• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 A brief explanation of some of...
 Mammals
 Birds
 Reptiles
 Amphibians
 Fishes
 Advertising
 Back Cover
 Spine






Title: Popular natural history for boys and girls
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00082993/00001
 Material Information
Title: Popular natural history for boys and girls
Alternate Title: Popular natural history
Physical Description: 256 p. : ill. ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Gordon, W. J ( William John )
Religious Tract Society (Great Britain) ( Publisher )
Spottiswoode & Co ( Printer )
Publisher: Religious Tract Society
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: Spottiswoode & Co.
Publication Date: 1894
 Subjects
Subject: Zoology -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Birds -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Mammals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Reptiles -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Amphibians -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Fishes -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1894   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1894
Genre: Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
novel   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
 Notes
General Note: Publisher's advertisements on endpapers.
General Note: Includes index.
Statement of Responsibility: by W.J. Gordon ; with eighty-six engravings.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00082993
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002230657
notis - ALH1020
oclc - 52717928

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page i
    Frontispiece
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
    List of Illustrations
        Page viii
    A brief explanation of some of the scientific terms used in this book
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
    Mammals
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
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    Birds
        Page 189
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    Reptiles
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
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        Page 228
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        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
    Amphibians
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
    Fishes
        Page 240
        Page 241
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        Page 255
        Page 256
    Advertising
        Page 257
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
    Spine
        Spine
Full Text































































The Baldwin Library
Univershy
F lid
'____R__


__






Et l^ CA t t Co&-&A

































































FIGHT BETWEEN AN ELEPHANT AND A TIGER










POPULAR



NATURAL HISTORY



FOR BOYS AND GIRLS




BY

W. J. GORDON
AUTHOR OF 'OUR COUNTRY'S BIRDS' 'HOW LONDON LIVES ETC.




WITH EIGHTY-SIX ENGRAVINGS







LONDON
THE RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETY
56 PATERNOSTER ROW AND 65 ST PAUL'S CHURCHYARD




















CONTENTS





CHAPTER I

MAMMALS


ANTHROPOIDEA
Chimpanzee
Gorilla
Orang
Gibbons
Monkeys
Baboons
Hanuman
Langurs .
Macaques
Chacma
Spider Monkeys
Capuchin Monkeys
S Marmosets
LEAMUROIDEA .
Lemurs .
Aye-aye
CHIROPTE4RA
Bats .
Fox-Bat
Insectivorous Bats
Vampire Bat .
INSECTIVORA .
Shrews .
Mole
CARNIJ VOR .
Lion.
Tiger


CARNIVORE (cont.)-


Leopard
Ounce .
Jaguar
Puma
Cats .
Civet
Hyena
Dog
Wolf
Jackal
Fox .


Brown Bear
Polar Bear
Grizzly Bear
Black Bear
Panda
Marten
Polecat .
Weasel
Skunk
Badger
Otter
Sea-Lion
Sea-Bear
Walrus
Sea-Elephant.
Seal .








CONTENTS


RODENTIA
Squirrel
Marmot
Beaver
Mouse
Rat .
Porcupine
Hare
Rabbit
CE TA CE2A
Whales .
Narwhal
Dolphin
Porpoise
UNGULATA
Cattle
Bison
Bighorn
Horned Sheep
Goat.
Antelope
Giraffe
Deer
Elk .
Reindeer
Moose


PAGE
III
III
113
S. 114
S118
S. 120
120
122
S122
S123
S123
S. 127
S129
S129
S130
133
134
S134
S134
S139
139
S144
S145
145
148
S148


UNGULATA (cont.)-
Camel
Llama
Pig
Hippopotamus
Tapir
Horse
Zebra
Ass .
Rhinoceros
Hyrax
Elephant
SIRENIA
Manati.
Dugong
EDENTATE .
Sloth
Ant-eater
Armadillo .
Pangolin
IIARSUPIALI .
Opossum
Kangaroo .
IMONOTREA4lAA .1
Duckmole.
Echidna


CHAPTER II

BIRDS


CARINA TAB
Dipper .
Song birds
Nightingale
Mocking-bird
Skylark.
Thrush
Birds of Paradise
Woodpecker
Humming-birds
Parrots
Owls
Vultures
Hawks .


CARINA T (cont.)--
Pelicans
Storks .
Flamingoes
Geese
Ducks
Gulls
Condor
RA TITE .
Ostrich
Rhea
Emu.
Kiwi
SA UR UR/ E.


. 208
S208
S. 208
S208
S 208
208
S209
210
215
S. 216
216
S. 216
S216
S. 217









CONTENTS



CHAPTER III

REPTILES


CROCODILIA .
Crocodiles.
Gharials
Alligators .
OPHIDIA
Rattlesnake
Vipers .
Sea-Snakes
Hamadryad .
Cobras


OPHIDIA (cont.)-
Boas
Pythons
LACERTILIA .
Lizards
Blindworm
Chameleon
CHELONIA
Tortoises
Turtles .


CHAPTER IV

AMPHIBIANS


ECAUDA TA
Frogs
Horned Frogs
Toads


* 235
S. 235
* 235
* 235


CA UDATA .
Newt .
Salamander
APODA .


CHAPTER V

FISHES


TELEOSTEI
Perch
Bream
Shad
Archer-fish
Weevers
Mackerel
Sword-fish
Angler-fish
Stickleback
Cod .
Turbot .
Herring
Cat-fish .
Carp.
Salmon .


S 240
. 241
S. 241
S241
S. 242
. 242
S 242
* 243
S. 246
. 246
S. 247
* 247
S. 247
. 247
S. 248
. 248


7ELEOSTEI (cot.)--
Arapaima .
Pilchard
Sardine
Sea-horse
GANOIDEI.
Sturgeon
Pike
DIPNOI .
Barramunida
ELASiNOBRANCHIJ
Sharks
Saw-fish
Rays
Skate .
Eagle-Ray


PAGE

. 228
. 228
. 228
. 228
. 230
S230
S230
. 231
. 231











LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


PAGE


Fight between an Elephant and
a Tiger Frontispiece
A young Chimpanzee
The Gorilla .
The White-collared Mangabey
The Red-faced Spider Monkey
Marmosets
The Brown Mouse-Lemur
Skeleton of Bat.
The Collared Fruit-Bat .
Head of Long-eared Bat
Long-eared Bats .
Long-eared Bat sleeping
Barbastelle Bat walking.
Head of Vampire Bat
Water Shrews
Skeleton of a Lion
Lions .
Lioness and Cubs
Leopards
A Puma .
Eskimo Dogs
A Group of Fennecs
The Polar Bear
The Grizzly Bear .
Grizzly Bear in a Trap
Black Bear .
The Otter
The Walrus
The Northern Sea-Bear .
The Russian Flying Squirrel
Beavers
Field Voles .
Harvest Mice
The Porcupine .
The Narwhal
A School of Porpoises
The American Bison
The Musk Ox .
The Alpine Ibex .
The Cabul Markhor .
Head of Gemsbok.
Water-Buck .
Giraffes .


PAGE
Reindeer 147
The Moose 49
Camels 151
Llamas 153
The Hog-Deer of Celebes .. 155
The Common Hippopotamus 157
Skull of the Hippopotamus 158
Skeleton of the Horse 16
Indian Rhinoceros 163
The Hyrax or Coney 168
The Great Ant-eater .176
Opossum with its Young 181
Kangaroos 183
The Duckmole 85
Lawes's Echidna 187
The Ostrich 188
Skeleton of a Bird 19
Breastbone of Owl 191
Parts of a Bird 192
A Bird's Leg 193
The Dipper 95
The Nightingale 197
The Blackcap 198
The Reed Warbler 99
Shooting Birds of Paradise .203
Weaver Bird and Nest 204
The Nightjar 205
The Sword-bill Humming-Bird 206
The Concave Hornbill .207
The Griffon Vulture 211
The Kiwi. 217
Head of a Crocodile 220
Head of a Gharial .220
Head of an Alligator 221
The Tiger-snake of Australia 223
Skeleton of a Python 224
The Rattlesnake 226
The Cobra di Capello 227
The Moloch Lizard 229
The Matamata 232
Transformations of the Frog 237
The Nest of the Stickleback 245
The Hammer-headed Shark 253

















A BRIEF EXPLANATION OF SOME OF THE
SCIENTIFIC TERMS USED IN THIS BOOK

As the paraphrases adopted in many popular natural history books are
more or less incorrect, it has been decided in the present volume
to give the proper scientific terms. This compels the use of some-
what long words, such as 'anthropoidea,' 'carnivora,' &c. To
enable the young reader to understand exactly what these mean, a
brief glossary is here given. It is hoped that this may help beginners
to make an intelligent use of the book, and also afford pleasant
exercise in the way of word study.
Albinism. The absence of the usual colouring matters in the skin and
its appendages.
Anchylosis. The union of two bony surfaces by osseous or fibrous
matter.
Anoura. An old term for the tailless Amphibians.
Anthro/oidea. Those monkeys which most nearly approach man in
form.
Antlers. The horns of the deer.
Apoda. Animals without limbs; the worm-like Amphibians.
Artiodactyla. Ungulates having an even number of toes on their feet.
Atavism. The recurrence of an ancestral peculiarity.
Atrophied. Arrested in development at an early period of growth.
Atlas. The vertebra of the neck which directly supports the skull.
Axis. The second vertebra of the neck, on which the skull and atlas
generally work.
Baleen. Whalebone.
Batrachia. An old name for the Frogs, Toads, Salamanders, &c.
Brachium. The upper arm.
Branchia. The gill of a fish; an organ adapted for breathing the air
dissolved in water.
Bronchi. The branches of the windpipe by which air is conveyed to
the lung vesicles.
Bruta. An old name of the Edentates.
Canidae. Dog-like animals.
Canine. The eye-tooth (see Dental Formula).
Carinate. Birds with a sharp breast-bone, like a keel (carina).
Carnassials. The flesh teeth of the Carnivores.
Carnivora. The animals which feed on flesh.








X BRIEF EXPLANATION OF SCIENTIFIC TERMS

Campus. The wrist.
Catarrkine. Narrow-nosed ; a term applied to the monkeys of the
Eastern Hemisphere.
Caudata. The tailed Amphibians, such as Newts and Salamanders.
Cavicorns. The hollow-horned Ruminants, such as oxen and sheep.
Cervical. Pertaining to the neck.
Cetacea. The whales and dolphins.
Chelonia. The tortoises, turtles, &c.
Chiroptera. The hand-winged mammals; that is to say, the Bats.
Chordates. Animals having a spinal cord.
Coleoptera. An order of insects including the beetles.
Clavicles. The collar-bones; the bones that together form the merry-
thought in birds.
Coccyx. The lower end of the spinal column.
Condyle. The surface by which one bone articulates with another.
Coracoid. The bone in the shoulder-girdle, which is a mere process of
the scapula in mammals, but is well developed in birds.
Coriaceous. Leathery.
Costal. Pertaining to the ribs.
Creodonta. Primitive carnivores, whose lower molar teeth are generally
shaped like flesh-teeth. (See Dental Formula.)
Cuspidate. Having small pointed elevations or cusps.'
Cutaneous. Pertaining to the skin.
Dental Formula. A short method of describing the number and de-
scription of the teeth. Adult man, for instance, has 32 teeth, of
which 16 are in the upper jaw and 16 in the lower. Each set of
16 consists of 4 incisors in front, then 2 canines,' one on each
side, then 4 premolarss,' 2 on each side, and then 6 'molars,'
being 3 on each side. As there are the same number of teeth in
each half-jaw, the set can be briefly tabulated as incisors 2, canines I,
premolars 2, molars 3 ; or for upper and lower jaws i. 2, c. \,
p.-m. a, m. ; but as the series is always in the same order the
letters can be dispensed with, and the formula further abbreviated
into j9-. In man both jaws have the same number of teeth, but
this is not the case among all the mammals. The canines are fre-
quently known as the eye-teeth, and the premolars as the bicuspids.
Dermal. Pertaining to the integument,
Dextral. Right-handed.
Diastema. A gap, such as the interval in the jaw of the Ruminants.
Diastole. The expansion of a contractile cavity.
Didelphia. Another name for the Marsupials.
Differentiation. The separation of parts which are united in siinpler
forms of life.
Digit. A finger or toe.
Dzihyodont. Having two sets of teeth.
Dipnoi. Double-breathing fishes.
Dorsal. Pertaining to the back.
Edentata. Mammals which have no front or incisor teeth.








BRIEF EXPLANATION OF SCIENTIFIC TERMS xi

Elasmobranchii. Fishes having gills like plates.
Eocene. The lowest division of the Tertiary rocks.
Felidc. Cat-like animals.
Femur. The thigh-bone.
Fibula. The outer bone of the leg.
Fissipeds. The carnivora in which the toes are divided, as among the
cats and dogs.
Furculum. The merrythought, which is formed of the united
clavicles.
Ganoidei. Fishes which have enamelled bony scales.
Habitat. The locality in which an animal naturally lives.
Hallux. The great toe.
Heterocercal. Unequally lobed.
Humerus. The bone of the upper arm.
Hyoid. The bone which supports the tongue.
Ilium. The haunch bone.
Inguinal. Pertaining to the groin.
Insectivora. Animals which feed on insects.
Invertebrata. Animals without a backbone.
Lacertilia. Lizard-like animals (lacertus, a lizard).
Larynx. The upper part of the windpipe, from which the voice is
produced in mammals.
Lemuroidea. Animals of which the lemur is the type.
Ligamenium nuchce. The neck ligament which supports the head.
Lingual. Pertaining to the tongue.
Lumbar. Pertaining to the loins.
Mfiamialia. The vertebrate animals which suckle their young.
Mandible. The lower jaw.
Marsupialia. Mammals which carry their young in a pouch, like the
kangaroo.
Maxilla. The upper jaw.
Alelanism. An excess of colouring matters in the skin and its appen-
dages, thus producing blackness.
MIolars. The grinder teeth.
MAonophyodont. Having only one set of teeth.
Neural. Pertaining to the nerves.
Nidification. Nest-building.
Notochord. The chorda dorsalis, a longitudinal cellular rod developed
beneath the spinal cord, and replaced by the vertebral column
in the adults of such animals as have a backbone.
Odontoceti. The toothed whales.
(Esophagus. The gullet.
Oral. Pertaining to the mouth.
Opposable. That which may be opposed. A word used incorrectly as
descriptive of the power of the human subject to grip with the
thumb and second digit. It is impossible to oppose these in the
strict sense of the word, as the thumb must press sideways on the
forefinger and cannot be twisted so as to get in front of it. An








xii BRIEF EXPLANATION OF SCIENTIFIC TERMS

opposablee toe' is a great toe capable of being used in the way
that a thumb is. Owing to the invention of boots and sandals, the
great toe of man is now almost parallel in its action to that of the
second toe, but among savage races like the Zulus the spears are
picked up between the toes, and some of the natives of the West
Coast of Africa have the great toe-joint still so flexible that they can
use a hammer with their feet.
Opkidia. Snake-like animals.
Paleontology. The science of fossils.
Palnozoic. The oldest group of stratified rocks.
Patella. The knee-cap.
Pelvis. The division of the skeleton which consists of the sacrum,
coccyx, and haunch bones.
Perissodactyla. Ungulates having an odd number of toes in their feet.
Pinnipeds. The Carnivores in which the toes are joined together, as
for example, the seals.
The fishes with the transverse mouths.
Pleistocene. The most recent rocks of the Tertiary period.
Platyrrhine. Broad-nosed; a term applied to the monkeys of the
Western Hemisphere.
Pollex. The thumb.
Prehensile. Capable of grasping.
Raimus. A half of the lower jaw.
iRait/e. Birds with a flat breast-bone, like a raft (ratis).
Rodentia. The animals that gnaw, sometimes called the Glires.
Satnrure. Birds with lizard-like tails. Only fossil specimens known.
Ruininants. The animals that chew the cud.
Sacrutm. The triangular bone at the base of the vertebral column
which forms the keystone of the pelvic arch.
Scapula. The shoulder-bone.
Siniida. Ape-like creatures (Greek simos, flat-nosed ').
Sirenia. Mammals, like the dugong, that live in the water (from
siren).
Sternum. The breast-bone.
Tarsus. The ankle.
Teleostei. The bony fishes.
Thorax. The chest.
Tibia. The shin-bone.
Ungulata. Animals which have hoofs.
Ventral. Pertaining to the under surface of the vertebrates.
Vertebrates. The animals having a backbone.
Viviparous. Bringing forth the young alive.









K


A YOUNG CHIMPANZEE


I I ls' 'N















POPULAR NATURAL HISTORY

FOR BOYS AND GIRLS



CHAPTER I
MAMMALS
THERE are over two million species of animals on
this earth, and if we were merely to print their names,
we should have to mass eight thousand of them on
every page of this book. The numbers are, in fact,
so appalling and incomprehensible that it is simply
beyond human powers to realise the immensity and
variety of the mighty Creation amid which we live.
The wonderful is not necessarily the unknown; in
the known we have the wonderful with us.
The Creation has a long history, lost in the depths
of ages marked by constant change and continuous
life. The millions of forms that we know to-day are
but as nothing in comparison with those which have
vanished for ever in the onward march. Onward
unrestingly has come the great army of the living,
each form rising to suit its environment, and
failing as its environment was modified; Nature







MAMMALS


everywhere testifying to the infinity of its Author;
never a living form transmitting its unaltered like-
ness to distant futurity, and yet nothing in the end
which was not also in the beginning. Truly a
wonderful world as it lies open to us, modelled and
moulded, as a whole and in its least molecule, with
grandeur, unfathomable intelligence, and inexhausti-
ble bounty.
During our lifetime our knowledge of animal life
in the present and the past has largely increased, and
the hard-and-fast frontier lines drawn by our fathers
have in many cases been wiped away, and in others
have been replaced by mere strips of debateable land.
Even among the greater divisions which seemed so
firmly established, many approximations have been
made out. The fishes, for instance, have been found
to be closely allied to the amphibians, the reptiles to
the birds, and even the vertebrates as a whole have
been shown to be so linked to the invertebrates that
zoologists are abandoning the backbone as a basis of
classification in favour of the spinal cord. Animals
are now sorted into chordates, hemi-chordates and so
on, and non-chordates; the spinal cord in the chordates
being along the back, and the heart being ventral, while
the nerve cords of the non-chordates are along the
belly or the sides, the heart being dorsal; the inter-
mediate classes giving the intermediate stages in
which the animal forms appear to have gradually
turned upside down. On such technical details we
need not, however, dwell in this little book; we have
merely mentioned them as illustrations of the ex-







ANTHIROPOIDEA


tree unwisdom of arguing on the undiscovered, and
putting our trust in boundary lines.
The one central fact is the unity of creation.
The division into species-is merely a grouping of
individuals, no two of which are exactly alike, made
by man himself for his convenience in study and
treatment. He groups individuals into varieties,
varieties into species, species into genera, genera into
families, families into orders, orders into classes, and
at every stage is at the mercy of some fresh discovery,
if he has been presumptuous enough to act upon the
u]n:. n. It is for this reason that natural-history
Sb.... .... out of date, for no classification is on a
.u:iiinl b.i-is which is dependent on the assumed
ab enc ic4l" certain features or forms.

.1- ThR OPOIDEA.-From a man's point of
S\ i.'. th animals highest in the scale of life are those
iI.-t like himself. He has a backbone, and con-
j i-'...:ritly he considers animals with a backbone to
Sbe i a higher stage of development than those with-
ut .. He is mammalian, and therefore puts the
-marmlinl-:k at the head of the vertebrate series, with
thli bird- .:n his flank, and the reptiles, amphibians,
.iad 6i- h.li following after. And in this arrangement
I. h:-- confirmed by the records of the rocks, which
ha'. yil:dd so many intermediate forms, and which-
v. ith tli ir crowd of mammaliaintheir more recent beds,
i tlhe Fi: t appearance of reptiles at an earlier age, of
arnpl!ibi:i,, at a still earlier, of fishes at a still earlier,
aJii thl- persistence of invertebrates throughout, with
Stl-,- o:b. !oJus evidence of a gradual advance from the
B







MAMMALS


generalised to the specialised-have established the
theory of his classification on so broad a basis that
discussion as to the main question has practically
ceased, and the conflict now rages around the
secondary means, by which the changes have been
brought about.
Adopting, then, the usual plan, let us begin with
the animals between whom and ourselves there is, as
Sir Richard Owen said, 'an all-prevailing similitude
of structure' which is unmistakable, and an external
resemblance, particularly in their youth, which has in
all parts of the world procured for them among savage
races the local names of 'wild men,' 'little men,'
'hairy men,' &c., by which we in so many cases
know them.
In the front rank of these come the chimpanzees,
the gorillas, the orangs, and the gibbons. These are
' the man-like apes,' the Simiidce, which, with the old-
world monkeys, the American monkeys, and the
marmosets, form four out of five of the families of the
man-like animals included in the order of Ant/iro-
poidea; the fifth family being the Hominidce, to which
man, the type of the order, belongs. Opinions differ
as to which of the Simiidce should head the group.
The gorillas are most like man in size, but the
gibbons, which are not above three feet high, have
a much more human-looking skull, without ridges
or crests, and with a nearly upright forehead and a
well-shaped chin. The gorilla's arms reach half-way
down his shins, but the arms of the gibbons are so
long that they can touch their toes with their fingers
as they walk; and the gibbons can walk upright and








THE GORILLA


flat-footed at all ages, while the gorilla rarely walks
upright, except in infancy. In the structure of the
brain the orangs are most like man ; but in other
respects, in the arms and hands and feet, and in the


THE GORILLA


jaws, the chimpanzees are so much closer to the
. human type that it is usual to begin with them.
There are two living species of chimpanzee now
1 recognized, niger (the black) and calvus (the bald),
B 2







MAMMALS


both being natives of Western and Central Africa.
The genus is known as Anthropopithecus, which
means the man-monkey. Chimpanzee itself should
really be written chimpa n'zee the n'zee, being the
word now rendered as n'tyigo, the chimpa being
descriptive of the sort of n'tyigo the natives wished
to distinguish. The generic name used to be Trog-
lodytes, or 'dwellers in caves,' but this has gone the
way of Quadrumana and other familiar terms, as
being misleading when insisted upon too closely.
The chimpanzee is, in fact, not a cave-dweller but a
tree-dweller, and his home is a sort of platform, with
or without a roof, which he makes in the trees for the
shelter of his family. With regard to the arboreal
habits of the gorilla,' writes Dr. Garner, I think they
are somewhat misunderstood. He is a good climber
and evidently spends much of his time in trees; but
from an examination of his foot it is evident that he
was designed for terrestrial habits. The grasping
power of his foot is much less than that of the chim-
panzee, and is not at all to be compared in this respect
with his own hand; and all men whom I have
consulted upon this point agree with me that he
spends most of his life on the ground. During the
time that I kept a young gorilla in the bush with me,
I had also a chimpanzee; and it was the daily habit
of the chimpanzee to climb about in the bushes,
while the gorilla rarely ever ascended one. I always
kept a supply of food for them where they could easily
secure it themselves at any time ; but the gorilla would
seldom climb even a few feet from the ground to
get himself a plantain, and when he did so, always







THE CHIMPANZEE


descended again to the ground to eat it, whereas the
chimpanzee would occasionally take a banana and
climb into the bush to eat it. Both of these animals,
however, and also the native, climb in much the
same manner. They hold on to the sides of the
tree with the hands, place the bottom of the foot
obliquely on the side next to them, and walk up it,
meanwhile depending in a great degree on the big
toe.' This toe, however, is very much larger in the
chimpanzee than in man; it is, indeed, like the thumb,
one of the most variable characters of this group of
animals, and in the marmosets is nearly wanting
altogether.
The chimpanzee squats on his heels, the gorilla
sits down like a man, and sticks his legs out in front
of him. The male chimpanzee is five feet high at
the most, and the female is nearly as big, whereas the
male gorilla, who may exceed six feet in height, is
always much larger than the female. But the great
difference is in the faces, that of the gorilla having
the powerful brow-ridges which make him look so
brutish and ferocious, which ridges, like the crest on
the top of the skull, are almost absent in the females
and their young, and only grow into prominence as
the males approach maturity. The chimpanzees
have their eyebrows much less marked in both sexes,
and are altogether of more graceful build and
pleasanter appearance.
Sally,' who lived for eight years at the Zoological
Gardens in the. Regent's Park, was one of the bald
species. The experiments made on her by Dr.
Romanes are well known. She was apparently about







MAMMALS


as intelligent as a child might be within the last few
months of infancy, and had some notion of numbers
up to ten; but as far as her 'language' was dis-
coverable, it was limited to three sounds, one doing
duty for 'Yes,' another for 'No,' and another for
'Thank you so much!' She may, however, have
realized that a still tongue makes a wise head ;' at
any rate, like the little black chimpanzee now in her
place, she looked wise enough, particularly when boys
attempted to amuse themselves at her expense.
The gorilla (Gorilla Savagei) is so called after its
native name, the name of the species being in honour
of Dr. Savage, an English missionary in the Gaboon
country, who in 1847 sent drawings of its skull to
Sir Richard Owen. Du Chaillu published his account
of his discovery of this huge ape in 1861, but in 1860
there was a real live gorilla in this country in a
travelling show, whose proprietor was unaware of the
curiosity he possessed until after it was dead.
The gorilla is heavily built, as can be seen by the
skeletons in the top gallery at the Natural History
Museum at South Kensington, but this heaviness has
been exaggerated in most of the published woodcuts.
Like man and the chimpanzees, he has seventeen
joints in his backbone; but while man has twelve
ribs, he and the chimpanzees have thirteen. Another
point in which he resembles the chimpanzees is in
the absence of the central' bone in the wrist, which
is only found exceptionally in adult man. His teeth,
too, though similar in number and variety, are very
different in appearance from a man's, owing to the
large size of the canines and wisdom teeth.







PEDIGREE OF GORILLA 23

In these comparisons with the human skeleton,
in this 'stating of the animal kingdom in the terms of
man,' it should be borne in mind that we are only
dealing with anatomical facts, and that it is not im-
plied, as the ignorant suppose, that man is descended
from any of the existing chimpanzees or gorillas or-
orangs or gibbons. No one, indeed, ever said so, the
statement having been put about by heated dis-
putants in their attempts to destroy the unwelcome
by mere derision. The pedigree of the Hominidc
must be taken back for an enormous period of time
before it touches the crossways whence that of the
man-like apes diverged from it. But those crossways
it unmistakably reaches. Man is so intimately con-
nected, as far as his bodily structure goes, with the
higher apes that, as Mr. Lydekker says in Thie
Royal Natural History, 'in this respect at least he
cannot but be considered to have had a similar
origin.' There is really no fundamental distinction
in anatomy between any member of the man-like
group, and they can only be regarded as diverging
branches from some ancestral form long since extinct,
as much unlike any living ape as such apes are un-
like man.
Of course, much depends on what is meant by
man, but in a zoological sense the Hominidce seem to
have been distinct from the Siniida for at least as
long ago as the Miocene period of the earth's exist-
ence. This, it need hardly be said, has nothing to do
with the spiritual nature, nor even with the mental
powers and other human attributes, which so far
Remove man from the brutes. 'Viewed from the







MAMMALS


anatomical standpoint,' says Professor Mivart, 'man
is but one species of the order Primates; and he
even differs far less from the higher apes than do
these latter from the inferior forms of the order.
This work being purely anatomical, it is only needful
here to remind the reader of what common-sense
teaches us-that to estimate any object as a whole,
its powers of action no less than its structure must be
taken into consideration. The structure of the highest
plants is more complex than is that of the lowest
animals; but for all that, powers are possessed by
jelly-fishes of which oaks and cedars are devoid.
The self-conscious intelligence of man establishes
between him and all other animals a distinction far
wider than the mere superiority of his brain in mass
and complexity, or any other physical difference,
would indicate. All, however, who admit the idea of
man's moral responsibility are logically compelled to
go much further, and to confess that in this respect
he is separated from the rest of the visible creation
by an abyss so vast that no chasm separating the
other kingdonis of nature from one another can be
compared with it.'
The words of the Psalmist, taken in their ordinary
signification, are as eloquent as they are true : When
I consider Thy heavens, the work of Thy fingers, the
moon and the stars, which Thou hast ordained;
What is man, that Thou art mindful of him? and
the son of m'an, that Thou visitest him ? For Thou
hast made him but little lower than the angels, and
crownest him with glory and honour. Thou madest
him to have dominion over the works of Thy hands;







BRAIN OF A GORILLA


Thou hast put all things under his feet : all sheep and
oxen, yea, and the beasts of the field ; the fowl of the
air, and the fish of the sea, whatsoever passeth through
the paths of the seas.'
The frame of man differs but little from that of
the living things around him, but his dominion over
them is palpable and undeniable. Year by year those
that might contest it with him, were it a matter of
structure alone, are edged away. The monsters of
the past and the present, the carnivores, the serpents,
every possibly dominant form of the air and land and
sea, struggle in vain against his superiority. And
every wild animal or wild plant that he judges in his
ignorance to be of no use' he dooms to extinction as
'vermin or weeds.'
In mere weight of brain he is a long way above
those he most resembles. The gorilla's brain is only
two-thirds that of the smallest human brain-in fact,
a man may have a brain three times as heavy as that
of the gorilla. The average human brain weighs just
under 50 ounces; that of the gorilla does not exceed
20 ounces. The cranial capacity, is never less than
55 cubic inches in any normal man or woman, while
in the chimpanzee it is but 27- cubic inches, and in
the orang it is less. This preponderance of brain is
the one great anatomical distinction between him and
the brutes, whom he resembles in every bone and
muscle, nerve and blood-vessel, and from whom the
eighty vestigial structures in his muscular, skeletal, and
other systems-things obviously of no use to him and
only valuable as illustrations in hospital practice-
render it impossible to admit his physical separation.







MAMMALS


There are.said to be two species of gorilla, one
brownish and blackish, the other having a yellow face
when young; but only one is at present generally re-
cognised by zoologists, the n'jena of West Equatorial
Africa, from which came the nickname'Gena' given to
the Crystal Palace specimen in which the Rev. J. G.
Wood was so much interested. The gorilla's limbs
are much longer than those of a man, and he is the
biggest of the man-like group, and the only one ex-
cept man with anything like a calf to his leg. There
was a gorilla in Berlin which died of consumption in
1877, after fifteen months of captivity. On this animal
a good many observations were made, with the result
that he seemed to be of about the same standard of
intelligence as the more familiar chimpanzee. Some
of his traits were peculiarly childish. On the voyage
home, when he felt a longing for sugar or fruit, which
was kept in the dining saloon, he would slip in there
when he thought no one was looking and go straight
to the cupboard, make a quick and dexterous snatch
at the sugar basin or fruit basket, and close the cup-
board door behind him before beginning to enjoy his
plunder, and if he were discovered he would cut and
run with his booty much as a naughty boy might do
with an apple, his whole behaviour making it clear
that he was conscious of doing wrong. He also took
a special pleasure in making a noise by beating on
hollow things, and never missed an opportunity of
drumming on casks, dishes, or tin trays.
This habit of amusing himself has been de-
scribed by Dr. Garner as characteristic of the gorilla
in his native forests. One he describes as beating







ORANGUTAN


with his hands 'alternately, and with great rapidity,
and not unlike the manner in which the natives
beat a drum, except that each hand made the
same number of strokes, and the strokes were in a
constant series, rising and falling from very soft
to very loud, and vice versd; and a number of these
runs followed one another during the whole time that
the voice continued. Between the first and second
strokes the interval was slightly longer than between
the second and third, and so on. As the beating
increased in loudness the intervals shortened in a
corresponding degree, whereas in the diminuendo the
intervals lengthened as the beating softened, and the
author of the sounds seemed conscious of this fact.
I could not, however, trace any relation in time or
harmony between the music and the beating, except
that they usually began at the same time and ended
at the same time; but the voice suddenly stopped at
the very climax of the sounds, whereas the beating
was stopped at any part of the scale. I have no
doubt that the gorilla sometimes beats his breast, and
he has been seen to do so in captivity; but I do
not think it follows that he is confined to that.'
There are at least three living species of orang,
all of them found in Sumatra and Borneo, the one
generally known to us being Simia satyrus. Orang
is the Malay for 'man,' and utan, which is com-
monly coupled with it, is merely the Malay for of
the woods.' The orang is distinguished from the
gorilla and chimpanzee in being a reddish animal,
i and he also has eight bones in his wrist instead of
Seven. His arms are long, and his knees turn out-







MAMMALS


ward, so that he walks on the outside of his feet,
much as a boy does who treads his boots down. His
forehead is a high one, by no means so retreating as
in the gorillas and chimpanzees, and he has no ridges
to speak of over his eyes. His canine teeth are very
large, and, although he has twelve ribs like man, he
has only sixteen joints in his backbone. A fossil
orang has been found in Northern India, and a close
ally, the Dryopithecus (which simply means 'monkey
of the woods'), inhabited Western Europe in Miocene
times.
In Borneo the orang is generally known as the
mias, and under this name has been fully described
by Dr. A. R. Wallace. Dr. Wallace says that 'he
walks deliberately along some of the larger branches
in the semi-erect attitude which the great length of
his arms and the shortness of his legs cause him
naturally to assume ; and the disproportion between
these limbs is increased by his walking on his
knuckles, not on the palm of the hand, as we should
do. He never jumps or springs or seems to hurry him-
self, and yet manages to get along almost as quickly
as a person can run through the forest beneath.'
Like the gorilla and chimpanzee, he has the habit
of twisting together the smaller branches, so as to
make a platform on which to rest, and on one occa-
sion a large mias, which had not only been mortally
wounded, but had one of his arms broken by a rifle
bullet, succeeded in a wonderfully short time in con-
structing a platform which, besides concealing him
from sight, was strong enough to sustain the weight
of his heavy body after he was dead.







GIBBONS


Orangs have been known in captivity in Europe
for over a hundred years. In 1776 there was one
living in the menagerie of the Prince of Orange. All
the captive specimens have impressed their keepers
by their intelligence. Leuret gives a remarkable in-
stance of this. One of the orangs,' he says, 'which
recently died at the menagerie, was accustomed, when
the dinner-hour had come, to open the door of the
room where he took his meals in company with
several persons. As he was not sufficiently tall to
reach as high as the key of the door, he hung on to
a rope, balanced himself, and, after a few oscillations,
very quickly reached the key. His keeper, who was
rather worried by so much exactitude, one day took
occasion to make three knots in the rope, which,
having thus been made too short, no longer permitted
the orange to seize the key. The animal, after an in-
effectual attempt, recognizing the nature of the obstacle
which opposed his desire, climbed up the rope, placed
himself above the knots, and untied all three. The
same ape wishing to open a door, his keeper gave
him a bunch of fifteen keys; the ape tried them in
turn till he found the one he wanted. Another time
a bar of iron was put into his hands, and he made
use of it as a lever.' Cuvier, too, had an orang which
used to drag a chair from one end of a room to the
other, in order to stand upon it so as to reach a latch
he desired to open.
The last genus of the Simiidce is that to which
the gibbons belong. These are the only apes, as
already mentioned, who habitually walk upright, and
keep their balance with their arms in any position.







MAMMALS


They inhabit the Malay Peninsula and its neighbour-
hood, and though in some respects very like man in
structure, they are in others rather closely allied to
the baboons. Their generic name, Hylobates, means
'tree-traveller,' and in habits they are essentially
arboreal, living in large companies among the
branches, swinging through wonderful distances, and
indulging in loud and almost musical cries as they
leap along. 'Among the branches,' says the Rev.
J. G. Wood, 'it would be as easy to catch a swallow
on the wing as the gibbon. The cry of the agile
gibbon is a very remarkable one, consisting of the
chromatic scale very rapidly rendered, and concluded
by a couple of barks, one an octave below the other.
One of these creatures, which was kept tame for
some time, was placed in a large room in which
branches were fixed at some distance from each other,
so as to represent the boughs of a tree. Eighteen
feet was the longest space between the branches,
and through this space she would launch herself,
uttering her chromatic cry, and catching, while in
mid-air, fruit or cake that was thrown to her.' One
of the gibbons at the Calcutta Zoological Gardens,
a hoolock, was in the habit of catching birds on the
wing that flew into his cage. There are several
species of gibbon, the best known being the siamang,
the lar or white-handed gibbon, the hoolock, with
the white frontal band, which is the only species
occurring in India, the agile gibbon, and the silver
gibbon. They have all been kept in confinement,
and many stories are told of their affectionate dis-
position. I keep in my garden,' says one writer, 'a







ANECDOTE OF A GIBBON


i.uIL".:, of gibbons (Hylobates agilis). They live
quit: free from all restraint in the trees, merely
c ,:,:,rin; when called to be fed. One of them, a young
n!-i:til', o:, one occasion fell from a tree and dislocated
hii .li-t ; it received the greatest attention from the
:oth.-r, especially from an old female, who, however,
v,,d_ 1,: relation. She used, before eating her own
p. l:nt l.ins, to take up the first that were offered to her
evicry- day and give them to the cripple, who was
li. ii,. in the eaves of a wooden house; and I have
fiiq.i.':.tly noticed that a cry of fright, pain, or dis-
tr.-- f'r.:.m one would bring all the others at once to
thl.: con:plainer, and they would then condole with
hiin- :nd fold him in their arms.'
Buit this sympathy is quite in accordance with
tih.:- citracter, of all the Anthropoidea. In them, as
R':,anies observes, 'affection and sympathy are
t,.,i.!,- marked, the latter, indeed, more so than in
an;,. t:.lier animals, not even excepting the dog.' It
i-: at lei:st significant that the animals whose infancy
i- pr-:.l. nged-that is, with whom the mother's care
l..it- :longest-are almost invariably the gentlest and
rnm. t intelligent; for it is quite a mistake to suppose
thl',t spes or monkeys are of inferior intelligence to
d,:.;;, -:-r -elephants, or horses. By a confusion of
tlh.juIh-,t, docility is mistaken for intelligence, and
inIt.lli.gi cec measured by the ease with which it can
b.. ..apt'.-: to the service of man. The negro's faith-
fin!l-: as a slave is no testimony to the superiority
oF hi: int.-lilectual powers over those of the Arab or
the Ei.tn.ioan.
N,,.t to the Simiide, on the downward track,







MAMMALS


come what may be classed as the monkeys properly
so called, comprising the three families of the narrow-
nosed monkeys, confined to the Old World, the
broad-nosed monkeys, confined to America, and the
marmosets, which are also exclusively American. Of
these three groups there are at least two hundred
species. Few people have a notion of the relative
importance of monkeys in the animal series, or of
their wide distribution in the present and the past.
Although there is now but one monkey in Europe,
Macacus inuus, the pithecus of Aristotle, otherwise
the Barbary macaque, more familiarly known as the
ape of the rock of Gibraltar, fossil remains of
macaques are found scattered all over the Continent,
and have even been unearthed as far north as Grays,
on the northern bank of the Thames. There is a
macaque (M. fuscatus) in Japan; and in the coldest
and least accessible forests of Eastern Tibet there is
a stump-tailed macaque (M. tibetanus) as well as the
Tibetan langur with the tip-tilted nose, which haunts
the forests between Moupin and Lake Khokonor,
where snow is on the ground for the greater portion
of the year. This langur (Semnopithecus roxellane)
is one of the most historical of monkeys. In that
curious old Chinese book the Shan Hoi King, which
dates from something like 2205 B.C., there is a por-
trait of what is evidently a specimen of S. roxellance,
with the unmistakable turn-up nose that contrasts
so strikingly with the lengthy proboscis of Nasalis
larvatus, the equally singular Bornean kahau. Mon-
keys, as a rule, are tropical animals; how they







BABOONS 33

manage to exist through the long, cold winters of the
Asiatic highlands is somewhat of a mystery.
There are monkeys all over America, from the Rio
Grande do Sul in 30' south latitude to Vera Cruz in
Mexico, where the black-handed spider species is
found at an elevation of 2,000 feet on the slopes of
Orizaba, and of 4,000 feet in Oajaca. Using the
teinrm in its generally accepted sense, there are mon-
lkey right across Asia, from the Hainan gibbon on
the a~r-t to the Arabian baboon on the west. This
Aj.Lbi.n baboon is better known on the other side
i.fth Red Sea as the sacred baboon of the old
E. .l.'t'rns, although it is now not found in Egypt,
but Iurther south in Abyssinia and the Soudan.
S: .: r:l :r; it was, it would seem, at least occasionally,
t:, Ir .c been put to some use. On one of the old
ba: -.icrjs there is a fruit-bearing sycamore, in the
biA.:ich:-s of which are three monkeys, easily recog-
nisable as Arabian baboons from their long snouts,
w\,Jll-d,:\ -loped tails, and thickly haired shoulders and
ni.:l-.I; :on either side of the tree are two slaves, with
b. ,: ti laden with sycamore figs, and these baskets
thiey are filling with the figs handed down by the
babun: It thus appears that the ancient Egyptians
ha i ui:eeded in training these animals to gather
tfr it: and hand them to their masters, precisely after
th .:. 1..h-iln that the modern Malays are said to have
Straild :ia langur in Sumatra to perform a similar
k!:i o:f service, the fruit in the one case being
Sy,:.amiore figs and in the other cocoanuts. The
n.min.:n long-tailed monkeys of the Egyptian sculp-
ure., it maybe as well to note, were either guenons or
C







MAMMALS


mangabeys, probably guenons, which were well known
in Rome and Athens under the name of Cebus, which
now does duty as the generic- designation of an
American family.
There are monkeys in many of the Asiatic islands.
In the Nicobars, as well as on the Arakan coast, there
is that remarkable animal the crab-eating macaque,
which has forsaken the usual simian food in favour
of a diet of crabs and insects, and frequents the tidal
creeks and rivers in family parties of half a dozen or
more, swimming and diving as readily as a man. In
Sumatra there are a large number of species; but
then, Sumatra is a haunt of the orang, and the special
home of the siamang, the largest of the long-armed
gibbons, whose morning and evening observances
attracted the attention of Duvaucel. Siamangs,' he
says, 'generally assemble in numerous troops, con-
ducted, it is said, by a chief whom the Malays believe
to be invulnerable, probably because he is more agile,
powerful, and difficult to reach than the rest. Thus
united, they salute the rising and setting sun with
the most terrific cries, which may be heard at several
miles' distance; and which, when near, deafen when
they don't frighten. This is the morning call to the
mountain Malays, but to the inhabitants of the towns
it is a most insupportable annoyance.'
In Java lives the wou-wou, or silver gibbon, its
congener the agile gibbon being found as far north
as the Sulu Islands, between the Philippines and
Borneo. In Borneo, monkey life is well represented,
from the orang downwards, and one species, Hose's
langur, haunts the woods at elevations up to 4,000 feet








AFRICAN BABOONS


on the side of the chief mountain, Kina Balu. From
Celebes farther eastward, and from the small island
of Batchian more eastward still, comes the black ape,
which gives the connecting link between the macaques
and true baboons.
The true baboons are exclusively African, with
the exception of the Arabian species on the Red Sea
littoral. On the West Coast are the drill and man-
drill, the papio, and the anubis ; on the East Coast,
and extending right across, is the yellow baboon;
and in the south is the chacma, found in all the
mountain ranges of Cape Colony, living in droves of
thirty or more, even in the country about Simon's
Bay and in the tract stretching down to Cape Point.
There are monkeys all over Africa, from the Somali-
land nisnas to the Senegambian patas, from the
Barbary macaque to the Cape vervet. Even 3,000
feet up the slopes of Kilima-njaro there is a guereza;
and a fine fellow he is, with a long silky mantle and
a brush to his tail that would not disgrace a yak.
But that we know all the African species is very
unlikely ; for Africa has been but little worked as far
as its simian fauna is concerned. Sportsmen as a rule
care little for such troublesome things as monkeys.
The differences between the monkeys, strictly so
called, and the anthropoid apes are not so very great.
None of the anthropoids has a tail, but although the
Monkeys generally have tails, their tails are of dif-
ferent lengths, and some have no tail at all. There
is one characteristic, however, which is worth noting,
and that is that no Old-World monkey hangs on
-by his tail as some of the Americans do. There is a
S2







MAMMALS


certain difference in the breast-bone marking the
monkeys off from the anthropoids. In the monkeys
it is narrow and flattened from side to side, instead
of being broad and flattened from back to front.
All the monkeys, too, have eight bones in the wrist,
like the orang and the gibbons. Like the anthro-
poids, the Old-World monkeys have thirty-two teeth,
the 'dental formula'-that is, the arrangement of
the teeth-being the same as in man, whereas the
Americans have thirty-six teeth. The American
monkeys also differ from the rest in not having an
opposable thumb-a fact of little importance, but
worth remembering owing to the stress that was
once laid on the fact that civilised man had not an
opposable great toe.
The family of Old-World monkeys is known as
Cercopit/ecidce,which means'monkeys with tails'(which
is not quite the case), and these are divided into
Cercopiti/ecince, which have cheek-pouches, and the
legs and arms fairly equal, and Seemnopithecince (sacred
monkeys), which have no cheek-pouches, and have
the legs longer than the arms. The type of species
of the latter family is the sacred monkey of India
(Semnopithecus entellus), otherwise known as the
hanuman, which can be distinguished from the rest
of the group by his black feet and hands, his hair
sticking out over his brow like a pent-house, his tail,
like those of his nearest of kin, being longer than
his head and body put together. Hanuman, it may
be remembered, was the fabulous monkey who was
such friends with Vishnu in the expedition to Ceylon
to recover Sita from the giant Ravana, and he it was







LANGURS


who, during that war, bridged Palk Strait with the
rocks that his monkey troops threw into the sea. For
ages the hanuman monkeys have been considered
sacred by the Hindus, and allowed to amuse them-
selves at their own sweet will, much to man's dis-
comfort; but of late a check has been put to their
thefts and practical jokes, and they are no longer the
nuisances that they were. In the closely allied
Himalayan langur, the feet and hands are not so
black. Another langur is the negro monkey of Java,
which is black all over, except at the root of the tail
and below. The langurs are all Asiatic; in Africa
they are replaced by a somewhat similar genus, the
colobs, who, however, have no thumbs. Just as the
langurs have a black representative, so have the
colobs (Colobus satanas), who lives on the West
Equatorial coast. The handsomest of the colobine
monkeys are the guerezas, who live on the East
Coast.
One of the langurs-the banded-leaf monkey of
Malaysia-unlike the rest, has four tubercles in the
lower wisdom tooth, thereby resembling the next
group, the various species of Cercopithecus, which are
all African. The commonest of these are the greyish-
green South African vervet, with the blackish chin
and black-tipped tail; the olive-green North-East
African grivet, with the white chin and grey root to
the tail; and the West African green monkey, with
the yellowish whiskers. The next genus to Cerco-
pithecus is Cercocebus, comprising the white-eyelid
monkeys, or mangabeys, of which there are four
species, the most striking being C. fiuldinosus, the







MAMMALS


prettiest being C. collaris, with the white collar. The
mangabeys all come from West Africa; they are
the most grimaceful of monkeys, and have a curious
habit of turning up their tail as they walk, as if they
were endeavouring to tickle their nose with it.
The macaques are Asiatic. They are heavier in
build than the mangabeys, and have much more pro-
jecting faces, though among them the nose is never









-.. -







THE WHITE-COLLARED MANGABEY

as far forward as the mouth. Some of them have
long tails, some of them short tails ; one of them has
no tail at all, the tail, for sorting purposes, being now
treated as a 'negligeable quantity.' They all re-
semble each other in gestures and voice, and appa-
rently have a rudimentary language. According to
Colonel Tickell, anger is generally silent amongst
them,'or, at most, expressed by a low hoarse heu, not







ANECDOTE OF A BONNET-MONKEY


so gular or guttural as a growl; ennui and a desire
for company by a whining horn; invitation, depre-
cation, entreaty, by a smacking of the lips and a
display of the incisors into a regular broad grin,
accompanied with a subdued grunting chuckle, highly
expressive, but not to be rendered on paper; fear
and alarm by a loud, harsh shriek-kra or kraouak
-which serves also as a warning to the others, who
may be heedless of danger.' Unlike the langurs and
gibbons, they have no call.
Among the many macaques, we may mention the
bonnet-monkey (Macacus sinicus), so called from the
patch of blackish hair on the forehead, which is care-
fully parted in the middle. Mr. Wood describes one
of these animals he met with at the seaside, in charge
of the usual organ-man. 'Apparently of its own
accord, the monkey had taught itself to imitate the
actions of the children who play on the sands, and
seemed to derive the keenest gratification from imi-
tating their proceedings. The owner allowed it to
roam about as much as it liked, and often it was the
centre of an admiring throng of children, who were
treating it as if it were a pet kitten, the owner all the
while contemplating the group with a broad grin on
his good-humoured countenance. I was first attracted
to the children by their shrieks of laughter, which
were occasioned by the business-like way in which the
bonnet-monkey was washing a handkerchief in a little
pail of sea-water. In spite of the preternatural gravity
with which the monkey went through the operations
of washing, shaking, and hanging out to dry, it was
evident that the animal enjoyed the game as much as







MAMMALS


the children, and was always ready to wash any
handkerchief that was given him. I rather thought
that, monkey-like, he would have bitten or torn the
handkerchiefs; but he never injured one of them,
treating them with as much respectful care as if he
were employed by a Chinese laundryman, who is a
model of .self-contained gravity when engaged in
getting up linen.'
Closely allied to this species is the Singalese
rilawa, M. pileatus, which the Tamil conjurors teach
to dance, and carry from village to village clad in a
grotesque dress to amuse the people, in just the same
way as its relative amuses our children; but, as Mr.
Lydekker says, the mimicry and amusing tricks of a
monkey in captivity are a mere shadow of what they
are in its native condition, so that persons who have
only seen these animals in confinement have but a
faint idea of their true nature.' Another common
macaque is the rhesus, or bandar, carried about by the
jugglers in Northern India. The tailless macaque is
the Gibraltar ape, which crossed into Europe before
the straits were formed, and is also found in Morocco
and Algiers, being the only member of the genus
that is not Asiatic.
The series of intermediate forms leading through
the guenons, mangabeys and macaques to the baboons
is now practically complete. The baboons are an
ugly lot, easily distinguishable by their dog-like
heads, which have given them their generic name of
Cynocephalus (dog-headed). They are the biggest of
the monkeys, and have exceptionally big heads. One
of the best looking is the South African chacma,







THE CHACMA


otherwise the pig-like one, C. porcarius. The chacma
is not a foe to be despised. According to Mrs.
Martin, no vegetable poison has the slightest effect on
his iron constitution ; and, indeed, if there exists any
poison at' all capable of killing him, it is quite certain
that, with his superior intelligence, he would be far
too artful to take it; and where the fiat for his de-
struction has gone forth, a well-organised attack has
to be made' on him with dogs and guns. He can
show fight, too, and the dogs must be well trained
and have the safety of numbers to enable them to
face him ; for in fighting he has the immense advan-
tage of hands, with which he seizes a dog and holds
him fast while he inflicts a fatal bite through his
loins. Indeed, for either dog or man to come to close
quarters with Adonis (as the chacma is ironically
called by the Boers) is no trifling matter. One of
our friends, travelling on horseback, came upon a
number of baboons sitting in solemn parliament on
some rocks. He cantered towards them, anticipating
seeing the ungainly beasts take to their heels in
grotesque panic; but was somewhat taken aback on
finding that, far from being intimidated by his ap-
proach, they refused to move, and sat waiting for
him, regarding him the while with ominous calmness.
The canter subsided into a trot, and the trot into a
sedate walk, and still they sat there ; and so defiant
was the expression on each ugly face that at last the
intruder thought it wisest to turn back and ride igno-
miniously away.'
But the baboons have another side to their nature.
Not long ago there was at the London Zoological







MAMMALS


Gardens, according to Dr. Romanes, an Arabian
baboon, C. /amadryas, and an Anubis baboon, C.
anubis, confined in one cage, adjoining that which
contained another baboon. The Anubis baboon
passed its hand through the wires of the partition
in order to purloin a nut which the large baboon had
left within reach. The Anubis baboon very well
knew the danger he ran, for he waited until his bulky
neighbour had turned his back upon the nut with the
appearance of having forgotten all about it, and, of
course, pounced on the Anubis when temptation
proved too strong for caution, and bit him severely.
'The Anubis baboon then retired to the middle of
the cage, moaning piteously, and holding his injured
hand against his chest while he rubbed it with the
other one. The Arabian baboon now approached him
from the top of the cage, and, while making a sooth-
ing sound very expressive of sympathy, folded the
sufferer in its arms-exactly as a mother would her
child under similar circumstances. It must be stated
also that this expression of sympathy had a decidedly
quieting effect upon the sufferer, his moans becoming
less piteous as soon as he was enfolded in the arms
of his comforter; and the manner in which he laid
his cheek upon the bosom of his friend was as expres-
sive as anything could be of sympathy appreciated.'
In the Cebide, the chief group of the American
monkeys, the nose is flat and has a broad inter-narial
septum, while the thumb, though not opposable, is
divergent from the fingers, except in the spider-
monkeys, in which it is rudimentary. All the
American monkeys live in the forests. 'In this







THE WOOLLY SPIDERS


purely arboreal life,' says Mr. Lydekker, 'it will
easily be seen that the prehensile tail of those species
which possess such an organ must be of great assist-
ance to their owners in travelling from bough to
bough, and thus from tree to tree. Considering, how-
ever, that the species, like the titis, in which the tail.
is not prehensile, are equally as arboreal in habits
as those with prehensile tails, it is quite clear that
the latter organ can only be regarded as a kind
of luxury. Indeed, the whole question as to the
reason why some monkeys have long tails, others
short tails, and others, again, no tails at all, is in-
volved in great obscurity.'
There are ten genera of the Cebidce-the capu-
chins, Cebus (Cebus ismerely a derivative of the
Greek Kebos, meaning a monkey); the woolly
monkeys, Lagothrix; the woolly spider-monkeys,
Eriodes; the spider-monkeys, Ateles; the owl-faced
monkeys, Nyctipithecus; the squirrel-monkeys, Chry-
soth/rix; the titis, Callithrizx; the sakis, Pithecia;
the uakaris, Uacaria;.and the howlers. The capu-
chins have thickish tails, with no bare patch at the
end of the tail, where it is used for clinging to the
trees; in fact, if the tail be looked upon as a third
hand, it is in this genus a hand without a palm. In
the woolly monkeys this patch is present, and con-
spicuous owing to the thickness of the fur everywhere
else. The woolly spiders connect them with the
spiders properly so-called. They are of much lighter
build, and have long, narrow tails and rudimentary
thumbs. The spiders live almost all their time in
the trees, but now and then they come to the ground







MAMMALS


for a run, standing on their hind legs, holding their
arms up in the air, and bending their tails up into a
double curve. The owl-faced monkeys, or dourou-
colis, have very long tails, but the tails are not pre-
hensile; neither are those of the squirrels, or saimaris,
and the titis, which are often classed together.
These monkeys are much smaller as a rule than any
of the preceding, and they vary very much in the
length of their tails. The sakis also do not have
prehensile tails; the uakaris have hardly any tail at
all, but the howlers have very long tails and these
are prehensile. On the tail alone they would be
classed next to the spiders ; but the expansion of the
hyoid bone, which particularly distinguishes them, is
so clearly foreshadowed among the titis and sakis
that these genera have to be placed between. This
bone, which joins on to the upper part of the wind-
pipe, is a most extraordinary-looking thing ; there are
some good specimens of it in the Kensington Natural
History Museum-bony bags as thin as paper and as
large as an ordinary wine-glass, a mouth-organ of
great capacity for the production of the exasperating
music which has given the genus the name of Mycetes,
or moaners.
The best known of the capuchins is perhaps the
brown one (C. fatuellus), a representative of which
was experimented on by Dr. Romanes, who published
the diary of the proceedings in his Animal Intelli-
gence. We must find room for an extract from this
most interesting record. To-day he obtained posses-
sion of a hearth-brush, one of the kind which has the
handle screwed into the brush. He soon found the































*, --, .>




-C I ;


* ", 1



\ .

















;~-::
l.'.


THE RED-FACED SPIDER MONKEY


V






'I








.~II'


''
1
'
'


" -' <







MAMMALS


way to unscrew the handle, and having done that, he
immediately began to try to find out the way to
screw it in again. This he in time accomplished.
At first he put the wrong end of the handle into the
hole, but turned it round and round the right way for
screwing. Finding it did not hold, he turned the
other end of the handle and carefully stuck it into
the hole, and began again to turn it the right way.
It was of course a very difficult feat for him to per-
form, for he required both his hands to hold the
handle in the proper position, and to turn it between
his hands in order to screw it in, and the long bristles
of the brush prevented it from remaining steady or
with the right side up. He held the brush with his
hind hand, but even then it was very difficult for him
to get the first screw to fit into the thread. He
worked at it, however, with the most unwearying per-
severance until he got the first turn of the screw to
catch, and he then quickly turned it round and round
until it was screwed up to the end. The most re-
markable thing was that, however often he was dis-
appointed in the beginning, he never was induced to
try turning the handle the wrong way; he always
screwed it from right to left. As soon as he had
accomplished his wish he unscrewed it again, and
then screwed it in again,'-and amused himself till he
was tired. The desire to accomplish a chosen task,'
continues the diarist, 'seems a sufficient inducement
to lead him to take any amount of trouble. This
seems a very human feeling, such as is not shown, I
believe, by any other animal. It is not the desire of
praise, as he never notices people I.. .in;, on ; it is







MARMOSETS


simply the desire to achieve an object for the sake of
achieving an object, and he never rests nor allows his
attention to be distracted until it is done.' This
monkey also found out how to open boxes with keys,
and did other noteworthy things. His rapidity of
discernment was very striking. When he went back
to the Zoological Gardens he always instantly re-
cognised the friends among whom he had spent his
holiday. I purposely,' says the doctor, 'visited the
monkey-house on Easter Monday, in order to see
whether he would pick me out of the solid mass of
people who fill the place on that day. Although I
could only obtain a place three or four rows back
from the cage, and although I made no sound where-
with to attract his attention, he saw me almost im-
mediately, and with a sudden intelligent look of
recognition ran across the cage to greet me. When
I went away he followed me, as he always did,
to the extreme end of his cage, and stood there
watching my departure as long as I remained in
sight.'
The last and the smallest of the man-like animals
are the Hapalidce or marmosets. Unlike the other
American monkeys, these have the same number of
teeth as man, although the arrangement is different,
there being three premolars and two molars, instead
of two premolars and three molars. Like all the rest
of the order, they have two incisors and one canine.
Of course we have taken it as generally known that
the dental formula of man is 2, I, 2, 3, the first three
figures, the important ones, being easily rememberable
as giving the boiling-point of water. The tail of the







MAMMALS


marmosets is long, hairy, and non-prehensile; the
thumb is long but not opposable, and the great toe
is rudimentary, all the fingers and toes being furnished
with pointed claws instead of the flat nails possessed
by all other monkeys. Another noteworthy point is
that the marmosets usually have three young ones at
a birth, while the rest of the monkeys have but one;
but amongst them, as among all the others, a
youngster that loses its parents is always adopted
and brought up by some other family. There are
two genera of marmosets, those with short canine
teeth being assigned to Hapale, while those in which
the canines are longer than the incisors are assigned
to Midas. It is to Midas that those pretty creatures
the silky marmosets belong.

LEMUROIDEA.-Our next group is mainly
represented in Madagascar, though its distribution
extends between the tropics all the way from the
Philippines and Celebes to the West Coast of Africa.
In its living representatives it is so closely allied to
the monkeys that it is occasionally classed with them ;
in one form it is allied to the rodents, while in its
fossil forms it has obvious affinities not only with the
insectivores but with the ungulates. In Madagascar
it comprises quite half the mammalian fauna. All
of its representatives are arboreal, many of them are
nocturnal, and from their nocturnal habits they have
received the name of Lemuroids, lemur being the
Latin for 'ghost' or 'hobgoblin.'
The largest of the group is the indri, found on
the east side of Madagascar. The sifakas belong to






















































MARMOSETS







MAMMALS


another genus (Propithecus) and are all curiously local
and limited, each distinct species being characteristic
of a distinct area. The avahis or woolly lemurs,
unlike the indris and sifakas, are found either


r *


ji
THE BROWVN MOUSE-LEMUR


solitary or in pairs. The true lemurs have more
teeth than the others; the gentle lemur belongs to
a different genus (Hapalemur) distinguishable by the
more rounded head and shorter muzzle; the weasel-







LEMURS


lemurs have either no upper front incisors at all or
only rudimentary ones; the mouse-lemurs are
hardly larger than rats, and are remarkable for re-
maining dormant during the hottest period of the
year. The brown mouse-lemur (of which we give
the portrait) was brought to England by Mr. Shaw,
the well-known missionary. The dwarf mouse-lemur
is the animal Buffon described as the rat of Mada-
gascar ; it builds nests of twigs as if it were a rook,
and lines them with hair. The galagos are found
on the African mainland; the large size of their
ears sufficiently distinguishes them; they are found
practically all over Africa, and have been known for
the last hundred years. The two genera Nycticebus
and Loris are Asiatic; Perodicticus, which includes
the potto and awantibo, is exclusively African. In
earlier times the group had a much wider distribution,
fossil representatives having been found not only in
England and France but in North America. There
are two other families of the lemuroids besides the
Lemuride. These are the Tarsiidce and the Chiro-
myide, each represented by a single genus and a
single species.
The Tarsier derives its name from the frog-like
elongation of its ankle bones. In his Cruise of the
Marchesa, Dr. Guillemard says of one obtained at
Celebes:-' The most interesting addition to our mena-
gerie was a tiny lemuroid animal, brought to us by a
native, by whom it was said to have been caught upon
the mainland. These little creatures, which are of
arboreal and nocturnal habits, are about the size of a
small rat, and are covered with a remarkably thick fur,
D 2







MAMMALS


which is very soft. The tail is long, and covered with
hair at the root and tip, while the middle portion of it is
nearly bare. The eyes are enormous, and, indeed, seem,
together with the equally large ears, to constitute the
greater part of the face, for the jaw and nose are very
small, and the latter is set in, like that of a pug dog,
almost at a right angle. The hind-limb at once
attracts attention from the great length of the tarsal
bones, and the hand is equally noticeable for its
length, the curious claws with which it is provided,
and the extraordinary disc-shaped palps on the
palmar surface of the fingers, which probably enable
the animal to retain its hold in almost any position.
This weird-looking creature we were unable to keep
long in captivity, for we could not get it to eat the
cockroaches which were almost the only food with
which we could supply it. It remained still by day
in its darkened cage, but at night, especially if dis-
turbed, it would spring vertically upwards in an odd
mechanical manner, not unlike the hopping of a
flea. On the third day it found a grave in a pickle-
bottle.'
The aye-aye is quite as curious, with its rodent-
like incisors, its absence of tusks, and its attenuated
middle claw, with which it extracts from their
burrows the larvae which are its natural food. In
appearance it is not unlike a cat with a large bushy
tail and rounded ears. It is no wonder,' says Mr.
Shaw, that in connection with so curious an animal
a number of superstitious beliefs should be current
among the Betsimisaraka, in whose country the aye-
aye is principally found. In reference to its name,







THE AYE-AYE


one account says that the first discoverers took it
from one part of the island to another, the inhabi-
tants of which had never seen it, and in their surprise
they exclaimed Hay Hay Another tale is that,
many years ago, some Betsimisaraka had occasion to
open an old tomb, in which had been buried one of
their ancestors. No sooner was the tomb opened
than this animal, into which the said ancestor had
developed, sprang out, and hence the exclamation of
surprise that has attached itself as a name to this
creature. Many of the Betsimisaraka still believe
that the aye-aye is the embodiment of their fore-
fathers, and hence will not touch it, much less do it
any injury. It is said that, when one is discovered
dead in the forest, these people make a tomb for
it and bury it with all the formality of a funeral.
The superstition extends even to the nest which the
animal makes for itself. If a man receives from
another, or picks up accidentally, the portion on
which the head of the aye-aye has rested, it is sure
to bring good fortune; while the receiving of that
part on which its feet rested is follow ved by bad luck
or death. This has passed into a proverb among the
Betsimisaraka.'
In connection with this local ancestral theory, it
is a strange coincidence that naturalists are all agreed
in looking upon the aye-aye as the very last animal
that can be classified as man-like. It is the last of
the lemuroids, which some with good reason group
in one order with the anthropoids under the designa-
tion of Primates.







MAMMALS


CHIROPTERA.-In the zoological series the
next order is that of the bats, or Chiroptera, the
hand-winged mammals, the only mammals that have
the power of true flight. The hands and arms are
large in proportion to the rest of the frame, and very
light in structure, the bones being remarkably hollow
and long and slender. Were those of a man to be in
the same proportion, his fathom-that is, the distance
he can stretch from finger-tip to finger-tip-would
measure thirty feet instead of six. The wing is an
expansion of the skin, stretching generally from the
shoulder along the arms and fingers, and so down to
the hind legs or the tail. The thumb is always free,
and carries the claw by which .the bat climbs; the
toes are always free, and are all clawed. The most
peculiar thing in the skeleton is the knee-joint, which
is turned backwards like the elbow, so that a bat
cannot walk readily, and rarely settles on the ground.
Another point worth notice is the weakness of the
hip-girdle compared with that of the shoulders, whose
strength bears eloquent witness to the immense power
necessary for sustained flight. No mammal has so
highly developed a skin as a bat; it is so richly pro-
vided with nerve filaments that the sense of touch
must be many times greater than that of any other
vertebrate. As a matter of fact, a bat deprived
of sight and smell and hearing has been found
capable of flying easily about a room without knock-
ing against a maze of silken threads, which had been
stretched across it so as to leave spaces only just
large enough for his open wings to pass. This power
of discovering the proximity of objects without sce-













































SKELETON OF BAT







MAMMALS


ing them, hearing them, or touching them, as we
understand the meaning of touch, seems to be chiefly
concentrated in the wing membranes, in the ears, and
Sin the so-called 'leaf,' that looks like a mask on the
face, and serves the same purpose as a cat's whiskers.
Bats are not blind ; on the contrary, their eyes are
remarkably bright and intelligent.
The naturalist, rather curiously, divides his bats
into large ones and small ones, the large ones being
all fruit-eaters and all natives of the eastern hemi-
sphere. These can be readily distinguished from the
others owing to their having always three joints in
the second finger, and generally a claw on that finger
as well as the claw on the thumb. The other bats
never have the extra claw, and have either one or
two joints in the finger. Another distinction is that
the molar teeth of the fruit-bats have smooth crowns,
with a longitudinal groove, while the molars of the
others have cusped crowns and cross grooves. It is
also stated that, when a fruit-bat goes to sleep, he
hangs himself up by one leg, while all the other bats
hang themselves up by two; but as there are four
hundred and fifty species of bats altogether, it is
probable that this is a rule not without exceptions.
Fruit-bats, or fox-bats, as they are sometimes
called, are found in enormous numbers in India,
Australia, and the Polynesian Islands, some of the
species feeding quite as much on flowers as on fruit.
Many of them migrate, as birds do, and return to the
same spots year after year, as their food becomes fit
for them. All these bats, which are also known as
flying foxes, have no tails, and belong to the genus














//


THE COLLARED FRUIT-BAT AND YOUNG







MAMMALS


Pteropus. The fox-bats, with short tails and short
fur on the back of the neck, are assigned to another
genus, Xantharpyia. In the accompanying illustra-
tion we have a representative of X. collaris, the
collared fox-bat, which is interesting as showing the
way in which such animals carry their young. There
are collared bats living in the great pyramid of
Cheops, others in the old buildings of Palestine, and
one species has its home in the rocksalt caves of
Kishm Island in the Persian Gulf.
The general colouration of the fruit-bats is black
and tan. Some of them are anything but prepos-
sessing in appearance. For instance, there is a
'hammer-headed' bat in the Gaboon country which
has a head like an ugly old horse, and there is a
genus of 'tube-nosed bats' in the neighbourhood of
Torres Straits the species of which look like Japanese
monsters made up for show purposes. On the other
hand, some are really handsome. In the Solomon
Islands there is one, a long-tongued fruit-bat, Neso-
nycteris Woodfordi, which has a bright orange body
and dark brown wings. Another interesting bat in the
Solomon Islands is the cusped-toothed one, in which
the teeth have cusps that almost obliterate the longi-
tudinal grooves, thus giving the transition form
between the two sub-orders which zoologists have
set up.
The insectivorous bats are much more numerous
than the others, there being no less than five families
of them. Among those most worthy of notice are
the horse-shoes with nose-leaves and no inner ear or
tragus, as it is called, but a membrane in front, which







BATS


is known as the anti-tragus. Two of these bats-the
large one, Rhinolophus ferrum-equinum, and the lesser
one, R. hipposiderus-are found in Britain. Another
family, the Nycteride, have large ears, a large tragus,
and a small nose leaf; to this family belongs the false
vampire of India, Megaderma lyra, and the Queens-
land form, M. gigas, which it is as difficult to look
upon as a 'small' bat as it is to consider Carponycteris
minimus as a large' one. The genus Nycteris, which
gives its name to the family,
is mainly an African one. .:*
The next family, Vesper-
tilionidce, includes all the f -
British species except the i'
two horse-shoes. They all
have a tragus, but no nose- 1
leaf, and they all have
a longish tail, to the tip -
of which the membrane "" I "-
stretches. The long-ear,
lecotus auus, may be HEAD OF LONG-EARED BAT
Plecotus auritus, may be
taken as the representative of its genus. It may be
recognized by its long ears and the grooves on the
muzzle behind the nostrils. The ears are as mobile
as those of a dog, and are not only moved backwards
and forwards, but thrown into graceful folds during
the act of listening, these folds being formed by three
slight gristly rays that run from the base of the ear
to the edge. This bat, which has a wing-spread of
about ten inches, is found as far west as Ireland and
as far east as the Himalaya, and all through Europe
and North Africa. Like the other British species, it















































LONG-EARED BATS







THE LONG-EARED BAT 61

hibernates-that is to say, enters into a state of torpor
through the winter, when there are no insects to eat,
suspending its respiration and digestion, and slowing

". -. L "' i ,








M,,
"'t. -- .



















LONG-EARED BAT SLEEPING

its pulsation until its heart beats but once a second
instead of at the normal furious rate.
The long-ear does not come out until very late in
the evening; the barbastelle, Synotus barbastellus, is a
much earlier riser. This is a blacker bat than the other,







62 MAMMALS

though white and piebald specimens are on record,
and it has its muzzle apparently cut off short, with
a groove on each side leading up to the nostrils.
It is somewhat clumsy looking, and in its flight seems
to take matters much more easily than that commonest
of British bats, the pipistrelle, Vesperugo ifpistrellus,





VI* E






._ 7
--, -. ;













- .- ..,. ,. .-

BARBASTELLE BAT WALKING

which is out every evening from March to December,
swift and busy, with long curving swoops and rapid
twists and turns, as if it had not a minute to lose. A
larger bat, and a more powerful one, is the noctule,
belonging to the same genus; he is the great beetle-
catcher, 'essentially adapted,' says Bell, 'for the cap-







VAMPIRE BAT


ture and mastication of coleopterous insects,' and he
flies high and straight, with a-dash at every luckless
cockchafer that may come sailing near him.
Another important family of bats- is the Em-
ballonuride, of which there is only one European spe-
cies. Among the more remarkable members of this
group are the white bats, belonging to the genus Di-












i '




HEAD OF VAMPIRE BAT

clidurus, found in Central and South America; the
naked bat of Malaysia, which has a pouch for holding
the young while they are suckling; the New Zealand
bat, which not only catches insects as it flies, but as it
creeps among the trees; and the vampires of South
America, of which the only blood-suckers are Desmo-
dus rufus and Diphylla ecaudata. In the Kensington







MAMMALS


Natural History Museum there is a specimen of Des-
modus, which Darwin saw caught in the act of sucking
blood from a horse. Regarding its capture he says :
, The vampire bat is often the cause of much trouble
by biting the horses on their withers. The injury is
generally not so much owing to the loss of blood as
to the inflammation which the pressure of the saddle
afterwards produces. The whole circumstance has
lately been doubted in England; I was, therefore,
fortunate in being present when one was actually
caught on a horse's back. We were bivouacking late
one evening near Coquimbo, in Chili, when my ser-
vant, noticing that one of the horses was very restive,
went to see what was the matter, and fancying he
could distinguish something, suddenly put his hand
on the beast's withers, and secured the vampire. In
the morning the spot where the bite had been inflicted
was easily distinguished from being slightly swollen
and bloody.'

INSECTIVORA.-The bats are a special order
of greatly modified insectivores, one of the transition
stages being, perhaps, suggested in the Malaysian
cobegos, who have not the power of true flight, but,
like the flying squirrels and flying lizards, have an
extension of membrane, which enables them to take
exceedingly long leaps from tree to tree. Their
genus is Galeopithecus, and there are two species.
The insectivores are a very miscellaneous order.
Though similar in structure, they differ very much in
their food. Instead of living entirely on insects, as
one would suppose from their name, some of them eat










































WATER SHREWS


3~
,~.P~~ ~


3







MAMMALS


leaves as well; some of them, like the mole, eat
worms; one of them, the potamogale, feeds on fish,
and, unlike the rest of the order, has no collar-bones.
Most of them have soft fur; but one genus, that
containing the hedge-hogs, has a spiny coat, and
another (Centetes), which includes the Madagascar
ground-hog, is more or less spiny. There are some two
hundred species altogether, the most numerous being
the various kinds of shrews. Among these are the
tree-shrews (Tupaiidc), that are like squirrels, both in
habit and appearance; the jumping shrews (Macro-
scelide), long-nosed and long-legged, which hop about
like tiny kangaroos; the true shrews (Soricide), which
are often mistaken for mice, but differ markedly from
them in their sickle-shaped incisor teeth. There are
many kinds of shrews -earless shrews, water shrews,
musk shrews, burrowing shrews, swimming shrews,
web-footed shrews, and mole shrews, which last,
however, belong to a different family, the Talpide,
which includes the desmans and the moles. The
mole extends from England to Japan, and fossil
moles have been found in the rocks all the way down
to the Lower Miocene. The mole has rudimentary
eyes, but no external ears; its fur is like velvet, set
vertically on the skin, so that it can pass backwards
or forwards along its burrow with equal ease. Its
shoulder-girdle is even more powerful than that of
the bats, and the humerus bears a number of ridges
for the attachment of the muscles that make it easily
distinguishable from that of any other mammal. It
has been said that the mole is as happy as a skylark.
Assuredly his frame is as marvellously adapted for







CARNIVORA


the conditions of his existence and the work he has
to do.

CARNIVORA.-The order of carnivores is
another old group which must not have its name
taken too literally. It does not include all the flesh-
eaters; and some of its members, notably among the
bears, are practically vegetarians. Speaking gene-
rally, however, the name is appropriate, for most of
the species prey on other animals and live on warm
flesh. In structure there is a great resemblance
among them all. Their lower jaw can only move
vertically, owing to the projecting process or condyle
being semi-cylindrical, and working in a deep
narrow, glenoid fossa'-or hollow-of corresponding
form. Like the potamogale, but unlike the rest of the
insectivores, their collar-bones are either absent or
represented by little splints embedded in the
muscles. Unlike, too, the majority of the insecti-
vores, the bones of the forearm are distinct, and
the fibula in the lower leg slender, though it is
always separated from the tibia. The wrist-bones,
too, are peculiar in having the lunar and scaphoid
all in one, and no central bone; and with regard to
this, it may be as well to explain that in the typical
wrist there are eight bones-(I) the scaphoid, so called
from its boat-shaped socket; (2) the lunar, so called
from its crescent shape, both of these being in con-
nection with the radius ; (3) the cuneiform, or wedge-
shaped bone, connected by a ligament with the ulna;
and (4) the pisiform, or pea-shaped bone, developed in
the tendon and gliding over in front of the cunei-
E 2







MAMMALS


form; next to the fingers come (5) the trapezium,
(6) the trapezoid, (7) the magnum, and (8) the
uniform, or hook-shaped bone, the ninth, or central
bone, to which we have more than once alluded,
coming between the first and second rows.
The carnivores are divided into three groups-
fissipeds, pinnipeds, and creodonts-the first being
mostly land animals, of about 300 species ; the
second water animals, of about 50 species; and the
third being as yet only found fossil. The fissipeds
are at once distinguishable from the others by their
having flesh-teeth, or carnassials-that is to say, a
back tooth on each side of both jaws specially modi-
fied to suit their carnivorous diet. There are three
groups of these land carnivores, which we may call
the cats, the dogs, and the bears, or, to use the tech-
nical and less misleading terms, the AEluroidea, the
Cynoidea, and the Arctoidea. To the first of these
belong all the Felide, large and small, lions, tigers,
leopards, pumas, lynxes, and what not; the Viver-
ridc, or civets, and mongooses; the Proteleide, with
one representative, the aard-wolf; and the Hyenide.
The Cynoidea are really the dog family (Canide),
including the wolves and foxes. The Arctoidea
include the Urside, or bears ; the Procyonidce, or
raccoons; and the Mustelide, or otters, badgers and
weasels.
None of the carnivores have less than four toes
on each foot. The dogs have five toes in front and
four behind; but on the fore feet the thumb is so
short as not to reach the ground, and on the hind
foot there is occasionally a 'dew-claw,' which is













































SKELETON OF A LION







MAMMALS


merely the rudimentary great toe. The bears have
five toes on each foot. The cats have their toes
padded and clawed, the claws being what is known
as 'retractile'-that is, held back by an elastic liga-
ment in such a way as to be kept off the ground in
the act of walking, or at will, and at the same time
being instantly protrusible by stretching the fingers,
or toes, as the case may be. None of the dogs have
retractile claws, nor are any of their claws very
sharp. When an animal walks on its toes it is said
to be digitigradee,' when on its sole it is 'planti-
grade.' The cats and dogs are usually classed as
digitigrade, the bears as plantigrade and sub-planti-
grade; but it is as well not to insist on this too
closely. The typical cat has thirty teeth, the formula
being 3, 1, 3, I for the top jaw, and 3, I, 2, I for the other;
the typical dog, like the typical bear, has forty-two
teeth, the dental formula being 3, I, 4, 2 for the top
jaw, and 3, 1, 4, 3 for the other. But some cats have
only twenty-eight teeth, and one of the dogs
(Lalande's) has forty-eight, being no less than four
molars in each half-jaw, a dentition which no other
mammal has that is not a marsupial.
In any notice of the Felidc it is customary to
begin with the lion. He certainly looks more like a
'king of the beasts' than the tiger, and, as a rule,
holds himself more royally. His mane has a good
deal to do with this, perhaps, but in the wild state he
does not grow to the same extent as when he is in
captivity, and altogether he is much more wiry in
build than artists have figured him. He is now only
found in Asia and Africa, slowly decreasing in num-



































































LIONS







MAMMALS


bers under the persistent attacks of the hunter and the
gradual spread of cultivation. Forty years ago lions
were so numerous in the Delhi district that one
sportsman, Colonel Acland Smith, killed fifty of
them; nowadays they are becoming so rare that in
Kattywar they are being preserved as if they were
partridges. Between the Tigris and the Euphrates
they are still fairly plentiful, and they used to range
into Palestine and Asia Minor, and even, according
to Herodotus, into Thrace and Macedonia, while a
species, Felis specea, so closely allied to F. leo as to
be almost indistinguishable from it, roamed in Pre-
Glacial days all over Western Europe, and even into
what is now Britain.
Lions are to be met with all over Africa, but few
are now killed south of the Orange River. In
Mashonaland they still abound. Lord Randolph
Churchill on one occasion saw seven of them at once,
'trooping and trotting along ahead of us like a lot of
enormous dogs-great yellow objects, offering such a
sight as I had never dreamed of.' In Damaraland
Galton 'at one place put up eight lions; they were
not close together, but within a space about two
hundred yards across, through which we happened to
drive. It was the largest pack I had seen. Fourteen
is the largest I have ever heard of.'
Lions arenot nearlyso dangerous to man as is gene-
rally supposed. The last-mentioned explorer remarks
that, at a rendezvous with the natives, he was curious
to know what animals were most fatal to man in that
country. 'We counted over all the deaths that we
could think of. Buffaloes (though not common here)







AN ADVENTURE WITH LIONS


killed the most, then rhinoceroses, and, lastly, lions.
Areep, the predecessor of Cornelius as chief of his
tribe, was killed by a black rhinoceros. It is curious
how many people are wounded by lions, though not
killed. A very active Damara, who was some time
with me in Damaraland, but who stayed behind as I
journeyed up country, was in a dreadfully mangled
state when I returned. He had found a lion in the
act of striking down his ox, and rushed at him with
his assegai; he gave him a wound that must have
proved mortal, for the assegai went far into his side,
but the lion turned upon him, and seizing him, bit
one elbow-joint quite through, and continued worry-
ing him until some other Damaras ran up and killed
the animal. My servant, Hans, had a very narrow
escape some time since. He was riding old Friesch-
land (the most useful ox I had, but now worn out by
the Ondonga journey) along the Swakop, when he
saw something dusky by the side of a camelthorn
tree, two hundred yards off. This was a lion, that
rose and walked towards him. Hans had his gun
in his gun-bag by the side of his saddle, and rode on,
for there is no use in provoking hostilities single-
handed with a lion, unless some object has to be
gained by it. As every sportsman at last acknow-
ledges, the coolest hand and the best shot are never
safe, for a bullet, however well aimed, is not certain to
put the animal hors de combat. After the lion had
walked some twenty or thirty-yards, Frieschland, the
ox, either saw or smelt him, and became furious.
Hans had enough to do to keep his seat, for a power-
ful long-horned ox tossing his head about and plung-







MAMMALS


ing wildly is a most awkward back for the best of
jockeys. The lion galloped up. He and Hans were
side by side. The lion made his spring, and one heavy
paw came on the nape of the ox's neck, and rolled
him over; the other clutched at Hans's arm, and tore
the sleeve of his shirt to ribbons, but did not wound
him, and there they all three lay. Hans, though he
was thrown upon his gun, contrived to wriggle it out,
the lion snarling and clutching at him all the time ;
but for all that, he put both bullets into the beast's
body, who dropped, then turned round, and limped
bleeding away into the recesses of a broad, thick
cover; and, of course, Hans, shaken as-he was, let him
go. There were no dogs to follow him, so he was
allowed to die in peace, and subsequently his spoor
was taken up, and his remains found.'
Lions loom large when seen by the excited ex-
plorer in the dusk of the evening, but they dwindle
considerably when alongside the measuring tape. Mr.
Selous gives ten feet as the length of his largest
African lion, and from this we must deduct nearly
a yard for the tail. Indian specimens recently
measured are rather smaller, so that we shall not be
far wrong in taking the lion as under four feet in
height and about six feet in length, exclusive of his
tail-that wonderful tail which has at its tip the tuft
that surrounds the horny nail, known in fact and
fiction as the thorn with which the king of beasts
goads himself to anger.
The lioness is about a foot shorter than the male
over all-at the longest nine feet-and stands propor-
tionally lower. She has no mane, and when very



















































LIONESS AND CUBS







MAMMALS


young is marked with stripes and spots, just as the
males are, but more conspicuously. From their
general sandy colour it is obvious that lions are not
dwellers in forest districts, but in open sandy plains.
As a rule, they sleep during the day and prowl at
night, when their deep bass roar dominates every
other sound. A lion, however, has three roars-one
a sort of challenge; another, in quite a different key,
betraying his regret at being baulked of his prey;
and a third a menagerie roar, which is by no means
alarming.
Sir Samuel Baker's description of the challeng-
ing roar is perhaps the best: 'There is nothing
so beautiful or enjoyable to my ears as the roar
of a lion on a still night, when everything is calm,
and no sound disturbs the solitude except the
awe-inspiring notes, like the rumble of distant
thunder, as they die away into the deepest bass.
The first few notes resemble the bellow of a bull;
these are repeated in slow succession four or five
times, after which the voice is sunk into a lower key,
and a number of quick, short roars are at length
followed by rapid coughing notes, so deep and power-
ful that they seem to vibrate through the earth.'
The tiger (F. tigris) differs from the lion in the
absence of the mane and in the general colouration.
Tigers are boldly striped, as a rule, but white tigers,
and even black tigers, are on record; and the Chinese
tiger, instead of having a short velvety coat, is almost
as furry as a bear. The tiger is a splendid cat, quite
as long as the lion, though not so high on the legs;
and he is the only cat with black cross stripes on his







THE TIGER


body, a pattern which makes him almost invisible
among the reeds of the jungle and in the shadows of
the forest.
The ground colour of this coat varies con-
siderably; it is brightest when young. Among the
males it begins to fade as soon as the ruff grows
thick round the throat-the ruff which represents the
lion's mane. It is yellowest in the Indian jungles;
it is reddest in the forests of the north. For the tiger
still lives north of Lake Baikal, and in Amurland
and Saghalien; westward, his present limit seems to
be the Caucasus; eastward, he is at home in Sumatra,
Java, and Bali, though he does not appear to reach
Borneo, nor does he cross Palk Strait from India
into Ceylon.
Fossil tigers have been found in the New Siberian
Islands in the Arctic Sea; in fact, the tiger never
was an animal peculiar to the tropics, and there are
good reasons for supposing that it is only within a
comparatively late period that his range has extended
as far south as India, where he keeps himself per-
sistently in the shade, and wallows constantly in the
mud during the burning heat of the dry season.
Like the lion, he is gradually being driven out by
the sportsman and the cultivator, and in many places
his haunts are confined to the islands in the rivers.
He is never as bold in look as the lion so often is,
but goes slouching and slinking along like a true
cat; and even in attack he seldom takes his hind
legs off the ground, but rushes instead of springing
at his prey. He makes for the nape of the victim's
neck, and his kill' can always be recognized by his







MAMMALS


beginning to feed on it at its hind quarters, while the
leopard begins at the shoulders.
The leopard (F. pardus) is recognisable at once
by his spots. He comes next in size to the lion and
tiger, and, unlike them, he can climb a tree. He is
found all over Africa, and in Asia ranges from Pales-


LEOPARDS


tine to Manchuria, and southwards of that line into
India and Malaysia. Like the tiger, his coat is more
woolly in the colder climates, and its colour varies
according to his haunts. Occasionally he is almost
black ; but just as the ordinary black cat shows the
tabby stripes when seen in a good light, so does the


'71TN i 3







THE JAGUAR


black leopard his rings and rosettes. At one time some
of his varieties were called panthers, but there are no
panthers nowadays. Structurally there was no differ-
ence between the varieties, and the discovery of the
complete series of intermediate coat patterns proved
that panther and leopard were identical.
The ounce, or snow-leopard (F. uncia), is a Central
Asian species, ranging north and south of the Altai
Mountains, and rarely below the snow-line. It is a
whitish animal with black rings about the size of a
crown piece, the fur being very long and not unlike
that of a Persian cat. The leopard has been measured
to reach eight feet in length; the snow-leopard has
not been known to exceed seven feet six inches. Like
the puma, it is said never to attack man except in
self-defence.
The leopards have their spots arranged apparently
at random. The jaguar (F. onca) has his in fairly
well-marked rows, and they are larger. As there are
black leopards, so there are black jaguars, and the
ground colour of his coat also varies from yellow to
nearly a tan.
The jaguar is an American animal, ranging
from Texas to Patagonia, and is so good a climber
that in some districts he becomes almost entirely
arboreal, and feeds on the monkeys and other in-
habitants of the trees. In other parts the jaguar
becomes almost a fishing-cat, and has been watched
standing in the shallow bend of a river, knocking out
the fish with the lightning stroke of his powerful
paw. In other places he devotes his attention to
turtle, tearing the upper shell from the lower at a







MAMMALS


single pull, and making but a mouthful or two of the
contents. He is a big handsome fellow, over six feet
long, tail and all, and is as often killed with the lasso
or bolas as with dogs and poisoned arrows. He is
notoriously noisy, roaring much by night, and espe-
cially before bad weather.
A significant habit on the part of the jaguar
is noticed by Darwin: 'One day, when hunting
on the banks of the Uruguay, I was shown certain
trees to which these animals constantly recur for the
purpose, as it is said, of sharpening their claws. I
saw three well-known trees; in front the bark was
worn smooth, as if by the breast of the animal, and
on each side there were deep scratches, or rather
grooves, extending in an oblique line, nearly a yard
in length. The scars were of different ages. A
common method of ascertaining whether a jaguar is
in the neighbourhood is to examine these trees. I
imagine this habit of the jaguar is exactly similar to
one which may any day be seen in the common cat,
as, with outstretched legs and exserted claws, it
scrapes the leg of a chair; and I have heard of
young fruit-trees in an orchard in England having
been thus much injured. Some such habit must also
be common to the puma, for on the bare, hard soil of
Patagonia I have frequently seen scores so deep that
no other animal could have made them. The object
of this practice is, I believe, to tear off the ragged
points of their claws, and not, as the gauchos think,
to sharpen them.'
The jaguar is the tiger of the New World ; the
puma is the lion. The puma (F. concolor) ranges










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~41 ~-~ r~~
A PUMA







MAMMALS


from New England and British Columbia in the
north to Tierra del Fuego in the south. As his
specific name implies, he is all of one colour, a tawny
brown, which is, however, much lighter in shade
below. In the young, however, there are distinct
spots, evidently a case of atavism, as with the young
of the lion. Pumas over eight feet long from the tip
of the nose to the tip of the tail have been reported,
as also have entirely white specimens ; but these are
exceptional ; the average length is about seven feet.
The puma is amzgo del cristiano, which we may
translate, not too literally, as the 'white man's friend.'
He rarely attacks man unless forced to do so.
As Mr. Lydekker observes in The Royal Natural
History, 'It is notorious that, in places where pumas
abound, it is perfectly safe for a child to wander alone,
and even sleep, on the pampas.' But this respect
and good-fellowship extend to man alone. 'Very
different is the behaviour of the puma when attacked
by a hunter accompanied by dogs. At such times
the animal is roused to the fiercest paroxysms of
rage; and with hair erect and eyes flashing like balls
of lurid fire, it rushes, spitting and snarling, on the
dogs, utterly regardless of the presence of the hunter.
So thoroughly, indeed, is the hunter ignored on such
occasions, that he may actually belabour the puma
on the head with a cudgel without drawing its attack
upon himself, the animal receiving such blows with-
out retaliation, and calmly waiting its opportunity of
making a rush upon the dogs.' And he is quite as
hostile to a far more formidable foe, the jaguar. It
is well known,' says Mr. W. H. Hudson, 'that, where







THE PUMA


the two species inhabit the same district, they are at
enmity, the puma being the persistent persecutor of
the jaguar, following it and harassing it as a tyrant-
bird harasses an eagle or hawk, moving about it with
such rapidity as to confuse it, and when an oppor-
tunity occurs, springing upon its back, and inflicting
terrible wounds with teeth and claws.' In the north
the puma is bold enough to attack the grizzly bear.
The puma's 'kill' can generally be recognized by its
having its neck broken, the. animal springing on the
shoulders, and then drawing back the head with one
of its paws until the vertebra break.
He is not the only American cat without spots
or stripes on his mature coat. In the central dis-
tricts of the continent there are the brownish-grey
jaguarondi, and the weasel-like eyra, which is almost
chestnut in colour. In the Eastern Hemisphere there
are also two uniformly-coloured small cats, these
being the flat-headed cat of Malaysia and the
Bornean bay cat. And just as Asia has its black-
spotted snow-leopard, so has South America its
white-and-black, but much smaller, colocollo. The
most southerly cat is the pampas-cat, which is prac-
tically confined to Patagonia, and may be considered
as the representative of the manul, which lives in
the deserts of Central Asia. The chief African
small cat is the serval, which may, however, occa-
sionally attain a length of nearly five feet over all.
Like other cats, it has a tendency to 'melanism,'
there being a black variety in the Kilima-njaro
district. Melanism, of course, means the change to
blackness, just as albinism means the change to
F 2







MAMMALS


whiteness. The 'melanotic domestic cat' is the
common or garden black cat of our everyday ac-
quaintance. Another noteworthy cat is the fishing-cat
of South-Eastern Asia and Formosa, and another is
the Indian jungle-cat, with its hair-tipped ears,
which differs but slightly from the caracal that, in
its turn, leads on to the lynxes, which are found all
round the Northern Hemisphere. Two other cats of
importance are the Egyptian cat (F. caffra), from
which the domestic cats of Europe are probably
descended, and the Indian desert-cat (F. ornata),
from which the domestic cats of Asia came, the
Persian breed being by some naturalists considered
to trace its pedigree back to the manul. But we
have had cats enough. Two we must mention-the
Malaysian clouded leopard, or 'tiger of the trees,'
which lives on the birds and small mammals it can
catch among the branches, and the long-legged,
small-headed Indian hunting leopard, which differs
so much from the rest in its appearance, in its teeth,
and in its claws, that it is now no longer classed
as a Felis, but has a genus to itself, being known as
Cynelurus jubatus.
Among the fossils of the Miocene we find the
intermediate forms by which the gap is bridged be-
tween the Felidce and the Viverride. The civets
are an interesting but somewhat odoriferous group,
confined, with two exceptions, to Africa and Southern
Asia. The most remarkable of them is, perhaps, the
peculiarly savage fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox), the
largest carnivore of Madagascar, which is plantigrade
in its hind feet and digitigrade in its front feet, which







HYENAS 85

alone are padded. He has thirty-six teeth ; the true
civets have forty. There is only one true civet (Viverra
civetta) in Africa; all the others are Asiatic. In
Miocene times there were civets in Europe, and even
in England. The genets are nearly all African,
though one of them (Genetta vulgaris) ranges into
the south of France, having, like the magot, pro-
bably crossed at Gibraltar before the straits existed.
The linsangs are all Asiatic but one, and he is found
on the West Coast of Africa; the palm-civets are
also Asiatic, with a single representative on the West
Coast of Africa. The binturong, or bear-cat, has a
genus to himself (Arctictis) ; he lives in the trees, as
do the palm-civets. Another of the family having a
genus to himself is the Cynogale of Malaysia, who is
happy in his varied fare, for not only does he climb
trees and eat fruit, but he hunts on land for mam-
malian flesh, and swims and dives in the water in
search of fishes and crabs. To the last group of
the Viverridce belong the weasel-like mongooses of
which we have heard so much with regard to their
vermin-catching and snake-destroying powers. One
of these (Herpestes urva) devotes himself mainly to
the pursuit of frogs and crabs. Another (H. ichneu-
mon) has an insatiable appetite for crocodile eggs.
The sole representative of the Proteleidae is the
African Aard-wolf, who is not unlike a hyena, with a
pointed muzzle and long ears, and five toes instead
of four on his front paws. He feeds mainly on
white ants and carrion, and lives in a burrow of his
own making.
The hyenas are the most dog-like of the cats, and







MAMMALS


though generally given a bad name, are by no means
untamable, and have even been used as watchdogs.
Like dogs, their claws are not retractile. They have
the strongest jaws of all the carnivores, their conical
premolars being so buttressed up with fore-and-aft
tubercles that, aided by the flesh-teeth and tusks, a
hyena, as Mr. Lydekker says, 'is able to crunch in
its jaws the shin-bone of an ox almost as readily as
a dog can break that of a fowl.' There are quite a
number of species of hyaena, but three only are now
known as living. Of these, the striped one (H. striata)
is both Asiatic and African; but the brown one (H.
brunnea) and the spotted or laughing one (H. crocuta)
are exclusively African.
The striped hyena seems to have ranged over all
the Old World, and is an animal of respectable
antiquity, for its teeth have been found fossil even in
England. In Syria and Palestine its favourite haunts
are the rock-cut tombs, but it does not confine its
attention to dead meat, for a donkey belonging to
one of Canon Tristram's servants was killed by a
hyena, and it often carries off dogs and sheep and
goats. Like all hyenas, it is very high and heavy on
the fore legs, and the prints made by the hind feet
are very light and small. Colonel Sykes brought
one of these hyenas home from India with him,
and placed it in the Zoological Gardens. It had
been as faithful and playful as many a dog. When
the colonel paid any of his occasional visits to the
Gardens, it always recognized him instantly among
the crowd. One day when he came, the hyena was
asleep and he called it by name. The animal jumped







ANECDOTE OF A HYENA


up and rushed at the bars of the cage to rub its head
there, and then bounded about, yelping its joy. When
the colonel went away it invariably stood and looked
after him mournfully until he was out of sight.
The brown hyana has a much more woolly coat
than the others. He is found in both East and West
Africa, on the rocky districts near the coast, and in
the east he has been seen on Kilima-njaro. The
spotted hyena is the largest of the existing species;
his legs are more equal in length than those of the
others, and he is also distinguished from them by his
teeth. In early days he ranged all over Europe, and
his remains have even been found in Yorkshire and
the Mendips. He hunts in packs and is a singularly
daring and vigorous animal. According to Mr. H. H.
Johnston, he will not only carry off sheep and calves,
but even children. Mr. Johnston gives an instance
of one attempting to possess himself of a sick man.
Mr. Galton relates how one tried to run off with an
old woman, in one of the best hyena stories yet
published :-' This man's nose,' he says, 'was seized
by a hyena while he was asleep on his back-very
unpleasant, and an excellent story to frighten children
with. I could hardly believe it, until a case occurred
quite apropos. An old Bushwoman, who encamped
under the lee of a few sticks and reeds that she had
bent together, after the custom of those people, was
sleeping coiled up close round the fire, with her lank
feet straggling out in the dark, when a hymna, who
was prowling about in the early morning, laid hold
of her heel and pulled her bodily half out of the
hut. Her howls alarmed the hyena, who quitted his







MAMMALS


hold; and she hobbled up next morning to us for
plaisters arid bandages. The very next night the
old lady slept in the same fashion as before, and the
hyena came in the same way and tugged at her
heel, just as he had done the previous evening. The
poor creature was in a sad state, and one of Mr.
Hahn's men sat up the next night to watch for the
animal. I squatted in the shade of her house, my
companion covered a side-path, and the woman
occupied her hut as a bait. It was a grand idea,
that of baiting with an old woman. The hysena
came along the side-path, and there received his
quietus.'
The dogs (Canide) are found in all the five con-
tinents. Their dental formula we have given, but it
is important to notice that their upper flesh-tooth,
which is the fourth premolar, has a stout bilobed
blade, while the lower flesh-tooth, or first molar, has
a compressed bilobed blade A dog is longer than
a cat in the muzzle, and shorter in the tail ; his skull
is longer, with the orbits very wide behind; and his
shoulder-girdle is different, the clavicles being small.
Dogs, as a rule, hunt in packs, and run their prey
down, while cats hunt singly, and take their prey by
surprise. Dogs are an oldish family in the world,
but we have only to go deep enough into the rocks
to find that they and the civets had a common
ancestor.
Domesticated dogs appear to be in all cases
merely tame varieties of the local wild dogs, modified
according to man's fancy by careful cross-breeding.
Among the wild representatives of the genus the







JACKALS


largest are the wolves, of which but one species-
that peculiar to the Falkland Islands-is known
south of the equator. The typical wolf (C. lupus)
is yellowish grey, but there are red wolves, and
black wolves, and white wolves, and, in Tibet, a
shaggy black-and-white variety. The coyote (C
latrans) is much smaller than the common wolf, and
his coat varies with the season from reddish brown to
whitish grey. He is a North American, heard of in
late years as far south as Costa Rica, driven south, so
the theory goes, by constant persecution. Between
his present southerly limit and his Falkland cousin
(C. antarcticus) there is the whole length of South
America. Another wolf, with a species to himself,
is the Abyssinian one (C. simensis), but he is half a
jackal.
The jackals are smaller than the wolves. They
have a wide distribution in the Old World, being
found in South Eastern Europe, in Southern Asia,
and, at odd intervals, all the way down East
Africa from Egypt to the Cape, and even in the
Gaboon country on the other coast. No jackal is
particular in his diet, but, besides acting as scavenger,
he enjoys fresh meat occasionally, and will bring
down young or weakly goats and sheep when he has
a chance; he is as fond of poultry as a fox, and
varies his meals with maize, sugar-cane, and fruits.
That he is not as truly carnivorous as the wolf might
be guessed from his flesh-teeth, which are much
smaller in proportion to the molars adjoining them.
Next to the wolves and jackals come the dogs,
of which the chief wild species are the Australian







MAMMALS


dingo, the Siberian dog, the Indian dog, the raccoon-
dog of China, and the colpeo, and two or three other
South American species, including the carasissi (C.
cancrivorus), which, like the crab-eating macaque and
the cynogale, is not above adding crustaceans to his




.- ----- -.P


~iil,
I, YIC8 ,B~S-. 7.. L- ~ 7Thi


'sis -

ESK(IMO DORS


bill of fare. The wildest of the domesticated varie-
ties is that known as the Eskimo dog, which, with a
slight difference in colour, is found on both sides of
the Arctic Sea. On the American side his life has
often been described ; on the Asiatic side he has a
harder time of it when at work, but he has a summer







ESKIMO DOG


holiday, in which he is turned out to run wild and
find his own living. 'During this time,' says Dr.
Guillemard, 'he wanders over the country at will,
sometimes returning at night to his burrow, at others
being absent for days together. A good hunter and
fisherman, he supports himself upon the game and
salmon he catches, and it is but rarely that he deserts
his master for good. But the inhabitants have to pay
a good price for his services. Owing to his rapacity,
it is impossible to keep sheep, goats, or any of the
smaller domestic animals, and Kamschatka is one of
the few countries in the world where fowls are un-
known.'
The Eskimo dog never forgets his skill as a
hunter. One among many instances of this was
afforded by a dog of this variety who belonged to a
gentleman in Edinburgh. Whenever he was fed,
he would carefully strew some of the meat about
in a half-circle to entice fowls and rats, and he would
then lay himself down and pretend to be asleep,
ready to pounce upon and kill the first luckless
creature that fell into the temptation. The domesti-
cated dog comes of an intelligent family; his cousins,
the wolves and foxes, are anything but dull, and man
has been doing his best for thousands of years to
develop that natural intelligence on human lines.
Man may not have entirely transformed the psycho-
logy of the dog, as Dr. Romanes thought, but 'the
gigantic experiment upon the potency of individual
experience, accumulated by heredity,' has certainly
produced the nearest approach to reason found
amongst the carnivores.







MAMMALS


The foxes are said to be distinguishable from the
dogs by their bushier tails, their more pointed muzzles,
and their oval-eyed pupils, which are set somewhat on


A GROUP OF FENNECS


the slant; but these differences want a good deal of
looking for when comparing a South American dog
with a North American fox. The common fox


r







FOXES


(C vulpes), in its many varieties, is found practically
all round the northern world, and always bears the
same character of being an exceedingly smart indi-
vidual, well able to take care of himself. The Arctic
fox (C. lagopus) changes his coat in winter to a pure
white. The corsac fox of the Asian deserts also
changes his coat, but not to the same extent, his
hairs becoming merely ringed with white. The
largest of the short-eared foxes is the so-called grey-
hound fox of North Britain. The smallest is C.
canus, the hoary fox of Baluchistan. Differing but
slightly from the true foxes are the fennecs, those
quaint little creatures with big, wide ears and bushy
tails, which, in two species, are found in North Africa,
and in Persia and Afghanistan, the intermediate
form being the South African asse fox (C. chama),
which lives to a great extent on ostrich eggs, rolling
them along from their nest to its burrow, and there
breaking them against a stone.
With the bears we enter on the third section of
the fissiped carnivora. The bears themselves are
so distinct in appearance that there is no difficulty in
identifying them now, but in the past, during the
existence of the dog-like bears and bear-like dogs, it
would not have been so easy to draw the line. There
are but three living genera, Ursus, Melursus and
.Eluropus, the last having but one species, the black-
and-white or parti-coloured bear of Tibet, which is
not really a carnivore but a herbivore ; Melursus also
having but one species, the Indian sloth-bear, which
feeds upon fruits and flowers and ants and honey, and







MAMMALS


is hunted by the southern hill-tribesmen with poles
smeared with bird-lime.
The bear which has been longest known to Euro-
peans is Bruin, the brown bear (U. arctos), found all
over Northern Europe and Asia, as far south as the
Himalayas and the Pyrenees, and in one of its varieties,
Crowther's bear, even in the Atlas range of Northern
Africa. The brown bear 'eats almost anything, and
fattens himself up for the winter, when he makes
himself comfortable in a cave or hollow tree and
takes a long sleep until the weather becomes warmer,
when he goes forth, looking miserably thin, to get
himself into condition. It is during this period of
hibernation that the young are born, two or three
cubs at a time, blind for a month and nurslings for
two months more.
The biggest of the bears seems to be the
Polar one (U. maritimus), who is the only white bear.
He has a much longer head than the others and it is
smaller in proportion to his bulk. He is the most
carnivorous of the bears, and the most aggressive
towards man ; awkward as he looks, he gets over ice
at a great rate, and he swims magnificently. Some
years ago the Polar bear at the Zoological Gardens
escaped, and was discovered early one morning near
the dromedary house by a blacksmith, who had come
to his work. The blacksmith, says Mr. Broderip,
looked at the white bear, and the white bear looked
at the blacksmith, who, like a valiant and wise smith,
did not run, but stood his ground and shouted,
whereupon the bear retreated into a bush of laurel.
Presently the bear put forth his nose, as if meditating








































































THE POLAR BEAR







MAMMALS


an advance, when the smith shouted again, and the
bear again drew back. This continued till the shouts
of the man collected some of the keepers, who
instantly took measures for his recapture. One of
them advanced with a strong rope which had a
running noose, and threw it over the monster's neck,
and then he pulled and the bear pulled till the rope
broke. The bear quietly lifted his arm and with his
forepaw disembarrassed himself of the noose. The
keeper, nothing daunted, caught him with another
rope, and -a struggle ensued, the infuriated beast
biting the rope till he got free, and walking on, fol-
lowed by a detachment of keepers, who managed, by
heading him at proper intervals and showing a bold
front, to keep him out of the park. While they
were trying to prevent this, he made a desperate,
but luckily ineffectual, rush at one of the men. At
last, by dint of marches and counter-marches, they
so managed their tactics that they drove him
gradually up to the door of a den which stood in-
vitingly open, and in he went and was secured,
not, however, without dashing with all his weight and
strength at the gate of his new prison.'
The grizzly bear (U. horribilis) is near akin to the
brown bear, but he differs in some trifling respects,
and he is larger. Nowadays his home is the Rocky
Mountains, all the way down into Mexico. His
main food is flesh, but he will fatten on nuts and
acorns, and along the Pacific slope he is fond of fish,
and will wade into the water, knocking out the
salmon right and left when they are running thick.
Although he is fierce enough, he will in these days

















































THE GRIZZLY BEAR







MAMMALS


rarely attack man unprovoked, many of the rushes
we hear of being due to his attempt to bolt into
safety by the shortest road, or rolling downhill
when shot. Often when surprised he will run away
from man. Mr. Baillie-Grohman gives an amusing
instance of this in Camps in the Rockies. I was
about to stoop,' he says, 'to gather in the prize'-a
fly he had caught to fish with-' when out of the
bushes, as if growing from the earth, there rose a
grizzly. Rearing up on his hind legs, as they in-
variably do on being surprised, he stood, his head
and half-opened jaws a foot and a half or two feet
over my six foot of humanity, and hardly more
than a yard between gigantic him and pigmy me.
The reader will believe me when I say he looked
the biggest grizzly I ever saw, or want to see so
close. It would be difficult to say who was the
more astonished of the two, but I know very well
who was the most frightened. My heart seemed
all of a sudden to be in two places; for, had I not
felt a big lump of it in my throat, I could have
sworn it was leaking out at a big rent in the toes of
my moccasins. Fortunately, the Old Uncle of the
Rockies had more than probably never had anything
to do with human beings, for I saw very plainly that
he was more puzzled as to my identity than I was
regarding his. His small, pig eyes were not very
ferocious-looking, and first one then the other ear
would move, expressing, as I interpreted it, more im-
patience than ill-feeling. I do not exactly remember
who first moved, but I do recollect that, on looking
back over my shoulder, I saw the old gentleman




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