Table of Contents
 About Aquaphyte
 Aquatic weed training course attended...
 Land-grant universities and...
 State gets earful from Lake Rousseau...
 Lake Toho muck removal project...
 Mary's picks!
 The islands the alligators...
 Floating islands: a global...
 Aquathol manufacturer comes through...
 44th annual Aquatic Plant Management...
 Books, manuals, and online...
 From the database

Group Title: Aquaphyte : a newsletter about aquatic, wetland and invasive plants
Title: Aquaphyte
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00083179/00005
 Material Information
Title: Aquaphyte newsletter of the IPPC Aquatic Weed Program of the University of Florida, a part of the International Plant Protection Center of the Oregon State University, which is funded by the United States Agency for International Development
Abbreviated Title: Aquaphyte
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Center for Aquatic Plants
University of Florida -- IPPC Aquatic Weed Program
University of Florida -- Center for Aquatic Weeds
Publisher: The Program
Place of Publication: Gainesville FL
Publication Date: 1981-
Frequency: semiannual
Subject: Aquatic plants -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: Newsletters   ( lcsh )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (fall 1981)-
Issuing Body: Vols. for fall 1982- issued with: University of Florida, Center for Aquatic Weeds.
Issuing Body: Vols. for <1988-> issued by: University of Florida, Center for Aquatic Plants.
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 12, no. 2 (fall 1992).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00083179
Volume ID: VID00005
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06513906
lccn - sc 84007615
issn - 0893-7702


This item has the following downloads:

00001 ( PDF )

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    About Aquaphyte
        Page 3
    Aquatic weed training course attended by almost 500 participants
        Page 4
    Land-grant universities and extension
        Page 5
        Page 6
    State gets earful from Lake Rousseau anglers
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Lake Toho muck removal project complete
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Mary's picks!
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    The islands the alligators build
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Floating islands: a global bibliography
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Aquathol manufacturer comes through again
        Page 23
    44th annual Aquatic Plant Management Society meeting
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Books, manuals, and online resources
        Page 29
    From the database
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
Full Text


A Newsletter about Aquatic, Wetland and Invasive Plants

Volume 24 Number 1 Summer 2004
Gainesville, Florida
ISSN 0893-7702

Center for Aquatic and
Invasive Plants

Institute of Food and Agricultural
University of Florida
7922 N.W. 71st Street
Gainesville, Florida 32653

with support from:

The Florida Department of Environmental
Bureau of Invasive Plant Management

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,
Waterways Experiment Station,
Aquatic Plant Control Research Program

The St. Johns River Water Management District



Aquatic Weed Training Course Attended by Almost 500 Participants

State Gets Earful From Lake Rousseau Anglers

Lake Toho Muck Removal Project Complete

Mary's Picks of Interesting Articles

"The Islands the Alligators Build"

Large Photo-Murals for K-12 Teachers and Agency Trainers
Invasive Non-Native Plants Photo-Mural
Native Freshwater Plants Photo-Mural

Aquathol Manufacturer Comes Through Again!

44th Annual Aquatic Plant Management Society Meeting A Report



a sampling of new additions to the APIRS database

Aquaphyte page I Home

Copyright 2004 University of Florida

About Aquaphyte

This is the newsletter of the Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants and the Aquatic,
Wetland and Invasive Plant Information Retrieval System (APIRS) of the
University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS). Support
for the information system is provided by the Florida Department of Environmental
Protection, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station
Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (APCRP), the St. Johns River Water
Management District and UF/IFAS.

Victor Ramey
Karen Brown

AQUAPHYTE is sent to managers, researchers, and agencies in 71 countries.
Comments, announcements, news items and other information relevant to aquatic
plant research are solicited.

Inclusion in AQUAPHYTE does not constitute endorsement, nor does exclusion
represent criticism of any item, organization, individual, or institution by the
University of Florida.

Aquaphyte Contents I Aguaphyte page I Home

Copyright 2004 University of Florida

Aquatic Weed Training Course

Attended by Almost 500 Participants

by Tyler J. Koschnick, University of Florida/IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants

Every year hundreds of people from the United States and abroad who are involved with
aquatic and invasive plant management converge on south Florida to attend the Aquatic
Weed Control Short Course.

The four-day Short Course is one of the largest Extension programs sponsored by the University
of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS).

This year over 460 aquatic and invasive plant managers participated to improve their job
performance and personal safety and to minimize environmental impacts including damage to
non-target species. Florida likely has the largest aquatic plant management program in the world,
spending more than $70 million annually. The state encourages the integration of biological,
chemical, and mechanical methods to remove unwanted aquatic and invasive plants.

Under U.S. federal and state laws, applicators of pesticides classified as restricted use (RU) must
be trained and certified in general knowledge of proper pesticide use and safety (referred to as
core requirements) and in their respective area of work (aquatic; natural areas; turf and
ornamental; etc.) Though no currently registered aquatic herbicides are classified as restricted use
in Florida, most employers and public agencies insist that their applicators be trained and
certified to improve personal safety and application expertise.

The Aquatic Weed Control Short Course is designed primarily to provide the necessary training
to certify people in natural area and aquatic weed control categories. The course also is designed
to offer continuing education units (CEUs) to those already certified and licensed in aquatic plant
management categories. Licenses must be renewed every four years with a required amount of
CEUs in each category.

This year's courses included equipment calibration, aquatic and natural areas weed control, core
examination standards, reading and interpreting a pesticide label, basic weed science, selective
weed management, plant identification, weed ecology, and state and federal rules and regulations.

Presentations also were given on general safety issues for people working in the field. These
included identification of venomous snakes by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation
Commission and information on heat stroke, exhaustion and dehydration by the University of
Florida Health Sciences Department.

Reviewed subjects included pesticide safety, Lygodium management, ditch bank and upland
weed control, biological control of Melaleuca, the herbicide registration process, mosquitoes and
their relationship to aquatic plant control, as well as updates on active ingredients found in

The training course concluded with a field day offering airboat safety training and field
equipment calibration, and an equipment demonstration with a variety of all-terrain vehicles,
herbicide spray rigs, granular blowers, mowers, and tractors. For a photographic tour of the short
course, visit http://conference.ifas.ufl.edu/aw/photos.htm

Exams were offered on the last day, and approximately 160 people were tested on core
requirements or one of the specialized categories.

The University of Florida is one of the only institutions in the country that offers a Short Course
specific to aquatic plant management. The University of Florida's IFAS Center for Aquatic
and Invasive Plants is dedicated to research, Extension, and education as it pertains to invasive
plant management on a local, state, national and international level.

With thousands of certified aquatic pesticide applicators in Florida, we anticipate another
successful course in 2005. Every year, a contingent from other countries arrives to learn about
management practices for aquatic invasive plants in the United States. We welcome and
encourage attendance from those abroad.

Mark your calendars for the
2005 Aquatic Weed Control Short Course:
May 16th-20th, 2005, Fort Lauderdale, Florida.
See: http://conference.ifas.ufl.edu/aw/

Land-Grant Universities and Extension

Land-grant universities were established by Congress and signed into law by Abraham Lincoln
in 1862 with the purpose of educating citizens in agriculture, home economics, mechanical arts,
and other practical professions. At that time, more than 50 percent of the U.S. population lived in
rural areas, and 30 percent of the workforce was engaged in farming. Land grant institutions
received funding and/or grants of land.

There are more than 100 land-grant colleges and universities in the U.S. that help meet public
needs by providing practical, applied, non-credit programs called Extension Programs. These
programs are provided through thousands of county and regional extension offices to bring land-
grant expertise to local levels. Extension was formalized by legislation in 1914 and established
the partnership between land-grant institutions and the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Extension was defined as "developing practical applications of research knowledge, and giving
instruction and practical demonstrations of existing or improved practices or technologies in

During both World Wars and the Great Depression, land-grant institutions and the Extension
Service played dramatic roles in the increase of food production, improvements in marketing and
preservation of fresh foods, development of buying and selling cooperatives, and the teaching of
home economics including nutrition, canning surplus foods, home gardening and poultry
production, skills that helped many farm families survive the years of economic depression.

Today, fewer than 2 percent of Americans farm for a living and only 10 percent live in rural
areas. Yet the USDA Cooperative Extension Service, together with land-grant universities and
colleges, still serves rural, urban, and suburban citizens by teaching agricultural, natural resource,
family and community skills at the local level, including aquatic plant management!


Aquaphvte Contents I Aquaphyte page Home

Copyright 2004 University of Florida

State Gets Earful From Lake Rousseau Anglers

More than 50 fisher men and women recently took the opportunity to tell state water managers
their observations of the plants and fish on Lake Rousseau in west north-central Florida. Some
anglers were not happy; some said things were okay everyone, anglers and water managers
alike, agreed that the muck buildup in the lake is affecting fish spawning; they wish there were a
way to remove the muck and the advancing Lyngbya algae to expose the sandy bottom beneath.

The June 3rd meeting was hosted by Mr. Rob Hatton of the Lake Roussea RV and Fishing
Resort near Dunnellon. Representing the Florida Department of Environmental Protection was
Mr. Terry Sullivan, plant biologist with the Bureau of Invasive Plant Management.
Representing the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission was Mr. Jerry
Krummrich, fisheries biologist. State Senator Nancy Argenziano (District 3) also was in
attendance and spoke of her concerns.

Mr. Sullivan presented a slide show on invasive aquatic plant management and fielded questions
about herbicide toxicity, possible herbicide effects from upstream treatments, treatment
frequency and plant abundance. Sullivan said that hydrilla, which only two years ago filled much
of the lake, was now under "maintenance control" thanks to herbicide treatments.

Mr. Krummrich described current electro-fishing data for the lake, saying that Lake Rousseau
ranks "average" in its number of bass over 15 inches long, compared to other bass lakes in the
state. Krummrich said he does not believe Lake Rousseau has been overfished but that for a
number of reasons young fish are not surviving to adulthood.

Senator Argenziano praised plant and fish management efforts in general but specifically
objected to a lack of progress in controlling the nuisance algae, lyngbya. Lyngbya is a black-
looking blue-green algae that is quickly replacing submersed plant beds in a number of north
central Florida rivers and springs. Argenziano believes management agencies are "using band-
aids" to control the rapidly expanding algae.

Audience members asked a variety of questions: "Aren't the fish contaminated by the
herbicides? why the 3-day fish-consumption restriction?"; "What's causing shoreline plant
reduction; isn't there supposed to be a 12-foot fringe all around?"; "Part of the lake bottom has
no plants; didn't the herbicides kill off the eelgrass as well as the hydrilla?"; "Why don't you
control hydrilla by drawing down the lake like they do at Rodman Reservoir?"; "Why have the
floating islands been destroyed?"; "Where have the birds gone?; What about saltwater
encroachment?"; "Why not put it back the way it was?" While some complained that shoreline
plants have been greatly reduced, others complained that their fish camps were difficult to get to
because of too many plants. Another said he lost $100,000 in the six month period that hydrilla
got in the way of fishing, but things are good now.


Aquaphyte Contents I Aquaphyte page Home

Copyright 2004 University of Florida

Lake Toho Muck Removal Project Complete

The largest whole lake enhancement project ever attempted in Florida has been completed on
Lake Tohopekaliga near Kissimmee. Now we wait for rain to refill the lake to judge its success.
"Lake enhancement" here means "enhancement of fish and wildlife habitat," according to the
Florida Fish and Wildife Conservation Commission's Kissimmee office.

Lake Toho, considered a premiere bass fishing lake, had been suffering from static water levels
and excessive plant growth which led to thick deposits of bottom muck. The muck buildup had
filled areas needed for feeding by wading birds and spawning by fish.

The plan has been to dewater (draw down) part of the lake, expose 40% of the lake bottom for
three months, scrape up and remove more than 9 million cubic yards of muck from more than
3,700 bottom acres, and allow the lake to refill with summer rains. The last truckload of muck
was removed and re-filling began on June 15, 2004.

bulldozers scraped
3,700 acres

thousands of
truckloads of muck

half the muck was
used for islands

man-made islands
will be monitored

See color Dictures of the Lake Toho Droject here.


Bulldozers scraped more than 3,700 acres of the exposed bottom of Lake Toho. Here, rows of
muck await removal. Over time, it is expected that the natural plant seed bank will give rise to
healthy stands of knotgrasses, bullrushes, eelgrass and other desirable plants. Workers will
manage for the desirable plant species and against the problematic plant species.

This lake enhancement work has pushed back the process of eutrophication on Lake Toho. One
expected response to the work is the maintenance of a high level of fish productivity for years to


Photo captions:

Bulldozers scraped more than 3,700 acres of the exposed bottom of Lake Toho. Here, rows of
muck await removal.

About half of the muck was used to construct in-lake wildlife islands.

In another part of the project, University of Florida researchers, under the direction of Mark
Hoyer, will measure the plant and animal utilization of the man-made islands over time.

Thousands of truckloads of muck were removed. About half the muck was trucked to upland
pastures and other disposal sites.

Photos by Chris Michael, FWC.

Lake Toho enhancement is a project of the FWC in cooperation with the South Florida Water
Management District, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Florida Department of
Environmental Regulation, along with researchers of the University of Florida and others. For
further information, contact Mike Hulon or Marty Mann of the FWC Aquatic Resources
Enhancement Section, 1601 Scottys Road, Kissimmee, FL 34744, 407-846-5300.

Aquaphyte Contents | Aquaphyte page I Home

Copyright 2004 University of Florida

Mary's Picks!

New items in the APIRS database that particularly piqued the interest of reader/cataloger,
Mary Langeland;
elaborated by Vic Ramey.

Water lilies and scarabs: faithful partners for 100 million years? by F. Ervik and J.T.
Knudsen. 2003. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 80:539-543.
The authors believe scarab beetles have been pollinating night-flowering water lilies since
the late Early Cretaceous "the first unambiguous evidence of a plant-pollinator
relationship of this age."

California butterflies: at home with aliens, by P.D. Thacker. 2004. BioScience 54
Faced with the loss of its favorite food, stinging nettles, local populations of the red
admiral butterfly came across a plant with a similar chemistry, baby's tears, a non-native
ground cover used in California. The red admiral switched from its native host to the alien
plant. In Davis, California, apparently that is not so strange; other butterflies have
switched to alien plants too.

Species inventory and the local users of the plants and fishes of the Lower Sondu
Miriu wetland of Lake Victoria, Kenya, by J. Gichuki, F. Dahdouh Guebas, J. Mugo, C.
0. Rabuor, L. Triest and F. Dehairs. 2001. Hydrobiologia 458:99-106.
Among other plant uses discussed, the claim is that "a house that uses Cyperus papyrus
for its roof is cooler, and also cheaper to make and maintain than a comparable corrugated
roofed house."

Viscoelasticity of the giant reed material Arundo donax, by A.E. Lord. 2003. Wood
Science and Technology 37(3-4): 177-188.

Using highly advanced measurements and modelling, the authors show why giant reed "is
almost exclusively the material of choice to manufacture woodwind musical instruemtn

Evidence for seed dispersal by the catfish Auchenipterichthys longimanus in an
Amazonian lake, by S. Mannheimer, G. Bevilacqua, E.P. Caramaschi and F.R. Scarano.
2003. Journal of Tropical Ecology 19:215-218.
The stomachs of 40% of the Amazonian catfish studied contained fruits, infructescenses
or whole seeds of various plants, including Alchornea schomburgkiana, Licania,
Psychotria, Bredemeiera, Malonetia, Ludwigia, Oryza and Paspalum. "This result
indicates dispersal potential and similar findings have been reported previously for other

Zero water flows in the carnivorous genus Genlisea, by L. Adamec. 2003. Carnivorous
Plant Newsletter 32:46-48.
Utricularia carnivorous plants have bladders that suck in their prey, but how is prey
captured in plants of the carnivorous plant genus Genlisea? This is especially mysterious
considering that in Genlisea traps there is no water flow, no pumping to create a vacuum.

Hemlock water dropwort (Oenanthe crocata), dead man's fingers. 2001. IACR-Center
for Aquatic Plant Management, England, CAPM Information Sheet 34.
This aquatic plant is "the most toxic plant in Britain to both humans and animals" the
leaves are celery-like and smell like celery or parsley horses, cows and humans mistake
it for lunch.

On the uses of Zostera marina, mainly in Norway, by T. Alm. 2003. Economic Botany
This ethnobotanical review found that in Norway in the 1700s to the 1800s this abundant
marine grass was used variously as manure; stuffing for mattresses; for filling between the
logs of wooden houses; as fodder for cows; to prepare fish; and as ground cover for sheep.

Linking Ecology and Horticulture to Prevent Plant Invasions, http://www.

centerforplantconservation.org/invasives/ Who's helping stem the spread of invasive
plants? Here you can read the separate "codes of conduct" against using invasive plants by
government, nursery professionals, the gardening public, landscape architects and arboreta
and botanic gardens.

Species targeted habitat restoration: a mitigation option within identified historical
habitat and critical habitat area, by C. Carpenter. 2003. In: Proceedings of the 30th
Annual Conference on Ecosystems Restoration and Creation, Hillsborough Community
College, Tampa. Pp: 63-69.
Within the city limits of West Palm Beach, Florida, rather than build houses on 600 acres
in endangered Everglades snail kite habitat, and to settle a suit brought by the National
Audubon Society and The Sierra Club, 300 acres were given to human house-building and
300 acres were given to the snail kite. After extensive work to remove invasive plants and
to re-establish cypress heads and marshes, and otherwise to restore the area to pre-1942
conditions, the snail kite has returned to the area.

Aquaphyte Contents I Aquaphyte page I Home

Copyright 2004 University of Florida

"The Islands the Alligators Build"

by Frank M. Chapman, reprinted from Our Animal Friends 21(9) (May, 1894), contributed by
Chet Van Duzer

Editor's Note: This article from 1894 takes place in your editors' own backyard. Thank you to
Chet Van Duzer for the contribution. See the announcement of Mr. Van Duzer's forthcoming
book, Floating Islands: A Global Bibliography
with an Edition and Translation of G. C. Munz's Exercitatio academic de insulis natantibus
(1711) below.

Few animals are more friendless than the alligator. With claims to neither beauty nor
intelligence, he is not handsome enough to win our admiration, nor dangerous enough to make us
respect him. For hours he basks in the sun, floating on the surface of the water, or lying on some
muddy bank, apparently as useless as the log of wood he so much resembles. Every man's hand is
raised against him. He is killed by the tourist in pure wantonness, simply because he affords a
mark for the ever-ready rifle. Hunters slay alligators by thousands for their hides and teeth.
Indeed, it is for these alone that the alligator is prized. I think, however, that, like everything else
in nature, the alligator plays a part in the drama of animal life for which he is especially adapted.

It is said that on the lower Mississippi River alligators feed on muskrats, and the recent decrease
in the number of alligators has been followed by a corresponding increase in the number of
muskrats, which seriously weaken the levees by burrowing in them. If this be true, the alligator is
here of direct value to the planter, and should therefore be protected by law.

However, my plea for the alligator is not based on his powers as a destroyer of muskrats, but on
his services as a land-maker. It does not seem probable that so stupid and sluggish an animal
should be a factor in changing a stagnant pool of water a breeding ground for miasmatic germs -
into a fertile pasture where cattle may graze. Nevertheless, I think it can be proven that he aids in
accomplishing this remarkable transformation.

Several years ago I passed the winter studying birds and mammals near Gainesville, Florida.
Among my especial desiderata were a singular little round-tailed muskrat, known as Neofiber
(which had previously been found only on the Indian River), and a peculiar semi-aquatic hare. A
resident of the region suggested that these animals might be found on the floating islands of
"Bevan's Arm." This "Arm," a branch of Alachua Lake, is what is known in Florida as a "bonnet
lake." The name will be familiar to any one who has visited Florida, for "bonnet lakes" are
abundant throughout the State. Imagine a lake so thickly covered with a growth of pond-lilies that

the water shows only in occasional patches. The lilies are both of the yellow and of the white
varieties, but the former are by far the larger and more numerous. Some leaves measure eighteen
inches in diameter, and the stems of many project nearly two feet above the surface of the lake.
The water is sometimes fifteen or twenty feet in depth, and in the clearer spaces much deeper. It
is filled with many species of aquatic plants, in which one's oars become entangled, and these,
added to the abundance of lily leaves or "bonnets," make rowing a difficult and tiresome matter.

In one of the open spaces near the centre of the "Arm," which was here about half a mile in
width, were the islands. There were several of them, irregularly circular in shape and varying in
diameter from about ten to nearly fifty feet. They were densely grown with reeds and grasses of
many species, and, in some places, tall flag-like sedges and button baskets grew.

To a naturalist, floating islands possess a strong fascination. They are like earthly satellites
floating about in watery orbits. The animals which inhabit them seem to belong to a sphere of
their own. The isolation of their island-home affords them protection from their mainland
enemies, and this is doubtless why animals are so abundant on the islands in the "Arm." Certain it
is, I have never seen a bit of ground of similar extent so densely populated.

Rowing slowly out through the "bonnets," one was greeted by a chorus of frog-like gruntings
which seemed to issue from under every lily leaf. It was made by young alligators. The "Arm"
was a nursery for them. They were of all sizes, from little fellows six or eight inches in length,
born the preceding summer, to fully grown adults measuring ten feet or more. The smaller ones
are found in schools, families, perhaps; occasionally, to sun themselves, they crawl upon lily
leaves floating on the surface of the water, making as ideal pictures of lazy contentment as one
can well imagine. The larger leaves will support the weight of an alligator three feet in length.

One of the larger islands was my daily resort for nearly two weeks, and I will confine my account
to the history of this particular island, speaking first of the life upon it, then of its probable origin.

I always approached it with caution, in order that I might have a glimpse of its largest inhabitant.
This was an alligator about eight feet in length. His habit of crawling from the water on to the
island at a certain place had resulted in his wearing away the shore, until he had formed a
miniature harbor. He "builded better than he knew," and here on the muddy shore he dozed the
hours away, enjoying, although he did not know it, the fruits of his own or his fellows' labors. On
my appearance he would half slide, half roll, off into the water; the waves rippled outward in
ever- widening circles; a few bubbles rose to the surface, and I saw no more of the king of the
islands that day.

My landing was a few feet beyond. It was made, and my boat "beached" in a unique manner. The
island was two to three feet in thickness, and floated in water from fifteen to twenty feet in depth.
As I stepped from my canoe on to its edge it sank slowly beneath my weight, and, stepping
backwards, I could thus draw the floating canoe after me; but as I advanced toward the centre of

the island the shore rose, and the canoe was lifted from the water by this kind of natural drydock.

Progress now was very much like walking on cracked or partially melted ice. Where the grass
grew thickly there was a firm footing, but the spaces between the little hillocks were
treacherously soft. To fall through an island would no doubt be a novel experience, but one that
the experimenter would doubtless never attempt again.

Although none of the residents were visible, it required but a glance to show that this island was
thickly populated. Broad avenues entered and left the water. There was a network of roads,
pathways and trails leading to grassy nests well hidden at the base of a hillock, or to underground
tunnels with entrances half-closed with mud. Close inspection showed the tracks of many feet. As
I walked carefully about this city for it was nothing less I felt like a Brobdingnag in Lilliputia.
While the place was apparently deserted, I knew that the inhabitants were all at home. With them
it was night, and my presence was doubtless causing many a heart near me to beat with
unaccustomed rapidity.

On this little fragment of earth there proved to be representatives of almost every class of the
animal kingdom. The broad avenues leading to the water were made by the marsh hare. This hare
resembles our common "cotton-tail," but its tail is of drab, and not of white, cotton, while its feet
are less heavily furred and are partly webbed. Its presence on these islands shows how aquatic are
its habits. It swims readily, and is thus especially fitted to live in the low-lands of the South,
where floods are more or less frequent. Indeed, the habitat of this hare and its congener, the water
hare, is entirely included within that part of the lower Mississippi Valley and adjacent regions
which is subject to inundations.

The smaller paths led to nests of dry grasses in the hillocks. These were the homes of marsh-rats,
a native species, smaller than our imported house-rats, and with a denser, heavier fur, which
sheds water easily, and thus forms an excellent suit for these swamp-loving animals. The
underground passages proved to have been made by the rare neofiber, and there were also some
of its singular dome-shaped houses, built of woven grasses, with a single chamber, having both
exit and entrance.

Here, then, were three species of mammals living in harmony on a bit of ground only a few yards

Many species of birds occasionally used the island as a nesting place. There were white herons
and blue, bitterns, ducks and others; but I will tell only of those which seemed to make the island
their home. Of these probably the most common were the boat-tail grackles, a name they have
acquired from their habit when on the wing of holding their long tail-feathers on edge, as it were,
the tail thus resembling in form the hull of a boat. The males are beautiful birds, with glossy blue-
black plumage, while the females are of an inconspicuous dull brown. They place their large
nests of grasses in the tall flags, laying eggs curiously ornamented with hieroglyphic-like


There were also great numbers of red-winged blackbirds, the males having scarlet epaulets and
the females, as usual, being dull, obscure-looking birds, but I do not think they nested on this
particular island.

Green herons built their platform-like nests of sticks in the button-bushes near by. Their young
were ungainly accumulations of wings, legs, and a long neck, all radiating from one small centre,
and a scanty covering of white hair-like feathers did not add to their gracefulness. A strange,
startling voice I heard sometimes in the reeds probably belonged to a king rail, who showed
himself on only one or two occasions. It was a most singular cry, a loud Bap, Bap, Bap, many
times repeated, as though some one was rapidly striking a resounding board.

Florida gallinules were always common, and in May a number of their purple cousins arrived
from the South. It was a pleasure to watch these graceful birds stepping daintily over the lily
leaves while feeding. Their many strange notes all bore a suggestion of the barnyard about them,
a character quite out of keeping with their surroundings. I found only one nest, constructed of
reeds and placed like a staging over the water. The plumage of the purple gallinule is of a deep
indigo below and of a bright greenish-blue above, and it wears a scarlet helmet. Its under tail-
feathers are white, and when the bird is on the wing, holding its tail at right angles to the plane of
its body, this white mark becomes a conspicuous object.

One morning I found a "pellet" which had been disgorged on the island by some owl. It contained
the skull of a cotton-rat, which had probably fallen victim to a barred owl.

Of reptiles, in addition to the alligators, there were snakes and turtles. One morning I saw a
hideous moccasin snake lying coiled in the grasses almost at my feet a loathsome creature,
nearly four feet in length, possessed of a power which rendered his very hideousness strangely
attractive. Poisonous snakes have the sort of fascination for us that belongs to scaffolds and
guillotines and other means of sudden and violent death. I killed this snake and took him home as
a specimen, assuring myself, however, that he was thoroughly dead before placing him in the
canoe, where he would not have proved an especially desirable companion had he revived when I
was halfway to the shore.

A few days later a small water turtle which had come ashore to lay its eggs was found. It had laid
one egg in a small hole at the base of a hillock, and another was laid in the canoe.

Doubtless there are several kinds of insects on the island, but I found only one species. This was
an ant. Probably the ants on this little detached world were more numerous than all the other
animals combined. They lived in the only dry spot, a little mound near the centre of the island.
Their home was inconspicuous, and might have escaped notice entirely had I not sat down on it!

To return now to the history of these islands and the part alligators play in building them. These
gigantic lizards love to lie in the soft mud at the bottom of lakes; and they carefully select such
places in which to hibernate during the colder months.

Now, if one could see a "bonnet" lake from which the water had disappeared, it would be noticed
that its bottom is a network of interlacing lily-pads. The roots are as large as a man's arm, and it
will be readily seen how they would prevent a large alligator from snugly nestling in the oozy
mud. The alligator, therefore, prepares his bed by biting and pulling out these roots, and they
come floating to the surface, showing plainly the marks of his teeth, to form the framework of a
future island. Every stage of its growth could be seen in the "Arm." Numbers of these roots float
together and form a kind of raft. A scum collects about it, dust settles upon it, and the whole soon
looks like a sheet of mud which undulates with the waves. As it becomes firmer, a small plant,
always of the same species, makes its appearance, entirely covering the island, and growing so
evenly that one might suppose its seed had been carefully sowed by hand. Later stages are now
merely questions of time, but it is probably only a few years before the roots torn from the bed of
the lake by the alligator are firmly woven into a compact mass by the grasses and reeds which
take possession of it, and we have then an island quite similar to the one I have described.

This, it is true, is not a pasture, but it may become one at any time. Some day a strong wind will
blow this island ashore-indeed, I saw islands which had been stranded-and then the roots in its
bottom will prove living anchors, holding it to its moorings, and by and by the floating island will
become firm ground over which cattle cattle may graze. As island after island is blown against
this one, the "Arm" recedes, the shore becomes dryer, and ere long it will be firm enough to
support cattle which are attracted by its luxuriant growth of grasses.

And now what becomes of our villagers? Search the shore as you will, comparatively few traces
of them are to be found. Robbed of the isolation of an insular life, they soon disappear to seek
new homes where they will be more secure from the attacks of their enemies. The alligator gives
place to the cow, the grassy nests of the marsh-rats and neofiber are soon overturned by prying

Coming Soon!

Floating Islands: A Global Bibliography

with an Edition and Translation of G. C. Munz's
Exercitatio academic de insulis natantibus (1711)

by Chet Van Duzer

This book is a unique treasury of information about one of nature's marvels: floating
islands. The bibliography contains more than 1500 citations of books and articles in twenty
languages on the subject; the entries are annotated and cross-referenced, and there are both
thematic and geographic indices. All aspects of floating islands are addressed, including the
formation of floating islands, the causes of their buoyancy, their role in the ecology of lakes and
wetlands, their flora and fauna, their role in the dispersal of plants and animals, and methods for
controlling and managing them. Works are also cited on artificial floating islands used for
agriculture, human habitation, wildlife habitat, and improvement of water quality; and floating
islands in literature, myth, and legend. The book includes the text and an English translation, with
detailed notes, of G. C. Munz's rare 1711 thesis on floating islands, Exercitatio academic de
inulii natantibus, as well as photographs of several floating islands.

Hardcover, 27 cm, 415 pp. with indices and illustrations.
ISBN 0-9755424-0-0
Library of Congress Control Number: 2004093899
Forthcoming from Cantor Press (Summer 2004)

"Chet Van Duzer has done the long, hard, exhaustive, in-depth, multidiscipline, and multilingual
'homework' for all the world's researchers of floating islands, and for others interested in a
fascinating natural feature." Peter A. Stone, Hydrologist, South Carolina Department of Health
and Environmental Control, USA.

For more information, go to: http://www.cantorpress.com/

Aquaphyte Contents | Aquaphyte page I Home

Copyright 2004 University of Florida





A Collaborative Effort:
Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, University of Florida
Bureau of Invasive Plant Management, Florida Department of Environmental Protection

All four plant photo-murals are for sale to anyone from 1-800-226-1764; or by visiting the
IFASBOOKS website:

They may be purchased individually or as a complete set.
1) SP 293 Native Freshwater Plants Photo-Mural fully laminated 62 in. X 23 in. $20 each plus S/H.
2) SP 329 MORE Native Freshwater Plants Photo-Mural fully laminated 27 in. X 39 in. $12 each plus S/H.
3) SP 292 Invasive Non-Native Plants fully laminated 62 in. X 23 in. $20 each plus S/H.
4) SP 328 MORE Invasive Non-Native Plants fully laminated 27 in. X 39 in. $12 each plus S/H.

DESCRIBED ABOVE: $39.50 plus S/H Purchase copies from the IFAS Publications Office, 1-800-226-
1764; or visit the IFASBOOKS website (Credit cards accepted.)

These photo-murals were produced at the request of teachers and enviro-trainers to be attention-
grabbing teaching tools for science classes and management agency training, and for homeowners' forums,
ecology clubs, environmental advocacy groups and others interested in marshes, swamps and other wetlands
of the United States. The murals were produced by the University of Florida and the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection, with printing support from Cerexagri. Additional printing support came from Sea
Grant, the national Aquatic Plant Management Society, the Florida Aquatic Plant Management Society, and
from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Jacksonville Office.


Lest we forget, with so much current emphasis on invasive non-natives, most plants in the U.S. are
native; beneficial to animals, humans, and the environment; and often beautiful. So, here are two photo-
murals of 76 native freshwater plants of the U.S.. Of the plants depicted, 100% are in Florida; 97% are also
found in the rest of the Southeast U.S.; 50% are found in the Eastern U.S.; 22% are found in the West; and 22%
are found throughout most of the U.S.

Click here for the list of plants featured on the two "native" murals.



.77 '77;l
Bs p


Here are two large photo-murals of 75 invasive non-native plants in the U.S. Of the
plants depicted, 100% are found in Florida, 50% are also found elsewhere in the Southeast U.S.; 50% are also
found in Hawaii; 15% are also found in the West; 15% are also found in the East; and 17% are also found in
most of the rest of the U.S. As in the other photo-murals of this series, all plants are depicted in large, strikingly
attractive color photographs.
Click here for the list of plants featured on the two "invasive" murals.

IFAS Extension
0141Sn INl'j'

Copyright 2006 University of Florida


j Wwjve Pidn r 4,,,,,,,
"I %

Aquathol Manufacturer Comes Through Again!

Mr. Bill Moore of Cerexagri, manufacturer of the aquatic herbicide Aquathol, presents a check
to Mr. Vic Ramey of the UF-IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants. The $15,000
unrestricted contribution will be used by the Information Office in the production of educational
materials for aquatic plant management personnel as well as for students and the general public.

This is the sixth such contribution from Cerexagri to the Center's Information Office in recent
years. Mr. Gerald Adrian is the company's Aquatic Sales Manager, and Mr. Moore is the
company's Florida representative.

Previous contributions included seed money for the Office's line-drawings project and plant
photography collection, the aquatic plant identification deck and the laminated photo-murals for
schoolteachers. Such unrestricted support from private sources enables the Office to do much
more than it could with base funding alone.

We greatly appreciate it!

Aquaphyte Contents | Aquaphyte page I Home

Copyright 2004 University of Florida

44th Annual

Aquatic Plant Management Society Meeting A


Tampa, Florida was the host city for the 44th Annual Aquatic Plant Management Society
(APMS) meeting held July 11 th 14th. 220 delegates attended, including 18 students, to learn the
latest in aquatic plant management from 49 papers and 23 posters. Nine of the presentations were
given by students in the annual student paper competition. Seven of the students are working on
their Ph.D. and two on their Master's degree.

Sarah Habrun of the College of Charleston won the student competition for her presentation,
Investigation of a Novel Cyanobacteria Linked to Avian Vacuolar Myelinopathy (AVM). AVM
is a fatal bird disease and Ms. Habrun states that "the most probable hypothesis is that birds
ingest a neurotoxin produced by epiphytic cyanobacteria." The toxic cyanobacteria has been
closely associated with Hydrilla verticillata in reservoirs in the southeastern U.S., and has
already adversely affected local breeding populations of American bald eagles.

All student presenters received a copy of C.D. Sculthorpe's The Biology ofAquatic Vascular
Plants, or the text of their choice.

Linda Nelson and Judy Shearer from the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development
Center, Environmental Laboratory won the poster competition with their poster, "Integrating
Triclopyr and a Fungal Pathogen (Mycoleptodiscus terrestris) for Control of Eurasian
Watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum). The pair received a perfect score from a judging panel
of student attendees.

A variety of interesting presentations were given, including economic studies, updates on
biological and chemical control methods, ecological studies, and a special session on plant
resistance and tolerance to aquatic herbicides.

Dr. T. Wayne Miller, Jr., founder of the APMS (originally known as the Hyacinth Control
Society), presented his recollections from approximately 40 years of aquatic plant management
experience beginning in 1960. He displayed a photograph of water hyacinths blocking access to a
boat dock in Lee County, Florida from a 1960 edition of The Saturday Evening Post that inspired
county commissioners to create the first hyacinth control program in the nation.

A review from regional APMS chapters was given, including Florida, Midsouth, Midwest,

Northeast, Texas, and South Carolina. Chapter membership numbers range from less than 100 to
approximately 500 in the Florida chapter. The APMS and most regional chapters award student
scholarships in aquatic plant sciences yearly.

The 45th Annual APMS meeting will be held in San Antonio, Texas. See http://www.apms.org
for more information on all APMS activities and events.


Aquaphyte Contents | Aquaphyte page I Home

Copyright 2004 University of Florida

Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants

May 15-18, 2008; Palmetto, Florida www.fnps.org
28th Annual Florida Native Plant Society Conference
Uplands to Estuaries: Celebrating Florida's Native Plant Heritage

May 20-22, 2008; Imperial Palace Casinos, Biloxi, Mississippi http://www.se-eppc.org
10th Annual Southeast EPPC Conference

June 23-27, 2008; International Weed Science Society, Vancouver, Canada http://iws.ucdavis.
International Weed Science Society

Aquatic Weed Management


Mike Netherland, USA I mdnether(@ufl .edu

Kevin Murphy, UK |I k.murphy@vbio.qla.ac.uk

June 23-26, 2008; University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida http://www.conference.ifas.ufl.edu/soils/
Biogeochemistry of Wetlands: Science and Applications Short Course

August 25-26th, 2008; LSU Energy, Coast, and Environmental Building, Baton Rouge, Louisiana http://www.
Sustainable Management of Deltaic Ecosystems: Integration of Theory and Practice

September 7-12, 2008; Daniel Boone National Forest, Olympia Springs, Kentucky http://tfce.uky.edu/wri 2008.
2008 Eastern Regional Wetland Restoration Institute

September 23-25, 2008; Austin Carey Memorial Forest Education Building, Gainesville, Fl. http://soils.ifas.ufl.
Hydric Soils Short Course Specialized Training for Wetland Specialists

October 21-23, 2008; Austin Carey Memorial Forest Education Building, Gainesville, Fl. http://soils.ifas.ufl.edu
Hydric Soils Short Course Specialized Training for Wetland Specialists

November 12-14, 2008; Stellenbosch, South Africa http://academic.sun.ac.za/cib/events/Elton CIB symposium.
Fifty Years of Invasion Ecology the Legacy of Charles Elton
Centre of Excellence for Invasion Biology, Stellenbosch University

November 18-20 2008; Austin Carey Memorial Forest Education Building, Gainesville, Fl. http://soils.ifas.ufl.
Hydric Soils Short Course Specialized Training for Wetland Specialists

June 23-26, 2009; Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico http://www.paleolim.org/index.php/symposia/
11th International Paleolimnology Symposium

August 23-27, 2009; Stellenbosch, South Africa www.emapi2009.co.za or rich@(sun.ac.za
The 10th International Conference on the Ecology and Management of Alien Plant
Invasions (EMAPI)
Centre for Invasion Biology (CIB), Department of Botany & Zoology, Stellenbosch University

Man1~ r INr
rt J

Home I Aquaphyte page
Contact Us: CAIP-WEBSITE(ufl.edu
@2007 University of Florida

IFAS Extension
C4nte fu r PI(fcs'

Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants

Books, Manuals, and Online Resources

New Books and Reports
8 Plant Manuals, Field Guides and Textbooks
Langeland/Burks Non-Native Plants Book
8 Online Articles and Extension Publications
Extension Publications & Articles
8 Online Books

IFAS Extension
IW)tc 1w itcv 'lr -

,aroe r

C. i- -^ "

Copyright 2007 University of Florida


Here is a sampling of the research articles, books and reports which have been entered into
the aquatic, wetland and invasive plant database since Winter 2003. The database has
more than 63,000 citations. To use the free APIRS database online, go to http://plants.ifas.

Attention authors! Try your hand at the APIRS database and make sure your publications
are included. To perform an author search, go to the APIRS web site. In the Words
Anywhere box or Author Names box, type all or part of your last name, followed by our
truncation character, $ (for example, smith$). A bibliography will be produced with all
publications currently in the database by author=Smith. If you have relevant publications
that are not in the database (old or new), please send them to us as reprints or PDF files.
They will be cataloged and an annotated citation will be added to the APIRS database.

To obtain articles, contact your nearest state or university library, or a document delivery

Armstrong, N., Planas, D., Prepas, E.
Potential for estimating macrophyte surface area from biomass.
AQUAT. BOT. 75(2):173-179 2003

Arora, A., Singh, P. K.
Comparisons of biomass productivity and nitrogen fixing potential ofAzolla spp.
BIOMASS AND BIOENERGY 24(3): 175-178 2003

Anastasiou, C.J., Brooks, J.R.
Effects of soil pH, redox potential, and elevation on survival of Spartinapatens
planted at a west central Florida salt marsh restoration site.
WETLANDS 23(4):845-859. 2003.

Andrew, W., Haller, W.T., Shilling, D.G.

Response of St. Augustine grass to fluridone in irrigation water.
J. AQUAT. PLANT MANAGE. 41:61-63. 2003.

Arora, A., Singh, P.K.
Comparisons of biomass productivity and nitrogen fixing potential ofAzolla spp.
BIOMASS AND BIOENERGY 24(3):175-178. 2003.

Bennett, A.C.
Alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides) control in Florida sugarcane.

Boeger, M.R.T., Poulson, M.E.
Morphological adaptations and photosynthetic rates of amphibious Veronica
anagallis-aquatica L. (Scrophulariaceae) under different flow regimes.
AQUATIC BOT. 75:123-135. 2003.

Bugbee, G.J., White, J.C., Krol, W.J.
Control of Variable watermilfoil in Bashan Lake, CT with 2,4-D: monitoring of lake
and well water.
J. AQUAT. PLANT MANAGE. 41:18-25. 2003.

Busey, P.
Reduction of torpedograss (Panicum repens) canopy and rhizomes by quinclorac
split applications.
WEED TECHNOLOGY 17(1):190-194. 2003.

Chandramohan, S., Charudattan, R., Devalerio, J.T., Hanlon, C.
Use of a multiple-pathogen bioherbicide system for integrated management of

Chapin, C.T., Bridgham, S.D., Pastor, J.
pH and nutrient effects on above-ground net primary production in a Minnesota,
USA bog and fen.
WETLANDS 24(1):186-201. 2004.

Chornesky, E.A., Randall, J.M.

The threat of invasive alien species to biological diversity: setting a future course.
ANN. MISSOURI BOT. GARD. 90(1):67-76. 2003.

Colmer, T.D.
Long-distance transport of gases in plants: a perspective on internal aeration and
radial loss from roots.
PLANT, CELL AND ENVIRON. 26:17-36. 2003.

Cuda, J.P., Dunford, J.C., MacDonald, G.E., Langeland, K.A., et al
Torpedograss, Panicum repens L. (Poaceae): prognosis for classical biological
control in the southeastern United States.

De Steven, D., Toner, M.M.
Vegetation of upper coastal plain depression wetlands: environmental templates and
wetland dynamics within a landscape framework.
WETLANDS 24(1):23-42. 2004.

Drake, L.A., Dobbs, F.C., Zimmerman, R.C.
Effects of epiphyte load on optical properties and photosynthetic potential of the
seagrasses Thalassia testudinum Banks ex Konig and Zostera marina L.
LIMNOL. OCEANOGR. 48(1, PT 2):456-463. 2003.

Enger, S., Hanson, S.
A summary of permitted control work for aquatic vegetation, algae, leeches,
swimmer's itch, 2002.

Erneberg, M., Strandberg, B., Jensen, B.D.
Susceptibility of a plant invader to a pathogenic fungus: an experimental study of
Heracleum mantegazzianum (Giant hogweed) and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.
NETHERLANDS, PP. 355-372. 2003.

Farnsworth, E.J., Meyerson, L.A.
Comparative ecophysiology of four wetland plant species along a continuum of
WETLANDS 23(4):750-762. 2003.

Foxcroft, L.C., Richardson, D.M.
Managing alien plant invasions in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.
NETHERLANDS, PP. 385-403. 2003.

Frankart, C., Eullaffroy, P., Vernet, G.
Comparative effects of four herbicides on non-photochemical fluorescence
quenching in Lemna minor.
ENVIRON. EXPERIMENTAL BOT. 49(2):159-168. 2003.

Freund, H., Gerdes, G., Streif, H., Dellwig, 0., et al
The indicative meaning of diatoms, pollen and botanical macro fossils for the
reconstruction of palaeoenvironments and sea-level fluctuations along the coast of
Lower Saxony, Germany.
QUATERNARY INTERNAL. 112:71-87. 2004.

Garby, C., Thiebaut, G., Muller, S.
Impact of manual spring harvesting on the regrowth of a spreading aquatic plant:
Ranunculus peltatus Schrank.
ARCH. HYDROBIOL. 156(2):271-286. 2003.

Grevstad, F.S., Strong, D.R., Garcia-Rossi, D., Switzer, R.W., et al
Biological control of Spartina alterniflora in Willapa Bay, Washington using the
planthopper Prokelisia marginata: agent specificity and early results.
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL 27(1):32-42. 2003.

Hansen, S.M., Corsini, M.
Program engages the disabled community in stream restoration (Washington).
ECOL. RESTORATION 21(2): 148-149. 2003.

Hanson, M.L., Sibley, P.K., Mabury, S.A., Muir, D.C.G., et al
Field level evaluation and risk assessment of the toxicity of dichloroacetic acid to
the aquatic macrophytes Lemna gibba, Myriophyllum spicatum, and Myriophyllum
ECOTOX. ENVIRON. SAFETY 55(1):46-63. 2003.

Heilman, M.A., Netherland, M.D., Smith, C., Getsinger, K.D., et al
Selective whole-lake management of Myriophyllum spicatum (Eurasian

watermilfoil) with low-dose treatment of fluridone herbicide: Houghton Lake,

Kahara, S.N., Vermaat, J.E.
The effect of alkalinity on photosynthesis-light curves and inorganic carbon
extraction capacity of freshwater macrophytes.
AQUATIC BOT. 75(3):217-227. 2003.

Kendig, A., Williams, B., Smith, C.W.
Rice weed control.

Knight, R.L., Gu, B., Clarke, R.A., Newman, J.M.
Long-term phosphorus removal in the Florida aquatic systems dominated by
submerged aquatic vegetation.
ECOL. ENGIN. 20(1):45-63. 2003.

Koschnick, T.J.
Imagine Florida without aquatic plant management.
AQUATICS 25(1):8,10. 2003.

Koschnick, T.J.
Tolerance of selected turf and ornamental plants to endothall in irrigation water.

Kurtz, J.C., Yates, D.F., Mcauley, J.M., Quarles, R.L., et al
Effects of light reduction on growth of the submerged macrophyte Vallisneria
americana and the community of root-associated heterotrophic bacteria.
J. EXP. MAR. BIO. ECOL. 291(2):199-218. 2003.

Lindgren, C.J.
Using 1-min scans and stem height data in a post-release monitoring strategy for
Galerucella calmariensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on purple loosestrife,
Lythrum salicaria L. (Lythraceae), in Manitoba.
BIOL. CONTROL 27(2):201-209. 2003.

Mason, L.J., Lewitus, A.J., Wilde, S.B., Burke, M.K.
Constructed wetlands in detention ponds; improving water quality and preventing
harmful algal blooms.

MacDonald, G.E., Querns, R., Shilling, D.G., Bewick, T.A., et al
The influence of formulation, buffering, pH and divalent cations on the activity of
endothall on hydrilla.
J. AQUAT. PLANT MANAGE. 41:13-18. 2003.

MacInnis-Ng, C.M.O., Ralph, P.J.
Short-term response and recovery of Zostera capricorni photosynthesis after
herbicide exposure.
AQUATIC BOT. 76(1):1-15. 2003.

McIntosh, D., King, C., Fitzsimmons, K.
Tilapia for biological control of giant salvinia.
J. AQUAT. PLANT MANAGE. 41:28-31. 2003.

Morgan, K.L., Roberts, T.H.
Characterization of wetland mitigation projects in Tennessee, USA.
WETLANDS 23(1):65-69. 2003.

Murphy, L.R., Kinsey, S.T., Durako, M.J.
Physiological effects of short-term salinity changes on Ruppia maritima.
AQUATIC BOTANY 75(4):293-309. 2003.

Nakata, P.A., Kostman, T.A., Franceschi, V.R.
Calreticulin is enriched in the crystal idioblasts of Pistia stratiotes.
PLANT PHYSIOL. BIOCHEM. 41(5):425-430. 2003.

Nelson, L., Getsinger, K., Glomski, L. A., Kafcas, E., et al
Herbicides and prescribed burning for control of Phragmites australis at St. Johns
Marsh, Michigan.

Palmer, M.L., Mazzotti, F.J.

Structure of Everglades alligator holes.
WETLANDS 24(1):115-122. 2004.

Patten, K.
Persistence and non-target impact of imazapyr associated with smooth cord-grass
control in an estuary.
J. AQUAT. PLANT MANAGE. 41:1-6. 2003.

Peralta, G., Bouma, T.J., Van Soelen, J., Perez-Llorens, J.L., et al
On the use of sediment fertilization for seagrass restoration: a mesocosm study on
Zostera marina L.
AQUATIC BOT. 75:95-110. 2003.

Poe, A.C., Piehler, M.F., Thompson, S.P., Paerl, H.W.
Denitrification in a constructed wetland receiving agricultural runoff.
WETLANDS 23(4):817-826. 2003.

Pro, J., Ortiz, J.A., Boleas, S., Fernandez, C., et al
Effect assessment of antimicrobial pharmaceuticals on the aquatic plant Lemna
BULL. ENVIRON. CONTAM. TOXICOL. 70(2): 290-295. 2003.

Ray, S., Klenell, M., Choo, K.-S., Pedersen, M., et al
Carbon acquisition mechanisms in Chara tomentosa.
AQUATIC BOT. 76(2):141-154. 2003.

Runes, H.B., Jenkins, J.J., Moore, J.A., Bottomley, P.J., et al
Treatment of atrazine in nursery irrigation runoff by a constructed wetland.
WATER RESEARCH 37(3):539-550. 2003.

Sammons, S.M, Maceina, M.J., Partridge, D.G.
Changes in behavior, movement and home ranges of largemouth bass following
large-scale hydrilla removal in Lake Seminole, Georgia.
J. AQUATIC PLANT MANAGE. 41:31-38. 2003.

Sanford, M.R., Keiper, J.B., Walton, W.E.
The impact of wetland vegetation drying time on abundance of mosquitoes and
other invertebrates.
J. AMER. MOSQUITO CONTROL ASSOC. 19(4): 361-366. 2003.

Scherder, E.F., Ronald, T.E., Michael, L.L., Jamie, B.D.
Rice (Oryza sativa) response and barn-yardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) control
under an intermittent flooding system.

Smith, C.W., Dilday, R.H., Eds.
Rice: origin, history, technology, and production.

Soltan, M.E., Rashed, M.N.
Laboratory study on the survival of water hyacinth under several conditions of
heavy metal concentrations.
ADVANCES ENVIRON. RES. 7:321-334. 2003.

Steinmann, C.R., Weinhart, S., Melzer, A.
A combined system of lagoon and constructed wetland for an effective wastewater
WATER RESEARCH 37:2035-2042. 2003.

Stirk, W.A., Van Staden, J.
Occurrence of cytokinin-like compounds in two aquatic ferns and their exudates.
ENVIRON. EXP. BOT. 49(1):77-85. 2003.

Strong, G.L., Fischer, A.J.
Imposed drought: a tool to reduce the competitive impact of ricefield bulrush in
organic rice.

Sullivan, T.
The Lake Rousseau Sonar (fluridone) drip treatment.
AQUATICS 25(2):4, 7-8. 2003.

Tracy, M., Montante, J.M., Allenson, T.E., Hough, R.A.
Long-term responses of aquatic macrophyte diversity and community structure to
variation in nitrogen loading.
AQUATIC BOTANY 77:43-52. 2003

Van Nes, E.H., Scheffer, M., Van Den Berg, M., Coops, H.
CHARISMA: a spatial explicit simulation model of submerged macrophytes.
ECOL. MODELLING 159(1):103-116. 2003.

Wang, G., Lin, Y., Li, W., Kohara, H., et al
Mutation in acetolactate synthase gene of sulfonylurea-resistant biotype of
Monochoria korsakowii, an annual paddy weed in Japan.

Webster, E.P., Leon, C.T., Zhang, W.
Weed control and water management strategies for herbicide-tolerant rice.

Willis, J.M., Hester, M.W.
Interactive effects of salinity, flooding, and soil type on Panicum hemitomon.
WETLANDS 24(1):43-50. 2004.

Yokota, E., Shimmen, T.
Possible involvement of energy metabolism in the change of cytoplasm organization
induced by a protein phosphatase inhibitor, Calyculin a, in root hair cells of
Limnobium stoloniferum.
PROTOPLASMA 221(3-4):217-226. 2003.

Zhang, Z., Elsohly, H.N., Li, X.-C., Khan, S.I., et al
Phenolic compounds from Nymphaea odorata.
J. NAT. PROD. 66(4):548-550. 2003.

Aquaphyte Contents I Aquaphyte page I Home


University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs