bornette, G., Citterio, A., Herouin, E., et al
Channel instability as a control on silting dynamics and vegetation patterns within
perifluvial aquatic zones.
HYDROL. PROCESSES 14:3011-3029. 2000.

Pierce, J.R., Jensen, M.E.
A classification of aquatic plant communities within the Northern Rocky Mountains.

Pipalova, I.
Initial impact of low stocking density of grass carp on aquatic macrophytes.
AQUATIC BOTANY 73:9-18. 2002.

Poovey, A.G., Getsinger, K.D.
Impacts of inorganic turbidity on diquat efficiency against Egeria densa.
J. AQUATIC PLANT MANAGE. 40:6-10. 2002.

Raizer, J., Amaral, M.E.C.
Does the structural complexity of aquatic macrophytes explain the diversity of
associated spider assemblages?
J. ARACHNOL. 29(2):227-237. 2001.

Ridenour, W.M., Callaway, R.M.
The relative importance of allelopathy in interference: the effects of an invasive
weed on a native bunchgrass.
OECOLOGIA 126:444-450. 2001.

Roberts, D.E., Sainty, G.R., Cummins, S.P., Hunter, G.J., et al
Managing submersed aquatic plants in the Sydney International Regatta Centre,
J. AQUATIC PLANT MANAGE. 39:12-17. 2001.

Sakai, A.K., Allendorf, F.W., Holt, J.S., Lodge, D.M., et al
The population biology of invasive species.
ANNU. REV. ECOL. SYST. 32:305-332. 2001.

Saltonstall, K.

Cryptic invasion by a non-native genotype of the common reed, Phragmites
australis, into North America.
PROC. NAT. ACAD. SCI. 99(4):2445-2449. 2002.

Seago, J.L.
The root cortex of the Nymphaeaceae, Cabombaceae, and Nelumbonaceae.
J. TORREY BOT. SOC. 129(1):1-9. 2002.

Silliman, B.R., Zieman, J.C.
Top-down control of Spartina alterniflora production by periwinkle grazing in a
Virginia salt marsh.
ECOLOGY 82(10):2830-2845. 2001.

Skogerboe, J.G., Getsinger, K.D.
Endothall species selectivity evaluation: northern latitude aquatic plant community.
J. AQUATIC PLANT MANAGE. 40:1-5. 2002.

Smith, S.G., Hayasaka, E.
New combinations within North American Schoenoplectus smithii and S.
purshianus (sect. Actaeogeton, Cyperaceae) and comparison with Eastern Asian
NOVON 12:106-111. 2002.

Steinbauer, M.J., Wanjura, W.J.
Christmas beetles (Anoplognathus spp., Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) mistake
peppercorn trees for eucalypts.
J. NAT. HISTORY 36(1):119-125. 2002.

Strong, M.T., Gonzalez-Elizondo, M.S.
Rhynchospora zacualtipanensis and Eleocharis moorei, two new Cyperaceae from
SIDA 19(1):115-122. 2000.

Terneus, E.
Aquatic plant communities of the Paramo Lakes of Volcan Chiles, Ecuador.

Toney, J.C., Rice, P.M., Forcella, F.

Exotic plant records in the northwest United States 1950-1996: an ecological
NORTHWEST SCI. 72(3):198-213. 1998.

Turner, R.L., Hartman, M.C., Mikkelsen, P.M.
Biology and management of the Florida applesnail.
150 PP. 2001.

Vajpayee, P., Rai, U.N., Ali, M.B., Tripathi, R.D., et al
Chromium-induced physiologic changes in Vallisneria spiralis L. and its role in
phytoremediation of tannery effluent.
BULL. ENVIRON. CONTAM. TOXICOL. 67(2):246-256. 2001.

Valley, R.D., Bremigan, M.T.
Effects of macrophyte bed architecture on largemouth bass foraging: implications of
exotic macrophyte invasions.
TRANS. AMER. FISH. SOC. 131(2): 234-244. 2002.

Van Nes, E.H., Scheffer, M., Van den Berg, M.S., Coops, H.
Dominance of charophytes in eutrophic shallow lakes when should we expect it to
be an alternative stable state?
AQUATIC BOTANY 72(3-4):275-296. 2002.

Van Vierssen, W., Van Hofwegen, P.J.M., Vermaat, J.E.
The age of water scarcity: in search of a new paradigm in aquatic weed control.
J. AQUATIC PLANT MANAGE. 39:3-7. 2001.

Vretare, V.
Internal oxygen transport to below-ground parts: importance for emergent
106 PP. 2001.

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