A Q U A P H Y T E
A NEWSLETTER ABOUT AQUATIC, WETLAND AND INVASIVE PLANTS
Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants V
with support from FLORIDA
The Florida Department of Environmental Protection,
Bureau of Invasive Plant Management A Extension
The St. Johns River Water Management District IFAS Extension
Volume 27 Number 1 Fall 2007 Gainesville, Florida ISSN 0893-7702
New Search I Modify Search I About | Contact Search Strategies | Contribute
Aquatic Plant Information Retrieval System
The Aquatic Plant Information Retrieval System (APIRS),
now with more than 67,000 bibliographic citations, continues to be
the largest free database of its kind in the world. Used regularly by
researchers, government agencies, companies, teachers, students
and private groups and individuals, users can request searches of
the database or they can access the database themselves online.
APIRS is supported by the Florida Department of Environmental
Protection, Bureau of Invasive Plant Management.
The APIRS database was moved to a new system programmed-
by a senior computer science student at the University of Florida,
Mr. Dmytro Martynyuk. The system now runs on MySQL with
php as an interface, allowing for greater flexibility and stability
Features of the new system include an optional Log In that en-
ables users to tag and email citations, a date modifier field, faster
data entry, online editing capabilities, and a far less expensive
system to maintain.
To tag and email citations, users simply login before searching
the database (nothing is required except a password and an email
address). Any citations of interest may then be selected and sent
to Tag Records, where you may accumulate or delete citations
before sending them to your own email address. See Tagging
Help under Search Strategies for more information (only avail-
able when you log in).
Note: Logging in is not required in order to search the APIRS
database. It is only required for tagging citations.
Search operators for the APIRS database have changed and are
Search All Fields
= Truncation operator. An asterisk (*) appended to a
word will find that word plus any additional letters; for example:
sediment* will return records on sediments, sedimentation, sedi-
+ = AND Operator. A leading plus sign (+) indicates that the
word or words must be present in each citation that is returned.
There is no space between the operator and the search term; for
example, +hydrilla +smith
= NOT Operator. A leading minus sign (-) indicates that
the word must not be present in any of the citations that are re-
turned; for example, smith* -hydrilla will return citations contain-
ing smith, but not those containing hydrilla.
= OR operator. When neither + nor is specified, the default
is OR; for example, smith* hydrilla* returns citations that contain
= Exact phrase operator. A phrase that is enclosed with-
in quotation marks matches only citations that contain the exact
phrase; for example, "chemical control"
() = Subexpression operator. Parentheses group words into
subexpressions; these can be nested. For example: +acid +(rain*
precip* depositi) finds acid rain or acid precipitation or acid-
To restrict your search results by date, choose one of the modi-
fiers from the Date modifier field (<, >, =), and enter a date, com-
bined with your search term in Search All Fields.
To search for a single publication year, enter the year into the
Date field under the list of individual fields (see below).
+hydrilla smith finds citations that contain the word "hydril-
la", but ranks citations higher if they also contain Snniit ".
+ = BUT NOT operator. +wetland -construct* finds cita-
tions that contain "wetland" but not "constructed wetlands".
Search Individual Fields
To search a specific field (for example, Title, Author, Date,
etc.), type a single word into an individual field. Individual field
searches do not support the above listed operators, multiple search
terms, or multiple fields; use a single word in a single field only
(for example: Vallisneria in the Title field).
Advanced Search Examples
Following are examples of advanced search strings for search-
ing the APIRS database. These have been compiled based on
many years of experience using the database. Search examples
are in bold:
For acid rain, use the following keywords to be sure you are
not missing the publications that refer to acid rain as acid precipi-
tation or acid deposition: +acid +(rain* precip* depositi)
For carbon-14, search: ("c-14" "c14" "14-c" "14c" "carbon-
14*" radio* radio-label*) (+carbon* +isotop*)
Continued on page 6
Page 2 AQUAPHYTE Fall 2007
Aquatic Plant Videos Now on DVD
The Aquatic Plant Identification Series, previously rI r ..- -
available in VHS and PAL formats, has been reformatted
to a four-disc DVD set. The series was created for the ben- J I I 121 DiJ
efit of aquatic plant managers, regulators, students and the-
general public. Narrated by Dr. Kenneth Langeland of the
University of Florida/IFAS Center for Aquatic and Inva-
sive Plants, each segment is 2-3 minutes in length and uses
everyday language to identify 115 aquatic plants that grow N.
in Florida and similar geographic locations.
The series features identification segments on floating
and floating-leaved plants, emersed plants, submersed
plants, and aquatic and wetland grasses, sedges and rushes.
The plant species depicted in the identification series are list-
ed on the CAIP website at: http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/idlist.html
DVD 084 $35.00
To order these programs, contact:
University of Florida, IFAS Publications
1-800-226-1764 (toll free in the USA)
VHS and PAL formats are available until supplies are depleted.
At The Aquatic Plant Management Series, previously
available as five separate video programs, is now avail-
able as a two-disc DVD set.
t Included are the following programs:
Aquatic Pest Control Applicator Training -
-* -Parts I & II teach the basic knowledge necessary to be
certified as a restricted use pesticide applicator in aquatic
pest control (category 6) in Florida. Topics covered in-
/clude a brief history of aquatic plant management, laws,
herbicide technology, biological control, mechanical
control and environmental effects.
Calibration-A Field Approach presents a practi-
cal approach to calibrating handguns, booms and granu-
How to Determine Areas and Amount of Aquatic
Herbicide to Use reviews some of the mathematics es-
sential to the proper use and application of aquatic her-
Maintenance Control of Aquatic Weeds What
it is Not! explains why regular management of aquatic
"-" weeds is the most environmentally sound and economi-
If cal method of aquatic plant management.
DVD 085 $25.00
Page 4 AQUAPHYTE Fall 2007
A NATURAL HISTORY OF FERNS
BvR.C Ioran. 2004. 301 pp. ISBN 0-88192-667-1. $29.95 U.S. Timber Press. Portland OR. ww- ....' .. ... or firstname.lastname@example.org
Mr. Moran is curator of ferns at the New York Botanical Garden and the author of four other books about ferns. This book is orga-
nized into six categories: The Life Cycle of Ferns; Classification of Ferns; Fern Fossils; Adaptations by Ferns; Fern Geography, and
Ferns and People. Aquatic genera include Azolla, Ceratopteris, Equisetum, Isoetes, Lygodium, Marsilea, Salvinia (with the chapter
title, The Molesting Salvinia), and others. The book is full of _.ia. kil natural history, such as the quote from 19th century botanical
explorer Richard Spruce who, upon sighting a stand of giant I ,,,, .-i., ;i z. (Equisetum) in Ecuador in the early 1860s exclaimed, "the most
remarkable plant in the forest of Canelos is a gigantic Equisetum, 20 feet high, and the stem nearly as thick as the wrist!...It extends for
a distance of a mile on a plain bordering the Pastasa [Pastaza River] but elevated some 200 feet above it, where at every few steps one
sinks over the knees in black, white, and red mud." There are literary references from h..l .. "..-. to Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe.
Contains many excellent drawings and some photographs; B&W.
THE LOTUS: KNOW IT AND GROW IT
By Kelly .. .- and Paula Biles. 2007. 48 pp. ISBN 978-0-9794732-0-3. International Waterlily & Water Gardening Society (IWGS).
www.iwgs.org. $14. U.S., plus ',... '. .
This booklet holds information on almost everything about lotus: cultivation, ornamental and other uses, cultural traditions, lore, a
guide for growers, and resources for additional information. The full-color booklet has more than 100 beautiful photographs and is a
handy guide ev, i 1... ci' I ni 111., mi% Velumbo.
THE WATER LILY CROSS
An English Garden Mystery by Anthony Eglin. 2007. 294pp. ISBN-13: 978-0-312-36546-2. Thomas Dunne Books.
www. thomasdunnebooks.comn; St. Martin s Minotaur, New York. $23.95 U.S.
Lawrence Kingston, retired professor of botany, bon vivant, and would-be sleuth, searches for a colleague who has mysteriously gone
missing after I,,ali.l,,- uponan.ii!.i*li, horticultural breakthrough with staggering world-wide ..ii .....
A MONOGRAPH OF NVUPIHIR (NYMPHAEACEAE)
By Donald J. Padgett. 2007. Rhodora 109(937): 1-95. The New England Botanical Club.
,i. genus Nuphar ( ; ii',.. .., .~. is I .d i to include 11 t i, native to fresh waters of the 'il. ,TH. 1,1 111, "
WOODLAND CAREX OF THE UPPER |tI'M I *-,t'
By Linda Curtis. 2006. 171 pp. Curtis to the Third Productions, Lake Villa, 1L. www.curtistothethird.com $19.95, plus S/H.
"Over 100 species of Carex grow in wet to dry habitats in the upper Midwest but this book includes only the 63 species in the herb
layer of .... l.I.,,1 forests, swampy woods, river and lake woods, and thickets."
PLANTED AQUARIUMS: CREATION AND 1N I'W.TENANCE
By Christel Kassehnan. 2005. 160 pp. ISBN 1-57524-209-9. Krieger Publ., Melbourne, Florida. www.kr. .... ... .., $33.50.
"... a detailed, well illustrated, informative book on the art and science of keeping planted aquaria. Every aspect is covered, from
lighting to water, substrates, and of course, plants, all bound up in a sleek, 1 "" 1..._-..: full-color hardcover book... Planted Aquariums
presents all of the information a budding or intermediate aquatic gardener needs to be successful." (excerpt from The- I... ,... Gardener,
18(4):35, 43. 2005.)
PAROLES DES MARAIS ATLANTIQUES LA GESTION DES ESPECES EXOTIQUES ENVAHISSANTES EN ZONES HUMIDES
Edited by Loic Anras, Gilbert Miossec etAlain Gallice. 2005. 258 pp. JSSN 1624-7450. Aestuaria, No. 6. www.forum-marais-atl.com
630. IN FRENCH.
This publication covers the status of exotic invasive species, both plant and animal, and their management and control in the wetlands
and marshes of France.
WETLAND DRAINAGE, RESTORATION, AND REPAIR
by TR. Biebighauser 2007. 236 pp. ISBN 978-0-8131-2447-6. University Press ofKentucky, Lexington. www.kentuckypress.com $50.00.
The author draws from his own experience in building more than', *6t c- i ,, ,i i. in 10 states in the U.S. and one ( n ,i, i fvince. He
now teaches hands-on wetland restoration,, .i 1. across North America, and works with those who have ."mili .l,.I .,I that failed.
The book includes a historical overview of wetland destruction and repair over the past two hundred years. Suitable for professionals as
well as private landowners interested in the process of wetland restoration or creation. Abundantly illustrated with color photographs.
PITCHER PLANTS OF THE AMERICAS
by .. ;,.. f McPherson. 2007. 320pp. ISBN 0-939923-74-2. 1IcDonald & fWoodward Publishing Co., Blacksburg, Virginia.
Copious high quality color photographs and expert line drawings complement this description of pitcher plants in the Americas.
Genera covered are Darlingtonia, Heliamphora, Sarracenia, Brocchinia and Catopsis.
Fall 2007 AQUAPHYTE Page 5
ECOLOGY AND I \\ \,1. 11. NT OF GIANT HOGWEED (HERACLEUM MANTEGAZZIANUM)
Edited by P Pysek, M.J. W. Cock, W. Nentwig, and H.P Ravn. 2007. 352 pp. ISBN 978-1-84593-206-0. CABI, Wallingford, UK.
www.cabi.org $120. US, 100.
The culmination of a three-year European Union project involving 40 European experts. An unusual note of interest included is that
the musical group, Genesis, wrote a song in 1971 called The Return of the Giant Hogweed, which includes a bit of botanical history
and the words, "Soon they escaped, spreading their seed..."
AQUATIC ECOLOGY AND SOCIETY OF RUIDERA LAKES (CENTRAL SPAIN) (ECOLOGIA ACUATICA Y SOCIEDAD DE LAS
LAGUNAS DE RUIDERA).
Alvarez Cobelas, M., Cirujano, S., editors. 2007. 414pp. ISBN 978-84-00-08522-3. Biblioteca de Ciencias, 28. Consejo Superior de
I .. ,' ... .. *... Cientificas, Madrid. (In Spanish; English Summary)
This introductory book describes the Ruidera lakes, made up of a chain of lake basins in Campo de Montiel in Central Spain. The
lakes depend on groundwater and surface drainage for their water. Similar lake districts occur in Plitvice (Croatia), Land'o'Lakes (Wis-
consin), the Adirondack mountains (New York) and the northwest region of Florida (Tallahassee). Human activities have dramatically
altered the environmental quality of the Ruidera lakes.
Forty-five aquatic macrophytes are listed in the chapter devoted to this topic, nine of which are Charophytes.
BAIRA: THE FLOATING GARDENS FOR SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD
By Haseeb Md. Irfanullah, with contributions by Md. Belayet Hussain and T.I. ( i.'n .l. / ,,,; edited by A. Nishat and R. Ahmed, 2005.
61 pp. ISBN 984-8574-08-5. IUCN-The World Conservation Union, Bangladesh Country Office, Dhaka.
This intriguing book describes bairas, floating platforms made up of plant materials, used to cultivate crops or to raise seedlings
within ',, (small containers made with aquatic plant material). Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) plants are the major component
of these practical structures. Since the floodplains of southern Bangladesh are under water for three to four months per year, bairas are
an effective method of creating small tracts of arable land. At the end of the wet season, bairas can be broken up and used for compost.
This book was written as part of a project to provide alternative livelihood options to the people of Bangladesh.
Invasive Plant "RECOGNITION" Tool Plants You Should Know
UF/IFAS experts have assembled these 3.75"x 6" laminated "recognition" cards
to help professionals, students, and the general public learn to recognize 80 of I
the most common non-native and invasive plant species found throughout
Florida. All of these plant species are currently targeted by the Florida
Department of Environmental Protection for control in public waters and
conservation lands around the state; twelve plant species are prohibited by
state or federal law.
Each plant card features a full-color photograph on the front to
help with visual recognition and information about the plant's ryirilla -de "
overall appearance, leaves, flowers, fruit, ecological threat, and
distribution. Alphabetized by scientific name, the cards are bound
with a metal clasping ring that allows you to remove, add, or .
reorganize the cards to fit your needs. ..
This handy set is made up of 80 plant cards and 12 informational ..
cards, including a glossary of plant terminology; plants by
common and scientific names; a labeled set of illustrated plant parts; .
A product of the Florida Invasive Plant Education Initiative.
Made possible by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection Bureau of [nii "
Invasive Plant Management.
j UNIVERSITY of UF/IFAS Publication # SP 431
UF FLORIDA /I t ISBN: 978-0-9797307-0-2
IFAS Extension / Full Set: $35 (Smaller regional sets available for $20.)
Center for Aquatic
andinvasivePlants To order: (toll free) (800) 226-1764, or (352) 392-1764
Page 6 AQUAPHYTE Fall 2007
Continued from page 1, APIRS Database Search Examples
For revegetation/restoration, search:
restore reveg* transplant* reestabl* mitigat* reclaim* rec-
lama* aquascap* recover*)
For tissue culture, search:
microprop* '-timi t culture" kane* cloning*
For utilization, .pc .- f. the type of use you are interested in
and a plant name, if appropriate. Search:
+utilization +(drug* medicine* pharmac* ethnobot*)
or search: +utilization +(biofertiliz* <.inpoF mulch* ma-
nur* fertilizer amend* enrich* organic*)
or search: +utilization +(food feed diet forage) +utilization
+(bird duck ducks waterfowl)
or search: +utilization +animal*
For herbicides in the environment, search the herbicide ge-
neric name (not the trade name) (Ex: blammo)
+blammo +(persist* toxic* mobil* risk* degrad* bioacum*
residu* dimip.h bioconcen* fate biodegrad*)
If too many citations are retrieved, add the keyword "' I, .- i,":
+blammo -*- &i i +fi'in i i 'i toxic* mobil* risk* qi .- .l "
bioaccum* residu* dissipa* bioconcen* fate biodegrad* )
For control of plants, search
"chemical control" or "mechanical control" or "biological
control" or -, ni ,, .. control"
For how to grow plants, search
grow* r..i.. cultiva* horticu*
Add hobby aquari* for growing plants in tanks.
For plants used in pollution control systems, search
For created or constructed wetlands, search:
+wetland*+(creat* construct* artific* manmade* man-made*)
For the success or failure of these wetlands, combine the
above search with:
(assess* success monitor* evaluate* failure* result* survive* efficen*)
Note: Using ific. success will retrieve many citations on plant
For erosion, search: (erosion* erod* scouring*)
For erosion control, search:
"erosion control" "erosion control" "bank stabili*"
For citations on invasions by exotic i i, search:
(noxious* threat infest* obstruct* inva* spread* impact*
exotic* non-indig* non-nativ* introduce ) economic* may
also be used but this greatly increases the yield. To reduce either
search, repeat the search with "plant i i '
P. .i mI_' copper as an herbicide search:
+copper +("chemical control" herbicid*)
as a heavy metal or pollution, search:
-+- pu'. '" +(metal* pollut* sediment* bioaccumu*)
or search pni_ r -chemical*
For seagrasses. use the genus names:
(zostera halodule enhalus posidonia syringodium amphibolis
heterozostera th..i..i,.,;..1h h.liha.i ruppia cymodocea pi& iih,1.,|l; ,11
S.1.1 i -..._ .. withno genus name will retrieve fewer references.
APIRS contains a small number of cites on mangroves. Use
the genus names: avicennia rhizophora laguncularia
For cites on aquatic soils or sediment, search:
+aquatic +(hydrosoil* substrat* sediment*)
For cites on models or systems, search:
system* stud* model* profile* predict* assess*
These keywords can be combined with categories such as lakes
or wetland or rivers to make the search more specific:
+rivers -!\' '(',im" stud* model* profile* o :edkit assess*)
For citations on the effects of drought or flood or water level
+effects +(moist* saturat* flood* drought* level* inundat* wa-
terlog* hydrolog* hydroperiod* fluctuat*)
For cites on the benefits of aquatic plants, search:
benefit* valu* habitat* host* economic*
To limit the search, add review and/or scientific plant names:
+review* benefiti valu* habitat* host* economic*)
+hydrilla* benefiti value* habitat* host* economic*)
For cites on flowing water research, search:
16m ,im, amv- ioim nl, resist* velocit* ,1111111;" coeffici* friction*
(Note: *.. ... him" 1in will retrieve a lot of citations on flowering.)
For cites on growth or productivity of plants, search:
"" imq il rate" it noj" ti competit* biomass* succession
For cites on plants that kill or repel, search:
phytochemicall* phenolic* allelo* defense* toxic)
Note: Using with toxic will retrieve citations on herbicide
toxicology and toxicity.
For cites on plant. I .i ,o,.i-ii do not simply search, ii ii .n
tion. This word has been used to indicate the geographic location
where research efforts took place. Search the plant name and:
Ih I tl f."-,. (-,,.tt record") occurr* loca* flora range survey
distrib* '-, -R" iph' h Ii 1I &, 0' p % i6nu.n ;nl")
For citations on evapotranspiration, search: t' .: .
This will retrieve citations with -., ,c ti ,.,i and evapotranspira-
tion. Use .mo, for citations on transpiration.
Search for Yourself
Do you think APIRS has it all? Why not perform some self
searching to find out. If you have a less-than-common surname,
type it into the author field: sculthorpe
If you have a name like mine,. Brown, combine it with some-
thing unique, or close to unique, and enter it into the Search All
Fields area: +brown* +aquaphyte*
If you work on a specific plant species, or a particular area of
study i i. ',,,.1'j. .di,,' or in a specific .. ..,- .i.ql, region
(France., Africa., Wisconsin), combine that with your surname.
To Contribute Publications to APIRS Online
In exchange for free use of the database, users regularly contrib-
ute reprints, reports and books to be cataloged and entered into the
database. Many regional research centers around the world also
contribute relevant publications. We rely on these .,...ii.it. to
maintain a comprehensive collection for you.
APIRS collects and catalogs journal articles, books, book chap-
ters, agency reports and other pi l, hi. I scientific literature. Send
your published work as reprints, 1 i... ,i. or PDF's to:
Ms. Karen Brown, APIRS
University of Florida-IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants
7922 NW 71st Street, Gainesville, Florida 32653 U.S.A.
E -m ail: 1 pl,1.,..., i il. ,hn
Fall 2007 AQUAPHYTE Page 7
APIRS was conceived of and developed by the late Mr. Victor Ramey. Ms. Karen Brown manages the database. Mrs. Mary Langeland
catalogues all materials placed in the database. Ms. Lynda Dillon and Ms. Amy Tang add newly cataloged entries to the database.
Any word may be used as a keyword, but this list represents keywords that are regularly and consistently used in the APIRS database.
acid (precipitation, rain, deposition)
annotated checklist (survey)
Search query: +annotated +checklist
artificial plants (plastic)
autecology (relationship between one
species and its environment)
benthic barriers (bottom screens)
choice tests (insect biocontrol)
commercial uses (with utilization)
(wetland for pollution control)
* exotic pest plant
(FLEPPC* listed species)
(*Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council)
* field guide
* flood control
* flow velocity
* food preference
* food web
* gas flow
* host range (usually for biocontrol)
* host specificity or host range
(for insect biocontrol)
* human activities
* human impacts
* literature review
* mating system
* medicine (use with utilizaton)
* metals (heavy, uptake)
* method (if new, comparing
* micropropagation (tissue culture)
* minerals (uptake)
* mitigation (created wetland)
natural areas management
occurrence (plant distribution)
(alt. spelling: palaeobotany)
public information (extension)
resource allocation (for nutrient
storage in plant tissue)
(for retention/detention ponds)
Page 8 AQUAPHYTE Fall 2007
Items of special interest from our reader/cataloger, Mary Langeland ~
* Restoring the Garden of Eden: an ecological assessment The weird, wild, wacky and wonderful world of carnivo-
of the marshes of Iraq. By C.J. Richardson and N.A. Hussain. rous plants: an enrichment course for children ages seven
2006. BioScience 56(6):477-489. through nine. By T.A. Golembiewski. 2005. Acta Botanica Gal-
"These marshes were once the largest wetlands in southwest Asia lica 152(2):251-255.
and covered more than 15,000 square kilometers... less than 10% A course on carnivorous plants is described that is offered an-
of the area remained as functioning marshland by the year 2000." nually at the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater as part of The
Young Scholars program for primary school students.
* Shrinking papyrus swamps in Kenya. Percy Fitzpatrick Insti- E-commerce and Cauera: unregulated disersa of ina-
E-commerce and Caulerpa: unregulated dispersal of inva-
tute, June/July 2005, p. 23. www.fitzpatrick.uct.ac.za
u, C/ e, p g .w i fl s i r sive species. By L.J. Walters, K.R. Brown, et al. 2006. Frontiers
Papyrus (Cyperus papyrus) grows in flooded swamps in Africa E 42:-
in Ecology and the Environment 4(2):.75-79.
and supports a "suite of specialist bird species." In East Africa,d the Envirom n 4 5 7.
these include five restricted-range endemics: Papyrus yellow "Wepurchased Caulerpafrom 30 internet retailersand 60 internet
warbler (Chloropeta gracilirostris), White-winged warbler auction sites representing 25 states and Great Britain. Twelve
warbler (t g ii r ris W -i n d warbler ** different Caulerpa species were confirmed using DNA sequencing.
(Bradypterus carpalis), Papyrus gonolek (Laniarius mufumbiri) different Caulerpa species were conirmed using DNA sequencing.
and Papyrus canary (Serinus koliensis). Two of these are listed as Only 10.6ofsellersprovidedthe correct genus and species names
with their shipments. Thirty purchases of "live rock" provided
threatened. In Kenya, the three main swamp areas have lost 34 to r poi
50 percent of their area over the past 30 years. four species of Caulerpa, as well as 53 additional marine species."
50 percent of their area over the past 30 years.
NOT if you're an aquatic plant manager!!
Pictured on the cover of this US Airways magazine is
the infamous Salvinia molesta. The issue was discovered
by Mr. Don Doggett of the Lee County Hyacinth Control
District (Florida) as he was flying to the annual meeting
of the Aquatic Plant Management Society in Portland,
Oregon last year. Also in the photograph is another well-
known aquatic weed, Eichhornia crassipes. Fortunately
these invaders are enclosed in an ornamental pond on an
island, and neither species can survive in salt water. But it
is well known that aquatic weed infestation problems often
begin when an attractive, conspicuous lavender flower and
unknowing tourists are involved.
Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) has long been
cited as one of the ten worst weeds in the world. It wreaks
havoc in the world's great rivers, irrigation and flood con-
trol canals, and reservoirs. A mat of medium-sized plants
may contain as many as two million plants per hectare and
the total wet weight may be 270 to 440 metric tons per
hectare (Holm (1977)).
Salvinia molesta, a serious weed in approximately two
dozen countries, is known to foul irrigation systems and
navigable streams, interfere with electric power produc-
tion, and threaten rice farming.
The hotel featured is the Hotel Guanahani and Spa, a
posh resort in St. Barthelemy (St. Barts) in the French West
Holm, L.G., et al. The World's Worst Weeds, Distribution
and Biology. 1977. University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu.
Fall 2007 AQUAPHYTE Page 9
Eurasian Watermilfoil in Idaho
by William T. Haller, Acting Director,
UF/IFAS, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants
In April of 2006, the Idaho legislature allocated four million
dollars per year for a three year effort towards eradication of
Eurasian watermilfoil (EWM), Myriophyllum spicatum, in their
freshwater systems. EWM was located primarily in the large
lakes (reservoirs) of northern Idaho and in many small lakes in
the southwest, near Boise. The funding program was directed by
the Idaho State Department of Agriculture (ISDA), which uti-
lized lake associations, county noxious weed programs, coopera-
tive weed management associations, and Native American tribes,
as contracting authorities to conduct the effort. By the summer
of 2006, hand removal, benthic barriers and herbicides, as well
as educational programs, were all being utilized to reduce EWM
populations in the state.
In November 2006, a peer review panel was established to
evaluate and make programmatic recommendations to the ISDA
to streamline the program and make it more efficient. The panel
was chaired by Dr. Joe Joyce, former U.S. Army Corps of Engi-
neers, Director of Weed Control Operations for the Jacksonville
District, and currently Executive Associate Vice President for
Agriculture and Natural Resources at UF/IFAS. Panel members
also included Dr. Ken Langeland, UF/IFAS, Dr. Robert Leavitt,
California Department of Food and Agriculture, Mr. Chip Well-
ing, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, and Mr. Jeff
Schardt, Florida Department of Environmental Protection. The
panel convened November 12-16, 2006 in Boise, Idaho, and met
with numerous state agency personnel and county noxious weed
superintendents, as well as many stakeholders, in order to review
the eradication efforts. The full report is available at http://www.
The panel was complimentary of the 2006 eradication pro-
gram, a monumental effort to establish a program where none
had existed in order to treat EWM in the summer of 2006. The
panel discussed eradication at length, recognizing that there is no
effort to control EWM in many waterways in eastern Washington
state, a close source of plants for reinfestation. The conclusion
was to eradicate EWM in counties with small infestations where
eradication is possible, and to control EWM around boat ramps
and in high use areas in large reservoirs (where eradication is
less likely) to minimize movement into nearby waters. The panel
also recognized the ISDA as the lead agency, and endorsed the
county based weed management agencies as primary operational
entities. Following this initial three year effort, additional recur-
ring funding should be sought to maintain the effort against not
only EWM, but other potentially invasive aquatic weeds. Addi-
tional staffing was deemed necessary to represent north, central
and southern Idaho in program coordination, mapping, survey-
ing and evaluation of contractor performance.
Most invasive weed management programs identify a prob-
lem, followed by many years of cajoling agency heads and legis-
lators to provide funds for control. For example, for many years
Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum)
infestation, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho.
Photo by Scott Culpepper
Florida biologists recognized melaleuca (Melaleuca quin-
quenervia) as a significant and expanding problem in south
Florida. Finally in about 1990, funds were allocated and
15-17 years later, melaleuca is under control in most areas
and eradicated from many sites. In Idaho, funding was pro-
vided by an informed legislature, which is being followed
by program development and new proposed legislation to
reduce the risk of naturalization of additional species and
provide greater vigilance in natural and aquatic areas.
In the southeastern U.S., Florida in particular, we have
new invasive pests found on a regular basis. There are
certainly many invasive weeds in Idaho (cheatgrass (Bromus
tectorum) and Russion olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia)) that
are very common and very serious, but aquatic ecosystems
in Idaho only contain the aquatic weeds EWM and curly-
leaf pondweed (Potamogeton crispus), with a huge
diversity of native species. Hopefully the state of Idaho,
with a program and personnel in place, can protect their
aquatic systems from further invasive aquatic plants.
Page 10 AQUAPHYTE Fall 2007
ADAMS, C.R., GALATOWITSCH, S.M.
Increasing the effectiveness of reed ,i., .
grass (.' '...' arundinacea L.) control in
wet meadow restorations.
RESTORATION ECOLOGY 14(3):441-451. 2006.
ALVAREZ, J.A., BECARES, E.
Seasonal decomposition of Typha latifolia
in a free-water surface constructed wetland.
ECOL. ENGINEERING 28:99-105. 2006.
Introduction to nature aquarium compositions.
THE AQUATIC GARDENER 18(4):24-33. 2005.
ASAEDA, T., RAJAPAKSE, L.,
MANATUNGE, J., SAHARA, N.
The effect of summer harvesting of 1 .'
mites australis on growth characteristics
and rhizome resource storage.
HYDROBIOLOGIA 553:327-335. 2006.
Salvinia weevil (Cvrtobagous salviniae)
j,.!,n51 i.,,,. in north Florida and their po-
tential for control activities on common
salvinia (Salvinia minima).
IN: PROGRAM, 46TH ANN. MEETING, AQUATIC
PLANT MANAGEMENT SOCIETY, JULY 16-19,
PORTLAND. OREGON, PP. 25-26 (ABSTRACT). 2006.
BAI, X., GU, X., ZHANG, Y.
The effects ofF. .' '.--... .v on the growth of
two submerged macrophytes in Lake Taihu.
J. LAKE SCI. 19(1):98-102 (IN CHINESE; ENG-
LISHI SUMMARY). 2007.
BAL, K.D., VAN BELLEGHEM, S., DE
DECKERE, E., MERE, P.
The re-growth capacity of sago pondweed
following mechanical cutting.
J. AQUAT. PLANT MANAG. 44(2):139-141. 2006.
BALDIZAR, J.M., RYBICKI, N.B.
Restoration potential of submerged aquatic
vegetation in the tidal Pocomoke River
(( i 1.- ,.:.,l .- B ay).
ECOL. RESTOR. 25(2): 138-139. 2007.
BALDY, V., TREMOLIERES, M.,
ANDRIEU, M., BELLIARD, J.
( 1, i. in phosphorus content of two
aquatic macrophytes according to water
velocity, trophic status and time period in
HYDROBIOLOGIA 575:343-351. 2007.
BANACK, S.A., RONDON, X.J., DIAZ-
Indigenous cultivation and conservation of
totora ". :' 1. 7'. : californicus, Cy-
peraceae) in Peru.
ECONOMIC BOTANY 58(1): 11-20. 2004.
Can snail herbivory mli,.- P.-c the outcome
of competition between Elodea species?
AQUATIC BOTANY 86:157-162. 2007.
BOWLES, M., JONES, M.
The prairie-wetland vegetation continuum
in the Chicago region of northeastern Illinois.
ECOL. RESTOR. 25(1):29-42. 2007.
-.,. adjuvants...What are they? Why use
them? How do they work?
AQUATICS 29(2):19-21, 2007.
BULTEMEIER, B., NETHERLAND, M.D.
Cabomba: a taxonomic and management
AQUAFICS 29(1):12,14-16. 2007.
CAFFREY, J.M., MONAHAN, C.
Control of ..'.... ....... verticillatum L.
in Irish canals by turion removal.
HYDROBIOLOGIA 570:211-215. 2006.
CASANOVA, M.T., DE WINTON,
M.D., KAROL, K.G., CLAYTON, J.S.
Nitella hookeri A. Braun (Characeae, Cha-
rophyceae) in New Zealand and Australia:
,p11i, .tI, -. for endemism, 6 i ,i"'o and
CHAROPHYTES 1(1):2-18. 2007.
FROM THE DATABASE
This is a sampling of the research articles, books and reports which have
been entered into the aquatic, wetland and invasive plant database since Fall
2006. The APIRS database contains more than 67,000 citations. To use the free
database online, go to http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/ and click on APIRS Online
To obtain articles, contact your nearest academic l, ., ,. or a document
delivery service. Full text of records cited in APIRS is not stored electronically.
CEDERGREEN, N., KAMPER, A.,
Is i.," li.i a potent synergist across
aquatic species? A study on bacteria, daph-
nia, algae, and higher plants.
AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY 78:243-252. 2006.
CHANDRA, D.S., TANAKA, N.
Harvesting aerial shoots of Zizania lati-
bfolia at different growth stages: effects on
belowground biomass, regrowth, and rhi-
J. FRESHWATER ECOL. 21(4):583-. 2006.
CHASE, J.M., KNIGHT, T.M.
Effects of eutrophication and snails on Eur-
asian watennrmilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum)
BIOLOGICAL INVASIONS 8(8):1643-1649. 2006.
CHIAPPETTA, A., INNOCENT, A.M.
Immunocytochemical localization of cyto-
kinin inAzolla filiculoides.
PLANT BIOSYSTEMS 140(3):229-233. 2006.
CHICONELA, T.E, HALLER, W.T.
Comparative study of Aquathol and Hy-
drothol for the control of Hydrilla verticil-
lata (L.f.) Royle.
FL. WEED SCI. SOC., 30TH ANN. MEET., FEB. 26-
27, MAITLAND, FL. PP. 5-6 (ABSTRACT) 2007.
',p,,.,. ii U and protein contents of
BANGLADESH J. BOT. 35(2):169-171. 2006.
COOPER, J., DOBSON, H.
The benefits of pesticides to mankind and
CROP PROTECTION 26:1337-1348. 2007.
DING, J., BLOSSEY, B., DU, Y.,
Impact of Galerucella birmanica (Coleop-
tera: ( ,li.-d.:, on growth and seed
production of Trapa nalans.
BIOL. CONTROL 37:338-345. 2006.
FELL, P.E., WARREN, R.S., CURTIS,
A.E., STEINER, E.M.
Short-term effects on macroinvertebrates
and fishes of ,.-,i,,.- i. and mowing
australis-dominated tidal marsh.
NORTHEAST. NA'. 13(2):191-212. 2006.
Higher Diptera associated with the marsh
spike-rush, Eleocharis palustris (C.. ",' ,-
ceae), in northeastern Ohio.
PROC. ENTOMOL. SOC. WASH. 109:9-16. 2007.
Fall 2007 AQUAPHYTE Page 11
FRANCOEUR, S.N., SCHAECHER,
M., NEELY, R.K., KUEHN, K.A.
Periphytic 1.-i--.-1; ,,L-i,. stimulation of
extracellular enzyme activity in aquatic
microbial communities associated with de-
caying Typha litter.
MICROBIAL ECOLOGY 52:662-669. 2006.
GALBRAITH-KENT, S.L., HANDEL, S.N.
Lessons from an urban lakeshore restora-
tion project in New York City.
ECOL. RESTOR. 25(2): 123-128. 2007.
GEBUHR, C., POHLON, E.,
SCHMIDT, A.R., KUSEL, K.
Development of microalgae communities in
thephy totelmata of il:. ,. l...'.... populations
ofSarracenia purpurea (Sarraceniaceae).
PLANT BIOL. 8: 849 860. 2006.
A phylogenetic study of Cuphea (Lythra-
ceae) based on morphology and nuclear
rDNA ITS sequences..
SYSTEMATIC BOTANY 31(4):764-778. 2006.
GRODOWITZ, M.J., LENZ, J.
Physiological age- .t..!i! techniques to
assess reproductive status and nutritional
requirements of insect biocontrol agents of
IN: PROGRAM, 46TH ANN. MEETING, AQUATIC
PLANT MANAGEMENT SOCIETY, JUIY 16-19,
PORTLAND, OREGON, P. 29 (ABSTRACT). 2006.
GURNELL, A.M., BOITSIDIS, A.J.,
THOMPSON, K., CLIFFORD, N.J.
Seed bank, seed dispersal and vegetation
cover: colonization along a newly-created
J. VEG. SCI. 17:665-674. 2006.
HAFLIGER, P., SCHWARZLANDER,
M., BLOSSEY, B.
Comparison of biology and host plant use
ofArchanarageminipuncta, Archanara dis-
soluta, Archanara neurica, and Arenostola
.. .', ( .. i.1,.. .. i .i Noctuidae), po-
tential biological control agents of 7. '.
mites australis ( ,,i,,in,.- .- Poaceae).
ANN. ENTOMOL. SOC. AM. 99(4):683-696. 2006.
Field and laboratory research overview for
Galleon SC :... _.-.: ohi a potential new
IN: PROGRAM, 46TH ANN. MEETING, AQUATIC
PLANT MANAGEMENT SOCIETY, JULY 16-19,
PORTLAND, OREGON, P. 32 (ABSTRACT). 2006.
HOLMAN, M.L., DUNWIDDIE, P.W.,
I, ..- :".dii-" the rapid spread of invasive
knotweed in a riparian setting (Washington).
ECOL. RESTOR. 25(2): 140-141. 2007.
HRIVNAK, R., GOMORY, D.,
Inter-ainnual P....1 i-, of the abundance
and morphology of Dactylorhiza majalis
(Orchidaceae-Orchideae) in two permanent
plots of a mire in ".l... .ti.
PHY'ITON 46(1):27-44. 2006.
Common reed (Phragmites communis) is a
natural host of important cereal viruses in
the Trakya region of Turkey.
PHYTOPARASITICA 34(5):441-448. 2006.
JACONO, C.C., VANDIVER, V.V.
Rotala ....:..'.. ... purple loosestrife of
AQUATICS 29(1):4-9. 2007.
JINADASA, K.B.S.N., TANAKA,
N., MOWJOOD, M.I.M.,
Effectiveness of Scirpus grosses in treat-
ment of domestic wastes in a constructed
J. FRESHWATER ECOL. 21(4):603-. 2006.
KANG, J.H., KONDO, F.
Distribution and biodegradation of bisphe-
nol A in water l,..,. in,,,
BULL. ENVIRON. CONTAM. TOXICOL. 77:500-
KARUNARATNE, L.B., DARBY, P.C.,
The .. I.... :. of wetland habitat structure on
Florida apple snail density.
WETLANDS 26(4):1143-1150. 2006.
KAWAGISHI, H., HOTA, K., MA-
SUDA, K., YAMAGUCHI, K., ET AL
Osteoclast-forming suppressive com-
pounds from Makomotake, Zizania latijb-
lia infected with (stilago esculenta.
BIOSCI. BIOTECHNOL. BIOCHEM. 70(l):2800-
KONISKY, R.A., BURDICK, D.M.,
DIONNE, M., NECKLES, H.A.
A regional assessment of salt marsh restora-
tion and monitoring in the Gulf of Maine.
RESTORATION ECOL. 14(4):516-525. 2006.
KOSCHNICK, T.J., HALLER, W.T.,
Documentation of landoltia (Landoltia
punctata) resistance to diquat.
WEED SCI. 54(4):615-619. 2006.
LAMBERT, A.M., WINIARSKI, K.,
Distribution and impact of exotic gall flies
(Lipara sp.) on native and exotic ".... -
AQUATIC BOTANY 86:163-170. 2007.
LANGELAND, K.A., LINK, M.L.
Evaluation of metsulfuron methyl for se-
lective control of Lygodium 1i. i,.i,, !I1i,
growing in association with Panicum hemi-
tomon and Cladium jamaicense.
FL. SCIENT. 69(3):149-156. 2006.
Reproduction strategies in introduced
\Nvmphoides peltata populations revealed
by genetic markers.
AQUATIC BOTANY 86:402-406. 2007.
LEON DE LA LUZ, J.L.,
DOMINGUEZ CADENA, R.
Hydrophytes of the oases in the Sierra de
la Giganta of Central Baja California Sur,
Mexico: Floristic composition and conser-
J. ARID ENVIRONMENTS 67:553-565. 2006.
MAILU, S.K., YABANN, W.K.
Household welfare impacts of the water
hyacinth ..c... in the Ke-
nyan side of Lake Victoria.
IN: 14TH INTERNAL CONE AQUAT INVASIVE
SPECIES, ICAIS, MAY 14-19, KEY BISCAYNE,
FL., P. 103 (ABSTRACT). 2006.
MAhIN U 1 \' 1, N.L., LAGGER, S.C.
Chromimn bioaccumulation: comparison
of the capacity of two floating aquatic mac-
NWIAER RESEARCH 38(6): 1494-1501. 2004.
MAKI, K., GALATOWITSCH, S.
Mail-order sales of aquatic plants: a p.,ih-
way for ANS [aquatic nuisance species]
HYDROPHYTE 10(2):1, 5. 2006.
MALLISON, C.T., POUDER, B.,
THOMPSON, B.Z., HESTAND, R.S.
Regrowth of Egyptian pi' r, -I.,il,1,in Pas-
palidium geminatum after harvesting.
AQUATICS 28(4):4, 6-7. 2006.
Page 12 AQUAPHYTE Fall 2007
MANNINO, A.M., SARA, G.
The effect of Ruppia cirrhosa features
on macroalgae and suspended matter in a
Mediterranean shallow system.
MARINE ECOLOGY 27:350-360. 2006.
MARKICH, S.J., KING, A.R.,
Non-effect of water hardness on the ac-
cumulation and toxicity of copper in a
i,..:,! .,i..i macrophyte (Ceratophyllum
demersum): How useful are hardness-
modified copper guidelines f., pI .., i m.
CHEMOSPHERE 65:1791-1800. 2006.
Pothole blasting for wildlife.
WISCONSIN CONSERVE. DEPT, MADISON,
PUBL. 352, 31 PP. 1965.
MATSON, C.S., SCHULTE, J.A.
Combining herbicide application regi-
mens with revegetation using maiden-
cane cuttings to control torpedograss
infestations in wetlands at The Nature
Conservancy's Disney Wilderness Pre-
serve over three growing seasons.
FLORIDA EXOTIC PEST PLANT COUNCIL
(FLEPPC. : ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM, APRIL
24-26, 2006, P. 16 (ABSTRACT). 2006.
NAHLIK, A.M., MITSCH, W.J.
Tropical treatment wetlands dominated
by free 1oi.ii .-- macrophytes for water
, ,,i- improvement in Costa Rica.
ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING 28:246-257. 2006.
Interactive .. i .... -. of ..tqu.i. and M vco-
leptodiscus terrestris on H. ..
IN: PROGRAM, 46TH ANN. MEETING, AQUATIC
PLANT MANAGEMENT SOCIETY, JULY 16-19,
PORTLAND, OR., PP 37-38. (ABSTRACT) 2006.
Submersed plant control: species I.D. and
IN: AQUATIC WEED CONTROL SHORT
COURSE, SPEAKER PRESENTATIONS AND
COURSE MATERIALS, CORAL SPRINGS,
UNIV. FLORIDA, IFAS, PP. 139-145. 2007.
NETHERLAND, M.D., HALLER, W.T.
Impact of management on the sprouting
of dioecious hydrilla tubers.
J. AQUAT. MANAGE. 44:32-36. 2006.
NISHIHARA, G.N., ACKERMAN, J.D.
The effect of l ,h..! I,,, 'i, -. on the mass
transfer of dissolved inorganic carbon to
the freshwater macrophyte '.,........
LIMNOL. OCEANOGR. 51(6):2734-2745. 2006.
Imnovative streambank restoration at
Grand Teton National Park (VC, ...,in,_' I
ECOL. RESTOR. 25(1):56-57. 2007.
OSBORNE, T.Z., INGLETT, P.W.,
The use of senescent il.,nl biomass to in-
vestigate relationships between potential
particulate and dissolved organic matter
in a wetland ecosystem.
AQUYI'IC BOTANY 86:53-61. 2007.
OTAHELOVA, H., HRIVNAK, R.,
VALACHOVIC, M., JANAUER, G.A.
Temporal changes of aquatic macrophytes
vegetation in a lowland groundwater feed
eutrophic course (Klatovske Rameno,
ACTA SOC. BOT POLONIAE 76(2):141-150. 2007.
PAN, X., ZHANG, D., QUAN, L.
Interactive factors leading to dying-off
Carex tato in Momoge wetland ,,1:iii, .
by crude oil, Western Jilin, China.
CHEMOSPHERE 65:1772-1777. 2006.
PARKER, J.D., CAUDILL, C.C.,
Beaver herbivory on aquatic plants.
OECOLOGIA 151:616-625. 2007.
PARKER, J.D., BURKEPILE, D.E.,
COLLINS, D.O., KUBANEK, J., ETAL
Streaninim mossesas I i .1, 1. .. I. I i.-
fugia for freshwater macroinvertebrates.
OIKOS 116:302-312. 2007.
PARSONS, J., HAMEL, K.,
The impact of .Iqta.i on ,n.. wi,'lih.,.
and water quality in Battle Ground Lake,
, .-l ili ), ,i,
IN: PROGRAM, 46TH ANN. MEETING, AQUAT-
IC PLANT MANAGEMENT SOCIETY, JULY 16-
19, PORTLAND, OR., P. 39 (ABSTRACT). 2006.
PAUCHARD, A., SHEA, K.
Integrating the I,,nI. of non-native plant
invasions across I...i i 1i scales.
BIOLOGICAL INVASIONS 8(3):399-413. 2006.
PEDERSEN, T.C.M., BAATTRUP-
PEDERSEN, A., MADSEN, T.V.
S;i.. .. i. of stream restoration and manage-
ment on plant communities in lowland
FRESHWATER BIOLOGY 51(1):161-179. 2006.
POLLUX, B.J.A., JONG, D.E.,
STEEGH, A., VERBRUGGEN, E., ET AL
r.p,,-.,,.:)li-.: strategy, clonal structure
and genetic ,1... ,'. in p .!,,tl i .n of the
aquatic macrophyte .. .. emersum
in river systems.
MOL. ECOL. 16:313-325. 2007.
RAI, V., SHARMA, N.K., RAI, A.K.
Growth and cellular ion content of a salt-
sensitive symbiotic system Azolla pinnata
- Anabaena azollae under NaCI stress.
J. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 163:937-944. 2006.
RAMBERT, L., HANCOCK, P. LIND-
HOLM, M. MEYER, T., ETAL
Species diversity of the (' 1 ni. Delta,
AQUATIC SCIENCES 68(3):310-337. 2006.
The impact of insecticides and herbicides
on the biodiversity and productivity of
aquatic communities Letters to the Editor,
ECOL. APPLICATIONS 16(5):2027-2034, LETTERS
TO THE EDITOR, RESPONSE TO "THE BIODI-
VERSITY AND PRODUCTIVITY OF AQUATIC
Aquatic plant management and the 'i,..,. i
of emerging herbicide-resistance issues.
SOUTHERN WEED SCI. SOC. 60TH ANN. MTG.,
NEW CHALLENGES FACING WEED SCI., PRO-
GRAM, JAN. 22-24, NASHVILLE, TN., P 34. 2007.
ROBLES, W., MADSEN, J.D.
Usi; I .In 1,.Li TM imagery to monitor spa-
tial changes of waterhyacinth after broad-
cast herbicide application.
IN: PROGRAM, 46THl ANN. MEETING, AQUATIC
PLANT MANAGEMENT SOCIETY, JULY 16-19,
PORTLAND, OR., P. 41 (ABSTRACT). 2006.
RODRIGUEZ-VILLAI N L, C., BE-
CARES, E., FERNANDEZ-ALAEZ, M.
Waterfowl grazing effects on submerged mac-
rophytes in a shallow Mediterranean lake.
AQUATIC BOTANY 86:25-29. 2007.
Fall 2007 AQUAPHYTE Page 13
ROSEN, D.J., CARTER, R., BRYSON, C.
The recent spread of Cyperus entrerianus in
the Southeastern United States and its in-
vasive potential in bottomland hardwood
SOUTHEASTERN NATURALIST 5:333-344. 2006.
SCHOOLER, S.S., YEATES, A.G.,
WILSON, J.R.U., JULIEN, M.H.
Herbivory, a i ,-.i, and herbicides differ-
ently affect production and nutrient ,iPP .I
tion of Alternanthera philoxeroides.
AQUAT. BOT 86(1):62-68. 2007.
SEVERNS, P.M., BOLDT, L.,
Conserving a wetland i_,un,. il. qiuniu.;. -
ing early iP.:-'..: survival through sea-
sonal :Pm adult nectar, and habitat
J. INSECT CONSERV. 10:361-370. 2006.
SHANAYDA, K., RUCH, S.A.
Monitoring the ff. i. i, of aquatic herbi-
cides on Brazilian waterweed in the Sacra-
mento-San Joaquin Delta: an example from
IN: PROGRAM, 46TH ANN. MEETING, AQUATIC
PLANT MANAGEMENT SOCIETY JULY 16-19,
PORTLAND, OREGON, P. 42 (ABSTRACT). 2006.
Pathogen biocontrol research on the sub-
mersed macrophytes. hydrilla and Eurasian
IN: PROGRAM, 46TtH ANN. MEETING, AQUATIC
PLANT MANAGEMENT SOCIETY, JUYIN 16-19,
PORTLAND, OREGON, P. 43. (ABSTRACT). 2006.
Aquatic plant community evaluations fol-
lowing three years of management using
triclopyr (Renovate aquatic P. i ik. i. *
IN: PROGRAM, 46TH ANN. MEETING, AQUATIC
PLANT MANAGEMENT SOCIETY, JULY 16-19,
PORTLAND, OREGON, P. 43 (ABSTRACT). 2006.
SONG, C., WANG, Y., WANG, Y.,
Emission of CO2, CH4 and N20 from fresh-
water marsh during freeze-thaw period in
Northeast of China.
ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRON. 40:6879 6885. 2006.
SPENCER, D.F., KSANDER, G.G.,
DONOVAN, M.J., LIOW, P.S., ET AL
Evaluation of waterhyacinth survival and
growth in the Sacramento Delta, Califor-
nia, following, nii...
J. AQUAT. MANAGE. 44:50-60. 2006.
STAM, W.T., OLSEN, J.L., ZALESKI,
S.F., ET AL
A forensic and phylogenetic survey of
Caulerpa species (Caulerpales, ( ii i.-.i-..,.. -
ta) from the Florida coast, local aquarium
shops, and e-commerce: .. 0i .1 li ,hiiv_. a pro-
active baseline for early detection.
J. PHYCOL. 42:1113-1124. 2006.
Registration of,, 6. 1, I. in water.
IN: PROGRAM, 46TH ANN. MEETING, AQUATIC
PLANT MANAGEMENT SOCIETY, JULY 16-19,
PORTLAND, OREGON, P 44 (ABSTRACT). 2006.
SUGA, S.K., GURUNG, K.
Biochemical changes induced by 1/ 7 ".'
thora colocasiae infection in taro (Coloca-
INDIAN J. AGRIC. SCI. 76(4):265-266. 2006.
SUN, H., BROWN, A., COPPEN, J.,
Response of 7 .. *. to environmental
parameters associated with treatments.
WETLANDS ECOL. MANAGE. 15:63-79. 2007.
i ,N., SANCHEZ, G.,
CAFFARATTI, S., MAINE, M.A.
Cadmium and chromium removal kinetics
from solution by two aquatic macrophytes.
ENVIRONMENTAL POLL. 145:467-473. 2007.
TENBROOK, P.L., TJEERDEMA, R.S.
r.i,-,, ",,.f, -,,,,i,-., of clomazone in rice
(Orvza sativa) and early watergrass (Echi-
PESTIC. BIOCIIEM. PHYSIOL. 85:38-45. 2006.
Distribution and comparison of two mor-
phological forms of water soldier (Stra-
tiotes aloides L.): a case study on Lake
-.1,, .,,,,., p ,N' 1,.P i ,.. (Northwest Poland).
BIODIV RES. CONSERV. 3-4:251-257. 2006.
Identification, ecology and control of nui-
sance freshwater algae.
IN:AQUATIC WEED CONTROL SHORT COURSE,
SPEAKER PRESENTATIONS COURSE MATERI-
ALS, CORAL SPRINGS, FL, UNIV. FL., IFAS, PP.
WALTERS, L.J., BROWN, K.R.,
WYTZE, T.S., OLSEN, J.L.
E-commerce and Caulerpa: unregulated
,P- p. .. of invasive species.
FRONT. ECOL. ENVIRON. 4(2):75-79. 2006.
WANG, J., SELISKAR, D.M.,
Growth of tissue culture-regenerated salt
marsh monocots in a simulated marsh field
plot: .p. !.i.n for wetland creation and
ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING 29:8-16. 2007.
WESTBROOK, C., RAMOS, K., LA, M.
Under siege: invasive species on military
NATIONAL WILDLIFE FEDERATION, RESTON,
VIRGINIA, 50 PP. 2005.
Maintenance of a narrow host range by
Oxyops vitiosa; a biological control agent
of Melaleuca quinquenervia.
BIOCHEM. SYSTEM. ECOL. 33(4):365-383. 2005.
WILSON, M.S., KEENAN, C.M.,
Nuisance, exotic, and non-listed aquatic
i, i,.. found in mitigated wetlands at
i.ih._,-!..i mines (Florida).
ECOL. RESTOR. 25(2): 132-134. 2007.
WILSON, P.C., WILSON, S.B.,
T ..-. it, of i,- iin., .-n to the aquatic mac-
rophyte Vallisneria americana (Michx.)
J. TOXICOL. ENVIR. HEALTH (A) 69:1167-1179. 2006.
WU, M.-Y., ADAMS, K.
Creation of interconnected .'l,1.1. in
a cattail marsh to enhance bird habitat
ECOL. RESTOR. 25(2): 134-135. 2007.
WU, M.-Y., WU, J.
Can ultrasotmd eradicate water !. ..i,,, '
(: .. '. York)
ECOL. RESTOR. 25(1):64-65. 2007.
ZHOU, D., GONG, H., LUAN, A., HU,
J., WU, E.
Spatial pattern of water controlled wetland
communities on the Sanjiang F.ili.
COMMUNITY ECOLOGY 7(2):223-234. 2006.
APIRS welcomes contributions
of publications for the citation da-
tabase, either as reprints or as PDF
files. Only annotated citations are
entered into the database.
Page 14 AQUAPHYTE Fall 2007
International Aquatic Plant Enthusiasts Gather
in Thailand by Paula Biles
The annual Symposium of the International Waterlily & Water Gardening Society (IWGS) convened in Asia for the
first time in the Society's 23 year history. The July 2007 meeting's activities spanned seven days and was attended by
scholars, hybridizers, retailers, botanical garden directors, growers, and hobbyists from 14 countries.
Several Thai agencies co-hosted the Symposium, which was considered part of the national celebration to honor the 80th
birthday of King Bhumibol Adulyadej. Our hosts included Kasetsart University, King Rama IX Public Park, the Thailand
Agricultural Science Foundation, and Queen Sirikit Botanic Gardens. They pulled out all the stops to showcase the aquatic
plant side of the country, as well as to show attendees a good time while exposing us to fascinating non-botanical things.
A perfect example of our royal treatment was that their beloved Thai Princess Chulabhorn Walailuk attended the opening
As is customary with the IWGS, the Symposium was composed of excursions to botanical gardens, visits to aquatic plant
growers, behind the scenes looks at places of interest, and a full day of educational presentations. It goes without saying that
everything took on a completely different flavor since Thailand is known for its hospitality and most attendees had never
been there before. We got to experience several non-customary events, beginning with a "Welcome IWGS" banner carried
in by elephants.
We visited both Chiang Mai and Bangkok, where we learned how Thais include aquatic plants into their daily life. Every-
where we went and whatever we did, water plants were visible. It seemed that all aspects of the Thai society (food, agricul-
ture, commerce, decoration, clothing, and religion) included at least an aquatic plant or two. Even the median strips in hectic
Bangkok were planted with several varieties of cannas and occasional pots of water lilies.
One memorable activity was a visit to Bangkok's weekly plant market. It was astounding to see the number and variety of
aquatics amid the countless other plants offered in the small crowded stalls. Since aquatic plants are so popular in Thailand,
it was possible to buy flowers, plants, fertilizer, containers, seeds, tubers, and soil. There were even small plants of the giant
Victoria amazonica for sale, many of them in flower.
Lotuses and water lilies were most common, with
some identified by name (occasionally in English)
but more often by blossom photograph. Prices were ....
Unexpected surprises were the pervasive use of .*. .
containers instead of ponds and the great popularity
of water garden displays. It seemed that almost every
home, business (large and small), and temple (gran-
diose and informal) had at least one water feature.
There would be a beautifully decorated pot filled
with water lilies.., or a small fountain with a little
moving water... or a sculptured container filled with ..
large dramatic lotuses. This was the case in busy .
Bangkok as well as laid back Chiang Mai.
It seemed that lotuses were everywhere as
plants, food, temple offerings, symbolic art, and
decoration on items in everyday life. Throughout the
Symposium we learned a great deal about numer-
ous aquatic plants, predominantly tropicals. How-
ever, since the lotus is such a revered and practical
plant, many of the educational seminars and poster
sessions dealt with it. Some of the many Nelumbo
topics included: an ethnobotanical study in Thailand,
development in China, use as a multipurpose crop in
the US southeast, and effects of gamma radiation on
growth. Photo by Paula Biles