• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Beasts, birds, and fishes
 Back Cover
 Spine






Title: The favourite book of beasts, birds, and fishes
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00083175/00001
 Material Information
Title: The favourite book of beasts, birds, and fishes
Physical Description: 126 p. : ill. ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Thomas Nelson & Sons ( Publisher )
Publisher: T. Nelson and Sons
Place of Publication: London ;
Edinburgh ;
New York
Publication Date: 1895
 Subjects
Subject: Natural history -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Animals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Insects -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Birds -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Fishes -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Reptiles -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Prize books (Provenance) -- 1895   ( rbprov )
Bldn -- 1895
Genre: Prize books (Provenance)   ( rbprov )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Scotland -- Edinburgh
United States -- New York -- New York
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: with numerous illustrations.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00083175
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002226097
notis - ALG6379
oclc - 228823911

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Frontispiece
        Page 1
    Title Page
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Beasts, birds, and fishes
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
    Spine
        Spine
Full Text












SCHOOLL BOARD for LONDON


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, ,ATTE_ AN

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The Baldwn. LQbrar


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I Id
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UNINVITED GUESTS








THE FAVOURITE BOOK

OF


BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES


T. NELSON AND SONS
Londo,, Edinburgh, and A'ew York




























*" /

7







THE FAVOURITE BOOK


BEASTS,


BIRDS, AND


FISHES








WITH N NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS








THOMAS NELSON AND SONS
London, Fdinhburgkh, and wew York
1895














THE FAVOURITE BOOK OF


BEASTS, BIRDS, AND


ADDER, or Viper. A reptile
of the Snake kind common in
many parts of Great Britain.
Adders are harmless, and very
timid, and will glide swiftly
from any fancied foe. There
is one kind, however, whose
bite or stihg is poisonous.
This one may be known by
the dark spots on its back.
AGOUTI. This creature is
what is called a rodent, or
gnawing animal, like the
beaver, the mouse, and the rat.
The agouti is a native of South
America, and is fond of nearly
every kind of plant as food,
including roots, nuts, and fruit.
It is a swift runner. It feeds
only at night.


FISHES.


DDE .
ADDER.


07"V"%





AGOUTI.







BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


AI.


ALBATROSS.


~, I
:;!A '
P


ALLIGATOR.


"''-_ AI, or Three-toed Sloth, is
-, a native of South America.
Like all the Sloth family, the
ais pass most of their lives
hanging, with their backs
Fa downwards, from the boughs
Sof trees. They are said to
Stake their name, ai, from the
low, sorrowful cry which they
utter being like the sound of
that little word.

ALBATROSS. A large sea-
bird found in the South Seas,
where it makes its home on
the high rocks. It is power-
S ful on the wing, and its long
and strong beak is a terrible
Weapon when it attacks any
person who may have fallen
overboard from a ship. The
flesh of the albatross has a
strong oily flavour.

ALLIGATOR, the crocodile of
North America, can live both
on the land and in the water.
He is a terrible reptile to meet,
with his powerful jaws. The
female alligator lays her eggs
(50 to 60) in the sand to be
hatched by the heat of the sun..






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


ALPACA. 'A native of Peru,
in South America; sometimes
called the Peruvian sheep.
There are several kinds of the
same family, and all are valued
for their long, silk-like wool,
or hair, which is woven into
cloth for dresses. In their
native country they become
very tame, and are used for
carrying burdens. They can
travel from fifteen to twenty
miles daily, through the rugged
passes of the Andes, each carry-
ing over a hundredweight.

ANCHOVY. A fish belonging
to the Herring family, in length
from five to seven inches. It
is taken in large quantities
on the southern shores of
France, and is made into an-
chovy sauce, a famed dinner-
table relish.

ANOLIS. A reptile of the
Lizard kind. This one is
called the crested anolis. It
inhabits the warmer parts of
America. It can swell its
throat when angry, and it can
also change its colour.


ALPACAS.


ANCHOVY.


d- .-.-.-


ANOLIS.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


ANTS. Busy little insects
that live together in great
numbers. They are divided
into classes, the perfect, which
have wings, and the imperfect,
which have none, as you see
in the picture. The perfect
females lay the eggs, the hatch-
ing of which is watched by
the imperfect females called
workers, who nurse and feed
the baby ants.
ANT-EATER. An animal
that feeds upon ants and other
insects. It has no teeth, but
a very long tongue, with which
it catches its food. The ant-
eater is a native of South
America.
ANTELOPE. A large family
of animals, including many
kinds under different names.
It comes between the goat and
the deer, but it is easily known
from those animals by its
slender and elegant shape, and
by the form of its horns, some
being straight, and some bent
backward, while others are
twisted.


ANTS.


ANT-EATER.


ANTELOPE.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


APE. An animal of the
Monkey tribe, but known from
the monkey by having no tail
and no cheek-pouches. Each
hand has four fingers and a.
thumb. The orang-outang .
and the gorilla are large apes.
A few Barbary apes live on
the Rock of Gibraltar. They
are so called because they
came originally from the Bar-
bary States, in the north of
Africa. These are the only
apes in Europe.

ARAB HORSE is, in many
respects, entitled to take the
first place among all kinds of
horses. It has long been
esteemed for its swift limbs, -
its fine form, and its kindly
qualities of temper.

ARMADILLO is a strange-
looking animal. It has many
names. The Spanish name
armadillo, which is used in
Great Britain, means clad in
armour." Tatow is the name
given to these animals by the
natives of South Am erica, where
only they are found.


APE.


ARAB HORSE.


ARMADILLO.







BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


Y ~T.

ASP


AsP, or Aspic. A small rep-
tile of the Snake kind, common
in Egypt and Libya, and
much dreaded for its deadly
bite or sting. Persons bitten
by it die of a sleep from
which they cannot be awak-
ened. The asp mentioned in
the Bible is supposed to have
been the snake used by Egyp-
tian jugglers, or the Egyptian
cobra, both of which are very
venomous.

Ass. A well-known ani-
mal-the poor man's beast of
burden-but, in this country
at least, not a well-used one:
the meek, patient, docile
donkey. It differs from the
horse in having its tail sliooth
at the root, with a tuft at the
end.

AUK. A large bird of the
Northern Seas, as the penguin
is of the Southern. The great
auk is now very rare, if it
does at all exist. The last
one seen was on the shores of
the Western Isles of Scotland
many years ago.


ASS.


A L






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


BABOON. A large four-
handed animal of the Monkey
kind, whose head and jaws so
much resemble those of the
dog that it is sometimes
called the dog-headed monkey.
The baboon is an inhabitant
of Africa; it is a powerful
and ugly animal-ugly in its
looks and in its habits.


BADGER. A harmless ani-
mal belonging to the Weasel
tribe. It is a miner-that is,
it burrows in the ground, that
it may have a safe and warm
bed, which it keeps during
the day. Its food consists of
fruits, roots, grass, snails,
worms, small lizards, and frogs.
The badger is so cruelly treated
by man that to "badger" a
person means to pester him.

BAT. This is what is called
a wing-handed animal," and
" flying mouse," because it has
a body like a mouse, and wings
like a bird, not with feathers,
but with a thin skin. It
brings forth its young as mice
do, and suckles them.


N'


-' ;t- '4\








BADGER


BAT.


BABOON






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


BEAGLE.


BEAR.


/;








BEAVER.


BEAGLE. One of the great
Dog family, and the smallest of
the Hound tribe. These dogs
are chiefly employed in hunt-
ing the hare and the rabbit.
. It is not so fleet of foot as
other kinds of hounds, but it
has a much better nose, so
that it can follow on the scent
in places where others would
be thrown out.

BEAR. A rough, savage
animal that lives chiefly in
natural dens and holes of the
earth, and sometimes in hollow
trees. There are many kinds
of bears. The one in the pic-
ture is called the grizzly bear,
a name that sounds terrible to
the Indians of North America,
but which simply means of a
gray colour.

BEAVER. This clever ani-
mal builds its dwelling with
so much art, that one would
think it was the work of man.
SIt uses its tail as a mason does
his trowel. Beavers build their
houses and make their dams
by the banks of pools and lakes.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


BEE. The winged insect
that makes the honey. In
each hive there is a female
bee called the queen; as head
of the house, she rules the
others. You may remember
Watts's hymn:-
"How doth the little busy bee
Improve each shining hour,
And gather honey all the day
From ev'ry opening flower!
"How skilfully she builds her cell!
How neat she spreads the wax !
And labours hard to store it well
With the sweet food she makes."

BEETLE. A large class of
insects, known by having hard
cases or sheaths of shining
metal, like coats of mail, under
which the wings are folded.
They act as scavengers in eat-
ing up refuse.

BISON. The one in the
picture is what is called the
North American bison. This
creature gathers together in
large herds of many thousands
in number. The bison is very
swift and sure-footed; and is
rated highly by the hunter,
as its body affords him nearly
everything he needs.


I


BEES.


BEETLE.
I--
EETL- _-


BISON.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


BITTERN. A bird belonging
to a great family called Waders.
The haunts of the bittern are
/ in marshy places, where it
finds its food in snails, insects,
and the like. With their long
Slegs, long necks, and long
beaks, how nicely this class of
birds is adapted to their habits
and mode of living !

BLACKBIRD. This bird is
classed among our song-birds.
It' is a favourite cage-bird;
and its notes do not appear
to be less mellow because it
is a prisoner. The blackbird
can even be trained to whistle
tunes. In its native groves
it is very shy, popping out and
in among the hedgerows, and
giving a shrill scream as it
disappears.
BLACKCOCK. Sometimes
called Black Grouse, or Heath-
cock-names which apply only
to the male bird, as the female
is of a lighter colour. These
birds of the moors have many
foes, the worst being man
with his fowling-piece.


BITTERN.


BLACKBIRD.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


BLOODHOUND. This large
and powerful animal of the
Dog kind is now very scarce
-that is to say, the pure
breed. It has a very quick
sense of smell, and it eagerly
follows up a bleeding animal,
and from this it gets its name.
Long ago it used to be em-
ployed in the capture of crimi-
nals, whom it tracked to their
haunts when put upon the
scent.

BOAR. The male of the
hog. There are many dif-
ferent breeds of hogs scattered
over Britain. The hog is
believed to be the first animal
of any size which formed a
portion of the food of the
human race in a state of nature.
Hogs are said to be stubborn
creatures; so much so, that
sometimes the best way to
make them go forward is to
pull them backward.

BREAM. A spiny finned
fish of rather handsome make,
not unlike perch; not very
plentiful in British waters.


BLOODHOUND.


BOAR.


DREAM






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


-_ g-- BUFFALO. A horned animal
Sb o_ Aof the Ox kind; but it cannot
be attached to man as the ox
can. The one in the picture
is known as the Indian buffa-
lo, which inhabits the marshy
places on the lower rivers of
India, on which account it is
sometimes called the water
UFFALO. buffalo. Another kind, known
as the Cape buffalo, is found
in South Africa. The Ameri-
Scan buffalo is better called the
bison.
BULL. This is the male of
-the Ox kind, of which the cow.
: .is the female. Oxen are spread
*'.g '. all over the world. Britain
Y ." has many kinds, known by
BULL. the name of Short Horns,
Long Horns, and Polled-that
is, those that have no horns,
the Suffolk bull and some
others. Then comes the sacred
BULL of India. In cities
crowded with the wealthy and
__ devout, these animals throng
the streets and the temples,
-_---- and are so well fed that they
BULL (BRAHMIN). become fat and lazy.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


BULL-DOG. This is the most
savage of the Dog tribe. As
some one has observed, "His
very look's a bite." He is
called the fighting dog, and
takes his name from the cruel
sport of bull-baiting. We see
this brute chained to his
kennel; in this way he spends
most of his time,
BULLFINCH. This is one
of our song-birds, and is best
known to us as a cage-bird.
He can be taught to whistle
tunes. His native haunts are
the rich orchard and shady
grove, where he lives upon
buds and fruits.
BUTTERFLY. All boys and
girls know this beautiful in-
sect, so common on our meadows
and in our gardens in summer
days. But boys seem to think
that they are made for them
to chase.
'Cunning insect, well you know
Fruit is pleasant to the taste;
But your wings make such a show-
See, to catch you, boys make haste.
Leave your tempting dinner, pray,
While they stop to gain new breath;
Hasten, butterfly, away,
Lest your beauty prove your death."


BULL-DOG.


BULLFINCHS.


BUTTERFLY.


'






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


BUZZARD. This large bird
of prey belongs to the Falcon
tribe. It is said to be an idle,
lazy bird, that does not pur-
sue its prey like the falcon
or the hawk, but sits upon a
branch and watches what crea-
ture may pass below, when
down it will suddenly pounce
and carry off its prey.

CALF is the young of the
cow. This one looks very
weakly on its legs, partly
because it is of tender age,
and partly from a cruel prac-
tice the butcher has of bleed-
ing it with a lancet every
now and then, that the flesh,
which we call veal, may
appear white.

CAMEL. This one is the
4 camel of Arabia, or dromedary.
There is another kind with
two humps, but the one in
the picture-is the more useful
Sto man. In travelling the
Shot, sandy desert, it carries
a quantity of water in the
water-pouches of its stomach,
that it may quench its thirst.


BUZZARD.


CALF.


CAMEL.'







BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


CANARY. This bird belongs
to the Finch family, and we
all know what a grand singer
the cock bird is. Canaries
were first brought to Europe,
about three hundred years
ago, from the Canary Islands,
off the west coast of Africa.
They are also found in Madeira
S and in the Cape Verd Islands.

CARP is a fresh-water fish
found in rivers, lakes, and
ponds. It was brought to
S this country from the south
of Europe in the fifteenth
century. Some carps are said
to attain to a hundred years
of age. No other fish can
live so long a time out of the
water.

CART-HORSE is the largest
horse found in this country,
and is sometimes called the
dray or draught horse, because
used by brewers in drawing
their heavy carts or lorries.
Another well-known kind of
cart-horse is called the Clydes-
dale, one of the best breeds
in Scotland.


CANARY.


CARP.


CART-HORSE.







BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


CASSO WARfY


CAT.


CENTIPEDE.


CASSOWARY. A large bird
classed among the Running
Birds, as the ostrich, etc.
Swiftfoot is another name for
the class. They are for the
most part birds of the desert,
shy and retired in their man-
ners. This bird has a hair-
like plumage, and is next to
the ostrich in size. It is found
only in tropical countries-
that is, in the hottest parts of
the globe.

CAT (domestic). To say
that a cat is an animal that
catches mice, would only be
to tell you what you already
know. Did you ever see a
young cat at a looking-glass ?
How droll it is to see it paw
at the image, and, not being
able to touch it, peep slyly
round the edge of the glass
as if to catch its companion
on the other side.

CENTIPEDE, or Hundred-
feet." Loathsome looking,
creeping thing. In warm
countries it grows to a large
size-a foot long.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


CHAD is the young of the
common sea-bream, or gilt
head, as it is sometimes called.
These fishes appear in vast
numbers on the southern
coasts of England, where great
quantities are devoured by the
larger fishes.
CHAFFINCH. This is a gay
and sprightly bird, in great
plenty in most parts of the
British Islands. It is one of
our earliest songsters, and has
a simple, pleasing run of notes
for its song, which it repeats
over and over again. Strange
that in England, arid in Scot-
land too, there are very few
indeed who think this favour-
ite worth keeping in a cage;
but that is so much the better
for the bird.
CHAMELEON is a member of
the Lizard family of reptiles,
arid is said to live upon air.
That is a mistake, for this one
is about to catch an insect
with its long tongue, on the
end of which there is a sticky
substance.


C--HA



~J~$Ehhm.


CHAFFINCIn.


CHAMELEON.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


p, ~CHAMOIS belongs to the
-Antelope family, and the Alps
may be said to be its home.
-- As the ostrich is called a run-
: '-. ner among birds, so the chamois
-- : .- is a leaper among animals.
4:' i It is a very sure-footed animal.
It appears as if made of elastic
caano01S. springs, and to be as much
made for the mountains as
S the mountains are for it.
--- CHAR. A red-bellied fish
S: of the Salmon kind. It may
-be called a lake fish. It never
Sdescends to the sea, and never
-~e-~~-. t_ enters a river unless to de-
-- posit its spawn.
CHARGER, or War-horse;
CHAn. for it is only on the battle-


field that this noble animal
appears in the full greatness
of his character. "The glory
of his nostrils is terrible. He
paweth in the valley, and re-
joiceth in his strength: he
goeth out to meet the armed
men. He mocketh at fear,
and is not affrighted; neither
turneth he back from the
sword."


4,.e

'4~--~


CHARGER.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


CHINCHILLA. This cleanly
little animal feeds entirely
upon vegetables. It is a bur-
rowing and gnawing animal,
found in South America; and
it is particularly active in
climbing among rocks. The
animals it most resembles are
the mouse and the squirrel.
It has broad ears and a bushy
tail, and its hind legs are
longer than its fore legs. Its
pretty, soft fur is much prized
by ladies, who use it in their
dress.

CHUB. A well-known river
fish, and, like the dace, closely
allied to the roach.

CIVET is a native of North-
ern Africa, and is hunted
chiefly for its perfume, or
scent-bag. It is not entirely
a flesh-eater. It feeds some-
times on sweet fruits and


CHINCHILLA.


CHUB






CHUB.


juicy roots. The civet is said ..
to be a sleepy animal in the -'
daytime; yet it is quick at -.
catching birds and small ani- ..-i ,' .
mals, upon which it springs '---
like a cat. CIVET.







BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


COACH DOG. A dog well
known on our streets, from its
running alongside or in front
of the horses that draw its
owner's coach. The dog has
also a long foreign name,
showing the breed to have
come from a province in Hun-
gary.
COCK. The male of the
common or domestic poultry.
In spite of his beautiful plu-
mage, his slow and firm step,
his head always erect, his
stately march in proud and
commanding gait, he is styled
the dunghilll cock." His
loud and cheerful crowing has
gained him the name of
chanticleerr."

COCKATOO belongs to the
Parrot family. The one in
the picture is the most hand-
some as well as the rarest; it
is called "three-colour crested
cockatoo." The crest consists
of ten principal feathers,
pointed, and standing apart
from one another when they
are erected.


COACH DOG.


COCK.


COCKATOO.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


COD. The Great Bank of
Newfoundland may be said to
be the headquarters of the
cod, from which the fish
spread themselves out across
the Atlantic. The cod is found
in great quantities in the seas
around the British Islands, and
also on the north-west coast
of Norway. As a useful and
nutritious article of food, it
ranks among fishes next to
the herring.

COLT is the name applied
to the young of the horse,
whether male or female, until
they reach the age of four
years.

CONSTRICTOR (BOA). One
of the largest kinds of serpent,
a native of America within
the tropics. When full grown,
it measures over thirty feet
in length. It is without
venom, but it possesses great
bodily strength, which enables
it to bind or crush large ani-
mals in its folds, so that they
die; hence the name "con-
strictor."


COD.


COLT.


CONSTRICTOR (BoA).







BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


-'* '
















'
COOT.











I. ,
" e I,' ,, I '
' -''


COWS.


COOT. This is what is
called a lobe footed water-
bird. The lobe-foot differs
from the web-foot. The coot
is a grand swimmer, swift and
strong. It remains in the
British Isles all the year
round. The young, soon after
quitting the shell, take to the
water; and they often become
the prey of the pike or of the
hawk.

CORMORANT. This is a sea-
bird much larger than the
coot. Cormorants are also
called sea-ravens, owing to
the greedy way in which they
prey upon fishes. They catch
the fish by the middle with
their bill; but as they can-
not swallow the fish in this
fashion, it is tossed in the air
and caught with the head
down.


* Cow. Properly the female
of the ox and mother of the
calf. The small cows of the
islands of Jersey and Alder-
ney are famed for the milk
which they yield.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


CRANE. A bird with a
straight, long bill, long neck,
and long legs, showing it to
be one of the Waders. The
cranes fly in flocks at a great
height. When they alight on
the bank of a river or on the
sea-shore, it is for the purpose
of feeding.

CRICKET. A chirping in-
sect that chiefly frequents
bake-houses. The one in the
picture is known as the field-
cricket. The chirping sound
is not produced by the mouth,
but by brisk rubbing of the
wings.. The field-cricket is of
a black colour, the house one
is of a yellowish buff.

CROCODILE. The largest
of the Lizard family, and
powerful even on land, but
its chief place of action is in
the water. The crocodile of -
the Nile has been known to
attain the length of thirty '
feet. The body of the cro--
codile -is covered with hard
scales, and it has wide and --
powerful jaws.


CRAKE.


CRICKET.


CROCODILE.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


Ae \B


CROW,


C,~ -
'% .'---






A' Z '


CUCKOO.



r--- '
""- <. 2 -.


CROW. This bird is smaller
than the raven. The carrion
or common black crow is a
filthy feeder. No garbage,
however rank it may be, comes
amiss to the crow. For this
reason it. is called the dung-
hill crow, in Scotland the
midden" crow. The crow
takes its name from the croak-
ing sound of its voice.

CucKOo. This bird differs
from other birds in not build-
ing a nest. It never hatches
its own eggs, but places them
in the nest of some other bird.
The following rhyme on the
cuckoo used to be common in
England :-
In April', come he will.
In May, he sings all day.
In June, he alters his tune.
In July', he prepares to fly.
In August', go he must."


-_ CURLEW, theScottishWhaup,
is a bird of the moors in sum-
S2 mer, frequenting the sea-shore
Sin winter. It is one of the
- 2-2- birds called Waders, and it has
S-long legs and a very long and
CURLEW slender bill.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


CYGNET. A name given to
the young of the swan, which
in some places are unable to
take to flight the first year;
in other places they do not get
their full plumage until the
second year. It is then that
these helpless cygnets are
hunted down for the table,
their flesh being much esteemed.
The cygnet differs from the
full-grown swan in having
plumage of a bluish-gray col-
our and a lead-coloured bill.

DAB. A small flat fish,
abundant on the sandy coasts
of Britain. It has a brown,
rough surface, and is nearly of
the same size and shape as the
fluke or flounder, though its
flesh is not so good. It is
thought to be best for the
table in February, March, and
April.

DACE. A small river fish,
closely allied to the roach. It
is known in England under
the names of da", dare, and
dart. This fish, it is said, has
never been seen in Scotland.


CYGNET.


DAB.


DACE.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


DAW.


DAY-FL.









g t-



DEER.


DAW. More properly Jeck-
daw, as if Daw was the sur-
name. You may see by the pic-
ture that Jacky is a funny
fellow, up to all kinds of droll
.tricks. He is the smallest of
-the Rook family, very attach-
able and teachable, and has
much wit and humour; yet,
withal, he is a great thief.
But we must not tell him so,
for he does not like to be
called by such names.

DAY-FLY. A name given to
an insect which, after arriving
at the winged state, lives only
for a day. It is sometimes
called the May-fly, because it
is most common in the month
of May.

DEER. There are many
kinds of deer. There is the
stag, which is the male of red
deer, also called the hart, the
female the hind, the young
the calf; of the fallow-deer,
bucle the male, doe the female,
and fcaw the young. The
females and the young have
no horns, or antlers.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


DIVER. A large, web-footed
bird, chiefly of the more
northerly seas. They assemble
in great numbers on jutting
headlands where the sea runs
strong, and the surf and spray
beat with great force. But
amid the storm and the foam-
ing water the diver feels quite
at home.

DoDO. A large bird said
to be now extinct; which
means that it is not now
found living in any part of
the world. It used to inhabit
the island of Mauritius, in the
Indian Ocean; but the Dutch
settlers in the island found it
good for food, and it by-and-
by died out.

DOG (St. Bernard's). The
convent of St. Bernard is at
the top of the mountain of
that name. The good monks,
though they have little to live
upon, open their doors to all
seeking shelter. They have
trained dogs that go out to
rescue travellers who may be
lost in the snows of the Alps.


- _. _.._d :--- _



DIVER.












DODO.


DOG (ST. BERNARD'S).






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


DOG-FISH. A fish of the
w Shark kind. It feeds greedily,
S 'following the shoals of other
DoG.risH. fish; hence its name of dog-
fish."
DOLPHIN belongs to the
Whale family, and is remark-
able for the great number of
DOLPI. sharp teeth its jaws are armed
with; also for its leaping
entirely out of the water.
The dolphin follows ships,
-. and feeds upon any garbage
,, thrown overboard. It is of
n a greenish-black colour above
S., and white below. The flesh
S ")'_'" is sometimes eaten by sailors.
DOREE. A fish commonly
called John Dory. The flesh
of the dory is good, and suit-
able for those who may live
far inland, as it is greatly
improved by being kept for
'/' two days.
DORMOUSE. A curious
''.:, '!' little animal that keeps its
" S.' '" ', nest during the day, and sleeps
S -:: .A all the winter after laying by
-. food, such as acorns, nuts,
DORMOUSE. and corn, for the spring.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


DOTTEREL. This neat and
pretty bird is of the Plover
kind. The habits of the dot-
terel are very little known.
It has the name of being a
foolish bird. "As stupid as a
dotterel" is a common phrase
applied to a person who may
show little wisdom.

DOVE. There are a great
many kinds of doves; they
all belong to the Pigeon
family. We have only room
for the names of some, as the
stock-dove, so called from its
habit of building its nest in
the stumps of trees ; the ring-
dove, known also as wood-
pigeon and cushat; the rock-
dove, and the turtle-dove.

DRAGON-FLY. There are
many kinds of this insect.
They haunt the banks of
streams and ditches. They
are very strong on the wing,
and possess the strange power
of flying backwards and for-
wards without turning. The
object of this is to capture
small flies for food.


Nil- J,







DOTTEREL.


DOVE.


DRAGON-FLY.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


DROMEDARY. This animal
stands much in the same
relation to the Arabian camel
as the racing or hunting horse
does to the dray or draught
horse. The dromedary, being
more slenderly built, is not
used as a beast of burden like
the camel; but men ride on
it, and it travels very quickly.
DRONE. This is the male
of the honey-bee. It makes
no honey, and is therefore
driven from the hive and
killed by the workers. It
has no sting.
DRUM-FISH are found in
American waters. The name
is given to this fish on account
of the strange sound it makes,
which resembles the beat of a
drum.
DUCK. There are many
kinds of wild duck; one
called the mallard is that from
which our domestic duck has
sprung. The male, which is
called the drake," is known
by the little curled feathers
of the tail.


DROMEDARY.


DRONE.


DRUM-FISH.










DUCK,
DUC-






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


DUCK-BILL. This curious
little creature belongs to Aus- ,, .
tralia, where it feeds upon /.. "
worms and insects. Indeed it
is formed to live in the water
or under the earth. It is
named, as you will see, from
having a beak like that of a-
duck.
DUCKLING. A young duck;
DUCK -BILL.
properly, a little duck. Some-
times duck-eggs are set under
a hen that she may hatch
them; and it is curious to
witness the dismay of the poor
mother hen on beholding her _.,
brood take to the water, where
she herself cannot follow them. t
EAGLE. This bird ranks
DUCKLING.
among the largest birds of
prey. On account of its keen
eyesight, its great strength,
the height and swiftness of
its flight, and its long life, the
eagle is regarded as the king
among birds, like the lion
among beasts. It is a royal -
bird, whose figure was shown '
on the army standard of the "
old Romans. AGLE.







BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


EAGLET. A young eagle;
properly a little eagle. The
eagle's nest is usually built on
a rocky ledge, far up a lofty
mountain, in a lonely spot
which man cannot reach.
On high the eagle builds his nest,
And hides his young from sight;
While he, a bold and cruel guest,
Goes robbing in the night.
Our lambs and kids, our poultry too,
His little eaglets share;
What have the greedy things to do
With such nice wholesome fare?"
EARWIG. A very common
insect, the pest of the florist.
The food of the earwig is
vegetable. It does much
damage to gardens by eating
the petals of flowers. Ear-
wigs live in shoals in holes
and crevices, and under the
bark of decaying trees.
EEL. A fish having a snake-
like body. It lives much in
the muddy bottom of lakes
and rivers. Linlithgow Loch,
in Scotland, has long been
famed for its eels. Eels live
in salt water as well as in
fresh, and are considered
wholesome food, though some
do not like it.


EAGLETS.


EARWIG.


EELS.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


ELEPHANT. The largest of
living quadrupeds, notable for
its flexible snout, called its
"trunk," and for its projecting
tusks of solid ivory. The
nostrils are at the tip of the
snout, where there is also a
finger-like contrivance for seiz-
ing even very small articles
like a pin or a blade of grass.
There are two kinds of ele-
phants-the African, with flat
forehead and large ears; and
the Indian, with rounded fore-
head and smaller ears.
ELK. A large animal be-
longing to the Deer kind, and
called the moose deer in Amer-
ica, where it is still abundant.
It is not so plentiful in Europe
as it once was. The horns
are said to weigh fifty pounds.
ERMINE, or Stoat. A small
animal of the Polecat kind,
but much larger than the
weasel. It is valued for its
fur, which is used for the
lining of state robes of sover-
eigns and nobles, as well as for
their crowns and coronets.


ELEPHANT.


ELK.


ERMINE.







BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


EWE is the female sheep.
The sheep is as useful to us
--as the ox. Its body gives us
food, while its wool gives us
.-'- warm clothing, and its skin
Shas many uses. Ewe's milk
Sis sometimes made into cheese.
S Useful creature, when we look
in thy quiet, gentle face, it
seems a pity to take a life so
harmless i
FALCON. One of the Hawk
,t,_ tribe of birds of prey Falcons
are light and graceful in their
forms. Flying the falcon at
game, called falconry or hawk
- ing, was a royal sport in the
Middle Ages, holding the same
place that partridge-shooting
does now, The smallest kind
of falcon is the merlin, and the
largest the jerfalcon
FALLOW-DEER. Only the
male of this animal has horns;
the female, or doe, has none.
'You see that its sides are
covered with white spots, but
this is only its summer clothing
i The fallow-deer is not so large
as the stag, but it is tamer.


EWE.


FALCON,


FALLOW-DEER






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


FAWN. Now we come to
the young of the fallow-deer.
The male fawn has no sign of
horns during the first year of
its life. In the second year
they begin to show, but they
are not fully formed till the
sixth year.
FERRET. A fierce little
creature of the Weasel kind.
It is remarkable for its long,
slender body and short legs.
The ferret is never quite tame,
but it is used by sportsmen
who pursue rabbits. One is
put into a rabbit-hole to drive
out the rabbits, while the men
are ready to trap them with
nets or to shoot them with
guns. To prevent them from
killing the rabbits in the hole,
the ferrets are generally
muzzled.

FIELDFARE. This bird be-
longs to the Thrush tribe, and
only visits this country about
the beginning of winter.
When these birds are seen
coming in flocks, it is a sign
of a severe winter.


z'~




FEBRET.


FIELDFARE.







BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


FIELD-MOUSE, or Wood-
mouse, is a pretty little crea-
ture, but a great pest to the
farmer and the gardener. Be-
sides man it has many foes,
such as the owl, the kite, the
weasel, and the wild cat, where
these abound.

FLAMINGO belongs to the
Waders, or stilt-birds. It is
remarkable for the great
length of its legs and its neck.
The food of the flamingo is
shell-fish, insects, and fishes'
eggs. The plumage of the
male bird is a bright scarlet
or rose-red ; that of the female
is less bright. Flamingoes
are strong on the wing, and
fly like geese in strings, or in
flocks of a wedge shape.

FLOUNDER. A flat fish,
commonly found at the mouth
of large rivers that bring
down much mud. There the
flounder swims near the bot-
tom. It is the least seaward
of the flat fishes, and is often
found some distance up the
rivers referred to.


FIELD-MOUSE.


FLA.INGO.


FLOUNDER:






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


FLY is a name given to
most winged insects. To us
the name means the common
house-fly.

FLYING-FISH. To say that
a fish flies may not be quite
correct. The long fins of the
flying-fish, so called, enable it
to leap out of the water for a
short space when pursued by
foes below. These fishes can-
not flap their fins as a bird
does its wings; besides, they
cannot turn, but they dash
against any object, such as a
ship, that may be in front of
them.

Fox. An animal of the
Dog kind. We all know sly
Reynard by his sharp nose and
mouth, called the muzzle, and
his bushy tail. He is never in
favour with anybody, owing,
perhaps, to his cunning ways
in prowling about at night,
robbing hen-roosts, to which he
slips forward with great cau-
tion. In England fox-hunting
on horseback with packs of
hounds is a favourite sport.


FLY.


FLYING-FISH.


FOX.







BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


'



v,

1


1FOX-.OUND
FOX-HOUND.


FROG.


GAME-COCK.


Fox HOUND. The best-
known, and said to be the
favourite, hound in Britain.
As the name implies, it is used
in chasing the fox, for which
it is carefully trained. These
dogs are famed for their keen
scent, their swiftness of foot,
their strength and spirit.

FnOG. A small four-footed
reptile that lives in water as
well as on land. There are
many kinds of frogs, with
curious names. The one in
the picture is the common
frog, the most plentiful in
Britain. It has short arms
with four fingers on each, and
long legs with five webbed
toes. The young are pro-
duced from spawn, or eggs.

GAME-COCK. Formerly
these birds were reared for
the cruel practice of cock-
fighting, now happily put a
stop to by law. The one in
the picture has been in many
a battle, for its comb is cut off;
this was done to prevent the
enemy from tearing it.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


GANNET, or Solan Go.:-e. I- -
A large sea-bird. The Il': '' .'
Rock in the Firth of Foith. I -
Ailsa Craig in the Firth .:f "-.'\ --
Clyde, and other rocks aii.l './
headlands on the coasts of o
Scotland, are thronged with 'Ii- -
these birds. They live in
flocks or crowds, and 1.:1e.' '
their nests close together on ,
!:"~ i' f1 ^ .' I,-* ^ i r.. ..--
the tops of cliffs. They f .-l "' i .-* ;:--
on fishes, on which they some- GANNET.
times dtop from a great height
like a bolt.:- :


GAZELLE. A sprightly little
animal of the Antelope kind,
found in the north of Africa,
where it keeps to the open
plains. The females have
horns as well as the males,
but smaller.
SGIRAFFE, or Camelopard.
Like the ostrich among birds,
the giraffe is the tallest among
beasts. 'Its height when full
grown is from eighteen to
twenty feet. This mild and
timid animal belongs to various
parts of Africa, where'it feeds
chiefly on leaves.


GAZELLE.


GIRAFFE.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


GLOW-WORM. An insect
that shines in the dark. It
is the female, which has no
wings, that gives out the light.
The male is more of the Beetle
order; it has wing covers,
under which it folds its wings
when at rest. In Europe,
Asia, Africa, and America,
sixteen kinds of glow-worm
are known.
GNAT. A small, winged,
blood-thirsty insect. Some
say it is only the female that
is to be feared. It is also
said that vinegar applied to
the wound caused by the sting
will allay the pain. There
are several kinds of gnats; the
mosquito is one.

GNU. A wild animal of
Africa. Who would ever
think that this fierce-looking
beast would be classed among
the timid antelopes ? Yet so
it is, with the head of the
bison, and the body of the
swift, strong horse. The gnu-
is called Wildebeest by the
Dutch in South Africa.


GLOW-WORDI.


GNAT.


GNU.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


GOAT. The common, tame
goat, found in almost every
quarter of the world. There
are a great number of differ-
ent kinds of the domestic
goat, all of them useful to
man. They are easily kept.
Give them a rock with but
scanty herbage upon it, and
they will keep themselves.
GOATSUCKER. A large f-nm-
ily of curious birds not very
common with us. They prI-y
upon the wing-that is, Laiv-
ing a wide gape like tlid
swallow, they feed, while fly-
ing, upon their favourite fol:.
The night-jar is another n r i,.,
and whip-poor-will is tlri
American kind.

GOLDFINCH. This beautiful
favourite songster feeds upon
the seeds in thistle-down,
dandelion, etc. It also feeds
upon chickweed, groundsel, and
the unopened yellow blos-
soms of furze. You may see
it holding its food with its
foot while pecking at it with
its bill.


GOAT.


GOATSUCKER.


GOLDFINCH.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


GOOSE. A well-known
web-footed bird of the flat-
billed or Duck family. While
swimming, it feeds on the seeds
and leaves of water-plants,
but does not do so below the
surface of the water. The
male of the goose is called
the gander."

GOSHAWK. This is said to
be the finest of all the hawks.
In days when hawking was
a royal sport, this hawk was
much used for ground game,
such as hares, rabbits, wild
ducks, and the like, upon
which the bird steals and
seizes with a sudden pounce.
The name means goose-hawk.

GOSLING. A young goose;
properly a little goose. In
some parts of England these
birds are bred in great numbers
for the sake of the feathers,
which are plucked from the
living birds several times a
year. The old birds submit
quietly to the process, but the
goslings are often very noisy
and unruly.


GOOSE.


GOSHAWK,






GOSLING.
- a






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


GRAMPUS. A large, fierce
fish of prey classed with the
whale, the dolphin, and the
porpoise. It attains a length
of from twenty to twenty-five
feet. The Firth of Forth is
said to be a favourite haunt of
the grampus. English sailors
call grampuses "killers."

GRASSHOPPER. An insect
with hind legs fitted for leap-
ing, in which it is assisted by
a pair of gauzy wings. These
insects are very destructive to
herbage. They make their
presence known by their
chirping like crickets, to which
class they belong.

GREEN-FINCH, or Grosbeak,
or Green Linnet. A very
common bird in Europe, and
abundant in the British Islands.
It frequents hedges and the
outskirts of woods, feeding
upon all kinds of seeds, and
much upon grain; also, on
green leaves of groundsel and
other plants. It is not of
much account as a singing-
bird.


GEAMPUS.


GRASSHOPPER.


GBE EN-FINCH.







BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


GREYHOUND. A tall, slender
dog, famed alike for its keen-
ness of sight and its swift-
ness in running. In former
times none beneath the rank
of gentleman was allowed to
, keep a greyhound. In the
reign of Charles I. these dogs
were held in high repute.

GROUSE. The common
name for a large family of
birds, of which the one in the
picture is a type or pattern.
They are known by their
short, arched bills, legs feath-
ered down to the feet, and a
bare, red skin over each eye.
These birds are found nearly
all over the world. Grouse-
-shooting is a favourite sport
on the Highland moors.
GUDGEON. A small fresh-
water fish belonging to the
Carp family. These fishes are
found in clear, slow-running
streams in the south of En-
gland, and are considered
wholesome, delicate food for
invalids. They are seldom
over eight inches in length.


GREYHOUND.


GROUSE.


GUDGEON,






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


GUINEA-FOWL. This is the
common guinea-fowl. It has--
a grayish-blue body, sprin- -
kled with round white spots.
These birds are not so pro-- -
fitable to keep as common
poultry. The guinea-fowl is a .
wandering bird, going long dis-. -
tances from home in search of z ..s..-_ .-
grasshoppers, worms, beetles,
and ants. It destroys tender
buds and flowers. oGUNEA-FowL.
GUINEA-PIG. This home
pet must be wrongly named.
It is not a pig, but a rodent -
or gnawing animal like the
beaver. It does not come
from Guinea in Africa, but
from Brazil in South America. --
It feeds on vegetables, and is -
easily tamed. "UINEA-1G.
GULL. A web-footed, lon.-
winged sea-bird, the "wil --
sea- mew" of the Britis-I, -
shores. The gull is not alto.:'-
gether a fisher, but scoops upi .. --:.
any garbage that may 1.... -
floating about. Tame on,:-.,
are very useful in gardener, '--.- -. -'-
which they clear of vermin. GULL.







BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


. HADDOCK. This belongs


,. .


HARRIER. A small hound
for hunting the hare. It is
smaller than the foxhound,
which it resembles in all its
points, but it is not so swift.


HADDOCK.


HALIBUT.


HARE.


HARRIER.


to the same family as the cod,
S-'" but is a more handsome fish.
S The finest haddocks are found
in the clear and deep waters
of the rocky shores of the
north-east of Scotland. Those
of Dublin Bay are remarkable
for their large size.
HALIBUT, or Holibut. The
S largest of the flat fishes. One
Shas been known to measure
from five to seven feet in
length, and to weigh from
two hundred to over three
hundred pounds. Though a
valuable food, the halibut is
not so good as the turbot.
HARE. A gnawing animal
S of the Rabbit kind; but it
S does not burrow like the rabbit,
unless it be in winter, when
it forms for itself a cave in
S the snow. The young of the
S hare is the leverett."







BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


HAWFINCH. One of the
Grosbeak family. It is the
largest, and one of the most
beautiful of the finches. It is
a shy bird, inhabiting thick
woods, where it lives on seeds
and berries of different kinds.
The bird is not common in
Britain.

HAWK. There are several
kinds of this bird of prey,
such as goshawk, sparrow-
hawk, etc. There is a curious
sparrow-hawk belonging to
Africa, said to be the only
bird of prey which can give a
musical song. Some of the
hawks are named falcons, such
as the American sparrow-hawk
(called the little falcon), the
St. Domingo falcon, the New
York merlin, etc.

HEDGEHOG. This little
harmless creature is seen some-
times running as you see in
the picture. It is oftener seen
rolled up as a round ball of
spines. It has the power to
assume this form on the ap-
proach of danger.


HAWFINCH.


HAWK.


-U
r ~~


HEDGEHOG.







BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


HEIFER. May be said to
be a calf of a larger growth;
a young cow, somewhat older
than a calf. "As an heifer of
three years old" (Jer. xlviii.)
The heifer is otherwise re-
ferred to in the Bible-Num.
xix.; Jer. xlvi.; Hosea iv., x.,
Heb. ix.

HEN. The female of what
we call the barn-door fowl-
the cock being the male. It is
sometimes asked, as a kind of
puzzle, Which is the mother
of the chicken-the hen that
laid the- egg, or the hen that
hatched the chick ?

HERON. A wading bird
that lives by the banks of
lakes and rivers, and in swampy
or marshy places, feeding on
fish. The heron is a patient
fisher, and with its long, sharp,
pointed bill, it is also a ter-
ribly keen fisher. Besides
fish, it feeds on frogs, snails,
worms, and insects. When
flying, the heron stretches its
long legs out behind it like a
tail.


HIFTERS.


HERON.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


HERRING. One of the mn-.t -
valuable of the many inhabit- -
:- ,- 4----
ants of the waters. With i-. ---:
it is called "the poor mefi' -- :-_-
fish;" equally cheap, good, a ..i
tasty whether eaten fresh :i s
salted, smoked or potted. --


HIPPOPOTAMUS. This is a
long name, but the animal
that owns it is great and
bulky, with a very large head
and very short legs. It in-
habits the larger rivers of
Africa and their margins,
where it feeds on the strong,
coarse water-plants. Its usual
motion in the water is walking,
with its nose now and then
above the surface that it may
breathe; which gives it its
name "river-horse." The name
behemoth in the Book of Job
is supposed to refer to the
hippopotamus.
HORNET. The largest in-
sect in Britain belonging to
the Wasp family. From the
size of the insect its sting is
very powerful, and much to
be dreaded.


HERRING.


HIPPOPOTAMUS.


-R,-ET
HORNET.
HORNET.







BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


.. ,


/-, ,,





H N-OL.


HUNTER


HYEN-.A


HORN-OWL. A name ap-
plied to several kinds of these
night birds of prey, which
have tufts of feathers on the
head that look like horns.

HUNTER, or Hunting-horse.
It is employed in what is
called the chase, to which it
has to be trained. The hunter,
in England, ranks next to the
race-horse, although the racer
has qualities that would be
injurious to the hunting-horse.
The latter has many fine points,
having more bone and more
power than the other. Al-
though it cannot run so fast,
it can run longer.

HYENA or HyIena. A species
of wild, untamable animals of
the Dog family. They are
found in Asia and Africa, and
they live upon raw flesh and all
kinds of offal. The one in the
picture is the largest known.
It is called the striped hyena,
and has a very shaggy look,
with a coarse bristly mane
running along the back. The
tail is short and bushy.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


IBEX. A kind of goat,
with large horns sloping back-
ward. It inhabits the tops
of the highest mountains of
Europe, Asia, and Africa, but
is not found in America. The
Alpine ibex is the best known.

IBIS. This bird belongs to
the family of Waders, or stilt-
birds. The one in the picture
is the black or glossy ibis.
There is a kind that used to
be held sacred by the ancient
Egyptians. More of them than
of any other bird are found
preserved in their mummy
tombs. From the hooked form
of their long bills, they receive
from the natives of Lower
Egypt a name which means
Father Sickle Bill.
ICHNEUMON. A small ani-
mal inhabiting Egypt, India,
and Java. Like the ibis, it
was held sacred by the ancient
Egyptians, on account of its
keeping down the race of
crocodiles by destroying their
eggs. It is sometimes kept as
a domestic animal, like the cat.


IBEX.


IBIS.


ICHNEUMON.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


JACKAL. A kind of wild
dog that hunts in packs. The
jackal inhabits the same coun-
tries as the hyena, and, like
the hyena, lives in holes and
caves. At night he goes howl-
ing and prowling about in
search of prey; for the jackal
is a grasping, greedy fellow,
and if the dead be not properly
buried, he will scratch away
the earth and tear the body
out of its tomb.
JACKSNIPE. One of the
game-birds of the fens and
Marshes, as the woodcock, the
- great snipe, and the common
snipe. Jacksnipe is much
the smallest and prettiest of
all our marsh-birds.
JAGUAR. One of the largest
of the Cat tribe. It is a spotted
animal like the leopard. Being
a native of the New World,
it is sometimes called the
American panther. Monkeys
are the favourite food of the
jaguar when it can catch them.
It is the fiercest of the Ameri-
can beasts of prey.


JACKAL.


JACKSNIPE.


JAGUAR.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


JAY. A chattering bird
with pretty plumage. When
the jay is taken young it can
be easily tamed and taught
many kinds of tricks; it can
also be taught to repeat words
and to imitate voices. Although
subsisting mostly on vegetables,
the jay is a great robber of the
nests of smaller birds; it kills
also mice and the larger in-
sects.

JERBOA. A small rodent
or gnawing animal, with &
very long tail, and very long
hind legs, useful for leaping
You may see what very short
fore legs it has. The jerboa is
a burrowing animal, and feeds
only by night ..

KANGAROO. Another curi-
ous leaping animal, which'is
confined to the wilds of Aus-
tralia, where it is cruelly
hunted by man and dog. "The.
female kangaroo is furnished
by nature with a curious
pouch, in which she carries
her young, and where they
take refuge when in danger.


JAY.


JERBOA.


KANGAROO.


* u






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


KESTERL.


.-
j3~' 3\I


KESTREL. A bird of prey
Belonging to the large family
.of Falcons. It is a swift-
winged bird, and yet, when it
Chooses, it can remain motion-
Sless in the air with outstretched
wings, its keen eyes watching
the ground for field-mice and
- other creeping things.
KID. A young goat. Famed
for the fine, soft, and smooth
,! ii lity of its skin. When
t.ined, it is used for gloves,
Supp,'er leathers of boots and
-li...s, and other things. The
tij-h is said to be more deli-
e.ti: than that of the lamb.


" -: KINGFISHER. Among the
I. ..ny varieties of this bird,
RID what .is called the common
~L-- -1-- 1 .'kh,-li is not uncommon in
-?. 1I-tli .iintrv. It is known by
i^:-. ... .- -it- ii,. straight bill, its short
.1 ,,.'v rIil tail, and above all by
-t i i fl = ul plumage of bright
.-- -- i.-e-n, and orange. Seated
.,n a 1.c.ugh overhanging a
tiaiuL. it patiently waits to
o I": I ';,' with its long, sharp
KINGFIBE. .. bill on passing.fish below.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


KITE. Like the kestrel,
this is a large bird of prey of
the Falcon kind. This one
seen in the sky is also known
in Scotland as the "gled." It
is on the young of the most
timid animals that the kite
chiefly feeds, such as the young
of hares and rabbits. It feeds
also on mice, insects, worms,
and snails.

KITTEN, or Kitling (Scotch).
Names given to the young of
the cat. Playful as a kitten"
is a common saying. Well,
kittens are made to be happy,
they like fun so much. We
should be kind to them, for
they have their sorrows too.

LADY-BIRD. A small, pretty,
round insect, famed for its
showy colours, commonly a
bright red with black spots.
It creeps slowly, but can fly
well. It is of great use in
gardens by feeding on the
plant-lice that destroy fine
plants. The name lady-bird
has been changed from lady-
bug.


KITE.


KITTEN.


LADY-BIRD.







BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


LAMB. Meek, innocent crea-
ture, you little think that we
S let you crop the green meadow
buts to fatten your flesh for
our eating, and to grow wool
.- -.= for our soft, warm clothing!
: Boys and girls do not need to
be told that a lamb is a young
sheep.
LAMPREY, otherwise called
Stone-sucker, from the power
it has to fasten itself to stones
by means of its mouth, is a
Ssnake-like fish resembling the
-. eel, and lives both in the sea
and in fresh water. It ascends
rivers that it may lay its eggs.
The lamprey has seven open-
EY ings, or breathing-holes, on
each side of the neck, on which
account it is sometimes called
the "nine-eyed eel." In some
countries lampreys are used as
food.
li' LANDRAIL. Called also Corn-
,,crake from its shrill, grating
cry in the corn-field. It is a
_. .'-;- :-swift-running stilt-bird, that
S =-"- never takes to the wing if it
Am. can avoid it.


LAM3


LAMPR


LAND






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES. 61

LAP- DOG. A little dog ,\
fondled in the lap; a pet dog ;
a toy dog. The most common .'
is the poodle, with his snow-
white coat of corkscrew curls,
or ringlets. There is a very
small kind of poodle called
the barbet, that used to be 'i
much thought of as a lady's |
dog.
LAP-DOG.
LAPWING, or Peewit, is of ,,
the Plover. family of wading- '5_
birds. When disturbed in the '
nest, she makes her escape "-r- _-r-
and pretends lameness, and -
tumbles about as if her wings --" -
or her legs were broken. This .
i done in order to lead the -
supposed enemy away from -' "
LAPWING.
the nest. _-
LARK. There is the sky-
lark, also the pencilled lark, -
the woodlark, and the shore--
lark, all of them remarkable .
for the great length of the
claw of the hind toe. The -
bird in the picture is best -
known to us as the skylark: -
known in Scotland by the -
name of the laverock. LARK.







BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


l
LAUNCE.





-E--.--_





- -"-- 2




LEECH.


LEM UR.


LAUNCE, Wriggle, or Sand-
eel. A long, slender fish com-
mon on our sandy sea-coasts.
Sand-eels bury themselves in
the wet sand when the tide
is back. With spades and
rakes they are caught in great
numbers, and are said to be
fine eating. Fisher-folk em-
ploy them for bait.

LEECH. This is the com-
mon leech of the doctors, so
well known for its useful,
blood-sucking, healing service
to the sick. It is said that
the leech is a good weather-
glass, as it foretells a change
in the weather by its lively
motions in the water.

LEMUR. This is called a
handed animal, like the mon-
keys; indeed, it is said to
form a link between the apes
and the monkeys. It is a
native of the island of Mada-
gascar, and is found nowhere
else. The name lemur," mean-
ing "night-wandering ghosts,"
is given them because they
wander abroad at night.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


LEOPARD. A wild beast of
prey of the Cat kind found in
Africa and Asia; a nimble
tree-climber, and a swimmer.
The form of the leopard is
elegant, and its movements are
graceful. Its skin, which is
very beautiful, is pale yellow,
covered with roundish black
spots. Leopards attack and
eat small antelopes and mon-
keys, and if near settlements
they creep slyly upon sheep
and pigs. The jaguar of
America resembles the leopard.
LING. A slender fish of
the Cod kind; indeed, it in-
habits nearly the same parts
of the sea; and, like the cod,
it is salted in large quantities
and sold as dried fish.

LINNET. A class of cheer-
ful little singing-birds fre-
quenting open heaths and
commons, and breeding among
the furze, whin, and other
bushes. They feed upon the
seeds of many wild plants,
such as the dandelion, the
thistle, etc.


LEOPARD.


LING.


LINNET.







BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


LION, sometimes called the
"king of beasts," belongs to
the Cat family, of which he is
the largest. He inhabits South
Africa and the warmer parts
of Asia. Lions are nearly
always found in pairs. The
male is as long as an ox, but
does not stand so high. '-He
has a long, shaggy mane cov-
ering his large head and neck.
He is of great strength, and
can carry off the body of a
man nearly as easily as a cat
can a mouse. The female has
no mane. The young ones
are called cubs.

LIZARD. There are a great
many different kinds of this
reptile. The one in the pic-
ture looks like what is called
the scaly lizard, so plentiful
upon the heaths and commons
of England. Lizards feed on
flies and other small insects.

LLAMA. A wool bearing
animal of South America. It
resembles the camel in form,
but is much less in size. (See
ALPACA.)


LION.


- /**


LIZARD.


LLAMA






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


LOBSTER. A kind of shell-
fish of a dull, pale, reddish
yellow, spotted with bluish
black. When boiled it be-
comes red. As' an article of
food, the lobster is -perhaps
the most important of the
shell-fish.

LOCUST. It may well be
said, that of all the insect
pests, the migratory locust
is' the most terrible. They
sometimes appear in vast
numbers in Central Europe,
Egypt, Syria, and the sduth
of Asia, darkening the air as
they fly, and soon destroying
all vegetation where they
alight. They have hind legs
formed for leaping.

LYNX. A wild animal of
the Cat kind, more or less
spotted, remarkable for speed
and sharp sight. It is a for-
est animal, and a great climber
of trees. It finds its prey in
weasels, ermines, and squirrels,
and in hares and other beasts,
on which it drops from the
branches.


LOBSTER.


LOCUST.


LYNX.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


MACAW. There are several
kinds of this bird, all belong-
ing to the Parrot family.
S They are mostly inhabitants
f of South America. They are
remarkable for their very long
tails and the rich colours of
their plumage.
MACKEREL. A well-formed,
beautifully-coloured fish, some-
times caught with baited hook,
but oftener with the net, in
the same way as the herring
is taken. The flesh of the
mackerel is very good, but
must be eaten fresh, as it
T"4-',. soon becomes tainted after
S being taken from the water,
and is unfit for human food.
MAGPIE. A bird of the
Crow tribe; it is smaller than
the rook. The chattering,
prying, pilfering, and nest-
S robbing magpie is found in
-._ many parts of the world. It
Sis seldom at rest, but hops
and skips about, shaking its
.. long tail. It chatters more
:"-: when tamed, and may be
taught to utter words.


MACKEREL.


MAGPIE.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


MANATEE, or Sea-cow, is
classed among animals that
suckle their young. It is
found at the mouths of the
great rivers of South America
and Africa that flow into the
Atlantic Ocean. Those of
America are much larger than
those of Africa. They have
been known to reach twenty
feet, and to weigh four tons.

MANDRILL. The largest of
the baboons, the most savage,
and the most fierce-looking,
with its short, upright tail, its
bright-tinted cheeks and nose
giving the animal the appear-
ance of being painted for
show. The mandrill is a
native of Guinea.

MARMOSET. One of the
smallest of the monkeys. It
inhabits the forests of the
hotter parts of America, and
takes ill with the cold of our
country. You see the one in
the picture perched on a man's
thumb. The food of the mar-
moset consists of flies and
other insects, and fruits.


---- .-



MANATLE.


MrANDRILL.


MARMOSET.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


MAReMOT.


MARMOT, or Bear-rat," is
a burrowing, gnawing animal,
so clever at the digging! It
begins its dwelling by forming
a tunnel six feet long, only
wide enough to admit itself.
Then it forms a room or cham-
ber large enough to hold a
number of marmots. Next it
forms a smaller apartment as
a store-house, that they may
have food when they awake
from their six month's sleep.

MARTEN. An animal that
may be classed among the
blood-sucking vermin of pole-
cats, weasels, and ermines,
which are so destructive about
farm-yards and hen-houses.

MASTIFF. This faithful
watch-dog is the largest and
most powerful of English dogs.
Long ago in England, all
watch-dogs that were not of
the true mastiff kind were
called ban-dogs, supposed to
mean baying dogs." A line
in Shakespeare says,-
The time when screech-owls cry, and
ban-dogs howl."


I1ARTEN.


MASTIFF.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


MERLIN. The smallest of
the British falcons, and one of
the swiftest on the wing; a
very bold bird of prey, easily
tamed. When the amusement
of hawking was common, the
merlin was valued as a lady's,
bird.

MOLE. A small reptile-
eating animal that burrows in
the ground, where it gets its
food, such as earth-worms. It
was long believed that the
mole had no eyes, so that "as
blind as a mole" was a by-
word; but it has eyes, only
they are very small, and sunk
deep in the fur. The mole's
sense of smell and of hearing
is very keen.

MOON-FISH, sometimes called
Sun-fish. This curious fish,
which looks as if the whole
body was only the head part
of a large fish, is caught in
British waters. The food of
the moon-fish is said to consist
of seaweed and shell-fish. The
flesh resembles that of skate,
and is relished by sailors.


MERLIN.



\ ---- ,







MOLE.











MooN-FISa.
MOON-FISH.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


MOOR-HEN, or Water-hen.

-i- ^ the moor-hen differs from that
i---
:- ..-bird in its habits. The haunt
S of the moor-hen is by the
margins of streams or lakes,
-'_ -2 where there is much vegeta-
MOOR-UEN. tion, and where it can dash
along swiftly on the surface
of the water and under it.


MOSQUITO, or Musquito.
The name of one of the most
tormenting of insect pests.
The bite of the mosquito, in
the sultry countries which it
inhabits, is venomous, causing
great itching for several days.
It is thought by some that
flies of this kind were one of
the plagues of Egypt.

MOUSE. A destroying little
timid pest of our homes is the
common brown mouse, which
follows man wherever he goes,
It does much damage in farm-
yards and grain-lofts. As the
young mice come into the
world blind and naked, the
mother mouse prepares a nice
warm nest for them.


MOSQUITO.


MOUSE
. -- _
OU SE.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


MULE. A beast of burden
which ranks between the ass
and the horse. It is not so
showy, so fleet, or so dashing
as the horse, but it is hardy,
patient, cautious, and sure-
footed; and for these reasons
it is chosen to bear loads
along paths where hardly any
other animal could hold its
footing securely.

MULLET. This is the gray
mullet, so plentiful in British
waters and in other seas.
Mullets live in large shoals,
and are often seen near the
mouths of rivers. They are
caught in nets. Their flesh is
very tender and delicate. They
feed upon small crabs and
shell-fish.

MUSK DEER. The animal
from which is obtained the
perfume called musk. It in-
habits the high mountains of
Central Asia. The animal in
the picture is called the pigmy
musk; it has no horns. It is
a native of Java and the ad-
jacent islands.


MULE.


MULLET.


MIUSK DEER.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


MUSK Ox. This animal
lives far away in the cold
parts of North America, where
it feeds upon the grasses and
lichens which grow there.
The flesh of the animal smells
strongly of musk-hence its
name. The musk ox is not a
large animal; the great mass
of long brown silky hair
makes it look larger.

MUSSEL. A well-known
shell-fish, plentiful on almost
every coast; and when the
tide is low, great numbers may
be seen in the mud-banks, in
the crevices of the rocks, and
in the pools of sea-water left
upon the beaches. All the
sea-mussels spin short, horny
threads, by which they attach
themselves to the rocks.

NARWHAL. This large ani-
mal, which inhabits the north-
ern seas, belongs to the Whale
family, and is remarkable for
its long, straight tusk or horn
of finest ivory, giving to the
animal the name of the sea-
unicorn.


MUSK OX.


MUSSEL.


4





NARWHAL,






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


NAUTILUS, Argonaut, or
Paper Sailor, has its home far
away in the Pacific and Indian
Oceans. It has a white, deli-
cate, and beautiful shell, two
large eyes, and eight long
arms covered with suckers by
which it can cling tightly to
anything it takes hold of.

NEWFOUNDLAND DOG. This
noble animal is named after
its native island, where it is
employed as a beast of bur-
den. From three to five are
tackled to a sledge or cart
loaded with three hundred-
weight of wood, which they
will draw for miles. With
us he is the companion of
man, and many persons he
has saved from drowning.

NEWT, A reptile of the Sa-
lamander kind, hatched from
eggs. It passes through the
tadpole state, a fish-like form,
having no legs: that is the
first stage from the egg. The
one in the picture is called the
crested newt, from the deeply-
toothed edge on the back.


NAUTILUS.


------N D.
~EmVFOUrbNDLK DOG.


NEWT.


,. __







BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


I->p~

I.'
'-I.


NORTHERN DIVER,


A ~ A~',~" .~


NUT-HATCH.


NUT-HATCH. A small, song-
less, tree-climbing bird that
S belongs to Europe; yet, as a
British bird, the nut-hatch is
-*_- -.confined to the south of En-
S--.-,1:-i It feeds on insects,
i,',.' berries, and nuts; it cracks
'-") the nuts by fixing them in a
S chink and striking them with
its bill.


NIGHTINGALE. A summer
visitor to the warmer parts of
Britain; a bird that sings
later in the night and earlier
in the morning than any other
bird, unless it be the redstart,
and said to be the sweetest
of song-birds.

NORTHERN DIVER, or "Loon."
A large sea-bird common on
the northern coasts of the
British Islands, the Western
Islands, and the Orkneys.
The eggs are somewhat like
those of the goose, but slightly
spotted with black. Its webbed
feet are set so far back that
it cannot walk well, but makes
a tumbling scramble for the
water, its proper element.


.'
- i
mNIBTINO tAE


~ ~c-






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


NYLGHAU. This large ani-
mal, which belongs to the
Antelope family, is an inhabit-
ant of the forests of India and
Persia. It is a fierce, horned
animal, and it is of little use
to the hunter.

OCELOT. A member of the
Cat family, and a native of
Central America. In size, it
stands between the tiger and
the domestic cat. It paces
along with the same long step
and noble tread as the tiger.
The one in the picture is called
the linked ocelot, because the
markings on its fur are chain-
like.

OPOSSUM. There are many
kinds of this animal. This
one is a native of North Amer-
ica. It is about the size of a
cat, and, as with the kangaroo,
the female has a pouch in which
she carries her young. It has
been said that the opossum
has a gape like a pike, and
has the ears of a bat, the feet
of an ape, and the tail of a
serpent.


NYLGHAU


':7
- -/:

---~ ----U--- .. .:-



OCELOT.

.- O-- O .


-. -- .. ; .

._a : .* .. ,.. .: _-
^^'a-



OPOSSUM.






BEASTS. BIRDS, AND FISHES.


ORANG-OUTANG.


ORIOLE.


ORANG-OUTANG. An ani-
mal of the Ape kind found in
the Sunda Isles, and some-
times called "the wild man of
the woods." It feeds on vege-
tables, spending much of its
life among the branches of
Streets; for it cannot walk well
on the ground, but goes on
from tree to tree with much
ease and quickness.

ORIOLE. This is the golden
oriole, very rare in Britain,
but common in the south of
Europe. It feeds on insects,
worms, and caterpillars; but
it also likes berries, cherries,
and other sweet fruits. The
nest is hung from the end of
a slender twig or branch.

ORTOLAN. This bird be-
longs to the family of Bunt-
ings. The ortolan is rare in
Britain, but in many parts of
SEurope, as Italy, France, Ger-
many, and Sweden, it is plenti-
ful. Great numbers are caught
and fattened for the market,
for they are a luxury of the
table.


~I
--






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


ORYX. An animal of the
Antelope kind. The one in
the picture has another name
-the gemsbok. You see that
its horns, sloping backward,
are nearly straight. There is
another variety-the true oryx
-which has the horns curved
backward. Both are animals
of the African plains.
OSPREY, or Fish Eagle. A
large bird of prey,living chiefly
upon fishes, which it takes by
darting upon them, sometimes
plunging two feet under the
surface of the water. It makes
its nest in the crevices of rocks
or on the tops of tall trees,
laying from two to four eggs.

OSTRICH. Belongs to a
class called Running Birds,
which move by running instead
of flying. It is the swiftest-
footed of known animals. This
bird of the desert is a native
of Africa, and measures from
seven to eight feet in height;
its wings, of long, soft plumes,
much esteemed for ornament,
are useless for flight.


ORYX.


OSPREY.


OSTRICH,






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


OTTER. This animal in-
habits different parts of the
world. It .is truly a water
animal. Though the otter
cannot walk well on land, it
passes the daytime among the
rocks, and only at night goes
forth to catch fish. It is fond
of salmon and trout, and is
therefore the angler's enemy.

OUNCE. At one time thought
to be a variety of the leopard,
which it equals in size; but
it is easy to know it from
the other by the roughness of
its fur, as well as by the mark-
ings upon it; also by the tail
being more bushy. The ounce
is an inhabitant of India and
other parts of Asia.

OUZEL. Commonly called
the ring ouzel or ring thrush,
on account of the broad white
patch on the upper part of the
breast. This bird is not plen-
tiful in Britain, being but a
summer visitor. It feeds
chiefly on insects, grubs, and
caterpillars. Its haunts are
secluded glens and ravines.


OTTER.


OUNCE.


OUZEL.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


OWL. The common name
of a large family of night-
preying birds. The one in
the picture is called the barn-
owl, the screech-owl, or the
white owl, well known over
Britain by any of these names.
It is also spread over Europe,
Asia, and America. It is said
to be the most useful, and in
its plumage the most beautiful,
of British owls.

Ox. The domestic ox is
spread nearly over the world
in one or other of its kinds.
When we say oxen, we mean
more than one. In many
parts of the country these do
the work of horses in tilling
the land with the plough.
The male ox is called a bull,
the female a cow, and the
young a calf.

PANTHER. An animal a
little larger in size, and more
savage in its ways, than the
leopard. The panther looks
very much like the leopard in
the markings of its fur, and is
found in the same countries.


OWL.


PANTHER.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


PAROQUET. The plumage
of this bird is pale green, with
a black collar round the neck,
which gives it the name of
ring parrakeet, as the name is
sometimes written. The two
middle feathers of the tail are
always much longer than the
others.

PARROT. The bird in the
picture is the common gray
parrot, a native of Western
Africa, brought to this coun-
try by sailors; it is easily
tamed and taught to speak.
With us it is a very long-
lived bird; some have been
known to reach a hundred
years. The plumage is a
sober gray, excepting the tail
feathers, which are red.

PARTRIDGE. There are sev-
eral kinds of this bird. The
one in the picture is called the
common or gray partridge of
the copse and corn-field. There
is a curious thing about this
bird: in many cases the young
run about before quite getting
rid of the shell.


PAROQUETS.


PARROI








P- ART -" I
PARTRIDGE,






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


PEACOCK. This beautiful
and hardy bird is a native of :
India. A tuft or crest of
feathers adorns the head of
male and female; but the great
beauty of the male bird is in
his tail or train, which he can .
erect or spread at pleasure,
and which shows a beautiful '
display of colours. In this
country the peacock is kept
to adorn the park, the lawn, PEACOCK
and the farm-yard.
PELICAN. A large, heavy '-
web-footed bird with very
short legs. It is found in '
Africa, Asia, South America, '
and Southern Europe, where -.
it haunts the rivers, the lakes, ,.. -
and the sea-coasts; for it is a A.. r1!"''
keen fisher, and is provided '
with a pouch in which it car- PELICAN.
ries the fish to the shore. The
plumage is white. .
PERCH. One of the most

fishes, found in the lakes and
large ponds of nearly all Europe -
and Asia, and much esteemed
as an article of food. PERCH






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


I--


I I ;




PETREL.


PHEASANTS.


PIG=EO.


PETREL. A long-winged
web-footed ocean bird, which
comprises a large family, of
various sizes and of different
habits, that consume the sur-
face refuse of the sea. The
plumage of this bird, commonly
called the stormy petrel, or
Mother Carey's chicken," is
sooty black.
PHEASANT. There are many
birds known by this name.
' The one in the picture is called
the golden pheasant, a native
of China. From the head rise
some long rich golden-yellow
feathers, which hang becom-
ingly over the hind part.
Pheasants feed on rice, hemp-
seed, wheat or barley, and
herbs, fruits, and insects.

PIGEON. There are a great
manykinds of dove-cot pigeons,
of which this is one, such as
pouters, fantails, carriers, tum-
blers, nuns, jacobins, etc. They
all come from the rock-pigeon
in the wild state, so named
from its natural dwelling being
in rocks rather than in trees.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


PILCHARD, or Gipsy Herring,
is like the herring in size and
form, but is thicker. When a -
pilchard is held by the tip of
the dorsal or back fin, the
head rises and the tail droops a
down, which is the very reverse -
of what happens with the her- =- -- --
ring. Many millions of pil- -
chards are caught every year. PILCHARD


PILOT-FISH. This little fish
is very nimble and swift in
its movements. It is silvery
gray, with five dark-blue bands
round its body. It is often
seen swimming before a ship
or in front of sharks following
a ship-hence its name. The
usual length of the pilot-fish
is twelve inches.


-- --



PILOT-FISH.


PIPE-FISH. There are many
kinds of this fish in British
waters. This one is also called
the bill-fish and the sea-needle.-
A curious thing about these
fishes is that the male is fur-
nished with a pouch or bag,
into which the female drops -
the eggs, or roe, there to be-
hatched by the male. PIPE-FISH.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


PLAICE. A flat fish common






PLAICE. chiefly with the trawl-net.
Plaice is in season a great part
S-- of the year, buitit soon be-
Scomes tainted after being
taken from the water.
-_= PLOVER. There are many
kinds of plovers under differ-
"---.'ent names. They are all stilt-
S'i- : birds, and they may be said
to be spread all over the world.
They breed on the margins of
-- marshes and streams, mostly
in wild places. They resemble
PLOVER. the lapwings in their haunts
and habits.
POINTER. A kind of
sporting-dog trained to stop
Sand point with his nose to the
Place where the game is lying.
There are several kinds of
-" pointers, of which the Spanish
is said to be the best. He
"; is more sure and steady, obedi-
POINTER. ent and teachable.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


POLAR BEAR. A great
heavy, stout bodied, fierce
white animal inhabiting, as
its name shows, the polar
regions of the far North. It
is a land animal, or more
properly an ice and snow
animal; and yet the prey
which it pursues is not land
animals, but those of the frozen
sea, such as seals and the like.

POLECAT. A blood-sucking
animal of the Weasel kind,
with a long body and short
legs. It is nimble and bold,
and climbs walls with ease to
destroy the poultry wholesale.
In the rabbit-warren it will
kill a great number of rabbits
in one day.
PONY. A smart little ani-
mal of the Horse kind. The
best are said to come from
Wales, Dartmoor, Exmoor, and
Iceland. The favourite is the
Shetland pony (sheltie), from
the northern islands of Scot-
land, where they used to run
wild, but are now tended and
folded like sheep or cattle.


POLAR BEAR.


POLECAT.


PO Y.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


ii

*0'r
'I


POODLE. A small dog with
long; fine, white curly hair.
It is sometimes called the les-
ser water-spaniel. It is very
playful, and swims well. It
is a much-petted dog, and be-
comes very fond of its master
or mistress. (See LAP-DOG.)

PORCUPINE. An animal
found in Africa, India, and
Southern Europe. It is a
gnawing animal that sleeps in
its burrow through the day
and quits it at night in search
of its food, which is vegetable,
as roots, buds, and fruits.
When angry it can erect its
' spines; and, like the hedgehog,
it can coil itself into a ball.

PORPOISE, or Sea-Hog. A
shoaling fish belonging to the
Whale family. It is plentiful
in all European seas, and on
the coasts of North America.
It is generally about six or
seven feet long. Its blubber
yields about a hogshead of oil.
The upper part of the porpoise
is bluish black and the under
part whitish.


POODLE.


P-.- ".


PORCUPINE.


PORPOISE.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


POUTER. There are about
twelve different kinds of do-
mestic pigeons, of which the
pouter (sometimes written
power ") is one. The bird
in the picture has the power
to puff up or swell the crop.
PRAWN. A shell-fish which
is highly esteemed as a delicacy.
It is generally about three
inches in length, and of a
pale-red colour. Prawns gen-
erally inhabit sandy bottoms
near coasts. It is interesting
to watch the habits of the
prawn in an aquarium-that
is, a tank with glass sides, for
holding and showing water
plants and animals, and their
modes of living.

PTARMIGAN (pronounce, tar-
migan). Ptarmigans, the
smallest of the British grouse,
haunt the lofty heights of
Europe, Asia, and North Amer-
ica, descending to feed on the
buds of trees, wild berries,
young shoots of heath, and on
insects. The feet of these
birds are covered with feathers.


POUTER.


PRAWN.


PTARMIGAN






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


' ,A


QUAGGA. An African ani-
mal of the Horse kind, very
plentiful on the plains of Cape
Colony, where it is found in
Large herds. The quagga is
a spirited little animal, easily
: tamed, and a willing servant.
The face, neck, and shoulders
are striped like the zebra.


QUAGGA.


.-_- e PUFFIN, or Coulter-neb (so
called from the droll shape of
S its beak), is a web-footed, short-
Swinged sea-bird, very common
Sin Britain. At the Needles in
the Isle of Wight and in other
-_- places it is plentiful. Its food
consists of fishes and insects.

PTUMA, called also the Amer-
',,, ican Lion. It is of a tawny
colour without spots or stripes
when full grown, and is found
in both South and North
America. It often climbs
trees, and lies upon a branch,
ready to spring upon its prey
as it passes below. The puma
S is easily tamed, and shows
much affection to those who
S are kind to it, purring like
the domestic cat when stroked.


PUFFIN.


PUMA.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


QUAIL. A bird of the
same family as the pheasant
and partridge. It has a round, i
plump body and short legs;


and is more of a running bird
than a flying one. Quails are
found in some parts of Europe,
Asia, and Africa, and are killed
in great numbers for the table.

RABBIT. A gnawing little
animal of the Hare kind;
but the wild rabbit burrows
in the ground. Here is a
curious summing up :-" A
female rabbit will bring forth
about eight young rabbits
seven times in the year, so
that in four years her off-
spring would amount to one
million two hundred and sev-
enty-four thousand eight hun-
dred and forty individuals."

RACE-HORSE. A horse
trained to run for a prize. It
is related of Eclipse," a well-
known racer in his day, that
he had won for his owner
more than twenty-five thou-
sand pounds within seventeen
months.


- -~--,- -

QUAIL.


'~----
r I


RABBIT.


RACE-HORSE.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


RACOON.


RAM.


i.j

7,-





RAT


RACOON. An inhabitant of
the warmer parts of America.
It has a curious habit of
plunging its food in water
and rolling it between its paws
before eating it. The racoon
sleeps during the day with its
head sunk between its hind
legs; at night it goes forth to
search for food.

RAM. The male sheep; the
owner of a very bad temper.
We are accustomed to look
upon the female as a mild,
timid creature. Not so the
ram: he is a bold and power-
ful one to contend against
when he hurls himself forward,
butting with head and horns.

RAT. A gnawing animal,
and one of the greatest animal
pests in dwellings, store-houses,
farm-yards, and mills-indeed,
everywhere. The one in the
picture looks like what is
known as the sewer-rat, the
only kind useful to man by
devouring the animal and vege-
table offal that might otherwise
breed a plague.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


RATEL. An animal about
the size of the badger, and -
nearly allied to the glutton.-.
The ratel inhabits South Africa,
and lives by plundering the
wild bees of their honey, which,
owing to the thickness of its
skin, it does without fear of RA
the stings of swarms of angry
bees.

RATTLESNAKE. This terrible
reptile, with its deadly fangs,
is a native of North America.
As the name implies, this
large serpent has a number of
horny joints on the end of the
tail, which rattle against one -
another when the animal puts .
its tail in motion.
RATTL]
RAVEX. This bird belongs
to the Crow family, of which
it is the largest and most '-
powerful member. It lives in
the wilds rather than in the
woods, although it sometimes
builds its nest there; but it' -
prefers the ledges and clefts of _
high rocks for that purpose. -- .
Worms, grubs, and caterpillars
form the food of the raven. RA


TEL.


SNAKE.


VEN.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


RAZOR BILL. Sometimes
called the common auk, which,
unlike the great auk in this
respect, can fly well. The
razor-bill finds its food in the
sea, and yet builds on the
ledges of lofty rocks many
hundred feet above the water.
The eggs and flesh of the razor-
bill are rank and fishy, yet
they are used as food by the
northern islanders.

RED DEER. The male, the
only one that has horns, is a
hart or stag, the female a
hind, and the young a calf.
The stag is by much the larg-
est of European deer. The
number of red deer is now
greatly reduced in Britain. In
some parts of Scotland great
numbers are still found.
REDSTART. This handsome
bird is classed among the Brit-
ish warblers. As a summer
visitor, it is common in the
south of England. Like the
nightingale, it begins its song
at early dawn, and also con-
tinues it into the night.


RAZOR-BILL.


RED DEER.


REDSTART.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


REDWING. A European bird -- -
classed among the Thrushes,
and sometimes called the red-
sided thrush, the wind-thrush, -
the swine-pipe, and, from the
melody of its song, the night-
ingale of Norway. The red-
wing is a northern bird in the i
breeding season. Its food con--
sists of wild berries, insects, REDWING
and worms..
REINDEER. The Caraboi '-
in North America. Thes.
useful animals differ front,
others of the Deer tribe ii
the female having horns a:
well as the male. There 1
no other animal so much -
servant to man in any country -- -
as the reindeer is to the Lap- REINDEER.
lander; its body serves him -
with everything needful tc lit. .'
RHINOCEROS. A thik- -
skinned animal that st .::-1:- W) :
next to the elephant Ini
strength, and inhabits ti
hotter parts of Asia :i
Africa. Those of Asia :,..
but one horn on the n.., -
those of Africa have two. RBINOCEROS.









ROACH. A fresh-water fish
of the Carp family, and allied
to the dace. It is a pretty
fish that swims in shoals,
usually in lakes.

ROBIN. A European bird
classed among the warblers, a
family of great service to the
gardener in destroying earth-
worms, insects, and caterpillars.
Our winter welcome visitant,
the robin, is also called robin
''- redbreast, robin redstart,
robinet, and ruddock, owing
to the breast being of a red-
dish-orange colour. The robin
., builds its nest on the ground,
or near it-in a hole near the
root of a tree, or in a wall.
It lines the nest with dry grass,
withered leaves, and feathers.
The eggs are from four to seven
in number, and are spotted a
j rusty red.

ROEBUCK. The most hand-
..some of the Deer kind, smaller
than the fallow-deer. Some
think it should be classed
among the antelopes. Its
horns are sharp and pointed.


BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


BOACH.


ROBIN.


ROEBUCK.






.BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


ROOK. It is interesting to
watch the habits of these well-
known birds in their commu-
nity, called a rookery. They
have laws to regulate their
conduct. One of their laws
at the building time is, that
all the sticks must be fetched ,
from a distance. Lazy rooks,
when discovered breaking this
law by taking sticks from a
tree whereon other nests are
building, are set upon and
banished by the others.

RUFF. A bird which belongs
to what are called the stilt or
running birds. It is not so
plentiful in Britain as formerly.
It takes its name from the
ruff of feathers that surrounds
the neck of the male bird in
the breeding season. Like
our game-cock, the ruff is a
fighting bird at the pairing
time, when the wars of the
ruffs begin.
SABLE. A small animal
of the Weasel family, much
sought after in Siberia for the
sake of its valuable fur.


ROOK.







/FM".






RUFF.


SABLE.







BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


-
I







-"
S, .. -- -:-..'...:: .. ?. '*




SALAMANDER.










SAL3ION.













SAW-FISH.
_. -- - "t -


-- __ --_ ----
BAW-FIH.


SALAMANDER. A reptile of
the Lizard kind. This is the
common salamander. It is
black, marked with large bright
yellow spots. It inhabits some
parts of Europe, where it lives
in damp, gloomy holes of the
earth, under stones, or in
ruined walls. It is slow and
heavy in its motions, feeding
upon flies, worms, slugs, and
the like. In former times the
wildest fables were invented
about this timid, harmless
creature-that its bite was in-
stant death; that it lived and
crawled about in red-hot,
glowing furnaces.

SALMON. This is the most
handsome fish that ever
adorned the fishmonger's stall,
and is highly esteemed as an
article of food. Salmon pass
the summer in the sea; but in
autumn they push up rivers,
leaping the falls, in order to
find a gravel bed on which to
deposit their eggs to be hatched.

SAW-FISH. A large fish of
the Shark kind.






- BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


SCORPION. It is curious to
think that this lobster-looking
creature should be classed
among the spiders. It has
eight legs, and from eight to ;
twelve eyes; the tail is formed
of six joints, ending in a
venomous sting; it has two
arms with large claws. The
breathing-pores are four on
each side along the belly.
These dreaded creatures in-
habit most warm countries,
crawling into houses, to the
great terror of the inmates.

SEAL. This is the common
seal, the colour of whose fur
is a grayish yellow, sprinkled
with spots of brown. It is
five or six feet in length, is
found on the shores of all the
colder places of Europe, and is
valued for the oil and the
skin.

SETTER. A sporting dog0
trained to sit or crouch to the
game he finds, in much the
same way as the pointer; in-
deed, the setter and the pointer
are nearly alike in their habits.


s,' C -.
sCORPION.


SEAL.


SETTER.






BEASTS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.


SHAD. A fish much like
the herring, only larger; in-
deed, in some places it is called
the king of the herrings. And
yet the shad differs in its
habits from the herring and
____ _~--_ _t_ he pilchard, which never leave
_~- ---_ _-__- the sea, whereas shads ascend
SHAD. the larger rivers into the fresh
waters to deposit their spawn.
The shad is very good food.
SHARK. This one is called
----- the white shark, the largest
S.--.- -^ and most fierce of the tribe.
-- .When about to seize its prey
"- -_ --. ---''..-- it has to turn on one side or
SHARK. on its back. There are other
kinds of sharks, as the hammer
shark, the thresher shark, and
the saw-fish.
.. SHEPHERD'S DOG. This is
a most useful kind of dog.
-" Twenty shepherds without a
Sdog could not do the work of
one shepherd with a dog. At
:the word of command it has
-- sometimes to run over the hills
"- for miles. It does this quickly,
'' and gets its master's flock to-
.HEP FIRD'S DOG. gether by themselves.




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