Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Executive summary
 Initial resource impressions
 Tasks and test review
 Post test reactions
 Findings and recommendations
 Informed consent form

Title: Usability Test Report for Chronicling America
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00083037/00001
 Material Information
Title: Usability Test Report for Chronicling America
Physical Description: Report (15 pages)
Language: English
Creator: Ochoa, Marilyn N.
Reakes, Patrick
Publisher: University of Florida Digital Collections (UFDC)
Publication Date: April 30, 2008
Subject: University of Florida.   ( lcsh )
Abstract: A usability study on the National Digital Newspaper Project web presence Chronicling America.
Funding: Funded in part by the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00083037
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida


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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Executive summary
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Initial resource impressions
        Page 7
    Tasks and test review
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Post test reactions
        Page 11
    Findings and recommendations
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Informed consent form
        Page 15
Full Text

Usability Test Report for Chronicling America

Date of Report:
Period of Testing:

Prepared for:

Prepared by:

April 30, 2008
February 29- March 31, 2008

Erich Kesse
Digital Library Center
University of Florida

Deborah Thomas
National Digital Newspaper Program, Coordinator
LS/CS/Serials and Government Publications Division
Library of Congress

Marilyn N. Ochoa
Assessment Team Leader and Member, Digital Library
Center/Systems Group
Assistant Head Librarian, Education Library
University of Florida

Patrick Reakes
Assessment Team Member
Head Librarian, Journalism Library
University of Florida

Table of Contents

Executive Sum m ary........................................................................... 3

M methodology ............................................... ............. .................................... .. .... 4
What happened during the usability test
Who we tested
Where we tested
What data was collected
Initial Resource Im pressions................ ...... ...... ...................................................7
What are your initial impressions of this resource?
What did you like about this resource?
What did you dislike about this resource?
What type of information would you expect to find on this resource?
T asks and T est R review ........... ..... ....... .......................................... .............................. ...... .........8
Overall Navigation and Ease of Use............... ............ ........... ....................... ..................8
S e a rc h in g ................ ..... ..... ................... .......................................... ... ......................9
R esu lts L ist ......................................................................... .............. .......................10
Item V iew er .................. ...... ...................... .............................................. .... .................... 10
Post-Test Reactions.................... .............. ............................................. ...............11

Findings & R ecom m endations..................................................................................................................12
Finding [#1]: Homepage for C h/, ,l i,,~ r America too involved
Finding [#2]: Multiple search interface options not immediately available or clear. Left
Navigation on all pages of site is useful; some items need to be reconsidered
Finding [#3]: Searches are generally easy to conduct, but some features do not allow quick
use of the resource. Known item searching is difficult to conduct using the site
Finding [#4]: Search result pages are simple and easy to navigate but some information goes
unnoticed or is difficult to interpret
Finding [#5]: The item viewer is clear and intuitive. Some output options need to be
A ppendices ................. ..................................................................................... 14
Appendix A. Official University of Florida Institution Review Board Protocol Informed
Appendix B. Supplemental Information, Questions received from email reference questions,
not attributed.

Executive Summary

Historical newspapers are a state treasure, the historian's and genealogist's best friend, and the
community's collective memory. In the world of newspapers, today's news is already history,
from the moment their stories are printed. The National Digital Newspaper Library exists to
provide access to the news and history of several states including Florida.

Chronicling America is a project developed as part of the National Digital Newspaper Program
(NDNP), a partnership between the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) and the
Library of Congress. It is a long-term initiative consisting of the development of two separate
resources. The first is a national newspaper directory, covering papers published from 1690 to
the present, which assists researchers in finding detailed information about the papers as well as
locations where they are held. The information in this directory was created through an earlier
NEH initiative, the United States Newspaper Program (USNP). The second resource entails the
digitization of a select group of historically significant newspapers from throughout the United
States, along with the development of a database that provides full text searching capability of
the digitized pages. This database will eventually include a substantial number of newspapers
published between 1836 and 1992 and encompass all fifty states as well as U.S. territories. The
digitization project is expected to take approximately 20 years to complete.

The first phase of newspaper digitization was undertaken by the Library of Congress and the six
institutions who received the initial NDNP grants in 2005. These institutions were the University
of California, Riverside; University of Florida (UF) Libraries, Gainesville; University of
Kentucky Libraries, Lexington; New York Public Library, New York City; University of Utah,
Salt Lake City; and Library of Virginia, Richmond. The newspapers digitized in this first phase,
which was completed in 2007, included public domain newspapers published between 1900 and
1910 in California, Florida, Kentucky, New York, Utah, Virginia, and the District of Columbia.
Initial usability testing of the beta version of the Chronicling America Web interface was
undertaken by Library of Congress staff members prior to its introduction to the public. However
significant changes were made to it during the interim period, resulting in fairly substantial
differences in the final product. As a result, this report provides the first usability testing and
analysis done on that version of the interface, which allows researchers to search and view
newspaper pages from 1897 to 1910 and find information about American newspapers published
between 1690 to present.

As a contributor to the National Digital Newspaper Library project, the UF Assessment Team
included the evaluation of Chronicling America to the testing planned for the local database
developed, the University of Florida Digital Collection (UFDC). The major goal of the UF
project was to examine information discovery and retrieval using both the UFDC interface for
the Florida Digital Newspaper Library (FDNL) as well as the Library of Congress' Chronicling
America interface. The investigation of this resource examined how effectively the site and
search interfaces match user expectations and needs. In addition, it assessed how well the design
of the digital library allows for ease of use by researchers who have encountered it.

To evaluate Chronicling America, the UF Assessment Team developed and administered
usability testing to a group of university participants. The testing examined ease of use,
navigability and learnability. Key areas of concern were identified prior to testing:

Are the search pages-View and Find-and navigation throughout the resource intuitive?
Can users readily understand what the resource can do for them? How easy is it to
understand and use the available search features to locate materials?
Do the result pages provide the type of information a participant needs? Do users retrieve
the anticipated results?
Does the site offer features and functions appropriate to ensure easy navigation and ease
of use?

The testing resulted in feedback with in the following overall findings:

Chronicling America is a tremendously useful, generally intuitive resource
Chronicling America offers too much explanatory text on the homepage
Distinguishing between the search options can be difficult
Exact title search and selection of specific newspapers from the search pages interface are

The following report will provide a summary of findings, including:

User difficulties and frustrations with the resource
Significant usability findings (may include positive as well as negative findings) and


Prior to the submission of the Institutional Review Board Protocol (IRB) to begin testing, the
Assessment Team members reviewed and considered:

Other newspaper resources available, both commercial and similar digital initiatives
Reference questions received by UF Reference staff over the years requiring the use of
newspaper collections. (Appendix A. Supplemental Information)
Previous usability testing of the UFDC, the template for the FDNL interface

Based on the review of other newspaper databases and digital libraries and previous testing by
the Assessment Team Leader of newspaper resources, the Team avoided questions that
addressed certain user expectations of granular search criteria (article title name, article author,
newspaper section). The reference questions reviewed indicated that users often need to discover
newspaper holdings and specific event information based on location and date; the questions
developed for testing focused on this type of user need. A final protocol was accepted by the UF
IRB prior to testing. (Appendix B. Official University of Florida IRB Informed Consent)

What happened during the usability test

The evaluation of the UFDC was conducted at the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida.
The research methodology involved resource testing to evaluate online participant search
behavior. Two sets of test questions were used. All participants were given both sets of
questions. One set considered the University of Florida's FDNL interface while the other set
focused on Chronicling America.

Participants of the usability testing completed pre- and post- test questionnaires that were used to
determine experience using online library resources and their satisfaction with using the
resource. Participants completed a test session consisting of structured exercises using the
Chronicling America search interfaces; result pages and item viewer. During the individual test
sessions, participants spoke out loud about their process to complete each question and what they
expected would happen; responses were written down by the librarian.

Who we tested
The individual usability testing took place between February 29 and April 9, 2008.

The eleven participants of the usability testing were recruited prior to testing. Participants were
selected from three categories of academic users who represented the subject areas the librarian
felt would be interested in the newspaper content tested.

Faculty participants were recruited by email to personal contacts of subject specialists in Mass
Communications and Education. Graduate and undergraduate participants were frequent library
users who responded to an open invitation by assessment team members. The participants
reported the following profile characteristics:

Academic Status Area of Academic Interest

Faculty 2
Graduate Student 4
Undergraduate Student 5

Natural Sciences 2
Social Sciences 5
Arts and Humanities 3
Law 1

Self-reported Web Skills
Searching skill levels are all self-reported values gathered from pre-test questionnaires.

No online search experience 0
Novice user 2
Proficient user 5
Highly experienced user 4
Expert 0

Most participants indicated that reasons for using particular resources include the ease of navigation,
familiarity, speed of retrieved results and appropriateness of content covered in the resource.

Resources Used to Locate Newspaper

Google 9
Another WWW search engine 3
Library Database like Factiva
or LexisNexis 10
Special online newspaper
collections (specified as
Proquest National
Newspapers) 2
Microfilm at the library 3

Important features of online resources

Ability to search specific fields 10
Use of Boolean operators 5
Use of truncation and wildcards 3
Help screens 5
Simple navigation of resource 9
Consistent navigation 9
Ability to retrieve a variety of
formats (e.g. images, PDF, text) 10
Saving items to a basket 6
Other 1

Where we tested

In most cases, individual testing and observation was conducted in the University of Florida
Education Library, Journalism Library or in the faculty member's office. The following is a
general summary of the participants' computing environment:

URL of tested website: [http://www.loc.gov/chroniclingamerica/]
Computer platforms: [Dell Pentium IV with an 17" display]
Browser tested: [Mozilla Firefox]
Screen resolution: [1024 X 768]
Operating system: [Windows XP]
Connection speed: [Shared T1]

What data we collected

The assessment team members collected data that would address the major elements of the
FDNL including overall navigation and ease of use; searching features; result pages; and the item
viewer. Other features not yet implemented were also addressed.

Initial Resource Impressions

At the beginning of each individual scenario-based test session, we allowed the participants to
preview the resource. We asked participants the following four questions:

What are your initial impressions of this resource?
What did you like about this resource?
What did you dislike about this resource?
What type of information would you expect to find on this site?

Based on searching Chronicling America during this initial perusal phase, the general impression
users had is that it is a graphically attractive, well organized resource. However, five participants
indicated that the text on the page was excessive and that they would not read it. They revealed
that they would only spend a short time scanning and exploring the text to find out what it
contains and would abandon the resource if their needs are not readily met.

The overall assumption regarding content is that the database would cover older, historical
newspapers and serve as a newspaper archive providing images of state newspapers.

When asked who would use this resource, participants noted that content is appropriate for
researchers and historians; some UF faculty and graduate students; and outside researchers.

What are your initial impressions of this resource?
Thought the resource was organized, aesthetically pleasing and professional
Liked the possibility of using the historical content, accessing materials only found in
physical archives on microfiche or microfilm
Believed that homepage provided a long description of what the resource will provide

What did you like about this resource?
Consistent site navigation links in upper left hand available throughout site
Breadcrumbs for determining where the researcher is in the site
Bolded and colorful sections to indicate two search features, though the search boxes
were too low on the page
Ability to search by location or by date/date range
Fast page load time
Result page list provides individually matched images
Scroll bar to navigate between pages of results
Several output options readily available
Ability to browse all pages, issues and newspaper information from each individual page
Grab and move feature on page images
Highlighted text

What did you dislike about this resource?
Too much text to read on introductory page
Having to click to enter into a search page (View or Find)
Labels on result pages not descriptive like other databases that give specific article titles

Inability to search by section, subject heading or specific author or title
Some images are sometimes too dark
Text view enables users to cut and paste, but only sometimes does the text seem to be
correctly interpreted
Not able to select specific newspapers by state listing to search full text

What type of information would you expect to find on this site?
Common answers included:
Specific newspaper articles based on search
Full text to many older newspapers
Newspaper information-basic bibliographic and holdings information
Illustration and advertisements
Editorial cartoons

Tasks and Test Review

During the usability evaluation, participants were asked to complete a number of tasks using the
resource. The questions were presented in order on index cards. The following questions were
asked of all participants to ensure they explored most features of the resource. The issues are
addressed in this section and again in the Findings and Recommendations section of this

# Scenario-Based Tasks Issue Addressed
1 How many distinct newspaper titles are in the database? General Searching
2 How many distinct Florida newspaper titles are included in the General Searching
3 How many results are found for newspapers from Washington DC in Result list/Item
1903 with Miami in the text? How many times did the term appear Viewer
within the first record you select?
4 How many libraries hold the Colored American? Search Newspaper
5 How can you find out more about the newspaper the Colored Search Newspaper
American? Which libraries hold the newspaper? Directory
6 Find the Gainesville Independent: preceding title, publication place, Search Newspaper
publication location, frequency, and language Directory

Overall Navigation and Ease of Use/Intuitiveness
Participants were generally successful in navigating through the database's search interfaces,
result pages and item viewer. All users reported a satisfactory experience with navigation and
ease of use of the resource. This is not surprising since the left navigation is always available
within the site and nine participants already expressed that consistent navigation is an important
feature of any resource they might use. All participants used or referred to the left navigation
pane to find out more information about Chronicling America as well as to navigate to specific
search interfaces in their searching.

One prominent feature desired is that hitting the enter button on the keyboard would run the
search query, as opposed to having to manually click on the Search button. Further, some
problems with Reset occurred; in 3 cases, the terms remained in the search even after hitting the

No search box is immediately displayed on the page. The participants had to read text on the
homepage to help guide them to the appropriate search interface; only 27% (3) seemed to stop to
read the text and make a decision while the others cursorily glanced at the text. Most
participants (81%, 9) selected the first search box and seemed select it because it was first
interface link as opposed to selecting it because it is the most appropriate link to choose. Two
participants used the left navigation links to begin most searching while the remaining
participants used either the View and Find links at the bottom of the page. Once in a search
interface, however, participants were usually successful in finding the results needed.

Terminology. One of the biggest problems with searching was remembering which interface
they were searching. 27% of users raised the problem, suggesting that the breadcrumbs did not
use the same terminology as on the homepage. For example, the View Newspapers Pages (text
in the box on the homepage) search is the same as the Search Pages (serves as the text for the
"GO" button) and Search Newspaper Pages in the left view and on the actual search page. The
Find Information about Newspapers from 1690 to Today uses the Search Directory as the GO
button and Search Newspaper Directory on the left navigation and the search page. Using the
same terminology for the search pages in each of these would eliminate problems with recalling
or simply discovering where the user is in the site.

See All Available Newspapers. Participants could not find an easy way to access all titles that
are held in the database in both full text and in record form. The See AllAvailable Newspapers
link in the left navigation was considered one way to search for titles. Although the text for the
page reads, "These historic newspapers are available to read online in Chronicling America at
the Library of Congress" the four participants who selected this link thought they should be able
to find all newspapers in this list and be able to sort by state. Further three participants expressed
out loud that not being able to find a particular title was "annoying."

View. Almost all participants used this search interface at least initially to answer questions (10,
91%). Participants indicated at first glance that the search interface is robust because it provides
several options for searching, such as date range and search by keywords. However, once the
participants looked at the specific search limiters they wondered "why are there only these dates
and these papers or state?" In addition, the two means to select a newspaper (by state and by
newspaper title) was confusing and not useful to 54% (6) of participants. Based on the problems
users had with this section, it appears that participants had assumptions including:

By selecting a state, newspapers for that state should appear on the right
All newspapers in database should appear on this list

Assessment Team members attribute the first issue to users not reading the red bolded text. The
second assumption by users is likely because they did not read the description of the search page
they were entering.

Find. Participants tended to like the variety of search options until trying to track down a
specific title. From the homepage, 63% (7) participants used the A to Z list for finding specific
newspapers by title. However, those who did not use the A to Z list entered into the interface
and expected to be able to search by specific newspaper title, which is not available.

Although there are two methods to find newspaper by title, participants complained about not
going directly to that title; they often had to use either the scroll or the different sort options to
locate a specific title. Neither method seemed to offer efficient known item lookup to 81% of
participants. Some participants, after seeing that they needed to scroll to locate the title they
need, checked to see if the paper they sought was in the Search Newspaper Pages interface of the

Other issues. While individual limiters were welcome search options, 27% (3) users thought that
LCCN should be removed or be more intuitive.

Results List
All results retrieved were set to the default list display view. All participants thought this view
was appropriate for quick perusal of the results. Further, being able to select the number of
results displayed on the page itself was an added value feature. However, 36% (4) participants
wondered why the list was not numbered; while they thought the orange bullet was attractive on
the page, this made determining number of results on the page more difficult for them.

54% (6) noticed that Relevance was the sort option by default and tried sort options (i.e. state,
date or relevance). To be able to select the sort was important to the participants who used the
option. However, most participants used the sort by title or state because these made the most
sense to them; the relevance option was not helpful to some. As one participant put it, "all you
get is a the newspaper name and year, with an image number. What does that mean?"

Five participants of the usability testing commented on the slide/scroll bar for jumping to pages
of results. They thought this feature was especially useful because of the large number of pages
to navigate to. They also thought that the hyperlinked numbered pages above the scroll bar were

Number of Results. Most participants were able to identify the number of matched items
because of the line, "Your fulltext search for [bolded search term] retrieved [number retrieved]
results." However, while the bolded term was useful, the line itself was blended into the page
because the light gray color of the text sometimes went unnoticed.

Item Viewer
Once participants entered into a specific item, they were impressed and excited that the full text
content or image is available to them.

Finding Holding and Newspaper Information. Finding information about a newspaper that
includes the full citation information was usually easy for participants (63% 7) who entered into
the Search Newspaper Directory list; the terminology used (About this Newspaper) was
appropriate and intuitive to the participants. Further, once in a newspaper information screen,
the record provided links to the Libraries that Have it and MARC Record. Locating newspaper
information for 36% (4) participants was a more involved process. From the Search Newspaper
Pages results, participants who located a newspaper they needed information on selected the link
for the newspaper and then a link at the top of the page, "This Paper."

Zoom and Highlight Features. All participants thought that the zoom features available are
intuitive and useful. 100% thought that the grab and drag greatly enhanced their experience with
using this newspaper collection. The highlight features were also positively mentioned;
participants indicated this quick identification of important sections was exceptional. 54% (6)
expressed that they prefer to see the specific articles only, as they would in other newspaper
databases. They said that because Chronicling America cannot offer specific article titles, this
feature is necessary to help them wade though the resource. Of the 6 who commented, 2
indicated that if highlighting and direct entry to a page with the text were not available, they
might not use this site.

Output features. Although this was not tested, several participants thought that the output
features were impressive, including the ability to download in particular. Three participants
reviewed the Text of the full image and discovered that the incorrect characters and garbled view
of the page made this feature less attractive to use.

Post Test Reactions

At the end of each session, we asked participants to complete a post-test questionnaire. The
questions were useful in gauging how easy the resource was to learn and to use. Overall
navigation, ease of use, intuitiveness, Usefulness of Resource/Satisfaction, and results were

When asked what parts of Chronicling America should be improved, at least 50% suggested the

Enable searching by an individual title
Make total results retrieved information stand out more
Use consistent terminology for naming search pages (View or Find)
Add a single or general search box for quick searching on the homepage
Allow selection of state on View pages to pull up the titles by that state

Participants were also asked to provide any additional information or comments not addressed in
the post-test sessions.

Participants were impressed that the resources were full content
One participant stressed that the two interfaces should be combined

The major findings of the test sessions and focus group are indicated in the Findings and
Recommendation section of this report.

Findings & Recommendations

These findings and recommendations provide information from the testing and pre-/ post-test
questionnaires. While participants thought it was overall easy to understand and user-friendly,
the site requires some modification to increase ease of use. The following are specific issues and

Finding [#1]: Homepage for Chronicling America too involved
Comments/Supporting Evidence Recommendations

* Participants do not read text and make Reduce the text on the homepage to only
assumptions about content availability include information about the actual content
Participants did not immediately understand and the major intent for use.
the differences in type and range of resources Link any additional information in the FAQ
included in either the Find or the View or About C hi, ,r, i ii,, America link, including
how pages are ranked by relevancy

Finding [#2]: Multiple search interface options not immediately available or clear. Left
Navigation on all pages of site is useful; some items need to be reconsidered.
Comments/Supporting Evidence Recommendations

Too many possible names for each Search Ensure search interface links on the
section-View: Search Pages, Search homepage are closer to the top of the page to
Newspaper Pages and Find: Search prevent user from having to scroll
Directory, Search Newspaper Directory Ensure consistent use of terminology for the
Deciding which search to use was often two different search pages on the site-all
arbitrarily selected View searches change to Search Newspaper
Recalling which search option is currently Pages and all Find change to Search
being used can be done by breadcrumbs and Newspaper Directory
major heading on the result page, but the Change See All Available Newspapers to See
words View and Find found on the homepage All Full Text Newspapers in left navigation
are not used box
Determining which and how many Provide a link to see all newspapers held in
newspapers are available for each state (both both databases
full text and bibliographic record only) is Show available statistics and titles for
cumbersome newspapers by state
Quick access to search boxes from the Add a general search box for both search
homepage would make this site more efficient newspaper page and search directory from the
for return users homepage
Provide explanatory text at top of each search

Finding [#3]: Searches are generally easy to conduct, but some features do not allow quick
use of the resource. Known item searching is difficult to conduct using the site.
Comments/Supporting Evidence Recommendations

* Having to actively select the Search button
from the search page is inconvenient and
sometimes missed because they select the
Reset button instead
* Participants used A to Z list to find newspaper
by title but were frustrated when they needed
to scroll to locate the specific title
* Efficient known item searching is not
available; users cannot simply submit a
newspaper name but have to scroll for it or
hope that it is a top relevant item on the result
* Sometimes information from a previous
search stays in the search boxes, even when
the Reset button is selected

* Allow search queries to run when the Enter or
Return button on keyboard is hit
* Move the Reset button further from the
Search button
* Enable searching by specific title in both the
Find and View search pages
* Enable list of titles by state to be retrieved
* Fix Reset function

Finding [#4]: Search result pages are simple and easy to navigate but some information goes
unnoticed or is difficult to interpret.

* Once a result page is retrieved a sentence
shows the search terms and the number of
items returned. The bolded text of the term is
appropriate but the number does not stand
out; this sentence tends to be unnoticed.
* The results list display and order can be
changed depending on user preference. The
number of results displayed on the page can
be changed. Because of this, users thought it
could be helpful to show the number the item
is in the list of results instead of using the
bullet system.

* Bold number of results retrieved on result
pages or change color
* Change orange carrot to a number on result

Finding [#5]: The item viewer is clear and intuitive. Some output options need to be
Comments/Supporting Evidence Recommendations

* The item viewer is easy to navigate. Zoom Clean up OCR or remove the option
and image navigation features worked well.
* Output options such as Text was not quite as
effective because characters were not being
recognized correctly


Comments/Supporting Evidence

Appendix A. Supplemental Information, Questions received from email reference questions, not

o i got his death certificate that said he was accidentally killed by a train on may 27,1918. and it says
sumner county, fl. but that might be sumnter county. the precinct was Rosewood if that helps you any.
o I'm hoping to get a copy of a newspaper obituary for someone who died in 1982 and lived in Chipley,
Florida. I phoned the office of the Washington County News newspaper in Chipley and they told me
that they do not have any archives of the old newspaper
o The obituary is for Raymond Uzak (original name Uszczak) who died June 5, 1982 in or near
Chipley, Washington County, Florida. He was 67 years old and was survived by his wife Betty.
o I understand that the Univ. of Florida library may be in possession of microfilm of the Florida
Advocate Newspaper prior to 1930. The Florida Advocate was a weekly newspaper of Wauchula Fl
from 1900 to about 1950. I'm working on a history project and am trying to find what resources are
available. Thanks
o Can you research the University paper or the city paper to see if there is a mention of Neil Diamond
performing at the University on May 11, 1968. We have had that date, but have no confirmation of
the show there. In yesterday's Gainesville paper, there was an article about the 100th anniversary of
the high school there. Where are the newspaper resources located now? ( Fl Times Union, Miami
Herald, Tampa Tribune, St.Pete Times)

Approved by
University of Florida
Institutional Review Board 02
Informed Consent Protocol # 2008-U-0252
For Use Through 02/28/2009
Purpose of Research Study:
The purpose of this study is to examine information discovery and retrieval using the Florida
Digital Newspaper Library and Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers Databases.

What you will be asked to do in the study:
You will be asked to complete a short questionnaire to provide general information about your
experience using the Libraries web pages. You will then be asked to complete various tasks using
the University of Florida Digital Newspaper Library and the Library of Congress' Chronicling
America: Historic American Newspapers database. An investigator will take notes on your
actions. After this session the investigators will ask you to complete a post test questionnaire
where you will be asked provide feedback about your experience.

Time Required:
Completion of the pre-test and post test questionnaires should take less than 5 minutes. The test
session will take about 45 minutes to complete.

Risks and Benefits:
No risk is anticipated for the participant in the study. Potential benefit may include changes to the
library home page to enable ease of use for all users.

No monetary compensation will be paid for participation in the study. Refreshments may be

Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. Your information will be
assigned a code number. When the study is complete and the captured data is analyzed, the coded
data will be destroyed. You will not need to state your name in any part of the testing. Your name
will not be used in any reporting of the testing.

Voluntary Participation:
Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is not penalty for not participating.

Whom to contact if you have questions about the study:
Marilyn N. Ochoa, Assistant University Librarian. P.O. Box 117016, (352) 273-2627

Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in this study:
UFIRB Office, P.O. Box 112250, University of Florida, (352) 392-0433

I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily agree to participate in the procedure and I
have received a copy of this description.

Participant: Date:

Principal Investigator: Marilyn N. Ochoa \\9 Date:

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