• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Victor Alan Ramey memorial
 In the classroom and in the...
 Aquatic plant aficionados flock...
 Meetings
 UF/IFAS aquatic weed control short...
 Aquatic Plant Management Society...
 The Orinco Delta, Venezuela
 Mary's picks
 Books/reports, etc.
 From the database
 APMS journals available
 Back Cover






Group Title: Aquaphyte : a newsletter about aquatic, wetland and invasive plants
Title: Aquaphyte
ALL VOLUMES CITATION PDF VIEWER THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00083179/00002
 Material Information
Title: Aquaphyte newsletter of the IPPC Aquatic Weed Program of the University of Florida, a part of the International Plant Protection Center of the Oregon State University, which is funded by the United States Agency for International Development
Abbreviated Title: Aquaphyte
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Center for Aquatic Plants
University of Florida -- IPPC Aquatic Weed Program
University of Florida -- Center for Aquatic Weeds
Publisher: The Program
Place of Publication: Gainesville FL
Publication Date: 1981-
Frequency: semiannual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Aquatic plants -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: Newsletters   ( lcsh )
Newsletters.
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (fall 1981)-
Issuing Body: Vols. for fall 1982- issued with: University of Florida, Center for Aquatic Weeds.
Issuing Body: Vols. for <1988-> issued by: University of Florida, Center for Aquatic Plants.
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 12, no. 2 (fall 1992).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00083179
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06513906
lccn - sc 84007615
issn - 0893-7702

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Table of Contents
    Victor Alan Ramey memorial
        Page 1
    In the classroom and in the parks
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Aquatic plant aficionados flock to Florida
        Page 4
    Meetings
        Page 5
    UF/IFAS aquatic weed control short course
        Page 6
    Aquatic Plant Management Society meets in Oregon
        Page 6
    The Orinco Delta, Venezuela
        Page 7
    Mary's picks
        Page 8
    Books/reports, etc.
        Page 9
    From the database
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    APMS journals available
        Page 15
    Back Cover
        Page 16
Full Text





A Q U A P H Y T E


A NEWSLETTER ABOUT AQUATIC, WETLAND AND INVASIVE PLANTS


Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants I UNIVERSITY
with support from US F LORIA
The Florida Department of Environmental Protection,
Bureau of Invasive Plant Management Extension
The St. Johns River Water Management District IFAS Extensio


Volume 26 Number 1 Fall 2006 Gainesville, Florida ISSN 0893-7702


VICTOR ALAN RAMEY
JUNE 21, 1948 NOVEMBER 24, 2005

Victor Alan Ramey, founder of AQUAPHYTE, the Aquatic
Plant Information Retrieval System (APIRS), and creator of
a large array of educational products for those in the aquatic plant
management arena, passed away unexpectedly on November 24'h,
2005.
Vic started the AQUAPHYTE newsletter back in 1981, which
currently is sent to approximately 1,000 subscribers in more than 70
countries. Sadly, in our 26'h year of publication, this is the first edi-
tion without his editorial contributions and without his name listed
as editor.
Vic worked for the University of Florida / IFAS Center for Aquat-
ic and Invasive Plants Information Office for more than 25 years.
During that time, he conceived of and created the APIRS database
at a point when very little was known about electronic databases.
Considering that the Information Office was virtually a one-man op-
eration at its inception, it is especially remarkable that the database
was created so long ago. Vic had a knack for creatively visualizing
a concept, and then finding a way of making it a reality, far more
than anyone else I have ever known. APIRS has been heavily used
by researchers, resource managers and others around the world for
20 years now. With advances in online technology, the database was
made available on the Internet via our website several years ago, and
has grown to contain more than 66,000 records. Even with many
commercial databases online today, APIRS is accessed frequently
by researchers around the world, and continues to be available for
free.
In addition to the major accomplishments listed above, Vic com-
missioned and produced a large set of aquatic plant line drawings,
now available on DVD; he traveled around Florida to obtain an ex-
tensive photographic collection; and he created the popular Aquatic
Plant Identification Deck and the companion Grasses, Sedges, and
Rushes Identification Deck. He also produced a series of aquatic
plant educational videotapes, including the 7-part Aquatic Plant
Identification Series, multiple aquatic herbicide applicator train-
ing videos, general education videos for students, homeowners and
lake- and riverfront property owners, and the clever Careers in Flor-
ida 's Freshwater Environments video for middle and high school
students. None of us had video production experience at the time.
But once Vic decided that this would be an excellent teaching tool,
he applied for and received a grant, hired one videographer, and took
us out into the field to create video programs for five years.


More recently, Vic and his team pro-
duced a set of large-format aquatic and
invasive plant photomurals, and the two
newest products, aquatic and invasive
plant fold-out recognition guides or
"pocket posters" to use as road maps to
plant identification in the field. Along
the way, there were peripheral items
such as the Freshwater Plants poster,
Aquatic Plant Coloring Book, aquatic
themed mouse pads and more.
Vic accumulated all of this information into the world's largest
aquatic plant website at plants.ifas.ufl.edu. This website, one of the
first, if not the first, to go online from the University of Florida, has
been active for 11 years and grown to many hundreds of individual
pages. We didn't know how to create a website eleven years ago, but
again, Vic's visionary thinking told him the Internet was the future
of information dissemination and so we hired one young, inexperi-
enced person and figured it out from the ground up.
Vic's most recent project was to bring all of his accomplishments
together into a far-reaching educational program. The goal was to
create school lesson plans, labs, activities and more for children of
all ages, and programs for Florida Park Service rangers, biologists
and volunteers, in order to teach as many people as possible about
aquatic, wetland and invasive plants in Florida, a subject Vic de-
scribed as "dear to our hearts." The program is called Florida 's Inva-
sive Plant Education Initiative (http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/education),
a joint effort by the Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants and the
Bureau of Invasive Plant Management of the Florida Department
of Environmental Protection. It has been enthusiastically received by
teachers and park service personnel alike, especially as the topic of in-
vasive species has come to the forefront of environmental concerns.
The team members that Vic left behind continue to work on these
new projects as well as the established programs at the Information
Office of the Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants. It is important
to all of us to continue his legacy, the work that was dear to his heart,
of providing the best educational resources and information services
on aquatic and invasive plants to the people of Florida and around
the world. We intend to fulfill this commitment to the very best of
our abilities as a tribute to Vic and his dedication to excellence in
everything he did.
To learn more about Vic Ramey, to see photographs and com-
ments from his many friends and associates, or to add your own
thoughts, go to: http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/vicblog.html
by Karen Brown, Vic 's co-worker of 22 years







Page 2 AQUAPHYTE Fall 2006

In the Classroom and In the Parks Phase II


lorida's first ever Invasive Plant Education Initiative dove into
its second year this autumn after earning high marks for last
year's initial developmental phase (see "In the Classroom and
In the Parks," Aquaphyte Winter 2005). The initiative was the brain-
storm of Vic Ramey who passed away unexpectedly last November,
leaving behind a remarkable legacy of educational materials and re-
sources and some extra large shoes to fill.
Vic's excitement about the project made his loss particularly tragic
for CAIP staff and colleagues as it represented the culmination of his
life's work at the Center. Fortunately, Jeff Schardt (who co-authored
the Initiative) and Don Schmitz, both with the Florida Department
of Environmental Protection (DEP), Bureau of Invasive Plant Man-
agement, continued their moral and financial support of the project.
While it was a difficult year to be sure, we were all proud to pay trib-
ute to Vic's vision by successfully completing Phase I. After a bit of
regrouping / reorganizing, we now find ourselves well into Phase II.
The main objective of the initiative is to use the abundance of
audio-visual materials, field guides, publications, websites, databases
and other projects that Vic and his team produced over the years and
integrate them into a far-reaching educational program for Florida cit-
izens, starting with young science students. We also wanted to adapt
the same information in "outdoor classrooms" for visitors throughout
the state, via our state parks.

During Phase I of the Project, our strategy was to introduce the in-
vasive plant issue/topic to upper elementary, middle and high school
science teachers through a series of training workshops, with the hopes
that participating teachers would become interested and energized by
the subject and carry that enthusiasm back to their classrooms.
The workshops included field trips to various aquatic and upland
sites for plant collection and identification as well as classroom labs
and lectures about the ecological and economic impacts that 130+
non-native, invasive plants are having throughout Florida's natural
areas.Teachers also reviewed and critiqued curricula as it was be-
ing developed, and helped us identify additional materials needed to
teach the subject.
By the end of June, more than 120 educators had participated in
the workshops. All were pre-tested on their knowledge about native
and invasive plants, and then post-tested at the end of the workshops
for increased knowledge and comprehension. The 22-question tests
showed gain scores of +7.8, a good indication that the workshops
were significantly improving knowledge about the subject. In addi-
tion, it seems our greatest accomplishment was in creating interest
and enthusiasm for native and invasive plants; according to work-
shop evaluations, teachers enjoyed the field trips and hands-on ac-
tivities just as much as their students do. As one teacher commented
during a workshop, "I was aware of some of the invasive species, but
the number of problem plants is astounding..."
Information gleaned from these sessions helped immensely as we
worked to develop a core curricula. For example, when asked about
a preferred media/format for presenting lessons, their top request was
for PowerPointTM presentations a popular audio-visual software
program used by many professionals for presentations at seminars
and conferences. We had no idea it also was being used by so many
teachers, at all levels. As a result, our four main lessons were devel-
oped in this format (see sidebar).


The CAIP Education Initiative Team consisted of myself and two
high school science teachers/curricula specialists, Cynthia Holland
and Elaine Taylor, who were brought onboard to help write the les-
sons and activities and to insure that all materials met Florida Sun-
shine State Standards and benchmarks. Web specialist Beth DeGroat
designed a new user-friendly education website that is being used to
disseminate the lessons and activities in three different formats (Mi-
crosoft Word documents, PDFs, and html), as they are completed/
reviewed this year. Student assistants Marco Downs, Laura Gutane,
Joshua Huey, and Ian Richard provided graphic and desktop produc-
tion assistance for the printed materials and PowerPointT lessons.

A New Education Web Site: http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/education
In addition to the new curricula and various teaching resources
provided on our education web site, the pages also serve as a por-
tal or pathway for teachers (and students) to navigate and utilize the
much larger companion website, Plant Management in Florida Wa-
ters (http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu guide). This "guide" was created a few
years ago, also with the support of the DEP Bureau, to help answer
citizens' questions on hundreds of topics related to Florida's freshwa-
ter environments including but not limited to plant management,
water management, wildlife, ecology, etc. However, according to some
teachers, it was hard to know where to start. Therefore, the related lessons
and activities are designed to "point" teachers in the right direction and
use the Guide as a resource.


Four PowerPointTM presentations were developed as part
of the core curricula:


1. A Fish Tale Becca the bass narrates this
colorful lesson about the delicate balance be-
tween oxygen, plants and fish in freshwater
environments.


2. Silent Invaders: A True Story About Na-
tive, Non-native and Invasive Plants in
Florida a basic introduction to the concept
of native versus non-native and invasive
plants including methods of seed dispersal;
with lots of photos.


3. Why Manage Invasive Plants? provides
a brief history of invasive plant management
in Florida, featuring two of the most trouble-
some aquatic plants: hydrilla and water hya-
cinth. Real life plant management scenarios
are discussed along with the concept of maintenance control.

4. Viva La Difference! A lesson on trophic states and how
they can help us explain the unique qualities found in Florida
lakes. (currently under review)

Copies of these lessons are viewable as PDF files on the website;
complete PowerPointTM versions with Q&A are available upon
request: http://plants. ifas. ufl edu/education/powerpoint ms. html







Fall 2006 AQUAPHYTE Page 3


For Phase II of the project, our team will be actively distributing the
newly developed curricula to teachers throughout Florida and evaluat-
ing its effectiveness in the classroom, as well as piloting a variety of
public outreach materials in a number of state parks (brochures, ban-
ners, hands-on activities, etc.) .
Further development of the education website also is on the list,
along with the creation of a resource website for state park personnel to
stay informed on the latest invasive plant news and to help them share
information with visitors and park neighbors about invasive plant spe-
cies in their region.


There's much to be done before Vic's goal is achieved of "con-
tinuing the initiative until every science teacher, student, park ranger,
and park docent volunteer are knowledgeable of the invasive plants
in their areas and have the resource materials necessary to help them
identify, contain, control and even prevent more plant invasions in the
unique natural areas of the Sunshine State."
However, with his vision front and center, Phase II is off to a good
start.
by Amy Richard


Highlights from the Florida Invasive Plant Education Initiative Phase I


The Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants (UF/IFAS) held invasive plant teacher workshops at the Florida Association of Science Teachers Con-
ference in Orlando in November, 2005, and at an environmental science workshop at the University of Florida in June, which was co-hosted by
UF's Center for Precollegiate Education and Training. Workshops included field trips to various aquatic and upland sites for plant collection and
identification activities as well as classroom labs and lectures. Another one is slated for mid-October in Gainesville.

A walking, talking invasive plant (Amy Richard a/k/a Amelia exotica) made a visit to our
nation's capital this winter to raise awareness about invasive plants during National Invasive
Weed Awareness Week (NIWAW). In March, she visited Cedar Key Elementary School to
test-run the Silent Invaders lesson about native, non-native and invasive plants. Following
:kJ the lesson, students made leaf prints with a variety of plants. Later that month, Amelia made
several appearances at spring garden festivals in the greater Gainesville area.


Cedar Key Elementary students were eager to share stories about plants and to make leaf prints.


NEEFWEMEP-="







Page 4 AQUAPHYTE Fall 2006

Aquatic Plant Aficionados Flock to Florida
by Paula Biles

In July the annual Symposium of the International Waterlily & Water Gardening Society (IWGS) attracted a diverse group from all
across the globe. Besides the US, eight countries were represented, plus Puerto Rico. Approximately 150 attendees came for either a
few days or the entire six-day event. They represented the entire spec-
trum of the aquatic plant field, from academics to growers to hobby-
ists to botanical gardens personnel. Everyone enjoyed and learned
from the lectures and tours, which all were focused on aquatic plants
and water gardens. Of special interest were the trips to commercial -
growers and private gardens, typically off-limits to most people. -
Since the IWGS Symposium is held in a different location every
year, it had been 16 years since the group last visited Florida. To
show off the true aquatic nature of the state there were field trips to
see the real Florida. These included an airboat ride in the Everglades,
where this complex ecosystem could be seen up close. Attendees got
a chance to see why the "River of Grass" is so important to Florida's
environment. While being whisked across the surface of the water,
they viewed a sample of the Everglades' 300 species of birds, over
1,000 plants, and numerous alligators.
Another natural area visited was the Grassy Waters Preserve on the edge of the Everglades, which overflows with aquatic plants, both
above and below the water surface. It was a living example of how crucial Florida wetlands are to filter rainwater and provide drinking
water for the State's rapidly growing population.
The last natural ecosystem toured was a freshwater spring in central Florida. Swimming and kayaking in the crystal clear waters of
Wekiva Springs was a real eye-opener. People were fascinated to learn that spring water in Florida is always 720 F (220 C), which feels
cold in the hot summer and warm in the winter. Even more amazing was snorkeling over dense forests of submersed aquatic plants,
which often extend down 10-40 feet (3-12 meters). There were countless fish, including numerous large plecostomous, and other aquatic
fauna. A famous naturalist called this unique aquatic environment a "liquid
bowl of light" and attendees got to see why.
The tours were an important component of the Symposium and included
visits to numerous locations from Fort Lauderdale in southern Florida to
the east coast and the central Orlando area. There were field trips to three
spectacular subtropical private gardens, and to historic McKee Botanical
Garden. Video and digital cameras whirred as people took thousands of pic-
tures for ideas, beauty, and memories. We also visited a beautiful retail water
garden center in Dania Beach, filled with items to purchase as well as more
ideas for those in the business.
S M One of the most important components of the Symposium was the op-
iZ ::J portunity to network. For example, the botanical gardens personnel from
Beijing, Bangkok, Yucatan, and North Carolina all shared ideas and advice
with each other. Hybridizers got together to learn and benefit from different
perspectives but common goals. These networking benefits are numerous
when spending concentrated time with others fascinated by aquatics. Dis-
cussions during bus rides were most interesting and animated. Many people carried notebooks with them to capture suggestions, plant
names, and ideas.
Several attendees were aquatic plant growers and retailers, so visits were arranged to aquatic nurseries and a tissue culture company.
One grower was the largest producer of pond and aquarium plants in the US, as well as a hybridizer of water lilies. A special display of
water lilies was organized just for the group. This once in a lifetime exhibit was a display of over 50 varieties of blue and purple water
lily hybrids and species, which allowed visitors to view them side by side. Since this had never been done before, and will probably
never be repeated, it was an excellent way to observe the variations between different cultivars of lilies, some of which are hard to dis-
tinguish. The photographic opportunities were outstanding since the tanks were above ground and each lily was well labeled.
The seminars on Education Day provided the largest opportunity for learning. Seven international experts spoke on aquatic plant
propagation, growing lotuses in China, aquatic plant fertilization, artistic aspects of water garden design, pond pests and predators, tissue
culture of aquatic plants, and water hyacinth problems in Florida. Some attendees who couldn't attend the full Symposium came just for
the day to benefit from the vast expertise presented.
The IWGS also was very pleased to have a graduate student from the University of Florida, Dustin Meador, attend the Education Day
lectures. The IWGS raises money through sponsorships and auctions to fund research in aquatic plants. This year they began awarding







Fall 2006 AQUAPHYTE Page 5
a student scholarship to attend Education Day at the Symposium, and
Dustin was the recipient. He was the perfect person to begin this pro- -
gram; his strong interest in aquatics and his enthusiasm for the field was, ,..
contagious. Having him in attendance also gave a boost to fundraising
efforts (the auction and sale) to support future research and student schol- ,
arships.
The auction and sale included numerous items, including pond prod- -.l/
ucts, aquatic plant books and catalogs, artwork, a lotus poster designed
just for the Symposium, IWGS publications, and even a digital camera. j,
Members, sponsors, and generous donors donated the items. The money /
raised goes to a very good cause and individuals who bought items or -
won them in the auction were delighted to help support future aquatic
plant research grants.
Besides the tours, lectures, and fundraising, there were other compo-
nents to the Symposium. Winners were announced for the IWGS annual
New Waterlily Competition and the annual Aquatic Art Competition,
with slide shows of the best hybrids plus winning artwork from several
categories and age groups. (Check the IWGS website for details about
next year's competitions.)
The only event that can top the success of this year will be the 2007
Symposium next July in Bangkok and Chiang Mai, Thailand. The event
is being hosted by representatives from Kasetsart University, King Rama
IX Park, Queen Sirikit Botanical Garden, and the Rajamangala Institute
of Technology. Besides the educational lectures on aquatic plant topics,
visits are planned to the Royal Flora International Horticultural Expo- s' place, Black & White Illustration by teen Julia Rega of
sition, some Buddhist temples, the National Elephant Institute, Nong Bradenton, Florida
Nooch Tropical Gardens, and the weekend market. The Society's first
trip to Asia is going to attract a wide audience from around the world and we invite Aquaphyte readers to attend.
The IWGS is an organization of international membership dedicated to the furtherance of all aspects of water gardens and their as-
sociated plants. Since 1984 the IWGS has supported and promoted education, research, and conservation in these areas. (They are the
International Society of Horticulture Science (ISHS) appointed International Registrar of Nelumbo and Nymphaea.)
Please visit www.iwgs.org for information, pictures, research grant applications, Aquatic Art Competition details, the 2007 Thai
Symposium, other activities, and membership information.



MEETINGS

Calil'ornia Inm a.i^ Plaint Council (C'all-IPC) C'onl'er. nce, i, ..i> !i 2, I n.1i 11 ,. ,,8L11 I 1n.i.
County, California. www.cal-IPC.org
30th Annual Florida Aquatic Plant Management Society (FAPMS) Meeting, October 30 November 2, 2006; St. Petersburg, Florida.
www.fapms.org
Public Land Acquisition & Management Partnership Conference, November 1-2, 2006, Jacksonville, Florida. www.ces.fau.
edu/plam2006
33rd Annual Conference on Ecosystems Restoration and Creation, Hillsborough Community College November 2-3, 2006,
Plant City, Florida. http://www.hccfl.edu/depts/detp/ecoconf.html
North American Lake Management Society (NALMS) 2006 International Symposium, Nov 8-10, Indianapolis, Indiana.
http://www.nalms.org
llth Annual Invasive Species Workshop, Florida Panther/Ten Thousand Islands Refuges & The Rookery Bay National Estuarine
Research Reserve, December 1, 2006. Takakohashimoto@fws.gov or (239) 353- 8442 x 222
SE-EPPC Annual Symposium, co-hosted by the Georgia Exotic Pest Plant Council, March 20-22, 2007, Athens, Georgia. Chris
Evans at cevans uga.edu or www.gaeppc.org
29th Annual Wisconsin Lakes Convention, April 26-28, 2007, Green Bay, Wisconsin. hmp \ \\\\ l\\ sp cdu/cnr/uwexlakes/
Click on Conventions.
2007 Aquatic Weed Control Short Course, University of Florida-IFAS, Aquatic, Upland and Invasive Weed Control; Aquatic
Plant Identification, May 14-18, 2007, http://conference.ifas.ufl.edu/
47th Annual Meeting of the Aquatic Plant Management Society (APMS), July 15-18, 2007, Nashville, Tennessee. www.apms.org
30th Congress of the International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology, August 12-18, 2007; Montreal, Quebec
Canada. www sil'i "-.org







Page 6 AQUAPHYTE Fall 2006


UF / IFAS Aquatic Weed

Control Short Course

The University of Florida / IFAS Extension Aquatic
Weed Control Short Course was well attended again this
year, with more than 400 field personnel, resource managers
and researchers registered. The course, which covers aquatic,
upland and invasive weed control and aquatic plant identifica-
tion, is the largest single education effort of this type by IFAS
(the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences).
Presentations included the behavior and fate of ALS inhibit-
ing herbicides in the aquatic environment, surfactants, algae
management, biological control, herbicide toxicology, registra-
tion and formulations, and much more.
Continuing Education Units (CEUs) were offered for at-
tending the course to assist participants in becoming certified,
or maintaining their certification, as pesticide applicators in
Aquatic and Natural Area categories through the Florida De-
partment of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Concurrent
sessions were offered for currently licensed applicators need-
ing CEUs and for those needing review or training. Special ses-
sions were offered in the calculations necessary for herbicide
equipment calibration, and "hands on" practice. Boom spray-
ers, hand-gun sprayers, and a dry material spreader/applicator
were demonstrated. Tests were administered on site during the
final day of the course.
A large collection of live plants was displayed throughout the
meeting and for a special plant identification session, courtesy
of Don Doggett of the Lee County Hyacinth Control District.
According to a survey, approximately half of the attendees
were experiencing the short course for the first time, indicating
a strong need to continue presenting the course into the future.
The next course is scheduled for May 14-18, 2007. For infor-
mation, go to: http://conference.ifas.ufl.edu/


Don Doggett (R), assisted by Ken Sonne, collects
and displays dozens of aquatic plants for identifica-
tion training. Both work for the Lee County Hyacinth
Control District.


Aquatic Plant Management

Society Meets in Oregon

The 46th annual meeting of the Aquatic Plant Management Society
(APMS) was held in beautiful Portland, Oregon in July. Taking place
in the heart of the Pacific Northwest, home to a rich tradition of Na-
tive American culture, the meeting was opened with a "ceremonial
welcome" by Rod McAfee, a 75 year-old Pima Native American. He
stressed the importance of meetings and said that coming together
strengthens beliefs. He further stated that, "Once you stop learning,
that is the end." Learning is what followed for over 200 attendees
with two and a half days of oral presentations, posters, student papers,
networking socials, and more.
Oral presentation sessions included the following categories: Pes-
ticide Regulatory Issues; Invasive Plant Monitoring, Physiology, and
Management; Invasive Species
and Aquatic Habitat Management;
Herbicide Developments and In-
vasive Plant and Algae Issues; and
Vegetation Challenges.
The APMS has a strong ethic
of student support and solicited
students for both oral and poster
presentations. Cash awards were
presented for the top three oral.
presentations, and the top poster.
Over a dozen students partici-
pated by presenting their origi-
nal research findings on topics
such as the biology and ecology Outgoing APMS President, Mr. Jeffrey
of aquatic and wetland plants, Schardt (Florida Dept. of Environmental
Protection, Bureau of Invasive Plant
control methods, and restoration Management)
projects. Winners in the oral pre-
sentation category were Julie G. Nachtrieb, University of North Texas;
Christopher R. Mudge, University of Florida, Center for Aquatic and
Invasive Plants; and, tied for third
place, Atul Puri, University of
Florida, Agronomy Department
and Center for Aquatic and Inva-
sive Plants; and Steven W. Wells,
Portland State University, Center
for Lakes and Reservoirs. The
winner of the poster presentation
was Mark Swinton, Rensselaer
Polytechnic Institute. All presen-
tation abstracts are available on
the APMS website.
Dr. David L. Sutton, long-time
member of the Society, presi-
dent in 1990, past-editor of the Dr. David L. Sutton, Retired
Journal of Aquatic Plant Man-
agement and contributor to the science of aquatic plant biology and
management during his long career with the University of Florida,
was presented with the President's Award by outgoing president Mr.
Jeffrey D. Schardt.
Next year's 47th Annual Meeting will be held July 15 18, 2007 in
Nashville, Tennessee. Please visit: www.apms.org







Page 6 AQUAPHYTE Fall 2006


UF / IFAS Aquatic Weed

Control Short Course

The University of Florida / IFAS Extension Aquatic
Weed Control Short Course was well attended again this
year, with more than 400 field personnel, resource managers
and researchers registered. The course, which covers aquatic,
upland and invasive weed control and aquatic plant identifica-
tion, is the largest single education effort of this type by IFAS
(the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences).
Presentations included the behavior and fate of ALS inhibit-
ing herbicides in the aquatic environment, surfactants, algae
management, biological control, herbicide toxicology, registra-
tion and formulations, and much more.
Continuing Education Units (CEUs) were offered for at-
tending the course to assist participants in becoming certified,
or maintaining their certification, as pesticide applicators in
Aquatic and Natural Area categories through the Florida De-
partment of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Concurrent
sessions were offered for currently licensed applicators need-
ing CEUs and for those needing review or training. Special ses-
sions were offered in the calculations necessary for herbicide
equipment calibration, and "hands on" practice. Boom spray-
ers, hand-gun sprayers, and a dry material spreader/applicator
were demonstrated. Tests were administered on site during the
final day of the course.
A large collection of live plants was displayed throughout the
meeting and for a special plant identification session, courtesy
of Don Doggett of the Lee County Hyacinth Control District.
According to a survey, approximately half of the attendees
were experiencing the short course for the first time, indicating
a strong need to continue presenting the course into the future.
The next course is scheduled for May 14-18, 2007. For infor-
mation, go to: http://conference.ifas.ufl.edu/


Don Doggett (R), assisted by Ken Sonne, collects
and displays dozens of aquatic plants for identifica-
tion training. Both work for the Lee County Hyacinth
Control District.


Aquatic Plant Management

Society Meets in Oregon

The 46th annual meeting of the Aquatic Plant Management Society
(APMS) was held in beautiful Portland, Oregon in July. Taking place
in the heart of the Pacific Northwest, home to a rich tradition of Na-
tive American culture, the meeting was opened with a "ceremonial
welcome" by Rod McAfee, a 75 year-old Pima Native American. He
stressed the importance of meetings and said that coming together
strengthens beliefs. He further stated that, "Once you stop learning,
that is the end." Learning is what followed for over 200 attendees
with two and a half days of oral presentations, posters, student papers,
networking socials, and more.
Oral presentation sessions included the following categories: Pes-
ticide Regulatory Issues; Invasive Plant Monitoring, Physiology, and
Management; Invasive Species
and Aquatic Habitat Management;
Herbicide Developments and In-
vasive Plant and Algae Issues; and
Vegetation Challenges.
The APMS has a strong ethic
of student support and solicited
students for both oral and poster
presentations. Cash awards were
presented for the top three oral.
presentations, and the top poster.
Over a dozen students partici-
pated by presenting their origi-
nal research findings on topics
such as the biology and ecology Outgoing APMS President, Mr. Jeffrey
of aquatic and wetland plants, Schardt (Florida Dept. of Environmental
Protection, Bureau of Invasive Plant
control methods, and restoration Management)
projects. Winners in the oral pre-
sentation category were Julie G. Nachtrieb, University of North Texas;
Christopher R. Mudge, University of Florida, Center for Aquatic and
Invasive Plants; and, tied for third
place, Atul Puri, University of
Florida, Agronomy Department
and Center for Aquatic and Inva-
sive Plants; and Steven W. Wells,
Portland State University, Center
for Lakes and Reservoirs. The
winner of the poster presentation
was Mark Swinton, Rensselaer
Polytechnic Institute. All presen-
tation abstracts are available on
the APMS website.
Dr. David L. Sutton, long-time
member of the Society, presi-
dent in 1990, past-editor of the Dr. David L. Sutton, Retired
Journal of Aquatic Plant Man-
agement and contributor to the science of aquatic plant biology and
management during his long career with the University of Florida,
was presented with the President's Award by outgoing president Mr.
Jeffrey D. Schardt.
Next year's 47th Annual Meeting will be held July 15 18, 2007 in
Nashville, Tennessee. Please visit: www.apms.org






Fall 2006 AQUAPHYTE Page 7


The Orinoco river overflows the levees in the Upper and Middle Delta during seasonal flooding.


The Orinoco Delta, Venezuela:

A Landscape of Wetlands

by Giuseppe Colonnello, Marcos Salcedo and Belkis Rivas
trans. Chet Van Duzer
The Orinoco Delta covers about 22,000 km2 of a territory that remains largely undisturbed by humans, due mainly to the difficulty
of creating agriculture or industry in land that is flooded for much of the year. The region includes a great diversity of aquatic com-
munities, both freshwater and estuary, and provides habitat for a great diversity of birds, fish, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles. The
plains of the delta cover, in whole or in part, two areas that have been decreed Areas of Special Administration, including the 265,000 ha
National Park "Mariusa," which is included in the Biosphere Reserve "Delta of the Orinoco" whose extension is 1,125,000 ha.
The main geoforms found in the Delta are thick natural dikes, sands, and in the associated depressions, clays, slime, and organic mate-
rials. Most of the deltaic plains of the Orinoco are occupied by extensive wetlands dominated by communities of mostly aquatic animals
and plants. The landscape is, in general, composed by ligneous formations in the higher positions and herbaceous in the depressions.
Many of the arboreal, bushy, and ligneous plants can be considered aquatic, as the soil and roots of the plants are always saturated with
water.
The rains, which surpass 2000 mm annually on the coast of the Delta, together with the overflow of the rivers and the influence of the
tides, determine the extension, depth and duration of the flooding of the land. The physical and chemical properties of the water in the
wetlands varies with the annual hydrologic cycle, so that in the same environment one can observe a succession of different water types
(white: high content of sediments in suspension, pH neutral or basic; black: low content of sediments and nutrients, pH acid; and clear,
an intermediate condition). These phenomena determine the distribution of the plant communities of the Delta.
Continued on page 14







Page 8 AQUAPHYTE Fall 2006

MARY'S PICKS


Items of special interest to our reader/cataloger,
Mary Langeland ~

* Microbial degradation of paintings. By 0. Ciferri. 1999.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65(3):879-885.
"When the hypogean rooms of the Domus Aurea in Rome were
opened to visitors in 1951, very rapidly green crusts appeared on
the frescoes in lighted areas; their development was so rapid that,
in 1981, illumination had to be discontinued. A study of the micro-
bial community composing such crusts showed a predominance of
cyanobacteria (two species of Lyngbya, accompanied by unidenti-
fied bacteria) and chlorophytes (species of Chlorella, Pseudococ-
comyxa, and Pseudopleurococcus) .... the two species of Lyngbya
were by far the predominant ones."

* Consumption of pondweed rhizomes by Yellowstone grizzly
bears. By D.J. Mattson, S.R. Podruzny, and M.A. Haroldson.
2005. Ursus 16:41-46.
"Bears excavated wetlands with pondweeds when they were free
of standing water, most commonly during October and occasional-
ly during spring prior to the onset of terminal snowmelt. These
results add to the documented diversity of grizzly bear food habits
and, because pondweed is distributed circumboreally, also raise the
possibility that consumption of pondweed by grizzly bears has been
overlooked in other regions."

* Nutrient farming: the business of environmental manage-
ment. By D.L. Hey, L.S. Urban, and J.A. Kostel. 2005. Ecological
Engineering 24(4):279-287.
"Credit markets for flood storage, nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon,
atrazine, sediment, and many other constituents would economically
motivate landowners to restore wetlands. The resulting high-quality
open space would provide for recreation, wildlife habitat, and bio-
diversity. The nitrogen market will create a new land-economics
paradigm and new opportunities for landowners, particularly farm-
ers."

* Biological control of three floating water weeds, Eichhornia
crassipes, Pistia stratiotes, and Salvinia molesta in the Republic
of Congo. By G. Mbati and P. Neuenschwander. 2005. BioControl
50:635-645.
The damage by floating water weeds and the subsequent improve-
ment of the conditions was evident from observations and, more poi-
gnantly, from testimony of the interviewed women and men, both
Bantu and Pygmies. They uniformly described the hardships imposed
on their livelihood from the closure of their waters by floating weeds
and the subsequent relief and joy, when against all expectations the
weed cover was reduced.

* Control of circadian rhythm-regulated nyctinastic move-
ment in water lily (Nymphaea stellata Willd.) flowers. J. Horti-
cultural Science & Biotechnology 80(2):167-170. 2005.
Immersing the flower stalks of a water-lily in certain solutions,
including salt and Rinso laundry detergent, can induce them to
remain open for 14 28 hours, so that exploitation as cut flowers
can now be considered.


* Effect of the Lower Kihansi Hydropower Project and post-
project mitigation measures on wetland vegetation in Kihansi
Gorge, Tanzania. By C.H. Quinn, H.J. Ndangalasi, J. Gerstle and
J.C. Lovett. 2005. Biodiversity and Conservation 14(2):297-308.
"Riparian wetlands in Kihansi Gorge, part of the Tanzanian
Eastern Arc range of mountains, are maintained by spray from
large waterfalls rather than from ground water or flooding." The
wetlands "provide the only known habitat for the Kihansi Spray
Toad, Nectophrynoides asperginis. This article describes a sprin-
kler system installed in an attempt to recreate the conditions re-
quired for survival of the toad.

* Archimedes and a too simple model of competition between
a macrophyte and phytoplankton a satirical play for two lim-
nologists. By H.L. Golterman. 2002. Hydrobiologia 472(1-3): 107-
117.
The setting: In the year 350 BC, Archimedes bought a new house
with a fine pond which he wanted to fill with a macrophyte. He went
to a Sicilian garden center and found the macrophyte he liked. And
so begins a dialogue between Archimedes and an ecological modeller.

* Control costs, operation, and permitting issues for non-
chemical plant control: case studies in the San Francisco Bay-
Delta region, California. By B.K. Greenfield, M. Blankinship,
and T.J. McNabb. 2006. J. Aquatic Plant Manage. 44:40-49.
"Five case studies were evaluated to determine cost and imple-
mentation issues for alternative plant control methods in waters of
the San Francisco Bay-Delta region. The primary case study exam-
ined control costs, operation, and endangered species permitting
for mechanical shredding of water hyacinth..." A very detailed
and, hence, interesting analysis.

* When do herbivores affect plant invasion? Evidence for the
natural enemies and biotic resistance hypotheses. By J.L. Ma-
ron and M. Vila. 2001. Oikos 95(3):361-373.
"The degree to which native herbivores provide biotic resis-
tance to either exotic plant establishment or spread may be greatly
determined by their functional and numerical responses to exotic
plants, which we know little about. Generalist herbivores, through
direct effects on seed dispersal and their indirect effects in altering
the outcome of native non-native plant competitive interactions,
may have more of a facilitative than negative effect on exotic plant
abundance."

* Loss of diversity and degradation of wetlands as a result of
introducing exotic crayfish. By C.F. Rodriguez, E. Becares, M.
Femandez-Alaez and D. Femandez-Alaez. 2005. Biological Inva-
sions 7:75-85.
"The introduction of the alocthonous Louisiana red swamp cray-
fish (Procambarus clarkii) in Chozas (a small shallow lake situ-
ated in Leon (North-West Spain)) in 1996 switched the clear water
conditions that harboured an abundant and a quite high richness of
plants, invertebrates, amphibians and birds to a turbid one followed
by strong losses in abundance and richness in the aforementioned
groups."







Fall 2006 AQUAPHYTE Page 9

BOOKS/REPORTS. ETC.


WEEDS OF THE SOUTH-EAST
- AN IDENTIFICATION GUIDE FOR AUSTRALIA.
By FJ. Richardson, R.G. Richardson and R.C.H. Shepherd.
2006. 438 pp. ISBN 0958743932. $69.95 www.weedinfo.com.au,
richardson@weedinfo. com.au
Supported by the Weed Societies of Victoria, NSW and SA and
the Council of Australasian Weed Societies, a comprehensive weed
ID guide for the south-east region.
Written in easy-to-understand language, it covers over 2000
weeds (including many new and emerging problem species) with
more than 1600 colour photos.

NATURAL AND CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS
- NUTRIENTS, METALS AND A \\ \(dII. I NT.
Edited by J. Vymazal. 2005. 417 pp. ISBN 90-5782-153-2. 6128.
Backhuys Publishers, backhuys@backhuys.com, www.backhuys.com
The latest in a series on constructed and natural wetlands, this
book contains 28 peer-reviewed papers, plus discussions, present-
ed at the 2003 workshop entitled Nutrient Cycling and Retention in
Natural and Constructed Wetlands V, attended by 42 researchers
from 16 countries.The topic of nutrients was the theme of the orig-
inal 1997 workshop. In 1999, the topics of water balance in wet-
lands, wetland restoration and ecological functional assessment of
wetlands were added. In 2001, the topics were again broader and
included heavy metals retention, removal and compartmentaliza-
tion, reed beds for sludge dewatering, the influence of watershed
management on mass cycling, and the use of GIS for wetland
evaluation.

AQUATIC WEEDS:
PROBLEMS, CONTROL AND \\% \(d,I. 11 NT.
ByDrs. S.M.Mathur, A.N.Mathur, Dr Y.C.Bhatt, Dr. R.K. Trivedy,
Er. Pramod Mohnot. Himanshu Publications, New Delhi, India.
aryabook@datainfosys.net
Aquatic Weeds: Problems, Control and Management presents
thirty five articles, research papers and reviews from well-known
scientists of this field. The book deals with a large number of
aquatic weeds, most prominently water hyacinth; problems cre-
ated by water hyacinth in various parts of India, its mechanical
and biological control, its utilization in pollution control, fodder,
fuel, biogas generation, paper and pulp, composting and various
other uses. Many papers deal with Indian research on mechanical
harvesting & chopping of water hyacinth. For other aquatic weeds,
the topics covered are: management; allelopathy; biological con-
trol, and utilization.

THE HUDSON RIVER ESTUARY.
Edited by Jetlltv S. Levinton, State University of New York,
Stony Brook. ISBN- 10: 0521844789. 2006. 488 PP. $90.00
A comprehensive look at the physical, chemical, biological and
environmental management issues important to understanding the
Hudson River Estuary. Chapters cover ecosystem-level process-
es and biological interactions; and environmental issues such as
fisheries, toxic substances, and the effect of nutrient input from
densely populated areas.


RIVER PLANTS THE MACROPHYTIC VEGETATION
OF WATERCOURSES SECOND REVISED EDITION.
By S.M. Haslam. 450 PP. ISBN 0 955074045. 25. www.
forresttext. co. uk/
This is a revised and updated edition of a book that, for many
years, has been the definitive guide to understanding the macro-
phytic vegetation of watercourses. It was the first and is still the
most comprehensive account of aquatic plants in relation to their
environment, and to the components of that ecosystem. Written
for naturalists, botanists, ecologists, and students of limnology
and hydrobiology. With over 100 line drawings by P. A. Woolse-
ley, plus photos.

DANUBE DELTA GENESIS AND BIODIVERSITY.
By Claudiu & Maria M. Tudorancea (Eds). 2006 (February).
444 pages, hardbound /:i. -/. -. of Inland Waters). ISBN 90-5782-
165-6. 6156
H. B. N. Hynes, Distinguished Emeritus Professor of the Uni-
versity of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada says, "I believe that this is
the first book in any language that attempts to deal comprehen-
sively with the limnology and general biology of a river delta." He
also states that, although there is a variety of viewpoints and some
overlap in content, ". there is also a thread of concern through-
out the text about the general eutrophication of the waters caused
by human activity ." Chapters cover Danube Delta geology,
geomorphology and geochemistry; physiography and climate; the
hydrological regime in the deltaic sector; chemistry; ecosystems;
phytoplankton and its primary production; aquatic macrophytes;
zooplankton structure and productivity in lacustrine ecosystems;
benthic fauna; structure and function of the Oligochaeta communi-
ties in lentic ecosystems; weed-bed fauna; benthic microbial com-
munities; ichthyofauna; avifauna; and finally, the human presence
in the Danube Delta.

THE GEOLOGY, BIODIVERSITY AND
ECOLOGY OF LAKE HOVSGOL (MONGOLIA).
By Clyde E. Goulden, Tatiana Sitnikova, Jon Gelhaus &
Bazartseren Boldgiv (Eds). 2006 (February). 526 pp. (Series:
Biology of Inland Waters). ISBN 90-5782-162-1. 6176
Lake HOvsg6l, one of the large ancient lakes of Asia, is located
in northern Mongolia. It is Mongolia's largest freshwater lake and
the 16th largest naturally formed lake in the world by water vol-
ume. Hovsg6l is estimated to be at least five million years old.
The Mongolian Academy of Sciences is particularly interested in
maintaining the area as a crucial international research site sup-
porting ecosystem studies and the interactions and impacts of
climate change and nomadic pastoral use. The climate, the water-
sheds, and the lake water are being monitored for potential change
and negative impacts. An international team formed of scholars
from many countries such as USA, Russia, Japan, Taiwan and
others along with their Mongolian colleagues are working there
on a truly international and interdisciplinary project. The book is
divided into four parts: Biodiversity, Ecology, Water Chemistry
and Physics, and Geology and Climate.







Page 10 AQUAPHYTE Fall 2006


AGUIAR,F.C., FERREIRA,T.,
ALBUQUERQUE,A., BERNEZ,I.
Invasibility patterns of knotgrass (Paspalum
distichum) in Portuguese riparian habitats.
WEED TECHNOL. 19(3):509-516. 2005.

ALLEN,M.S.
Aquatic plants and fisheries: making sense
of conflicting evidence.
AQUATICS 27(2):4-8. 2005.

ANDERSEN,T., PEDERSEN,O.,
CHRISTENSEN,C., JACOBSEN,N.
Cryptocoryne of the Nam Lik watershed in
northwestern Laos.
AQUATIC GARDENER 19(1):24-32. 2006.

ANNEN,C.A., TYSER,R.W.,
KIRSCH,E.M.
Effects of a selective herbicide, sethoxydim,
on reed canarygrass.
ECOL. RESTORATION 23(2):99-102. 2005.

ARIAS,R.S., NETHERLAND,M.D.,
SCHEFFLER,B.E., PURI,A., DAYAN,F.
Molecular evolution of herbicide resistance
to phytoene desaturase inhibitors inHydril-
la verticillata and its potential use to gener-
ate herbicide-resistant crops.
PEST MANAGEMENT SCI. 61(3):258-268. 2005.

ARMOUR,R.K., KENNEDY,D.M.
Comparative palynomorph signals of vege-
tation change preserved in an adjacent peat
swamp and estuary in north-west Nelson,
New Zealand.
NEW ZEALAND J. BOT 43(2):451-465. 2005.

ARMSTRONG,J.E.
Fringe science: are the corollas of Nym-
phoides (Menyanthaceae) flowers adapted
for surface tension interactions?
AMERICAN J. BOT. 89(2):362-365. 2002.

BALCI,P., GUNSALUS,B.
Measurement of success in watershed wet-
land restoration: a case study of the Loxa-
hatchee watershed.
PROC. THIRTY FIRST ANNU. CONF. ON ECO-


SYS. RESTORATION AND CREATION, CANNIZ-
ZARO,P.J., ED., HILLSBOROUGH COMM. COL-
LEGE, TAMPA, FL, PP. 65-74. 2004.

BARTHWAL,S., NAUTIYAL,
R., GANESAN,M., VENKATARA-
MANAN,K.S., ETAL
Effect of salt stress on rooting of Casua-
rina equisetifolia cuttings.
J. TROP. FOREST SCI. 17(1):170-172. 2005.

BARTON,B.J., BACH,C.E.
Habitat use by the federally endangered
Mitchell's satyr butterfly (Neonympha mitch-
ellii mitchellii) in a Michigan prairie fen.
AM. MIDL. NAT. 153(1):41-51. 2005.

BAYNE,D.R.
Giant lyngbya-a pond owner's nightmare.
SOUTHERN PONDS WILDLIFE 4(2):20-23.2005.

BIANCHINI,I., PACOBAHYBA,L.D.,
CUNHA-SANTINO,M.B.
Aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of
Montrichardia arborescens (L.) Schott.
ACTALIMNOL. BRAS. 14(3):27-34. 2002.

BILGIN,A., YALCIN,E., KUTBAY,H.
G., KILINC,M.
Nutrient concentrations and biomass in lake
vegetation and nutrient limitation in lakes
of northern Black Sea region of Turkey.
EKOLOGIA- BRATISLAVA 22(3):33-44. 2003.

BLEDZKI,L.A., ELLISON,A.M.
Population growth and production of Hab-
rotrocha rosa donner (Rotifera: Bdelloidea)
and its contribution to the nutrient supply
of its host, the northern pitcher plant, Sar-
racenia purpurea L. (Sarraceniaceae).
HYDROBIOLOGIA 385:193-200. 1998.

BOEDELTJE,G.
The role of dispersal, propagule banks and
abiotic conditions in the establishment of
aquatic vegetation.
PHD THESIS, DEPART. AQUATIC ECOLOGY
ENVIRON. BIOLOGY, RADBOUD UNIV., NIJME-
GEN, THE NETHERLANDS, 224 PP. 2005.


FROM THE DATABASE

Here is a sampling of the research articles, books and reports which have
been entered into the aquatic, wetland and invasive plant database since Winter
2005. The APIRS database contains more than 66,000 citations. To use the free
database online, go to http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/ and click on APIRS Online
Database.
To obtain articles, contact your nearest academic library, or a document
delivery service. Full text of records cited in APIRS is not stored electronically.


BURNS,J.H., MILLER T.E.
Invasion of chinese tallow (Sapium se-
biferum) in the Lake Jackson area, northern
Florida.
AM. MIDL. NAT. 152(2):410-417. 2004.

BUTLER,J.L., ATWATER,D.Z.,
ELLISON,A.M.
Red-spotted newts: an unusual nutrient
source for northern pitcher plants.
NORTHEASTERN NAT. 12(1):1-10. 2005.

CZERPAK,R., PIOTROWSKA,A.,
KROTKE,A.
Biochemical activity of auxins in depen-
dence of their structures in lWl1ffia arrhiza
(L.) Wimm.
ACTA SOC. BOT. POLONIAE 73(4):269-275. 2004.

DAHLGREN,J.P., EHRLEN,J.
Distribution patterns of vascular plants in
lakes the role of metapopulation dynamics.
ECOGRAPHY 28(1):49-58. 2005.

DAOUST,R.J., CHILDERS,D.L.
Ecological effects of low-level phosphorus
additions on two plant communities in a
neotropical freshwater wetland ecosystem.
OECOLOGIA 141(4):672-686. 2004.

DOBBS,F.C., ZIMMERMAN,R.C.,
DRAKE,L.A.
Occurrence of intracellular crystals in
leaves of Thalassia testudinum.
AQUATIC BOTANY 80:23-28. 2004.

DEBERRY,D.A., PERRY,J.E.
Primary succession in a created freshwater
wetland.
CASTANEA 69(3):185-193. 2004.

DENOTH,M., MYERS,J.H.
Variable success of biological control of
Lythrum salicaria in British Columbia.
BIOL. CONTROL 32(2):269-279. 2005.

DING,W., CAI,Z., TSURUTA,H.
Factors affecting seasonal variation of
methane concentration in water in a fresh-
water marsh vegetated with Carex lasio-
carpa.
BIOL. FERTIL. SOILS 41(1):1-8. 2005.

EKLOF,J.S., DE LA TORRE CASTRO,
M., ADELSKOLD,L., JIDDAWI,N.S.,
ETAL
Differences in macrofaunal and seagrass
assemblages in seagrass beds with and
without seaweed farms.
ESTUARINE, COASTAL SHELF SCI. 63(3):385-
396. 2005.







Fall 2006 AQUAPHYTE Page 11


ELLISON,A.M., GOTELLI,N.J.
Nitrogen availabiltiy alters the expression
of carnivory in the northern pitcher plant,
Sarracenia purpurea.
PROC. NAT. ACAD. SCI. 99(7):4409-4412. 2002.

FANG,X., SUBUDHI,P.K., VENUTO,B.
C., HARRISON,S.A., ET AL
Influence of flowering phenology on seed
production in smooth cordgrass (Spartina
alterniflora Loisel.).
AQUATIC BOTANY 80(2):139-151. 2004.

FAY,M.F., COWAN,R.S., SIMPSON,D.
Hybridisation between Schoenoplectus
tabernaemontani and S. triqueter (Cypera-
ceae) in the British Isles.
WATSONIA 24:433-442. 2003.

FERRITER,A., DOREN,B.,
GOODYEAR,C., THAYER,D., ET AL
The status of nonindigenous species in the
south florida environment.
SOUTH FL. ENVIRON. REPORT, SOUTH FLOR-
IDA WATER MANAGE. DIST., WEST PALM
BEACH, FL., CHAPTER 9, 102 PP. 2006.

FINDLAY,S., WIGLAND,C.,
NIEDER,W.C.
Submersed macrophyte distribution and func-
tion in the tidal freshwater Hudson River.
IN: THE HUDSON RIVER ESTUARY, EDS., J.S.
LEVINTON, J.R. WALDMAN, CAMBRIDGE UNIV
PRESS, NEW YORK, PP 231-241. 2006.

FONTAINE,C., DAJOZ,I.,
MERIGUET,J., LOREAU,M.
Functional diversity of plant-pollinator in-
teraction webs enhances the persistence of
plant communities.
PLOS BIOL. 4(1):7 PP. 2006.

FREDRIKSEN,S., CHRISTIE,H.,
BOSTROM,C.
Deterioration of eelgrass (Zostera marina
L.) through destructive grazing by the gas-
tropod Rissoa membranacea (J. Adams).
SARSIA 89(3):218-222. 2004.

GABREY,S.W., AFTON,A.D.
Composition of breeding bird communities
in Gulf Coast Chenier Plain marshes: ef-
fects of winter burning.
SOUTHEAST. NATURALIST 3(1): 173-185. 2004.

GARBEY,C., THIEBAUT,G.,
MULLER,S.
Morphological plasticity of a spreading
aquatic macrophyte, Ranunculus peltatus,
in response to environmental variables.
PLANT ECOL. 173(1):125-137. 2004.


GARCIA-ROSSI,D., RANK,N.,
STRONG,D.R.
Potential for self-defeating biological con-
trol? Variation in herbivore vulnerability
among invasive Spartina genotypes.
ECOL. APPL. 13(6): 1640-1649. 2003.

GEVREK,M.N., SAMANCI,B.,
YAGMUR,B., ARABACI,O., ET AL
Studies on the adaptation of Azolla mexicana
in the Aegean and the Mediterranean regions.
PLANT PROD. SCI. 7(1):50-54. 2004.

GLOMSKI,L.A.M., NETHERLAND,M.
D.
Quantifying the impact of Aquashade dye
for growth regulation of submersed aquatic
vegetation.
AQUATICS 27(2):14-18. 2005.

GOSSELAIN,V., HUDON,C.,
CATTANEO,A., GAGNON,P., ET AL
Physical variables driving epiphytic algal
biomass in a dense macrophyte bed of the
St. Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada).
HYDROBIOLOGIA 534(1-3):11-22. 2005.

GRZYBOWSKI,M., SZAREK,J.,
SKIBNIEWSKA,K.A., SAWICKA-
KAPUSTA,K., ETAL
The characteristics of plants in the littoral
zone of Lake Szelag Wielki in the Ilawa
Lake District threatened by pesticide tomb.
FRESENIUS ENVIR. BULL. 14(5):357-362. 2005.

GU,B.
Eutrophication and restoration of Lake
Apopka, USA.
J. LAKE SCI. 17(1):1-8 (IN CHINESE; ENGLISH
SUMMARY). 2005.

HAVENS,K.E., FOX,D., GORNAK,S.,
HANLON,C.
Aquatic vegetation and largemouth bass
population responses to water-level varia-
tions in Lake Okeechobee, Florida (USA).
HYDROBIOLOGIA 539:225-237. 2005.

HE,S.-G., JOYCE,D., WANG,M.-Z.
Characterization of polyamine oxidase
from the aquatic nitrogen-fixing fernAzolla
imbricata.
PLANT SCI. 169(1):185-190. 2005.

HEILMAN,M.
Penoxsulam (spl019) potential new her-
bicide for large-scale aquatic plant man-
agement applications.
IN: UF-IFAS EXTENSION, AQUATIC WEED CON-
TROL SHORT COURSE 2005., MAY 16-20, FORT
LAUDERDALE, FL, PP. 99-103.2005.


HUSSNER,A., LOSCH,R.
Alien aquatic plants in a thermally abnor-
mal river and their assembly to neophyte-
dominated macrophyte stands (River Erft,
Northrhine-Westphalia).
LIMNOLOGICA 35(1-2):18-30. 2005.

JAGER-ZURN,I., NOVELA,R.A.,
PHILBRICK,C.T.
Microspore development inPodostemaceae-
Podostemoideae, with implications on the
characterization of the subfamilies.
PL. SYST. EVOL. 256:209-216. 2006.

KANKAALA,P., KAKI,T., MAKELA,S.,
OJALA,A., ET AL
Methane efflux in relation to plant biomass
and sediment characteristics in stands of
three common emergent macrophytes in
boreal mesoeutrophic lakes.
GLOBAL CHANGE BIOL. 11(1): 145-153. 2005.

KAPLAN,Z., FEHRER,J.
Evidence for the hybrid origin of Potamo-
geton x copperi (Potamogetonaceae): tra-
ditional morphology-based taxonomy and
molecular techniques in concert.
FOLIA GEOBOTANICA 39:431-453. 2004.

KARUNARATNE,S., ASAEDA,T.,
TOYOOKA,S.
Colour-based estimation of rhizome age in
Phragmites australis.
WETLANDS ECOL. MANAGE. 12:353-363. 2004.

KIZIEWICZ,B.
Aquatic fungi growing on seeds of plants
in various types of water bodies of Podlasie
Province.
POLISH J. ENVIRON. STUDIES 14(1):49-55. 2005.

KOSCHNICK,T.J., HALLER,W.T.,
NETHERLAND,M.D.
Aquatic plant resistance to herbicides.
AQUATICS 28(1):4,6,8-9. 2006.

LANGELAND,KA.
Is glyphosate use responsible for global de-
cline in amphibians?.
WILDLAND WEEDS 9(3):10-11. 2006.

LENSSEN,J.P.M., DE KROON,H.
Abiotic constraints at the upper boundaries
of two Rumex species on a freshwater flood-
ing gradient.
J. ECOL. 93(1):138-147. 2005.

LES,D.H., MOODY,NML., JACOBS,S.W.L
Phylogeny and systematics of Aponogeton
(Aponogetonaceae):the Australian species.
SYSTEMATIC BOTANY 20(3):503-519







Page 12 AQUAPHYTE Fall 2006


LIMPENS,J., BERENDSE,F.,
KLEES,H.
How phosphorus availability affects the
impact of nitrogen deposition on sphagnum
and vascular plants in bogs.
ECOSYSTEMS 7(8):793-804. 2004.

MACDONALD,G.
Aquatic herbicides: how they work and why.
IN: UF-IFAS EXTENSION, AQUATIC WEED CON-
TROL SHORT COURSE 2005., MAY 16-20, FORT
LAUDERDALE, FL, PP. 227-231. 2005.

MALLISON,C.
Selective aquatic plant control using met-
sulfuron-methyl, triclopyr, and 2,4-D.
IN: UF-IFAS EXTENSION, AQUATIC WEED CON-
TROL SHORT COURSE 2005., MAY 16-20, FORT
LAUDERDALE, FL, PP. 105-111. 2005.

MORENO-CASASOLA,P., PLIEGO,G.
Scientists and rural stakeholders develop
enterprises designed to restore gulf wet-
lands (Mexico).
ECOL. RESTORATION 23(2): 120-121. 2005.

MORRIS,K, HARRISON,K.A.,
BAILEY,P.C.E., BOON,P.I.
Domain shifts in the aquatic vegetation of
shallow urban lakes: the relative roles of
low light and anoxia in the catastrophic loss
of the submerged angiosperm Vallisneria
americana.
MAR. FRESHWATER RES. 55(8):749-758. 2004.

MUDGE,C.R., KOSCHNICK,T.J.,
HALLER,W.T.
Evaluation of water lettuce's susceptibility to di-
quat: concerns about resistance development.
AQUATICS 28(1):10-11. 2006.

MULLER,K., BORSCH,T.
Phylogenetics of Utricularia (Lentibulariace-
ae) and molecular evolution of the trnK intron
in a lineage with high substitutional rates.
PLANT SYST. EVOL. 250(1-2):39-67. 2005.

NAGASAKA,M.
Changes inbiomass and spatial distribution
of Elodea nuttallii (Planch.) St. John, an
invasive submerged plant, in oligomesotro-
phic Lake Kizaki from 1999 to 2002.
LIMNOLOGY 5(3):129-139. 2004.

NAGEL,J.M., GRIFFIN,KL.
Can gas-exchange characteristics help explain
the invasive success ofLythrum salicaria?
BIOLOG. INVASIONS 6(1):101-111. 2004.

NANDAKUMAR,R., CHEN,L.,
ROGERS,S.M.D.


Agrobacterium-mediated transformation
of the wetland monocot Typha latifolia L.
(broadleaf cattail).
PLANT CELL REP. 23:744-750. 2005.

PARISOD,C., TRIPPI, C., GALLAD,N.
Genetic variability and founder effect in
the pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea (Sar-
raceniaceae) in populations introduced into
Switzerland: from inbreeding to invasion.
ANNALS OF BOTANY 95(1):277-286. 2005.

NICO,L.G., MUENCH,A.M.
Nests and nest habitats of the invasive cat-
fish Hoplosternum littorale in Lake Toho-
pekaliga, Florida: a novel association with
non-native Hydrilla verticillata.
SOUTHEASTERN NAT. 3(3):451-466. 2004.

NIES,G., REUSCH,T.B.H.
Nine polymorphic microsatellite loci for the
fennel pondweedPotamogeton pectinatus L.
MOLECULAR ECOL. NOTES 4(4):563-565. 2004.

O'BRIEN,C.
Constructed mounds restore intertidal marsh
and bird-nesting habitat on Galveston Island
(Texas).
ECOL. RESTORATION 23(2):121-122. 2005.

PARISOD,C., TRIPPI,C.,
GALLAND,N.
Genetic variability and founder effect in
the pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea (Sar-
raceniaceae) in populations introduced into
Switzerland: from inbreeding to invasion.
ANNALS OF BOTANY 95(1):277-286. 2005.

PARKER,J.D., BURKEPILE,D.E.,
HAY,M.E.
Opposing effects of native and exotic her-
bivores on plant invasions.
SCIENCE 311:1459-1461. 2006.

PELICICE,F.M., AGOSTINHO,A.A.,
THOMAZ,S.M.
Fish assemblages associated with Egeria
in a tropical reservoir: investigating the ef-
fects of plant biomass and diel period.ACTA
OECOLOGICA27:9-16. 2005.

PFLUGMACHER,S.
Promotion of oxidative stress in the aquatic
macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum dur-
ing biotransformation of the cyanobacterial
toxin Microcystin-lr.
AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY 70(3): 169-178. 2004.

PERET,A.M., BIANCHINI,I.
Stoichiometry of aerobic mineralization
(o/c) aquatic macrophytes leachate from a
tropical lagoon (Sao Paulo Brazil).


HYDROBIOLOGIA 528(1-3):167-178. 2004.

PIERINI,S.A., THOMAZ,S.M.
Effects of inorganic carbon source on
photosynthetic rates of Egeria najas
Planchon and Egeria densa Planchon
(Hydrocharitaceae).
AQUATIC BOTANY 78(2): 135-146. 2004.

POLLUX,B.J.A., SANTAMARIA,L.,
OUBORG,N.J.
Differences in endozoochorous dispersal be-
tween aquatic plant species, with reference
to plant population persistence in rivers.
FRESHW. BIOL. 50(2):232-242. 2005.

RAMEY,V., SCHARDT,J.
Freshwater plants in the southeastern
United States.
UNIV. FLORIDA IFAS EXTEN., CENTER FOR
AQUATIC AND INVASIVE PLANTS, RECOGNI-
TION GUIDE FOR 133 PLANTS. 2005.

REJMANEK,M., RICHARDSON,D.M.,
PYSEK,P.
Plant invasions and invasibility of plant
communities.
VEGETATION ECOLOGY, E. VAN DER MAAREL,
ED., BLACKWELL PUB., PP. 332-355. 2005.

RICHARDS,C.L., HAMRICK,J.L.,
DONOVAN,L.A., MAURICIO,R.
Unexpectedly high clonal diversity of two
salt marsh perennials across a severe envi-
ronmental gradient.
ECOLOGY LETTERS 7(12):1155-1162. 2004.

RICHARDSON,C.J., REISS,P.,
HUSSAIN,N.A., ALWASH,A.J.,
POOL,D.J.
The restoration potential of the Mesopota-
mian marshes of Iraq.
SCIENCE 307(5713):1307-1311. 2005.

RITTER,N.P., CROW,G.E.
A floristic and biogeographical analysis of
the wetlands of the Bolivian cloud forest.
RHODORA 107(929):1-33. 2005.

ROMERO,M.I., AMIGO,J., RAMIL,P.
Isoetes fluitans sp. Nov.: the identity of
Spanish plants of 'I. longissimum'.
BOT. J. LINN. SOC. 146(2):231-236. 2004.

ROUSSEAU,D.P.L.,
VANROLLEGHEM, .A., DE PAUW,N.
Constructed wetlands in Flanders: a perfor-
mance analysis.
ECOL. ENG. 23(3):151-163. 2004.

RYBCZYK,J.M., DAY,J.W.,
CONNER,W.H.







Fall 2006 AQUAPHYTE Page 13


The impact of wastewater effluent on ac-
cretion and decomposition in a subsiding
forested wetland.
WETLANDS 22(1):18-32. 2002.

SALMINA,L.
Factors influencing distribution of Cladium
mariscus in Latvia.
ANN. BOT. FENNICI 41(5):367-371. 2004.

SCHMIEDER,K., LEHMANN,A.
A spatio-temporal framework for efficient
inventories of natural resources: a case
study with submersed macrophytes.
J. VEGETATION SCI. 15(6):807-816. 2004.

SIROVA,D., ADAMEC,L., VRBA,J.
Enzymatic activities in traps of four aquatic
species of the carnivorous genus Utricularia.
NEW PHYTOLOGIST 159(3):669-675. 2003.

SO,L.M., CHU,L.M., WONG,P.K
Microbial enhancement of Cu2+ removal
capacity of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.)
CHEMOSPHERE 52(9):1499-1503. 2003.

SOOKNAH,R.D., WILKIE,A.C.
Evaluating floating aquatic macrophytes in
improving the water quality of anaerobically
digested flushed dairy manure wastewater.
IN: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION ANAEROBIC BIO-
CONVERSION FOR SUSTAINABILITY, PROC.
10T WORLD CONGRESS, VOL. 4, INTERN. WA-
TER ASSOC., LONDON, PP. 2170-2173. 2004.

STUBBS,D.
Endangered species and aquatic herbicide
registrations.
IN: UF-IFAS EXTENSION, AQUATIC WEED CON-
TROL SHORT COURSE 2005., MAY 16-20, FORT
LAUDERDALE, FL, PP. 29-35. 2005.

SUMMERS,A.
Secrets of the sacred lotus.
NATURAL HISTORY 115(3):40-41. 2006.

SZAMREJ,I.K., CZERPAK,R.
The effect of sex steroids and corticoste-
roids on the content of soluble proteins, nu-
cleic acids and reducing sugars in ltTiffia,
arrhiza (L.) Wimm. (Lemnaceae).
POLISH J. ENVIR. STUDIES 13(5):565-571. 2004.

TANNER,C.C., NGUYEN,M.L.,
SUKIAS,J.P.S.
Nutrient removal by a constructed wetland
treating subsurface drainage from grazed
dairy pasture.
AGRIC., ECOSYSTEMS ENVIR. 105:145-162. 2005.

TAYLOR,C.M., DAVIS,H.G.,
CIVILLE,J.C., GREVSTAD,F.S., ETAL


Consequences of an allee effect in the invasion
of a Pacific estuary by Spartina alterniflora.
ECOLOGY 85(12):3254-3266. 2004.

TEMPEL,D.J., CILIMBURG,A.B.,
WRIGHT,V.
The status and management of exotic and
invasive species in National Wildlife Ref-
uge wilderness areas.
NATURAL AREAS J. 24(4):300-306. 2004.

THOMAZ,S.M., SOUZA,D.C., BINI,L.M.
Species richness and beta diversity of
aquatic macrophytes in a large subtropical
reservoir (Itaipu Reservoir, Brazil): the in-
fluence of limnology and morphometry.
HYDROBIOLOGIA 505:119-128. 2003.

THORMANN,M.N., BAYLEY,S.E.,
CURRAH,R.S.
Microcosm tests of the effects of tem-
perature and microbial species number on
the decomposition of Carex aquatilis and
Sphagnum fuscum litter from southern bo-
real peatlands.
CAN. J. MICROBIOLOGY 50(10):793-802. 2004.

VELIKOVA,V., PINELLI,P.,
LORETO,F.
Consequences of inhibition of isoprene
synthesis in Phragmites australis leaves
exposed to elevated temperatures.
AGRIC. ECOSYS. ENVIR. 106(2-3):209-217. 2005.

VIONNET,C.A., TASSI,P.A., MARTIN
VIDE,J.P.
Estimates of flow resistance and eddy vis-
cosity coefficients for 2D modelling on
vegetated floodplains.
HYDROL. PROCESS. 18(15):2907-2926. 2004.

VOGEL,S.
Contributions to the functional anatomy
and biology of Nelumbo nucifera (Nelum-
bonaceae) I. Pathways of air circulation.
PLANT SYST. EVOL. 249(1-2):9-25. 2004.

WEIS,J.S., SKURNICK,J., WEIS,P.
Studies of a contaminated brackish marsh
in the Hackensack meadowlands of north-
eastern New Jersey: benthic communities
and metal contamination.
MAR. POLL. BULL. 49(11-12):1025-1035. 2004.

WHITTALL,J.B., HELLQUIST,C.B.,
SCHNEIDER,E.L., HODGES,S.A.
Cryptic species in an endangered pond-
weed community (Potamogeton, Potamo-
getonaceae) revealed by AFLP markers.
AM. J. BOTANY 91(12):2022-2029. 2004.


WORMAN,A., KRONNAS,V.
Effect of pond shape and vegetation hetero-
geneity on flow and treatment performance
of constructed wetlands.
J. HYDROLOGY 301(1-4):123-138. 2005.

WADA,T.
Strategies for controlling the apple snail
Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck) (Gas-
tropoda: Ampullariidae) in Japanese direct-
sown paddy fields.
JAPAN AGRIC. RESEARCH QUARTERLY (JARQ)
38(2):75-80. 2004.

XIAN,Q., CHEN,H., ZOU,H., YIN,D.,
ETAL
Allelopathic effects of four submerged
macrophytes onMicrocystis aeruginosa.
J. LAKE SCI. 17(1):75-80 (IN CHINESE; ENGLISH
SUMMARY).2005.

YAMAMURO,M., CHIRAPART,A.
Quality of the seagrass Halophila ovalis on
a Thai intertidal flat as food for the dugong.
J. OCEANOGRAPHY 61(1):183-186. 2005.

YE,W.H., LI,J., CAO,H.L., GE,X.J.
Genetic uniformity of Alternanthera
philoxeroides in south China.
WEED RES. 43(4):297-302. 2003.

ZEDLER,P.H., BLACK,C.
Exotic plant invasions in an endemic-rich
habitat: the spread of an introduced Austra-
lian guss .-i -'io avenacea J.f. Gmel., in
California vernal pools.
AUSTRAL ECOLOGY 29(5):537-546. 2004.

ZIMMO,O.R., VAN DER STEEN,N.P.,
GIJZEN,H.J.
Comparison of ammonia volatilisation rates
in algae and duckweed-based waste stabili-
sation ponds treating domestic wastewater.
WATER RES. 37(19):4587-4594. 2003.

ZOMLEFER,W.B., GIANNASI,D.E.,
JUDD, W.S., KRUSE,L.M., ET AL
A floristic survey of Fort Matanzas National
Monument, St. Johns County, Florida.
SIDA 21(2):1081-1106. 2004.

ZOMLEFER,W.B., GIANNASI,D.E.
Floristic survey of Castillo de San Marcos
National Monument, St. Augustine, Florida.
CASTANEA 70(3):222-236. 2005.


APIRS welcomes contributions
of publications for the citation
database, either as reprints or as
PDF files.







Page 14 AQUAPHYTE Fall 2006
Continued from page 7
The delta has been divided into Upper, Middle and Lower areas in accordance with the topographical, geomorphological, soil, and
climatic gradients.
The plant communities inventoried thus far in the Orinoco Delta number more than 200, and may be separated into pastures, forests
and thickets. The pastures are divided into:
i) Pastures located in coastal regions, with sandy, salty soil, in which species such as Ipomoea pes-caprae, Vigna adenandra, and
Eleocharis spp. dominate.
ii) Pastures on mineral substrates, which are dominated by grasses, especially wide-leafed species. These are generally on alluvial
soils and on the mineral soils of the dikes, in the middle and upper Delta. The dominant species are Leersia hexandra, Hymenachne
amplexicaulis, Sacciolepis striata, Sagittaria guyanensis, and Nymphoides indica.
iii) Pastures on organic substrates, growing on swampy plains or peat of the lower Delta, dominated by Cyperaceae and ferns, such as
Lagenocarpus guianensis and Blechnum serrulatum.
As part of the herbaceous vegetation one must include the communities of floating plants that form in lotic environments along the
larger river channels. These are dominated by Eichhornia crassipes, E. azurea, Paspalum repens and Echinochloapolystachya. One may
also find communities of aquatic plants in lakes and in lentic river environments, in which macrophytes like Cabomba aquatica, Tonina
fluviatilis, and Utriculariafoliosa grown among others. Almost 180 species of aquatic macrophytes have been reported in the Delta.
The forests are the most diverse communities of the Delta since they are located in various geomorphologic environments and soils.
Each community consists of few species, due to the acidity and lack of oxygen of the soil. They are divided into:
i) Forests on the dikes along the main river channels in their sections of the Upper Delta, on mineral soils subject to occasional sea-
sonal floods. The dominant species are Spondias mombin and Inga edulis. In the Middle and Lower Delta the soils are less sandy and the
floods more prolonged. In these areas Virola surinamensis and Macrolobium acaciifolium dominate.
ii) Swamp forests on slime-clayey plains heavily influenced by floodwaters from the rains and the river. Among the dominant species
are Macrolobium acaciifolium and Mouriri guianensis.
iii) Swamp forests on plains of peat in the Lower Delta. The dominant species are Simaba orinocensis, Pterocarpus office inauli.. Sym-
phonia globulifera and Tabebuia insignis.
iv) Also common in the Middle Delta are communities dominated by the Arecacea Mauritiaflexuosa, locally called "moriche." They
can reach high densities, forming true palm forests of great extension called "morichales."
Included among the forest communities are mangrove swamps, dominated by different species of the genus Rhizophora: mangle,
harrisonii and racemosa, in addition to associations with the genera Laguncularia and Avicennia. These swamps are located along the
coasts and along the edges of the river channels where tidal influence is strong.
Equally numerous are the thicket
communities composed of low ligne-
ous elements with ramified stems as- MARSHES
cending no more than 4-5 m, lianas and SWAMP FOREST Variable cover of palms
some grasses. These are divided into: Moriochales
i) Thickets growing on mineral soils Variable cover \
withSymmeriapaniculada and Macrolo- GALLERY FOREST
bium acaciifolium orAnnona glabra.
ii) Thickets growing on organic sub-
strates of the Lower and Middle Delta AQUATIC VEGETATN..
with (/ h i Delta, '. icaco; or with ,, ... .. ...
Machaeriu lunatum in clayey-silty sub- .
states along the water courses. L .o *
iii) Thickets growing on the perma- ....- Basins
nently saturated organic soils of the
Lower Delta, with Crudia glaberrima. 3
iv) Thickets of halophytic species
(mangroves). EVEE .
There are some 600 species of birds p, ory u ..
in the Orinoco Delta, representing 43% Figure 1. Schematic profile of a portion of the Delta, showing significant aspects of the
of the species reported in the country. It geomorphology and vegetation.
is an area of great importance in regard
to the biogeography of the species, since we find species from other parts of the country, as well as endemic species and subspecies.
Among the latter are: Black-dotted piculet (Picumnus nigropunctatus), Goleen-Olive woodpecker (Piculus rubiginosus deltanus), Chestnut
woodpecker (Celeus elegans deltanus), Waved woodpecker (Celeus undatus amacurensis), Wedge-billed woodcreeper (Glyphorynchus spiru-
rus amacurensis), Plain-brown woodcreeper (Dendrocinclafuliginosa deltana), Straight-billed woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus picus deltanus),
and Spotted tody-flycatcher (Todirostrum maculatum amacurense). Recent studies have identified the coastal area as an important zone of rest
and feeding in the migratory route of sandpipers (Scolopacidae) and other migratory birds. Tourists from all over the world visit the region for
its rich birdlife. This represents an important contribution to the local economy, giving employment to the native Waraos.







Fall 2006 AQUAPHYTE Page 15
From the biogeographic point of view, the great majority of mammals in
the Orinoco Delta have been grouped inside the Bioregion of the Deltaic System,
more particularly belonging to the Provincia Guyanese Deltana. A recent study
confirmed the presence of 129 mammal species in the region, equivalent to 39%
7... *... of the mammals in the country. This number is very significant considering the
S:hef unusual flooding conditions in the Delta. The most diverse orders of mammals
are bats (52%), rodents (16%), marsupials and carnivores (9% each). The Orinoco
agouti (Dasyprocta guamara) is the only mammal endemic to the Delta, and is
found only in the forests which are susceptible to flooding.
The majority of the mammal species live in wooded habitats, while a few live in
open habitat. The totally or partly flooded swamp forest is the most diverse habitat
(111 species), followed by the forest on the dikes (84 species) which contains bur-
rowing species (armadillos) as well as species that live among the leafage (mouse
opossums, small mice) and the mangrove swamp (43 species).
The deltaic plains, courses of free water, marshes, estuaries, pastures and man-
grove swamps are among the most valuable ecosystems in terms of the environ-
mental resources they provide. Nevertheless these environments are subject to se-
rious damage in both their structure and operation from several causes, including
the absence or lack of implementation of a management plan both in the protected
areas and in the territory as a whole; high unemployment; the construction of dams
in the main affluents of the Orinoco; extraction of mangroves, ranching, and tim-
ber-cutting; and burns to prepare land for agriculture. The areas most affected are
Satellite image ofpart of the Upper Delta during those of easiest access, mostly in the Upper Delta, but also in the Lower Delta. The
flooding, traffic in birds (on the part of the Creoles, Warao, and Guyanese) toward Guyana
and Trinity is diminishing the populations of many species, particularly the Blue-
and-yellow Parrot (Ara ararauna), Yellow-crowned Parrot
(Amazona ochrocephala), Black-headed Macaw (Pionites .
melanocephala), Seed-Finches (Oryzoborus) and Seedeat-
ers (Sporophila). Likewise several species of mammals that
constitute basic resources for the diet and the socioeconomic -
stability of the Creoles and native population are threatened
by a human population explosion in some areas. For exam- ..
ple, paca (Cuniculuspaca), acouchy (Myoprocta), capybara,
manatees, and tapir are hunted for food, the several species
of cats, such as jaguar (Pantera onca), ocelot (Leopardus
pardalis), jaguarondi (Puma jagouaroundi) and puma for
the illegal sale of their skins, and capuchin monkeys for
pets.
Recently the Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el De-
sarrollo (PNUD) and the Ministry of the Environment have
completed the first part of a series of multidisciplinary stud-
ies. These studies will enable the creation of conservation
and management strategies for the Special Areas so that the
ecological integrity of the Orinoco Delta can be preserved. A floating meadow along a small channel in the Middle Delta. The main species
are Eichhomia crassipes and Paspalum repens.




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AQUAPHYTE

AQUAPHYTE is the newsletter of
the Center for Aquatic and Invasive
Plants and the Aquatic, Wetland and
Invasive Plant Information Retrieval
System (APIRS) of the University of
Florida / Institute of Food and Agri-
cultural Sciences (IFAS). Support for
AQUAPHYTE and the information
system is provided by the Florida De-
partment of Environmental Protec-
tion, Bureau of Invasive Plant Man-
agement, the St. Johns River Water
Management District, and UF/IFAS.

EDITOR: Karen Brown

AQUAPHYTE is sent to managers,
researchers and agencies in 71 coun-
tries around the world. Comments,
announcements, news items and oth-
er information relevant to aquatic and
invasive plant research are solicited.
Inclusion in AQUAPHYTE does
not constitute endorsement, nor does
exclusion represent criticism, of any
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and Invasive Plants


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Victor Ramey and Kathy Burks discuss aquatic plant .. & ,, i,, 1,n ". at last year's UF IFAS
Aquatic Weed Control Short Course.
The fields of aquatic and invasive plant management and education suffered two major losses
this past year when Vic Ramey (UF/IFAS) and Kathy Burks (Florida Natural Areas Inventory
(FNAI)) passed away. Both were well known among Florida's aquatic and invasive plant manage-
ment community, and will be sorely missed.
Kathy made many contributions to botany and conservation in Florida. She worked for the FL
DEP Bureau of Aquatic Plant Management for ten years, and was one of the state's foremost
experts on invasive plants. Kathy gave dozens of presentations, conducted workshops, provided
expert plant identification services, and contributed to numerous papers, reports and books about
aquatic and invasive plants. At FNAI, Kathy served as the invasive plant biologist responsible
for mapping the distribution and abundance of invasive exotic plants in Florida. She worked with
agencies and numerous private organizations to preserve and protect Florida's critical natural areas.
We will miss Kathy's expertise and her dedication, but mostly we will miss her congenial friend-
ship and enthusiasm for all things botanical.




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