Title: Memorandum of agreement between the University of Florida, FSSP and the University of Florida, International Programs Support Entity
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 Material Information
Title: Memorandum of agreement between the University of Florida, FSSP and the University of Florida, International Programs Support Entity
Series Title: Memorandum of agreement between the University of Florida, FSSP and the University of Florida, International Programs Support Entity.
Alternate Title: Farming Systems Support Project
Physical Description: 19 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Farming Systems Support Project
Publisher: Farming Systems Support Project, International Programs, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1982
 Subjects
Subject: Agricultural systems -- Research -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Agricultural extension work -- Research -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: "Pursuant to authority contained in Cooperative Agreement no. Dan-4099-A-00-2083-00 entitled ... FSSP, between the ...AID and the University of Florida, as "lead entity", a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the University of Florida as "Support Entity" is hereby established, with the following provisions."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00083028
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 218190302

Full Text







FARMING SYSTEMS SUPPORT PROJECT

Memorandum of Agreement

Between

The University of Florida, FSSP

and

The University of Florida, International Programs, Support Entity

Pursuant to authority contained in cooperative Agreement No.
Dan-4099-A-00-2083-00 entitled Farming Systems Support Project (FSSP), between
the Agency for International Development (AID) and The University of Florida
(UF), as "Lead Entity", a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between The University
of Florida as "Support Entity" is hereby established, with the following
provisions.

ARTICLE I STATEMENT OF WORK

A. The Support Entity shall, in keeping with the intent of Title XII of the
Foreign Assistance Act, as amended, assist the Lead Entity in implementation of
the FSSP Cooperative Agreement including:

1. Support to AID missions and third-world institutions by providing
technical assistance, training and networking to practitioners and
managers-administrators of farming systems programs as specified
in annual plans of work, and,

2. Advancement of the state of the arts in Farming Systems Research
and Development (FSR&D) which is comprised of Farming Systems
Infrastructure and Policy (FSIP) and Farming Systems Research/
Extension (FSR/E). Emphasis will be given to (FSR/E) management,
organization and methodologies for the generation, evaluation and
transfer of technology to family farmers.

B. The Support Entity shall join other FSSP support entities in expanding
capacity for farming systems assistance through a flexible administrative
structure and, as evidence to this commitment, has;

1. Identified a FSSP administrative contact;

Hugh Popenoe
Director
International Programs
3028 McCarty Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

-/ ?9"


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2. Identified a FSSP Program Leader;


Ken Buhr
Assistant Professor
Department of Agronomy
2183 McCarty Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

3. Listed FSSP Program Associates with training and/or experience in
farming systems (Attachment A), and

4. Indicated UF Faculty Program Interests (Attachment B) and UF FSSP
Institutional Capabilities (Attachment C).

C. The Lead Entity, on behalf of FSSP, based on item B 4 hereof, shall
facilitate the realization of opportunities to strengthen the Support Entity's
institutional capability in Farming Systems through training, field experience,
counsel on overall program and participation in task force endeavors.

D. The Lead Entity, on behalf of FSSP, shall include the Support Entity in
networking among regions, countries and support entities and provide enhanced
opportunities to participate in technical assistance.

E. The Support Entity shall report annually to the Lead Entity on activities
with the FSSP and relative to developments in section B hereof; and program
associates shall participate in other reporting efforts associated with
implementation of field training and technical assistance projects with which
they are directly involved.

ARTICLE II TIME OF PERFORMANCE

The work described in Article I hereof shall commence on the date of
signing of this Memorandum of Agreement and shall continue until September 30,
1987, the termination date of the FSSP Cooperative Agreement; unless both
agreements are otherwise amended to extend beyond that date; or unless, at any
time throughout the duration of the MOA, either party gives ninety days prior
notice of termination.

ARTICLE III COMPENSATION

This Memorandum of Agreement will serve as a general document under
which funding instruments can be directed to the FSSP Cooperative Agreement and
The University of Florida (Lead Entity) for specified tasks either of a short
term or long term nature. Such flexibility is recognized as desirable and
necessary for implementation of the emerging FSSP effort.


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Project Director


K. R. etir ller
Vice Presi nt for
Agriculture Affairs


Support Entit


/" Hua Popehde /
ector
ternational Programs,
Institute of Food and
AgriyItural Scices


Helen Safa
Director
Center For Latin American
Studies.


R. Hunt Davis, Jr./
Director
enter for A ica Studies


S. T. Woeste
Dean for Extension,
Institute of Food and
Agricutural Sciences


Dean for research,
Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences


LZachariah
Dea~/ior Resident Instruction,
Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences .


C. F. Sidman
Dean College of Liberal Arts
and Sciences


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Attachment A


(Article I; B.3.)

FSSP PROGRAM ASSOCIATES

The following UF faculty have expressed interest in, and are available
for, FSR activity. Biodata and resumes are available upon request.


Faculty Member


Ken A. Albrecht
Jose Alvarez
Keith Andrews
David D. Baltensperger
Carl S. Barfield
Robert P. Bates
L. J. "Bo" Beaulieu
William G. Blue
Elizabeth Bolton
Ken L. Buhr
William Burk
Joe Conrad
R. Hunt Davis, Jr.
J. Kamal Dow
George L. Ellis
E. C. "Tito" French
Christina H. Gladwin
Art Hansen
Barney Harris, Jr.
Larry Harris
Peter E. Hildebrand
David H. Hubbell
Gerald Kidder
Clyde F. Kiker
David A. Knauft
Steve Kostewicz
Mary Lamberts
Michael B. Lazin
Leslie S. Lieberman
John K. Loosli
Paul J. Magnarella
Maxine L. Margolis
Eugenio Martinez
Ellis L. Matheny, Jr.
Terry L. McCoy
Lee R. McDowell
Della McMillan
Steven K. O'Hair
Tim Olson
Jimmy Rich
Helen Safa


Affiliation


FSSP Training/Experience*


Agronomy
Food Resource Economics
Entomology and Nematology
Agronomy
Entomology and Nematology
Food Science and Human Nutrition
4-H, Rural Sociology
Soil Science
Extension Home Economics
Agronomy
Extension Home Economics
Animal Science
History
Food and Resource Economics
Animal Science
Agronomy
Food and Resource Economics
Anthropology
Dairy Science
Forestry
Food and Resource Economics
Soil Science
Soil Science
Food and Resource Economics
Agronomy
Vegetable Crops
Coop. Extension, Dade Cty.
Vegetable Crops
Anthropology/Pediatrics
Animal Science
Anthropology
Anthropology
Agronomy
Entomology and Nematology
Center for Latin American Studies
Animal Science
African Studies
Area Research and Extension, Homestead
Animal Science
Entomology and Nematology, Live Oak
Center for Latin American Studies


+ +4
+4
++
+ +

4+
4+


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M. Tom Sanford
Jerry Sartain
Dwight Schmidt
Jim R. Simpson
Romulo Soliz

Jerry Stimac
John Strayer
Anita Spring
Mickey E. Swisher
Barbarba Taylor
William Thatcher
P. Jon Van Blokland
Jack VanHorn
Pat Wagner

Cal White


Entomology and Nematology
Soil Science
Anthropology
Food and Resource Economics
Food and Resource Economics/
International Programs
Entomology and Nematology
Entomology and Nematology
Anthropology
Area Research and Extension, Live Oak
Extension Home Economics
Dairy Science
Food and Resource Economics
Dairy Science
Food Science, Human Nutrition/
Home Economics
Animal Science


* As indicated by individual Faculty Member; "+u indicating participation in
FSSP Training and "++" indicating experience in FSSP activity.


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++ Marian











Attachment B


(Article I; 8.4.)

UF Program Interests
General Philosophy

The ongoing University of Florida Farming Systems Research/Development
(FSR/D) program, in which are contained the Farming Systems Research and
Extension (FSR/E) and the Farming Systems Infrastructure Policy (FSIP)
programs, is involved in the improvement of the general well-being of rural
people, through improvement of food production systems. "Improvement", as
used here, means not only increased output, but sustainability as well.
Attempts to improve, by advocating changes which cannot be sustained due to a
lack of expertise, infrastructure or desire should not be attempted. A
thorough understanding of the components of the rural setting, and their
interrelationships, .will facilitate the generation and diffusion of
appropriate technology which should contribute to improved quality of life,
and importantly, be sustainable.
The general approaches promoted .by the concept of Farming Systems are
highly compatible with general systems theory. Viewing Farming Systems from
the standpoint of systems theory provides a mechanism for the accomplishment of
two objectives critical in FSSP efforts:

1. The identification of how components in the target system
interact. This identification precedes and accompanies efforts to
improve the system to improve the efficiency of the FSSP effort.

2. A provision for a set of criteria for an evaluation of the
success or failure of the efforts to fulfill the stated objectives
for the specific target system.
In any particular system, scientists, external to the system, will not
know a priori all of the important characteristics of general agriculture,
resource availability, and integral cultural activities and factors which
influence a particular system. While we cannot anticipate all the possible
sub-systems which will need to be addressed (and they are subject to change
from one system to another), the following generic sub-systems will be common
to most systems (no priority implied):

1. Crop production (including crop protection)

2. Livestock production

3. Agroforestry, Fuelwood and Energy

4. Nutrition

5. Intrahousehold systems, including human resources


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Clearly, these sub-systems are related, and one of the strengths of the
"Farming Systems approach" is the recognition of these interrelationships.

Specific Program Associate Interests

Faculty and graduate students from the departments of Agronomy, Animal
Science, Anthropology, Dairy Science, Entomology and Nematology, Food and
Resource Economics, Plant Pathology, Soil Science and Vegetable Crops are
interested in developing, adapting, testing and delivering appropriate
technology for limited resource farmers, as evidenced by the its domestic
FSR/E program in North Florida. Many of the concepts which have been
incorporated into the North Florida FSR/E methodology were conceptualized by
individuals with international experience.
Crop and related discipline researchers in the departments of
Agronomy, Vegetable Crops, Fruit Crops, Plant Pathology, Entomology/Nematology
have been seeking means of improving crop production through "low energy
technology" in Florida and various sites in the developing world. Plant
breeders are increasingly concentrating their efforts in breeding and
selecting for pest resistance and tolerance to environmental factors such as
drought stress, in contrast to "amending" the environment to meet the needs of
the specific crop. An integrated approach to pest management has long been a
priority in the research and extension programs of faculty at Florida.
A focus on women in development has resulted in the formation of a
"women in agriculture" task force. A course on women and development and a
growing body of faculty and graduate students are directing research toward
the subject.
Animal scientists and forage agronomists are working on improving the
quantity and quality digestibilityy) of forage crops for cattle, sheep and
goats, and the maximum utilization of local by-products which can be made
available to those ruminants. Faculty are interested in: a) assessing the
local situation for potential feedstuffs for increasing animal production and
efficiency, b) assessing potential for genetic improvement. given the local
environmental constraints, c) improving reproductive performances, and d)
adapting management systems to optimize production under local conditions.
Often, animal scientists work in close cooperation with agronomists (to
maximize forage production and quality) and agricultural engineers (to improve
the harvest and storage technology to carry livestock through periods when
plant growth is at a minimum). Through use of "opportunity resources" it has
been shown that attention to animal production can contribute to the' quantity
and quality of food available to families in small farm settings, while
contributing to cash flow needs through periodic sales of livestock and
livestock products. It is recognized that the possession of livestock, in
whatever quantity, represents liquid assets to meet household emergencies for
those family units who exist on the periphery or outside the cash economy.
Community nutritional assessment and nutrition program development,
involving multidisciplinary and family/community-based approaches, are major
areas of interest of the human nutrition program at the University of Florida.
Since the FSSP seeks to improve the welfare of farm families, it is logical
that attention to nutritional well-being should be an integral part of this
multidisciplinary Farming Systems approach. Adequate nutrition is fundamental
to the work performance needed to elevate production efficiencies. The
farming systems research and extension (FSR/E) approach, involving the farm
family, as well as scientists, in problem diagnosis and resolution, promises


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to be more effective in reaching those who most need our assistance.
Therefore, it is important to incorporate mechanisms for documenting FSR/E
program success in bringing about improvements in nutritional status of
families in the target areas. The FSR/E effort should include expertise in
nutritional assessment and intervention.
Active research and extension programs, aimed at developing forest
biomass energy systems, small acreage forestry agroforestry, and
environmentally compatible forestry programs are underway at UF. Increased
attention is being directed toward tropical forest development and
conservation and the potential role of forestry in the rural economy in the
developing world.
Home economics extension faculty seek to improve the economic and
social well-being of families through educational programs in (a) family
economic stability and security, (b) food, nutrition and health, and (c)
family strengths and social environment. The home economics unit also has
faculty who give leadership to programs designed to enhance local problem
identification and program delivery by county extension workers and volunteer
leaders and to strengthen linkages between extension and the institutional
knowledge base.


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Attachment C
(Article I; B.4.)
Institutional Capabilities

The University of Florida has been actively engaged in FSR/E
activities and has received national and international recognition for its
domestic Farming Systems work in North Florida. The North Florida effort is a
demonstration of effective communication which has been established between
small farmers and researchers to define and research solutions to identified
problems. The North Florida project is a demonstration of the problem-solving
approach promoted by FSR/E advocates.
The University of Florida's FSR/D project has access to the necessary
expertise to address all of the previously-mentioned sub-systems (Crop
production and protection, livestock production and protection, agroforestry,
fuelwood and energy, intrahousehold systems, human resources and nutrition.)
Experienced faculty in the social, agricultural, economic and ecological
sciences (each with their discipline tools, philosophies and evaluation
methods) have demonstrated interest in FSR/E. Organized lunch hour meetings
where Farming Systems subjects are addressed have been attended by faculty
from these diverse disciplines. These diverse talents are important if FSR/E
is to characterize any particular farm system and understand.it sufficiently
to suggest positive, sustainable improvements. These faculty are striving to
achieve, through dialogue in FSR/E-related campus events and active
cooperation in projects, a common, compatible philosophy of Farming Systems and
a blend of disciplinary interests into a comprehensive approach directed at
being able to do each of the following:

1. Look at a target system and, as rapidly as possible, identify
which particular .types of expertise are needed for
characterization of the system. This will result in the
identification of specific faculty members to meet the need.

2. Establish/promote an atmosphere which emphasizes both the talents
of specialized disciplines and the interaction among those

3. Arrive at a methodology for evaluation of the results of the FSR/E
efforts.

Crop Production, Protection, Training and Technical Assistance

The commitment of the University of Florida to international
agricultural development, working through its Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences (IFAS), is evidenced by a history of contracts with the
developing world. IFAS, with nineteeA academic units, relies for its
international programs thrust on more than 1,000 faculty members, with over
350 with international work experience. IFAS possesses excellent management
and administrative backstopping capabilities. Departmental administrative
support of international programs for policy is furnished by a committee of
department chairs while overall departmental support and communication is
provided by an International Programs Coordinator in each department.
Technical backstopping is provided by committees composed of faculty from the
various departments involved in a particular contract. The problem-solving


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approach therefore involves the latest in state of the science technology and
the appropriate expertise. Florida has accumulated a total of nearly fifty
institution years of involvement in AID technical assistance contracts, and
was the first Title XII institution to convert its AID Strengthening Grant to
a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU). Most of the international projects in
which Florida has participated have provided technical assistance and involved
one or more of design, implementation, or evaluation. Among the Program
Associates and Florida faculty are listed a substantial number of individuals
who have "state of the art" know-how in the design, implementation and
evaluation of FSR/E endeavors. Practically, from the inception of FSR/E
activities at Florida, there has been a concern to compare, to contrast and to
evaluate different methodologies and approaches and to place FSR/E within the
wider context of agricultural research. This concern has been inherent in
thge FSR/E pioneering efforts and can be expected to continue. In addition,
IFAS offers a strong resource base, especially in tropical agriculture, for
the support of training activities in developing countries.
Faculty in the various plant science and plant protection departments
have intensified their pursuit of the breeding and selection of plants which
can tolerate or resist pests and hostile environments, frequently found in the
developing countries of the Tropics. Some of the most widely grown field,
garden and orchard cultivars in the developing countries of the Tropics were
developed at the University of Florida.
Crop protection (integrated pest management, or IPM) programs are
popular and have direct implication to the Farming Systems approach. IPM
programs at the University of Florida demonstrate a dedicated effort to the
production of expertise and the training resources which lend themselves well
to the Farming Systems concept. Florida's warm climate and polycultural
agricultural systems result in a plethora of insect, weed, disease and
nematode problems which must be dealt with via the approach called "integrated
pest management" (IPM). The underlying principles of IPM are consistent with
the philosophy and intent of Farming Systems and, in fact, many critical
aspects of any Farming Systems assistance effort focus on the concepts and
methodologies used for protection of food and export crops.
Florida faculty have experience and success consulting with
organizations like the Food and Agricultural Organization and the Consortium
for International Crop Protection on the design of crop protection programs
for developing country agriculturists. Experience gained in countries like
Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Belize, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Trinidad, Costa
Rica, Barbados, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Ecuador and Peru will serve well at
interfacing with FSR/E projects where the intent is to understand how crop
protection concepts and practices fit in the context of an entire farming
system.
A critical aspect of any FSR/E project is technical training.
University of Florida faculty have invested heavily in the development of crop
protection training materials. Many of these lessons have been translated
into Spanish and are being used in Honduras and Ecuador as central issues for
crop protection training. Such training is now (or will be very soon) at the
Pan American School of Agriculture (Honduras) and the University of Machala
and the Rural Technology Transfer Office (Ecuador). These are examples of the
role Florida Faculty already have in the preparation and delivery of crop
protection training materials at the international level. Important to the
international effort is the capability to "tailor make" lessons for specific
needs in the FSR/E project. Also, many of the training modules exist in



10 -


4








non-computerized form as slide-tape presentations in Spanish, and some are
available in French. Training materials directly usable for teaching concepts
and practices of IPM, in the context of Farming Systems, are already available
at Florida. This makes IPM a definite strength as a potential support entity
in the FSR/E framework.

Livestock Production

Faculties in the departments of Animal Science, Dairy Science and
Poultry Science have an extensive history of international involvement. The
subtropical climate and marginal soil resources in the state of Florida have
stimulated research to solve an array of animal production problems. Due to
Florida's climatological conditions and geographical location, much of its
animal science research and production information has application throughout
the tropical regions of the world. Animal scientists work closely with forage
agronomists and breeders to develop forage cultivars which can maintain
production during the hot and dry periods when forage supplies are at a
premium, a situation common to livestock producers throughout the developing
countries of the Tropics. As a consequence, Florida Animal Science faculty
are recognized for their expertise in Tropical Animal Science.
Cooperative research and development programs, both large and small,
with regions, countries, government agencies, private institutions,
foundations and individuals, are an important part of the tropical animal
science programs. Past projects and contracts have resulted in the
publication of the Latin American Tables of Feed Composition, which contain
nutritional data on 3,390 feeds obtained from 69 laboratories in 21 Latin
American and Caribbean countries. An AID contract to determine the existence
of mineral deficiencies and toxicities in cattle in Latin America (and later
expanded to include Africa and Asia) has resulted in an extensive document
published on the subject. Mineral supplementation of livestock diets is not
common in the developing world and can be low cost insurance. Short courses,
research programs, international activities are all part of the tropical
animal science program. Involvement consists of presentation of papers at the
annual Latin American Livestock and Poultry Conference, to making consultation
trips and accepting assignments of residency in foreign countries. Faculty
recognize that livestock production in the Tropics typically involves the
small family farm. It is to this farm family that programs and devices for
livestock development will have to be addressed. Thus, attention has been
diverted from more energy expensive, highly intensive production systems
typified by commercial-scale operations to energy-efficient or even low-energy
consuming extensive systems, as well as to those that would enable the
conversion of plant byproducts to food in terms of increased animal products,
i.e., meat, milk and eggs. The livestock industry in the Tropics will revolve
around the small farms and, therefore, efforts at developing the industry will
have to be anchored in a farming systems approach.

Farm Fuel Appraisal and Development: A Farm Systems Research and Extension
Approach

In many areas of Africa, Asia and Latin America fuel shortages are
causing severe problems for rural. people. Traditional fuels--wood, crop
residues and dung--are used, but, increasingly, are in short supply.
Commercial fuel prices have increased to levels beyond the means of most rural



11 -








people and there is little likelihood of a price decline. Collection of fuels
takes increasing amounts of time and hampers efforts to increase food
production. Use of traditional fuels without proper management is also
causing long term impacts on the productivity of the natural resource base.
Farm systems research and extension is a methodology with substantial
potential for bringing about increases in food production in the rural third
world because it places emphasis on working with the people in identifying the
problems and the means for solving them. To date, however, the farm systems
research and extension efforts have included only limited consideration of the
fuel and structural materials problem. Very little attention has been given
to the role of forests in stabilizing climate, soils, water yields and native
gene pool resources.
Agroforestry is a relatively new term for assistance given to local
farmers and herders to meet their fuel and structural materials needs more
efficiently. Similar to the FSR/E approach, Agroforestry projects work
closely with farm families and recognize the interactions between technical,
economic, social and cultural realities that determine activities of local
farm or livestock managers. Although the two approaches are similar, their
focuses differ; FSR/E focuses on near-term agricultural productivity, while
Agroforestry is oriented toward forests or trees and long-term sustainability.
The UF farm fuel appraisal and development program is an effort to
recognize both the short-term, immediate household/village fuel needs and the
need of evolving structure for providing a long-term sustainable fuel supply.
The effort recognizes that the same resources which are needed for food
production, the focus of FSR/E, are also needed for fuel production and
collection. The need for the same resources makes it essential that efforts
to improve food and fuel production be merged.
A farm fuel program like the FSR/E efforts is by its very nature
multidisciplinary. The UF program recognizes this and has the involvement of
foresters, food and resource economists, soil scientists, agronomists,
anthropologists, agricultural engineers and geographers, as well as
maintaining a close association with the faculty interested in intrahousehold
dynamics activities.
Closely related forestry programs aim to develop genetically improved
seed and seedling sources, with close attention given to the regeneration,
management and harvesting systems that will conserve and rehabilitate the
natural resources (soil, water, wildlife and gene pool) while generating
maximum production of energy and structural materials, in the rural context.
The broad objective of the project is to develop a systems methodology
which will a) allow rapid appraisal of the fuel and fiber situation faced by
farmers and rural households in areas designated for a farming systems
research and extension program, and b) lead to inclusion of research and
extension efforts on the provision of fuel and fibers, along with the efforts
on food production. Specific objectives are to:

1) identify the cultural, social, economic and technical aspects
needed in identifying the fuel and fiber problem in a region

2) refine the survey techniques used in establishing the fuel and
fiber problem

3) identify the fields of expertise needed in a farm systems research
and extension effort that includes the fuel and fiber problem


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4) refine the overall procedure through actual field experience

5) prepare preliminary training material

6) merge the overall procedure into FSR/E

Intrahousehold Dynamics

A series of activities relate to intrahousehold dynamics, including
the formation of a women in agriculture task force group and a speakers
series, has begun on the UF campus. A collection of readings on women and
agriculture, intrahousehold dynamics, and family systems has been assembled
for use by faculty, students and visitors in the FSR/E reading room. There is
a course on women and development that has a strong focus on agriculture.
This expertise, in the area of the role of women in development, is
especially useful in FSR/E, which often uses the household as a central unit
of analysis. Sometimes such a focus assumes homogeneity within the household
and gives insufficient attention to intrahousehold patterns of labor
deployment, control over resources, and decision-making. It needs to be
emphasized that household farming labor may not be interchangeable between
different production units and that resources (land, labor, inputs) may be
differentially controlled by various family members. Income is not
necessarily distributed or shared equally across the household nor allocated
in the same fashion by different household members; because of the household
division of labor, decision-making may not be a unitary process. Finally,
there may be a variety of household types having similar or different farming
systems in any given area. The successful and efficient transfer of
technology depends upon an understanding of the household. It is important to
know who makes what decisions and on what bases.
The understanding and integration of these factors are crucial to the
success of FSR/E strategies. Specifically, these issues must be taken into
account in a) the design of technology/intervention to improve agricultural
productivity, b)'the training of FSR/E practitioners, c) the development of
extension models and networks to transfer or communicate technology, and d) the
identification of appropriate indicators to measure productivity and ultimately
the success of an FSR/E intervention.
In terms of capability, several individual program associates have
specific capabilities and 14 have indicated their interests in the area of
intrahousehold dynamics. Program associate experiences include:

1. Consultancies to Food and Agriculture Organization, USAID, The
Population Council, etc. on the design and evaluation of projects.

2. Preparation of training modules and materials.

3. Technical assistance in project design and implementation.

4. Practitioner and administrator training.

5. Farming Systems surveys, trials, and intervention techniques.

In order to address these issues, it is proposed that the following


* 13 -









activities be developed to intensify (consolidate) the capabilities and
on-going activities of the UF Program Associates, as well as providing greater
support in this area to the FSR/E:

1. Building linkages with other support entities which have expressed
interest in, and have capabilities in, family, farming systems

2. Incorporation of intrahousehold dynamics issues into existing
FSR/E materials.

3. Preparation of new training materials.

4. Organization of task forces and networkshop activities leading to
the preparation of "state of the arts" documents on specific

5. Plan and organize international conferences on specific topics,
such as "intrahousehold dynamics and FSR/E".

Nutrition as a Component of Farming Systems Research and Extension

Nutrition is a major component of the limited resource farm family
system. Adequate nourishment is needed to support the level of motivation and
work performance required to improve food production. The expectation is that
an improved food production system will result in sustained improvements in
nutritional well-being of individuals in the household. It is therefore
important to evaluate the nutrition component and to describe how it interacts
with other aspects of each specific target system.
The FSR/E approach, involving the farm family, as well as a
multi-disciplinary team of scientists, in problem diagnosis and resolution,
provides an appropriate framework for evaluation of the nutrition component.
As a member of the multi-disciplinary team, the nutritional scientist a)
determines the level and type of food production needed to meet nutritional
needs of individuals in the household, b) identifies and characterizes
nutrition problems in the family, and, c) proposes practical short-term and
long-term changes necessary to bring about sustained improvements in
nutritional status.
Appropriate attention to the nutrition component will tend to promote
improvements in food production and family welfare. For example, changes in
the farming system may increase agricultural productivity but have a negative
effect on the nutritional well-being of the farm family. Cost of increased
energy demands associated with changes in the farming system may be greater
than the value of the increase in production. New and more nutritious food
crops may not be utilized by the family. Care must be taken to avoid an
overemphasis on one crop which may divert family energies away from growing a
variety of foods that better meet the families nutritional needs.
As a member of the multi-disciplinary FSR/E team, the nutrition
scientist can develop practical and cost effective methods for assessing the
nutritional situation of the target farm system. Appropriate plans for change
can then be made within the context of what is known about crop and livestock
production, fuel and fiber/energy, and the intrahousehold system.
The magnitude of the world food problem and the promising potential of
the FSR/E approach calls for more interaction between nutritional,
agricultural and social scientists. Faculty at the University of Florida want


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to cooperate with other Support Entities and program associates who recognize
the nutrition problem and want to work toward solutions within the context of
FSR/E to:

1) Stimulate interest' in FSR/E among nutritional sciences faculty
members.

2) Prepare technical training materials on nutrition for FSR/E.

3) Develop model or research demonstration FSR/E projects) that
incorporate nutrition as a component.

Nutritional assessment and program development, involving
multi-disciplinary and family/community based approaches, are major areas of
interest and expertise. Coursework at UF include issues related to
malnutrition in developing countries and the role of government in its
alleviation.

Home Economics

The Home Economics unit is an integral part of the UF Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences. At the present time, all faculty in the unit
have primary appointments in Extension. Efforts are underway to develop
teaching and research components.
The goal of the Home Economics Extension program is improvement of the
quality of life for individuals and families through enhancement of their
economic and social well-being. The Home Economics unit of the University of
Florida has programs focusing on the following priority areas: (a) The area of
"Family Economic Stability and Security" focuses on resource management and
consumer concerns. Programs are developed to help people better understand
how to manage human and non-human resources in ways that will improve their
lives economically and socially. (b) Programs in food, nutrition and health
are developed to provide knowledge, skills and motivation to improve and
maintain the nutritional quality and adequacy of human diets. (c) Family
strengths and social environment programs are developed to educate people
regarding the importance of environmental and human stimulation for optimum
development of individuals, families and society, and, (d) Volunteers are a
major factor inexpanding the impact of educational programs. Effective
recruitment and utilization of volunteers extend educational programs as well
as developing the specific competencies of the individuals who participate in
formal and informal volunteer networks.

Centers at the University of Florida

Center For Tropical Agriculture, Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences

Concern for feeding and clothing the world's expanding population is
accentuated by the fact that approximately 75% of the earth's population
growth is occurring in the developing countries, most of which are situated in
the Tropics. Added to this concern is the fact that 55% of the land area of
the earth is classified as "arid" or "semi-arid" (receiving less than 20
inches of rainfall annually). More alarming is the fact that the percentage


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of land area receiving less than 20 inches of annual rainfall is increasing.
Extensive land areas of the Tropics are fortunate to have an excellent
combination of sunlight and rainfall, basic necessities for plant growth.
Yet, vast areas are underutilized. Recognizing the problem, the Florida Board
of Regents authorized a Center for Tropical Agriculture in 1965. The Center
was organized as a component of the Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences (IFAS) the University of Florida's statewide complex of teaching,
research, and extension programs in agriculture. This administrative
organization permits the Center to draw upon findings from applicable research
as well as services of a professional staff of nearly 1000 scientists,
approximately one-third of whom have-had overseas experience and are currently
engaged in training, research and/or service activities involving tropical
agriculture.
The Center Director reports directly to the Vice-President for
Agricultural Affairs and is advised on policy issues by other center directors
and department chairpersons. International program coordinators, located in
each department, provide assistance at the program implementation level.
Florida is uniquely suited to assist the development of tropical
agriculture. The state's major source of agricultural revenue is from
tropical crops. Its location at the edge of the Tropics presents similar
production and management problems. The Florida agricultural environment is
one which is deficient in plant nutrients, abundant in pests and one which
often experiences periods of precipitation deficits; all liabilities whose
existence and solution provide good training for scientists who need to
confront those conditions in the developing world. Resources at the
University of Florida offer the potential for development of broad-based and
effective international assistance.
Medicine, the social sciences, education and agriculture all have
strong interests in the environment and population of the Tropics. To neglect
any one of these disciplines in planning and implementation would seriously
limit potential for development and the success of assistance efforts. The
University of Florida is fortunate to have this combination of complementary
resources available on one campus where interdisciplinary dialogue can plan and
evaluate the international assistance efforts.

Area Studies Centers: African and Latin American

There has been a growing recognition of the need to consider the
regional and country specific nature of many of the problems that plague the
developing countries. While a few countries in Latin America and Africa have
experienced growing economies, many have shown annual growth rates of less
than one percent, and many, especially in Africa, have recorded a negative per
capital growth in income. Especially in the case of Africa, the relative
scarcity of educated professionals, the dominance of land-extensive
agricultural systems, an extreme ethnic diversity, relatively recent
independence from colonial rule, a weak base of urban and industrial
development and the historically heavy dependence upon a limited number of
export commodities have contributed to economic problems.
A strength of the UF Farming Systems effort is the contribution of two
major area studies centers, The Center for African Studies and the Center for
Latin American Studies. Each center has received recognition as being in the
top ten area resource centers in the U.S. Both centers have emphasized the
need for understanding the commonality of the agricultural problems facing


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nations in the two spheres, while noting that there are problems specific to
certain of the developing nations. Cooperative links exist between the centers
as well as with the Center for Tropical Agriculture, The Farming Systems
Program, The Medical School and the School of Veterinary Medicine.
Center for Latin American Studies

Latin American studies have always occupied a position of importance at
the University of Florida. The University has offered Latin American area and
language courses since the beginning of this century, and its Center for Latin
American studies celebrated its fiftieth anniversary as a formal program in
1981. The Center receives federal assistance and fellowships through its
status as a Title VI National Resource Center. Ninety-two faculty members
affiliated with the Center aggregate experience in virtually every country of
Latin America.
The Center contains a Latin American Collection at the university
library, consisting of more than 182,000 volumes, making it one of the most
extensive collections in the U.S. The Latin American collection has been
augmented at the rate of 10% per year. Active acquisition efforts have
contributed to a comprehensive collection of government publications, including
those of international organizations and inter-American agencies. Holdings
also include important document collections and over 900 current periodical
titles.
The Center maintains an active outreach program, making a wide variety
of materials on Latin America, such as films and videotapes, available to
educators. These materials can be easily adapted for use in preparing faculty
destined to work in the developing countries in Latin America.
The Center has an active program of support for colloquia, films,
cultural performances and gallery exhibits on Latin American topics. For the
past 33 years, the center has sponsored annual Latin American conferences.
Strong support is provided by the Center for Latin American Studies in
the training area. The Center offers certificate programs at both the
undergraduate and graduate levels, as well as an interdisciplinary degree.
(M.A.) in Latin American Studies. More than 160 Latin American area and
language courses are offered in 27 departments and the eight colleges of the
University. The Center's strength in interdisciplinary training is evident in
several specialized programs. For example, the Integrated Professional
Training Program, carried out in conjunction with the Secretary of Agriculture
of the Dominican Republic, trained professionals from that country in
interdisciplinary approaches to resource management. The Amazon Research and
Training Program emphasizes a broad approach to development.questions in the
Amazon region. The Center's Caribbean Migration Program addresses the problem
of the expanding influx of legal and illegal migrants from the Caribbean
Basin. Little is known about the causes behind the sudden increase in
migration, but rapid population growth, the rising cost of energy and the
increase in food imports reflect problems in the agricultural sector.
A regular program of visiting scholars has increased the Center's
training capabilities and strengthened ties with Latin American Institutions.
Language training is a strong component of the Center's training
ability. The Center is collaborating with the Romance Languages department in
developing an intensive Spanish course that would produce field level
proficiency for graduate students and faculty preparing for overseas work. A
strong Portuguese program is supported by Title VI fellowships. Language


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instruction is offered in Aymara (the only program in the U.S.) and Haitian
Creole. Aside from on-campus language training, programs are also offered in
Bogota, Colombia, and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Center for African Studies

The Center for African Studies is now in its nineteenth year. The
Center is responsible for the direction and coordination of interdisciplinary
instructional and research activities related to Africa. A Certificate in
African Studies, at all degree levels, is offered in cooperation with various
university departments, schools and colleges. The extent of the study of
Africa is exemplified by the fact that there are 99 courses with exclusive
African content and 141 courses with extensive African subject matter taught in
the University. The Department of African and Asian Languages and Literatures.
offers Shona, Yoruba, and Swahili, with individualized instructional capability
in Amahric, Chinyanja/ChiChewa, Ewe, Fulani, Ga, Hausa, Tem, Twi, and Zulu.
There is an active French language training for technical assistants who are
destined to work in Francophone Africa.
There are 16 core faculty, 11 visiting faculty, 45 resource faculty,
38 support faculty, three language instructors and six librarians affiliated
with the center. An outreach program provides consulting services to
colleges, schools, the community at large and technical assistants destined
for work in Africa. A speaker series, film series, workshops, conferences,
seminars on issues of agricultural development and art exhibits comprise an
events program open to the public.
The Center coordinates the acquisition of volumes for the African
Library Collection, which now numbers over 50,000 volumes and subscriptions to
500-plus periodicals. A bibliographer will be added in the fiscal 1984-85
year to coordinate the African subject area. Special collections are
maintained on agricultural development, especially for those countries with
which. the University is involved in contracts. In addition, the Center edits
the African Studies Review, the Journal of the African Studies Association and
publishes a bi-annual newsletter. Two faculty members interact with a
steering committee composed of faculty from the Colleges of Agriculture,
Liberal Arts and Sciences, Veterinary Medicine, and Medicine in the
coordination of a Food in Africa Program. This program includes curriculum
development, promotion of faculty participation in overseas research,
sponsorship of conferences and seminars on development, hosting visiting
faculty from various African Universities and research institutions and its
own publication series.

Student Training and Education at the University of Florida

Of fundamental importance is the preparation of individuals capable of
institutionalizing the practical concepts of the Farming Systems approach.
The University of Florida currently has two courses specifically in Farming
Systems: "Farming Systems Research and Extension Methods", a graduate course ,
and, "Managing Farming Systems Research and Extension" an undergraduate
course, both offered through the department of Food and Resource Economics.
An interdisciplinary Minor in Tropical Agriculture is available, at
both the Master's and Ph.D. levels, to students majoring in Agriculture,
Forestry, Animal Science, and other fields where knowledge of the Tropics is
relevant. The minor may include courses relative to the specific


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characteristics of the Tropics soils, water, vegetation, climate,
agricultural production and the language and culture of tropical countries.
In addition, there is a Farming Systems minor available to Master's and Ph.D
students. This minor includes the two courses in Farming Systems and is
designed to broaden the education of the student, whether the student is in
agriculture or a social science program.
A Certificate in Tropical Agriculture is available to any student
enrolled at the University of Florida. The certificate requires a minimum of
27 hours of courses specified by an interdisciplinary committee of three
faculty members, responsible for selecting courses appropriate to the
student's background and objectives.
In addition to these courses specific to Farming Systems, there are
many courses in various departments which have direct application to the
soils, economies, human nutrition, plants, plant diseases, insects, etc. of
the Tropics and developing world.


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