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ALEX EVERETT FRYE
AUTHOR OF "CHILD AND NATURE," "BROOKS AND BROOK BASINS," ETC.
BOSTON, U.S A.
GINN AND COMPANY, PUBLISHERS
BY ALEX EVERETT FRYE
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
Attention is invited to the following features of this book:-
Text. The aim has been to use language suited to pupils of primary grades. Open
the book at any page, and see whether the author has hit the mark.
The subject is treated topically. The day of patchwork teaching has passed. Teachers
have long been asking for a text-book based on the topical study of the earth. This book
holds the earth as a unit before the mind, and relates all study to that unit. The memory
is thus aided and much time is saved.
The underlying principle of this work is comparison. Glance at the little maps on
pages 29 and 33, and this thought will be made clear. Each part--ocean or grand division
- is shown in its relation to the whole and to the other parts.
The text on PEOPLE centers in child-life. The word race has a deeper meaning than
is taught by the size of cheek bones or the texture of hair. This book leads pupils into
the homes of the races. Read to a child one of the stories on pages 55 to 72, and note
Plants and animals are studied in their relations to climate and physical features. Here,
again, the earth is the unit of study. Belts of heat, and not mere zones of light, are made
the basis of this work.
Every child should know a great deal about his own state and about his own country.
The various editions of this book present special state texts, while the body of the book
treats of the leading industries of the United States as a whole. The cruel and senseless
study of countless details concerning the separate states is here replaced by a general view
of the resources and industries of the whole nation. This work has been laid before
thousands of teachers, and the author has yet to meet the first teacher who does not
welcome the change.
This book is not a condensed edition of the larger book of the series. Primary
Geography rests on a basis of its own. Only the leading topics of the science are here
treated. These are clothed with stories of people, plants, animals, natural scenery, etc.
A Manual of Methods, containing suggestions for teachers, accompanies this series
Pictures.- The pictures are true to nature. With but few exceptions they were
engraved directly from photographs.
The pictures supplement the text. A glance at pages 13 and 17 will show how they
afford teachers an opportunity to lead far beyond the text.
The pictures present typical forms. In place of mere definitions, or word-shells, the
text and pictures bring pupils face to face with nature in its variety. See pages 10 and 11.
The pictures are works of art. It is thought that they are superior to any ever before
placed in a schoolbook.
Acknowledgments.- In the treatment of types of natural features, as well as in
criticism of other parts of the work, Professor W. M. Davis, Harvard University, has given
very valuable assistance.
The author desires to express his gratitude to Mr. Justin H. Smith, of Boston. Some
of the leading features of this book embody his original thought.
The relief maps were modeled under the supervision of the author, by Miss Gertrude
Beatrice Wright, of the Normal Art School, Boston.
The Industrial Maps of the United States were drawn by Mr. Henry Gannett, Chief
Topographer of the United States Geological Survey.
A. E. FRYE.
BOSTON, May, 1894.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
HILLS AND VALLEYS
BROOKS AND RIVERS
KINDS OF SOIL
WORK OF WATER
RAIN IN THE SOIL
How SOIL SETTLES
WORK OF THE BROOKS
MUD BANKS OR DELTAS
WATER AND HEAT .
FORMS OF WATER
SOURCES OF STREAMS
WHERE BROOKS FLOW
SYSTEMS AND BASINS
THE TOP OF A RIDGE
HOw SLOPES ARE WORN
BEDS OF STREAMS
SHORE FORMS .
WORK OF WATER ON SHORES
POINTS OF THE COMPASS
HOW MAPS ARE MADE
FORM AND SIZE OF THE EARTH
'WHAT A HILL IS MADE OF
WHAT THE EARTH IS MADE OF
THE AIR .
THE SHELL OF AIR
SLOPES OF THE EARTH.
THE WORLD RIDGE
ROOKY MOUNTAIN HIGHLAND
HIGHLAND OF TIBET
HIGHLAND OF ABYSSINIA .
SLOPES FROM WORLD RIDGE
DESERT OF SAHARA
THE GRAND DIVISIONS
BOTTOM OF THE SEA
SURFACE OF SOUTH AMERICA.
AMAZON RIVER .
HIGHLAND OF BRAZIL
ISTHMUS OF PANAMA .
SURFACE OF NORTH AMERICA.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS 37
COLORADO CAON 38
THE HEIGHT OF LAND 38
THE MISSISSIPPI BASIN 39
NORTH OF HEIGHT OF LAND 40
APPALACHIAN HIGHLAND 40
ATLANTIC SLOPE 40
PACIFIC SLOPE 40
SURFACE OF ASIA
PLAINS OF CHINA
THE GANGS BASIN
CHILDREN OF THE HIGHLANDS
HOMES OF THE RACES
HOMES OF THE NATIONS
MAP STUDIES .
HEAT, WIND AND RAIN.
HOME LESSON FOR A HOT DAY.
How THE AIR IS HEATED
HOW THE EARTH IS HEATED
HIGH AND Low LAND
CHANGE OF SEASONS
A SIGN OF SPRING
BELTS OF HEAT
THE TRADE WINDS
THE GULF STREAM .
SURFACE OF EUROPE 45
.MAP STUDIES 47
SLOPES FROM SWISS HIGHLAND. 47
VALDAI HILLS 48
THE CASPIAN SEA 48
IBRITISH ISLES 48
SURFACE OF AFRICA
MAP STUDIES .
THE RIVER NILE
OASIS IN THE DESERT.
KONGO BASIN .
SURFACE OF AUSTRALIA
MAP STUDIES .
TIBBU, THE KONGO BOY
JAPAN AND ITS PEOPLE
MALAY OR BROWN PEOPLE.
A LAPLAND HOME
CHUGLU, THE ESKIMO BOY.
CHILDREN OF INDIAN TRIBES
LAND OF THE ARABS .
CHILDREN OF THE LOWLANDS.
WHERE PLANTS GROW
SOIL, WATER AND HEAT
PLANTS OF THE HOT BELT
PLANTS OF THE WARM BELTS
PLANTS OF THE COOL BELTS
PLANTS OF THE COLD BELT
USES OF PLANTS.
ANIMALS, THEIR TEETH, ETC.
ANIMALS AND THEIR HOMES
ANIMALS OF THE HEAT BELTS
USES OF ANIMALS
THE UNITED STATES.
SURFACE OF THE UNITED STATES
JULY 4, 1776 .
MAP STUDIES OF STATES
MAIZE OR INDIAN CORN
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
GOLD AND SILVER.
ROUTES OF TRADE
THE UNITED STATES.
NEW SOUTH WALES
RELIEF MAP OF THE WORLD.
NOTE. -In this picture we view the earth from a point nearly over the British Isles. The southern half of South
America cannot be seen frtm this point. In order to bring it into sight, we must think of it as being lifted
from the other side of the earth and swung round into the place where it now appears.
The picture on page 77 shows still more of the land swung round from the side of the earth opposite that
The Earth in Space.
See Teachers' Manual of Methods in Geography.
THIS book tells a story about the earth,-
the great ball of land and water on which
After studying that part of the earth which
is near our school, we shall visit the homes
of girls and boys in other lands.
We shall see little yellow people feeding
silkworms, and picking leaves from tea plants.
The Arab boy will show us his father's
camels and horses, and will tell us about the
great desert that spreads round his home.
In the land of the brown people we shall
find groves of spice, and the brown girls will
weave pretty baskets for us.
The Eskimo boy will show us how to
crawl into his snow hut, and will tell us how
his father hunts the seal for food and clothing.
We may also peep into tall straw huts,
and see the black people in their far-off
We shall pass by acres and acres of waving
grain, and wide fields hidden with soft white
We shall climb high mountains whose tops
are buried in ice and snow.
Every day of our journey will bring new
sights, and tell new stories of the beautiful
earth on which we live.
A story of the earth and its people is called
See page 126 for pronunciation of hard words.
HILLS AND VALLEYS.
2. Hills and Valleys.
I ....t:-:l i W i. a .
I 1 ::. : 1 ,l. ". : I 11- v .. ." ,:
' '" ." ,-,r- 'l ".,V%: -,,':' I .'- : i .' ., :'
F ,::,i fi.ti,,_,- ,,. t-..,:, illt- -IL_,, t,.-.,.
3 ..+. --"-"
--L 1 :-.-
From Source to Mouth.
3. Brooks and Rivers.
How many brooks can you see in the picture ?
Where does the water in the brooks come from ?
i. tI lit- I- i.-i t I. .'1 t i s ;i it lI v,,i,
-i, th .. -. ti .' --. ii n th -
S W bL ,.: i- 1- 1. ,.- i ,- i, ti
l., i,.i t n- 't
W l :, : :l ll: t ,e ,I ..1 i l I .it. l jt I l it
u'ind three picts steep ,'slope,
Three pit es of gnt -slopes. H- .l
hi -llt,_" t,_,.i ,, .,i ik iti ""
ithre ke :4. Slopes.
Iv l.tiinl th.,t l _,-tn i- -"1 .., T h1 r e l i ,.I,:
et n hlls.... :,f :o v.,ille.-- i.n po d,:,1nk
FInd t h rt, -tee i., ,:,t.,,-: pi u eo y,-,eep s,_.b,:,;:l "nd
thr e pi.ctune .. Do ,, y':n tlo iie tsit this
three pictures of gentle slopes.
KINDS OF SOIL.
5. Kinds of Soil.
Which is the finer, loam or sand ? Loam or clay ?
Pour some water on loam, on sand and on clay.1
Into which does the water sink most quickly ?
Which dries soonest, the loam, the sand or the
What becomes of plants that die, and of leaves
that fall ?
Find as many kinds of soil as you can. Put each
kind in a bottle by itself.
What kind of soil covers the fields
or yards near your school?
Can you find out what is under the _
6. Work of Water.2
How hard-it rains!
The river is swift and muddy.
Where 'does the muddy water
Let us go out on the side of
the hill. Can you see the tiny
streams or rills which the rain
makes? Look closely! They are
Many of the rills are muddy.
These are washing away the
finest soil. Watch the rills that
are rolling sand down the steep
The rills cannot carry sand very
far. They must leave it in the
hollows and on the level places.
Can you tell why?
S What will become of the fine soil that
makes the rills muddy? The little streams
will carry some of it down to the river.
1 A small box of each will answer for the entire class.
SWEATHER RECORD.-In a notebook keep a daily
record of the weather. In the afternoon write whether the
day has been hot, warm, cool or cold; clear, cloudy, rainy or
snowy; calm or windy. Be sure to write the date.
This record will show you how to keep yours.
Dec. 6 . warm
7 . cold
See the balloon! It is floating in the clear
air, far above the clouds.
.7. Loose Soil.8
Pour some water on hard ground. Wait two
minutes, then dig and see how far the water has
Loosen a little patch of ground with a spade, and
pour on some water. After two minutes, find out
how far it has gone into the soil.
. . . ..
Farmers plow in order to turn up fresh soil, and to
loosen it, so that the rain can easily settle.
Do you know what frost does to the soil ?
Dec. 8 . cool
9 . cool
Keep the record every school day for a year. Perhaps
you can also take notes for holidays. At the end of the
year you can count and find out which month has had the
greatest number of warm days, rainy days, etc.
8 Home work for pupils who wish to try the exper-
RAIN IN THE SOIL.
Rain in the Soil. .
When it rains, some -
S water sinks into the
ground. It mois-
tens the soil around
-,:eds. At the lii-t season tll.-\ i._-,.it
.-i _d grow through the soil.
The rain flows among grass I1i .-mi1
little blades shoot up, making ti-: li-L,1.
*' /" een.
Indian Corn. The water is
taken into the roots of trees. It rises to the
sleeping buds, and pretty leaflets unfold.
Now the blossoms hang in clouds, and later
they fall like snow. Grain sprouts, grows up
and waves in the fields.
At length the boughs bend low with fruit.
Sheaves of wheat dot the fields, and long
ears of corn ripen in the sun.
All the time the plants are growing, water
in the soil helps to feed them.
Have you ever seen worms crawling out of
Worms grind leaves, and mix them with
soil. They bring rich earth to the surface,
and make little mounds of it.
Sr~ea' e-e 01 Wbris~~a:~
*- o r-.
-= "' e '- ,
Have you ever watched ants building their
hills ? Do you know of any place where ants
are at work near your school? Where do
they get fine earth for their hills ?
Mounds made by worms and ants are often
dotted over the fields.
Raindrops spread these
mounds, and carry some ,
of the rich soil down
again to the roots and
seeds. Growing Pumpkins.
9. How Soil Settles.
Mix fine soil in one glass of water, and coarse sand
in another. Let the water stand for a while, and see
what takes place.
WT1.:1, settles first, the soil or the sand?
Mi:'; fii, loam and coarse sand in a glass of water,
.Il l. i- stand. Which settles on the other, the
loam or the sand ?
.. 10. Work of the Brooks.
-_" What is the swift part of a
brook called? Can you tell why?
Below the rapids there is a
small pond. This pond is only a
wide place in the brook. Rain
has been falling, and the brook is
ii,,lv. It has a load of fine soil which
the rills have brought from the slopes.
MUD BANKS OR DELTAS.
Let us throw two or three pailfuls of gravel
into the rapids. See what takes place.
The pebbles sink in the rapids, where
the water is swift. Some are rolling down
the slope under the water. Can you tell
what moves them?
Here is the sand Il:i.-v ti._ '1i'l-.
Watch it spreading on t- hci: t i:-i. It
looks like a great 1i~ t. Why i:,
the sand settle her,:-'.' W\y .li it
not settle in the raii,.l :,i
Look into the i. i
pond where the '
water is still. The
muddy water is fin
flowing into it.
Let us wait a lit-
tle while and find
out where the fine
The part of the -
brook that flows I
out of the pond is
not muddy. It has
left the fine soil -
under the still
If there were no
pond, what would
become of the
muddy water ?
11. Mud Banks or Deltas.
Look once more at the mud on the bottom
-of the pond.
When it rains again, more soil will be
brought down by the rills and brook. In
time a little mud bank will form near the
place where the brook flows into the pond.
When the water is low the.mud will stand
After a long time the soil may fill the
whole pond, except where the brook keeps a
path or channel open, As the new bank of
soil grows, grass and flowers will cover it, and
make it look like other parts of the field.
Thus, water wears
down the high land
and so makes the
slopes more even.
Mud banks that
form where streams
flow into still water
are called deltas. A
delta cannot form
in water that moves
swiftly. The soil
is swept away and
Most of the rivers
in the world flow
--..t body of salt water,
,.ill-d tl. ..an or the sea. Rivers
-i i In:, k-- nii,,- deltas on the shores of
t ... Some deltas are so
S I..i- t-i1 tiess are built on them.
L-t i.i n:t find out where the
\-i..t~r,.ii i:n l:oks and rivers comes
12. Water and Heat.
Put a few drops of water into a tin
cup, and heat it. Where does the water go ?
The water in the cup changes into vapor. We
cannot see the vapor, but it is floating in the air.
Heat a small bottle of water over a lamp. What
takes place inside the bottle ? What comes from the
Hold a piece of cold glass in the cloud that you can
see coming from the bottle. Of what is the cloud
Breathe against a cold window. What is in the
Have you ever seen your breath? Was it on a
cold day or on a warm one ?
FORMS OF WATER.
Put a little water into a shallow basin, and. let it
stand in the sun. Where does the water go ? Into
what does it change ?
What makes the little cloud that comes from the
kettle in the picture ?
13. Forms of Water.
Put some water into a shallow basin, and
let it -tand in the sun. The water will
sl,,\lv ':-h.:ut,-e into' vaprl.:, au,.l t'i;..t. it, w.\
in tLh .--i .
Y~e .-,i ,t .-.:- -.-. i. T he k.-tt: .-
in tlhe l_-:.t e. is .e i,.lh,- :,tout v .-'I.-
W hi,:-li ,:.-,,. into .1 little -lou1d. T li- ,,
-,,,p :,r i'- in tl,, ,:elu I i-'-" ,-,r the
,,m nth ..'f li.-, kiottl -.
V .-tp:,,ii li-? tron |",'i'n'1~. 1-._ .,
Have you ever seen any hail ? Did it look
like frozen rain?
When the air is very cold a part of the
vapor in it sometimes freezes into crystals or
flakes of snow. If you will catch some snow-
flakes on a piece of black cloth, you will find
that they have very pretty shapes.
I: i.n k 'e tl in th .' i. '1 i n'" 'ir- a .t --i
above us masses of ice.
N1 d lllA' I Il' 1 .1"r
water dust ? Fog is a cloud near the earth. ice in deep water
surface. If the
into large clouds, such as we often see floating Many lakes and
above us. Z masses of ice.
Were you ever in a fog .z Did it look like and even the sm
water dust?2 Fog is a cloud near the earth. ice in deep ware
When enough vapor has changed into cloud, What --r the
some of the particles of water fall through Perhaps these
the air. Many particles run together and of some of th
form drops of rain. travel, mill, pli
A t i,-ht, vI l.,e l _v h,).,.-I
,, l l tl:,ij-, 1. e 1 ,-,Il.,ll. -'-, )! ':1'
.i ti~l I. l .'i Ir t I'n t Ill:r !
if t11 .12-I iii-t I. 1111
freezing began at the bottom,
streams would become solid
The fish in them would die,
mmer sun could not melt the
uses of ice ?
words will help you to think
e uses of water : kitchen,
int, river, rain, ocean, well.
SOURCES OF STREAMS.
W hv k 11-A 1-1.1tt, l the .I! '
H "w A o, -,: -'Lt -.,. ti ,,i.l t I th .. t1.
I t- l:. .. : et ,o.: h,,_i e .i- It s,;:. t.-ll hi t: i t iL lUike
i:L.,:,- i;,tt,. L I! i.t ., '.,i i .' ,iii v,', ti, ll ii'.1 i -er, th e, -. iti
u' i r '1t l '
15. Sources of Streams.
T il,- i 'A IL ..t Il i i,, : t l i ,-l r i ., ca ]e,:[ t .,._t, .... t
Mi i:,_i .- L',:, im .it the t1. -,ji:t o J iill, ,III ,-i- .:I in
'_I 10. itr,.
Vi l .
S :-. it t ; v ,.t in tl, :,tt :,
t,%he ;1Ti '- t .. .' .n .
-the u-t"i ice and snow.
the ice and snow.
SYSTEMS AND BASIN-'
Should you like to see hot water spout out
of the ground? It often shoots up as high
as a very tall tree. There must be a very hot
place in the earth under the geyser.
From some springs there is a gentle flow of
warm or hot water. Find the picture of the.
hot springs. Do you not think that they have
made many pretty basins ?
16. Where Brooks Flow.
Why do brooks flow in crooked lines ?
In what direction does every stream flow ?
Why are some brooks swift and others slow ?
Why is a brook wider in some places than in
What are the uses of brooks and ponds ?
17. Systems and Basins.
Streams often flow from many small valleys
into a large valley.
All the streams that meet in one valley
form a system. A river system includes the
main river of the valley, and all the rills,
brooks and rivers that flow into the main
All the land that sends water to a brook
forms the basin of the brook. A basin is
made of slopes.
Every stream is in a basin. A river basin
includes all the land that is drained by a
Every large basin is made of many small
Many brook basins send water to one river.
A large river basin often includes many
smaller river basins.
The Mississippi system drains about a
million square miles of land. This vast tract
of land forms the Mississippi basin.
The main stream of this system is the
longest river on earth.
How does a basin differ from a system?
Point to the basins and systems in the pic-
ture on the opposite page.
18. The Top of a Ridge.
Here is a picture of a ridge that rises between
two long narrow valleys.
When rain falls on the top of this ridge, into which
valley does it flow ?
What part of the ridge is in each valley ?
Point to the line that runs along the very top of
the ridge. This line is called a divide. It divides
San Bernardino Mountains, Cal. San Jacinto Mountains.
19. Divides. 20. How Slopes Are Worn.
The slopes of the large valleys in this
picture begin at the tops of the high ridges.
Each slope starts at a divide.
Some divides are on high land where snow
lies all the year. Other divides are low. If
it were not for running water it would be
hard to find them.
The rain that falls on any slope flows into
the valley to which that slope belongs.
A divide is often called a water parting.
Can you tell why ?
Find on the map a water parting that is
on very high land. Find one on low hills;
another on land that is nearly level.
Point as near as you can to the sources of
all the streams that flow into the Santa Ana
river. All the slopes that send water to these
streams are in the Santa Ana basin. Trace
the divide that bounds this river basin.
Find a piece of wood that has lain a long
time on the ground. Cut into it. Has any
part begun to decay?
Break open a small round stone, or a large
pebble. Which part has begun to decay?
Which part looks brightest ?
Wood decays, and so do rocks decay. All
rocks, both large and small, slowly crumble
Wind blows dust and sand about. Rain-
drops wash tiny grains of rock together, and
make them finer.
Frost splits many rocks, and even wedges
off large pieces from' cliffs.
Little by little the raindrops, rills, brooks
and rivers wash the fine rock or soil down
Thus, most slopes are slowly crumbling
and wasting away.
BEDS OF STREAMS.
21. Beds of Streams.
-- The bottom
of a stream is
. ^ ._' ,.!-i -" ;.^ "soil. Sw ift
Swcalleds the bed
'.. ''.V 1. t o ,:,f sand, pebbles,
AP --- .... ii, e.en large stones
of the stream.
. soil. Swift
.- -riv e ers often
.i wash tons and
biub_ dii- t d Mut of sand pebbles,
S its 1,:,a,1 :tie tt-..'i-,n Whr i t,- i. ,es the ice leave
ih i-.u,-. leven large stones i
i 1i \lit the slopes.
O 1 t An-' i. ti ii rocky matter
i--tt (-~'i~iiiI' the bottles and
sla it t. ,il. e away.
C'T In some rivers,
,k ,-, ttllloting ice cuts the
it dt th1 tn i r el.-, nl. sand and stones
tellll 4it .-lI. whli-,t- hles the ice leave
A 'it f te ii 1 .1- ,is ,_, Ifr,,,, these stone into
WI: --. -. t, ii. ti- tt -n of the shape of the
i.:1 A .. tht ,- ...utill or smooth?
Put ti, li ii a bottle and
dhalk, it k~i- d.l e the grains of
A p.-i-it .-,f tHip i 1 i er 1 4, 1 nxv._. fironiis these stones.
ri-P.- Altb. ri t I.-ill 1wii -%71 .-.f th. rocks that are
Ri.' 'lt'-un .-.tei ill:t s iII the-ir lel-. The water leaps
,i,_,wn. tf,.,iui t,,; ,i.b., A *.-i, t fill *.f xi.t, ',:,' a steep bank is
... ll. e ,.,,te ,. tt. A littlef L k, i i a 1. ..ie...r s..
Ame ,t t, i.,,t. sh,,w w -,ter Il -hin.- ,:,:r teep rocks. One
s.,ws the r .k. ..i .,k of the,. fall:.
F'al VOt r \l l. xI
D .) ,0 1. fli-, 1 .,- Plt ,
0111'1 X-' j 'pIV ,,u,/ li \1'
OnlY~~t.- t J.w-ti i~
r- -'~~~- IL"~~---~p-----~I
Which pictures show mountains with sharp
tops ? Which show rounded tops?
How does a mountain differ from a valley?
How does it differ from a hill ?
Most mountains are made of layers of rock
that are tilted and bent. The rock is often
hidden under a thin coat of soil.
In some places long and deep valleys have
been worn in plateaus. The high ridges and
~- ; - - Z I
--=--- -4 r
-- --.. ,
o.,, M .
Cascade Peak, Rocky Mountains.
points of land that are left standing among
such valleys are often called mountains or hills.
For ages and ages, melted rock and ashes
have been pushed up from beneath the sur-
face of the earth, or have been blown up by
gases. This melted rock is called lava.
In many places the lava and ashes are in
great heaps that look like mountains or hills.
The mouth from which the lava and ashes
came, is called a crater. A great heap of lava,
having a crater, is called a volcano. Some
volcanoes have deep valleys worn in their
sides, and it is thought that these are very
A row of mountains is called a mountain
range. Point to the picture of a low range
of mountains having rounded tops.
Find a range with snow upon it. These
mountains are so high and cold that snow
and ice lie upon them all the year.
Do you think that it would be easy to walk
along the divide or top of a range?
You would have to climb over
the highest points, and cross the
notches between them.
The top of a range is called a
crest. Point as near as you can
to the crests of two ranges.
Which crest looks like saw
teeth? Which looks like waves?
High points in a crest are called
peaks. Find six sharp peaks.
Find three rounded ones.
S Only a few people live on the
-- sides of mountains. The land is
S rough, and it is hard to make
good roads there.
In some places on mountains
there is grass enough for cattle
and sheep, but the soil is gener-
ally very poor. Can you tell why?
What becomes of the rock that
crumbles on steep slopes ?
The roads across mountain ranges run
through the low places, or passes, in the
crests. Point to three passes.
Have you heard of the St. Bernard dogs that
have saved so many lives in a famous pass?
Many long tunnels have been made through
ranges. Trains of cars run through some of
these, and save many miles of travel over
Some tunnels are cut through solid rock.
How does a plain differ from a hill ? How
does it differ from a valley?
How level the land is in the grainfield
where the men are at work. Long ages ago
this pl in w ps under water.
Find the i i-..k,- pi, liiri p:,n ili- i,_! ...
1 _1. -1 : li -- v_-i- .
Some plains are so wide that a swift train
of cars could not cross one of them in a day.
Find a picture of a high plain. See the
deep valleys that are worn in it.
Some high plains are even, and some low
plains are uneven,
_-- -- ._ .- --- b_ u'Ilt h i:-h i.! r, -
~.t i[.=1 1 .1 N.- 1 1-'
h _yB .-, ...,n ,.t ,1 ,_- l, i ,:,k e n ].,v lii.- l: ,i-i ,.n -
..... M ,.-,,t ,.,f th. tetil:- li.a d i on pl.i. ..
i~i ~ Mc ] IVI-t k fc'i thet
ti 't14 p hiii t t.I
, th tiih-et. Ti he ,-ter l ,- v s th-- -
are. They look level as far as we can see.
-here are others that are not so level.
of the delta which a river has made
in the ocean.
How broad and flat some of these plains
are. They look level as far as we can see.
There are others that are not so level.
On level land it is easy to make roads, to
dig canals, and to lay iron or steel rails.
Most people make their homes on plains.
Can you tell why?
AV I ".-Ii I i.- fill.- 11----\v, ..I I
25. Shore Forms.'
H ,v .u n f.: --= .
tl T i tm l *
-.i-'% i" -ia, i -t 1.S-
marked high tide? Which is marked lowo
tide ? How do these two pictures differ from
each other? The water in these pictures is a
part of the ocean.
Twice each day the water slowly rises
on the beach, and twice it slowly falls and
lays the beach bare.2 It takes about six hours
for the water to rise, and about six hours for
it to fall. This rise and fall of the water is
called the tide.
Where is the water line at high-tide? Where
is it at low tide?
1 Find all these forms on the map opposite the first page
of this book.
A \ tw i, l :i i i ,.. l7.l ..
A ,y i .; l "'-'in t
1.,i. invt.o Ftilr I.
,-,.,-/ ,. :', Ili 10,.. 1 C.t" :olil :t t
Ltk ,t th,. piitu e,-, a ,,! t- ll hI-- In,
i..-thimus ,lif~tt e if fi .1 si,.. A .-ti it is
a body of water connecting two larger bodies
of water. An isthmus connects two bodies
of land with each other.
A long and shallow strait is sometimes
called a sound. The name sound is also given
to shallow bodies
of water lying
lands and the --
:-- "i "- --- -
and are very
WATER ON SHORES.
are narrower than the bodies of water which
In many places arms of water reach into
the land. Some of these are called bays,
some are called gulfs, and others, seas.
There are bays, gulfs and seas so wide that
-w ift steamers cannot cross them in a day.
How does a bay differ from a peninsula?
Turn to the picture' on page 9. If the tide
were to rise into these low valleys, where
would it first form islands? Where would it
Can you find a place where there would be
first an island and then a strait? In what
parts of the valleys would there be the great-
est number of little bays ?
26. Work of Water on Shores.
Let us visit the 'seashore and watch the
g-..t waves roll in. How they roar as they
tumble over and over !' Have you ever bathed
in the surf ?
What is gravel? Which bank in the picture
is made of gravel?
Waves often strike against this bank, and
wear parts of it away. Why does the water
not make the bank as steep as the rocky cliff ?
Where do the pebbles and larger stones on
the beach come from?
What becomes of the sand that falls with
the pebbles from the gravel cliff ?
Find the clay cliff. Where do the large
stones on this shore come from? Find a
stone on t!e:- ft..i: of the cliff. When will
In some places ice rubs against shores and
helps to cut and wear them away. Many
tons of sand, pebbles and even large stones
are held by the ice, and are carried out to sea
by it. What becomes of them when the ice
Waves often wash gravel against cliffs, and
thus slowly cut them away. Frost splits and
loosens the rocks.
Can you see the place where a part. of a
cliff has lately fallen? What will become
of the loose earth at the foot of the cliff ?
Can you tell what made the caves in the
Find the picture which shows surf breaking
over rocks. This rocky ledge was once a part
of the main shore. After a long time the
waves may wear away the whole ledge.
The island in the calm sea is like a low hill
round which water has flowed.
Have you ever seen seaweed growing on
rocks? Which do water and gravel wear away
more quickly, bare rocks or those which are
In some places the sand and pebbles that
are worn from soft cliffs and beaches spread
out and make the water shallow along the
Great waves that roll in from the sea-often
strike upon shallow bottoms, and wash sand
and pebbles up onto the beaches. In some
places the wind then blows the sand into
drifts, like snow, and carries it far inland.
Plants sometimes grow in beach sand, and
keep it from di ftiiig. Which picture shows
a low, grassy shore?
An arm of the sea, or of any other body
of water, in which ships find shelter from
storms, is called a harbor.
Some harbors are made by building long
walls out into the water. These walls break
the force of the waves.
The. best harbors have deep water and
high shores. Can you tell why deep water
is needed? Of what use are the high
Should you expect to find the best harbors
on rocky coasts, or on sandy ones ?
I~ "lU"V** 11:~llll F~
II JI I I l j'II'''II'III~l
POINTS OF THE COMPASS.
27. Points of the Compass.
Point to the place where the sun rises. How
often does it rise ?
Where is the sun at noon? Where does it set ?
Try to find out at what
time of day your body casts
the shortest shadow on level
At midday all shadows
point north, away from the
objects that cast them.
Turn your face to the north.
Are there any trees, hills or
houses north of you ?
Turn your back to the
north. You are now facing
south. Name some objects
that you can see south of you.
When you face the north,
east is on the right, and west
is on the left.
28. How Maps are Made.
wide is it?
Plan of a Schoolroom.
is the top of your desk? How
top of your desk, making the
drawing one eighth as long
as the desk.
How long is the school-
D room? How wide is it?
Draw the sides and ends
of the floor. Let one half
of an inch on the paper stand
for one yard on the floor.1
Put all the desk-tops in the
This picture of a school-
room will show you how to
D draw yours.
S Draw the room again, and
let one eighth of an inch
stand for one foot. Mark
places for windows and doors.
The sun rises in or near the east. It sets
in or near the west. Point to the east, and
then to the west. Name some objects that are
east of you. Name some that are west of you.
NORTH Which is the north
side of your school-
S house? Which is the
/ south side?
WEST EAST Name a building or
any other object that
is north of your home.
6' Can you name a street
SO H or road that runs east
Mariner's Compass, and west
and west ?
Point halfway between north and east.
This direction is called northeast. It is often
written N. E.
Where will you look for northwest? For
southwest? For southeast? Can you -name
a street that runs northeast and south-
Make a drawing or plan of the lower floor
of the whole building. Use one fourth of
an inch for each yard.2 Make lines to show
where all the walls are placed. Mark places
for doors and windows.
Draw a plan of the same floor, using one
eighth of an inch for a yard.
r w-w- JY -w-w
w D -D D
|- -- | w
Ground Plan of a Sohoolhouse.
1 If the room is very large, allow one fourth of an inch
for a yard.
2 In some cases, teachers may find it necessary to name
scales, differing from those given.
Make a plan of the school yard. Allow one
inch for twenty-five feet. Draw lines for the
r ar e s
Plan of a Yard.
A plan of any part of the
Here is a map of a school
-- -- _
A School District.
Make a map of a part
dots for trees.
earth is a map.
1 district. One
eighth of an
inch was used
for fifty yards.
On page 8
there is an-
other kind of
map of the
It is called a
of your school
district.' Put in it the brooks, ponds, hills,
streets and shores, if there are any.
You can measure distances by counting the
lumber of steps it takes to travel each
distance. Call each step apace.
1 If pupils cannot go outdoors to make a map of their
districtt, the different members, of the class can doubtless
rurnish enough facts for making a simple map indoors.
City pupils can make a plan of a park, or of a few
blocks or squares near their school.
I. n- n.
29. Reading Maps.
Let us study these four small maps, and
learn what they show.
Find in map I. the City Hall and Post Office.
It takes about two minutes to walk from one
of these buildings to the other. This map
includes a few streets in the city of New York.
The next map shows the rivers on two
sides of the city, with wharves all along the
Can you find the City Hall in map II. ?
Why is it drawn so small ? See how narrow
the streets in this map are made.
Map III. includes several cities. In this
map the streets are shown by very fine lines.
The buildings and wharves no longer appear.
See how far New York extends up the Hudson
Can you find New York on map IV.?
Where is Albany? The distance from New
York to Albany is more than a hundred miles.
What river flows from Albany to New
York? Where are the Catskill mountains?
Where is Brooklyn?
Why are the streets of New York not
drawn on map IV.? How are the rivers
shown on this map?
These little maps show how the large maps
in this book were made. Can you find New
York on the large map of North America?
Maps of New York and Vicinity.
30. Form and Size of the Earth.
The line on the earth where earth and
sky seem to meet is called -the horizon.1
surrounds us on
ever on a high
I hilltop ? If so,
did you see the
that you could
Si a see from the
lower land ?
going to sea?
You can look over the masts of one vessel,
and see the water beyond. Another is sailing
1 This line is often called the skyline, and the name
horizon is applied to the circular skyline, as seen on the
Ships on the Horizon.
out of sight.
Only the sails
can be seen.
The hull is
Can you see
the smoke of
the steamer b
that is below .
If the earth Map of the Moon.
could vessels go out of sight in this way ?
Here is a map of the moon.
Find the long ridge just below the middle of
the moon. This ridge is a mountain range. It
is so long that it would take a swift train of cars
all day to run from one end of it to the other.
Have you ever blown soap bubbles? How
pretty the little globes look as they float away.
When the moon is pale and round, does it look
like a great bubble ?
If we were far off in the sky,
the earth would appear like a
S great moon.
-1 _- The moon is a very large ball,
-but the earth is many times larger.
We see so small a part of the
earth at a time that it does not
Look round like a ball.
What is the form of the earth
in the picture on the first page?,
The greatest distance round the
earth is about 25,000 miles. The
greatest distance through it is
about 8,000 miles.
I --i. ---~
-i.--~ i=ii ;~_--r-
a~.-z---r-i--- ~'-*"s-_ --
WHAT THE EARTH IS MADE OF.
31. What a Hill is Made of.
This picture shows a deep out on the side of a hill.
Point to the solid rock.
What rests upon the rock ?
Upon what does the water flow ?
What is sand? What is clay?
Of what is the hill in the picture made ?
What is a pond? What flows in all streams ?
Have you ever seen any part of the earth that is
not made of rock or water ?
What do we breathe ? What is wind?
Where do clouds form ? What comes from clouds ?
Where does rain go ?
What the Earth is Made of.
By far the greater part of -
the earth is a ball of rock.
This great ball is not smooth.
Hills, mountains, plateaus and
valleys make rough places on
The lower parts of the surface
of the rocky ball are covered
with water. The parts that are
above water are called the land.
You can see the land all about
We have learned that for
ages and ages rocks have been
decaying, and streams have been washing a
part of the fine rock down to the 1.iwlaul..
In most places there is a thin layer of fine
rock, or soil, over the solid rock.
Salt water covers about three fourths of the
surface of the earth. The other fourth of
the surface is land.
What is under the water?
If we picture the earth about the size of an
apple, the water will form a layer about as
thick as the peel of the apple. You must not
think that the water is really a thin layer.
The earth is very large, and in places the
water is four or five miles in depth.
33. The Air.
Drop a small piece of paper. How did it move ?
Why did it not fall straight down ?
Drop another piece. Did it fall like the first ?
Can you make two pieces fall in the same place ?
Can you see the air? Can you feel it ? Swing
your hand in the air.
These words may help you to think of some of
the uses of air: bird, ship, windmill, rain, breath,
balloon, plant, wave.
Section ot a Hill.
34. The Shell of Air.
We live and move in the air. We feel it
about us, we breathe it, and set it at work to
drive ships and to turn windmills.
How gentle the air is when calm. How
strong it is in angry gales.
We do not know how far the air extends
above us, but we do know that the upper air
is very thin. If we should go up only three
miles, many of us would suffer for breath.
The air forms a shell round every part of
35. The Poles.
Find the dotted line in the top. It runs
from the head to the peg. When the top
spins, every part
turns round this
We will call this
line the axis of the
The earth has no
head nor peg, but
it spins like a top.
It takes a day and
a night to turn once round.
We may think of a line in the earth like
that in the top. It is called the axis of the
earth. Once in twenty-four hours every part
of the earth turns round the axis.
The ends of the axis are called poles. The
word pole means pivot, or point upon which
The earth seems to float in the sky. It
turns on its axis, just as if the poles (or ends
of the axis) were pivots; but, of course, the
earth does not rest upon anything.
When you go out to play, toss up a ball
and make it spin in the air. As the ball
spins, try to tell in what direction its axis
Can you find the north star ? Point to the
place in the sky where it shines.
The axis of the earth points to the north
star. The end of the axis under this star is
called the north pole. The other end is the
If you were at the north pole you could see
the north star over your head. The north
star is often called the pole star. Can you
The land and water about the poles are
buried under ice and snow. Many pc,.ir bears
and seals are found in the frozen regions of
the north. Upon what do the bears feed ?
From every place
on earth, north is
-towards the north
-. pole. South is to-
wards the south
Lines are often
& drawn from pole
to pole on maps.
'--'' All such lines run
north and south.
How many arrows on map
A point north? How many
point south ?
Which arrows point north
on map B? On map C?
Which arrows point south
on map B ?
On map C?
36. The Equator.
We may think of a
line drawn round the
earth, halfway between
This line is called the equator.
It divides the surface
of the earth into two
equal parts. Find the
equator on the map.
The lowlands near
the equator have no
winter. The hot or A
warm season lasts all -
The equator extends
east and west. Other
lines may be drawn in
the same directions.
When we face the
north, east is along the
lines to the right, and west to the le
Which arrows on map A point east ? Which point
__ east on map B? On C?
S --- Which arrows point west
Son map A ? On map B?
Find the north pole in
map D. Which lines in
this map run east and west?
Which north and south ?
SWhen we face the south
pole does east follow the
arrows to the right or to
the left, round the pole ?
As the earth turns
sI slowly on its axis, one
side is light and the
Scene near the Equator. other side is dark.
ft. One side has day, and the other has night.
Which side of the earth
is light ? When will that _- _
side be dark ?
What part of a ball
can be lighted by one
lamp? How large a
part of the earth can be
lighted by the sun at one
time? The earth turns __
from west to east, and _
the sun is therefore first
seen in the east.
5"' ~1.: ;.-:I; ~~~~
SLOPES OF THE EARTH.
37. The World Ridge.
Four long highlands form a loop that bends
nearly round the earth. We will call this
loop of high land the world ridge. Find it on
The world ridge is not sharp, like the roof
of a house. In many places it is hundreds of
miles in width. The greater part of it con-
sists of wide plateaus.
The world ridge is shaped like a horse-
On which side of the equator are the ends of the
world ridge ?
In how many places does the equator cross the
Near what part of the world ridge is the north
Make on the map a dot in the place where you
live. Your teacher will show you where to make it.
Key to Relief Map,
38. Andes Highland.'
In what part of the world ridge is the
Andes highland? In what direction does it
distance round the earth. It consists of a
ong and narrow plateau, with many ranges
ofey to Rel Map
Some of8. Andes Highlande so
'high that snow lies on them all the year.
In what partside of the world ridge the greatthe
Andes highland? In what direction does it
The Andes highland reaches one fifth of the
distA very useful animal, called the llamearth. It consis found in
long andes. This little beast sometimes carries loads
on its back over the mountains.
Some ofama has a thk parks of the Andes are sof each
foot, and is well fitted to climb steep rocky paths.
A few yearhigh that snow les on tem all the year.mas often
On which side ofwn the mountain skies, with logrea
of silvery useful animal, called the lama, is takefound in
On the Andes. This little beast somtcarried food, cloadshing
and tools back over the people who ivens. far above
The llama has a thick pad on the sole of each
foot, and is well fitted to climb st of theep rocky paths goods.
A few yearssons in small type, in connection with pictures,
re for supplementary reading. The mountain sides, with loadsnt text
f si er oe,-the rock from which silver is taken.
-On the return trip the llamas carried food, clothing
and tools to the people who lived far above the
Cars and mules now carry most of these goods.
1 The lessons in small type, in connection with pictures,
are for supplementary reading. The more important text
is in large type.
~ .. .- V.
Outside the World Ridge.
39. Rocky Mountain Highland.
Where is the Rocky Mountain highland?
In what direction does it extend ?
This mass of land is about as long as that
of the Andes.
Which of these highlands looks wider than
the other? Which looks the higher?
The Rocky Mountain highland consists of a
wide plateau, broken by lofty ranges, and cut
by deep valleys.
The main range is called the Rocky moun-
HIGHLAND OF TIBET.
i:.v:-1 r.i n;. :'l through valleys. The sun rises and sets, and
e- .ir- -till ..,n the great world ridge.
The in-:xt m ng sun finds us on the crest of the border
r.inI.-. ai.l iii : few hours we drop from snowy passes into
i .l.r ...f t. t ii ind flowers.
.n C~PI ~
SIhuld y.,i ik -"
on. this traui oI
? Hw the iron Crossing the Rockies.
cars ? How the iron
horse must puff on the steep slopes !
In some places the track winds along the bottoms
of deep cafions, and crosses long bridges far above
rushing streams. In the high ranges, and even along
the plateau, the road is often blocked with snow.
Many of the sights are grand. The train whirls
round lofty points from which may be seen mile after
mile of rugged peaks, and -it glides into wide valleys
which seem alive with cattle and sheep.
HIou. .LU-r hour the train rushes on its way. Night
comes on, but even while we sleep the cars speed
S40. Highland of Tibet.
Find on the map the highland of
Tibet. In what direction does it extend ?
This mass of land is the highest on
earth. Some of its snowy peaks rise
about five miles and a half above the
level of the sea.
On which side of Tibet are the
oThe musk deer lives far up on the highland
of Tibet. See how large its toes are. When
the lively little creature leaps from rock to
rock, its toes seem to grasp the sharp points.
The musk deer
feeds on moss and
grass that grow
far up on the
these creatures .
are killed every h
year for the little i
sacs of musk that
41. Highland of Abyssinia.
The fourth great mass in the world ridge is
called the highland of Abyssinia. Show on the
map where it is.
In what direction is Abyssinia from the
end of the world ridge that is nearest it ?
Let us try to climb this high mountain. It stands
near the equator, a little distance south of Abyssinia.
Large banana plants and palm trees grow at the
foot of the mountain.
SLOPES FROM THE WORLD RIDGE.
Up we go Now we can look far out over the
lowlands. The air is cooler. See the great trees
with moss growing on their trunks and branches.
At length we reach grassy places and; clover
patches, on the mountain sides. Now wp hqve ps'se,
the clover, and find only bushes and b. re I.... -.
-Here is the edge of a great sno,-... W.. ... i
climb no farther, and yet the top of tli 1.- 1-1; i !,
above us. This peak is very high, buit Ii..! .t ti .-
peaks in the highland of Tibet are
42. Slopes from the
World Ridge. /
Each of the four great high- I
lands sends out a long slope -
on one side, and a short slope "
on the other side. The long
slopes are inside the world
ridge. In most places they
make wide plains before reach-
Natives of t
ing the level of the sea.
The slopes outside the world ridge are
shorter than those inside. In most places the
short slopes form only a narrow lowland
along the shores.
Vast forests, called selvas, cover a large part
of the slope east of the Andes highland. Long
rivers wind through these forests and often
overflow the land.
Find the word selvas on the map on page 25.
Many tribes of Indians live along the borders
of the streams. They
spend their time
catching fish, and
shooting birds and
Is the air cold or
is it warm in the
place where these
Indians live? cal
44. Western Plains.
Where is the Rocky Mountain highland?
What have you read about this part of the
S world ridge ? On which side
of the Rocky mountains is
the long slope?
S: A very large part of this
S slope consists of wide plains.
In some places they are barren,
but in other places they are
S ii covered with grain and cotton.
Just east of the Rocky
Mountains the grassy slopes
feed large herds of cattle.
These grazing plains stretch
away for hundreds of miles.
Perhaps some of the meat
which you have eaten came
from these plains.
SSelvas. 45. Tundras.
Find the word tuindras on the map. The
tundras are 'marshy and mossy plains that
form a part of the long slope far to the north
of Tibet. They lie along the shore of a very
cold sea. In most places the .soil of the
tundras is frozen to a great depth. In sum-
mer it thaws slightly at the surface.
Herds of reindeer feed on a small gray plant,
called reindeer moss, that grows on the tun-
dras. On page 81 there is a picture of these
dreary plains. South of the tundras there
are large forests and grassy slopes.
tle Ranch on the Western Plains.
THE GRAND DIVISIONS.
46. Desert of Sahara.
Find on the map on page 25 the place
marked desert. On pages 49 and 52 there
are pictures of parts of this desert.
Have you ever seen any land like that in
the pictures ? How does it differ from the
land near your school ?
The desert is very dry, and most parts of
it are covered with sand. Perhaps the little
children there never saw any rain.
South of this dry land there are long rivers
flowing through dense forests and over grassy
47. The Grand Divisions.
What strait cuts across the world ridge ?
Where is South America ? Where is North Amer-
ica? What isthmus joins these two parts of America ?
Which part is the larger?
What lands are joined by the isthmus of Suez?
Where is Europe ?. Which is the larger, Europe
or Asia ?
What very large island, is southeast of Asia?
Which looks the larger, Europe or Australia?
What lands are crossed by the equator ? On which
side of the equator is the greater part of the land ?
On which side is the greater part of the sea ?
Which of these large bodies of land lie wholly
north of the equator ? Do any lie wholly south of
South America, North America, Europe,
Asia, Africa and Australia are called grand
divisions or continents.
What grand divisions are in the Old World ?
48. The Oceans.
The sea, or ocean, covers nearly the whole
of one side of the earth, and also a large part
of the other side.
What name is given to that part of the sea which
is round the north pole ? To the part round the
south pole ?
What ocean is east of America? On which side
of the Old World is the Atlantic ocean ?
What ocean is west of America ? On which side
of the Old World is the Pacific ocean ?
What ocean is south of Asia ? What land is west
of the Indian ocean ? What land is east of it ?
What lands border on the Pacific ocean ? On the
Atlantic ocean ? On the Arctic ocean?
What oceans touch the shores of North America ?
Of Asia? Of Australia? Of Africa? Of South
Which is the largest ocean? Next in size ?
30 CORAL I
49. The Bottom of the Sea.
In some places there are very long and wide
banks under the sea. The tops of many
ranges and ridges also rise above water, and
Many volcanoes rest upon the bottom of the
deep. sea. Their peaks form hundreds of
lonely islands, far out in the ocean. Most of
these volcanic islands are in the Pacific ocean.
By far the greater part of the bottom of
the sea is a vast smooth plain.
Sunlight does not go very far down in the
sea. If we were to sink in this great body of
water, we should find the light growing fainter
as we went deeper. At less than one fourth
of a mile below the surface, the _...
ocean is always in darkness.
Yet, in some places, the water
is five miles in depth. -;
Near the surface of the sea,
and on the bottom, there are _
many kinds of fish and other
creatures. At times the shal-
low water near the shores of the grand
divisions seems to be alive with fishes.
50. Coral Islands.
(A Reading Lesson.)
Have you ever heard of the pretty islands
that grow in the sea? Let us visit one of
them, and find out how it grew.
The water round the island is clear, and we
can look far down into it. What are those
little branches that grow under the water?
Reach down with a long pole, and break off
It looks like a small tree, but it is as hard
as stone. There are tiny soft spots on the
sides and ends of the branch.
This is one of the wonders of the sea. Each
soft spot is a living body. It has a mouth and
a stomach, and takes its food from the water.
This tiny creature is called a polyp, and the
hard part is coral. The coral is a part of the
body of the polyp.
Some polyps grow like trees, and send out
buds that form branches. The polyps on the
branches bud again, and thus a dense coral
Polyps lay tiny eggs in the water, and the
eggs float and swim. If they reach a rocky
bank or a hard bottom where the water is
shallow, clear and warm, they start another
forest of coral.
When the coral has grown nearly to the
surface of the sea, waves break off many
branches and wash them onto the top of the
coral mass. Each storm sends
up more, till the bank rises
above the water and forms an
S The waves soon grind some
of the coral to powder. Sea-
I- plants drift to the new shore,
and mix with the coral dust.
Soil is thus formed on the island.
Fine seeds are carried many miles by winds
in storms. Other seeds drift with the sea
from shore to shore. In some such ways
seeds reach the new island, and grow to trees
or smaller plants. Now the coral island is
ready for man to come and make it his home.
In the warm parts of the ocean, polyps
have made many long banks, or reefs, along
the main shores.
Ships often strike upon these reefs, and are
There are many kinds of coral, and they
take many pretty shapes.2
1 The famous war vessel, Keasasarge, was wrecked on a
2It is often stated that islands like tilit in the
picture are built upon other sinking islands. It is now
thought that this has taken place only in rare cases,
if in any.
51. Surface of South America.
Cape Horn is at one end of the world ridge.
It is on a great mass of rock, rising from
Round this bleak point the sea is often
very rough and stormy. Icebergs, or huge
blocks of ice, sometimes drift past this.cape.
The Andes highland extends northward
from Cape Horn. .How long is this highland?
The widest part of the Andes highland is
near the great bend in the Pacific coast.
Here the ranges inclose a lofty plateau.
On this part of the highland lies the beauti-
ful Lake Titicaca. It is about two miles and
a half above the level of the sea.
Steamers cross this lake, and connect the
villages with a railroad that winds down to
the coast. Rich grainfields spread round Lake
Titicaca, and the mountains that inclose its
basin have rich silver mines.
What part of South America is crossed by
the equator ?
Near the equator stands a, group of noted
volcanoes. Among them the high plains
wind like long avenues.
Where is the isthmus of Panama?
The Andes highland covers about one sixth
of this grand division.
The long slope of South America is east of
the Andes highland. What have you read
about the selvas ?
The long bridge in this picture is near the
city of Lima. Find Lima and Rio Janeiro on
1 See the colored map of South America.
N t 1\ ,
q^ ..--.*,-, .. *.*., ..,_. % -*.**^',. -., .
_"9r ,- -, -* ,-,
^'' ; ':':l-i ;ala^
t 4 -* '- ." 4 4$"..:
.* s. .... --
,, ^ *.
~"a; "'9 E IE A %y~ n H A E I A
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1" "'" ''r 9 ',., .
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REI IE~~~~tP MPOSUt AEIA
-a I. 9
52. Map Studies.-
What oceans border on South America ?
What part of the world ridge is in South America ?
Along what coast does it-lie ?
Which part of the Andes highland looks the widest ?
Which part looks the highest ?
On which slope of tht Andes, are there no long
rivers ? Why? Find Cape Horn on the map.
Where is the isthmus of Panama?
53. Amazon River.
What large river near the equator flows
towards the east ? Where does the Ama-
zon river rise ? Shull ,-.:u il:-. to sail up '.
the Amazon river ? L .-it large trees grow
;ii.ii- tl- banks Long vines hang froffh
the brenchpls. snd wenve thick-nets.
.:Te li.-er i ,e-v wide, and many little
bays Hid-::it it-. l.:I!:. Let us enter one of
-hem. Tall reeds line the b nks, and grow
i.1 ou. t in flth h,1,1.._. ],._.idn l, l. ,te'. Beauti-
ful birds flit -1 ...i.pt -,:,- i..t- scream
atuti, iu.nl. uy ,i].. -,ik -,- .l i:ttei t- we "' -
S-e the sleepy stork with long neck and
long 1--.. It is standing on a large lily
leaf that f,:,a t on the water. The blossom
of this lily is as large as the head of a
barrel. It is pink-white, with a golden center. The
forest is so large that we might spend many
years, following the streams that wind through it.
We should see wonderful sights, -trees whose sap
is made into rubber, cat-like animals with bodies
larger than our own, and alligators that would like
to make a meal of us.
Scene on the Amazon.
HIGHLAND OF BRAZIL.
54. Highland of Brazil.
A.highland rises near the east
coast and extends far inland.
This is the highland of Brazil.
It is only about one sixth as high '
as the Andes highland. :
The coffee plant needs warm weather
and a great deal of rain.
See the pretty white blossoms and
the little berries that look like cherries.
When the berries turn dark red and '
begin to shrivel, they are picked and put
into a machine that takes out the seeds.
Each berry has two seeds. Before
the seeds are used, they are baked and ground. Have
you ever seen a grocer grinding coffee seeds ?
Most of the coffee used in our country is raised on
the highland of Brazil.
Where is the La Plata river ? In what direction
does the La Plata basin slope ?
Which is the larger, the basin of the Amazon or
that of the La Plata ?
What highland divides the streams of these basins ?
The greater part of the La Plata valley is a vast.
plain. Its soilis
deep and rich.
many parts of
this plain are
ki plumes. The
of the La Plata
sheep graze in this wide valley, and many
miles of the rich soil are planted with grain.
Where is the Orinoco river?
A large part of the Orinoco valley, consists
of wide, grassy plains, called llanos. Large
herds of cattle graze on the llanos.
56. Isthmus of Panama.
This village is on the slender neck of land that
connects the two Americas. What is the name of
this isthmus ?
Of what are the houses made? How do the
people dress ?
A person on horseback can cross the isthmus of
Panama in a day, but the ride over the hills is a long
and hard one.
There is a railroad across this isthmus.
of cattle and
A Panama Village.
57. Surface of North America.
Where is the gulf of Mexico ?
West of this gulf lies the plateau of Mexico.
It is about a mile and a half above the level
of the sea. High ranges of mountains lie
along its borders and steep
i,.. ii, s ,: -i.: ti. 'i t he:i t,
ptte I t Ni tim; i ,_,
I'n..m ', i ,i l .S the 1 .] :1 re .,t
,-1" :Y ''
Water is led to them from the mountains,
and around them spread many fertile
Northward from the Great Basin the world
ridge is lower and narrower.
Basin is very dry. Its surface is nearly a mile
above the level of the sea, and border ranges
shut out most of the rain clouds.
In this basin lies the Great Salt lake.
Near its shores there are large cities.
1 See map on page 37.
The Yukon river is in the far north, and
flows through a very cold country. Snow
and ice cover the ground during a large part
of the year.
The long slope of North America lies east
of the Rocky Mountain highland.
-.. al L ?
RELIEF MAP OF NORTH AMERICA.
i i ~18
THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS.
I. -.. :i, I-
,.. 'I- -_ '
_-i : .--- .. 1 ;,
:-- :X' '1 K: ... :- -
SI -- -
c, '[ ; .....
,,",- 7 "..---- ,
N''IITH ItlI 1114 A
58. Map Studies.
Find on the map the place where you live.
What oceans border on North America ?
Which part of the world ridge is in North America?
Along which coast does it lie ?
What does the relief map tell you about North
The children in the picture live on the plateau of
Mexico. Can you tell whether their home is in a
warm place or in a cold one ?
What kind of clothing do these children wear ?
Of what are the huts made ?
This picture shows only country life. On some
parts of the plateau of Mexico there are large towns
59. The Rocky Mountains.
Where are the Rocky mountains ? In what direc-
tion do they
lit c_ r,] of a. ---
part of the *
Do you not think that this is a very heavy load for
a little animal? What tools has he on his back ?
Can you tell what each tool is used for ?
MAny of the branches of the Colorado river have also cut
-- i[ l:.,.I.h-.u in the rock.
- ---- l'u [ places the land south of the Colorado
-- -- .- looks like that in the picture below. The
--- li.,ys, or canons, are deep and wide. The
1... l is poor, but it supports enough grass
o feed thousands of cattle.
In the rainy months large streams rush
through some of these canions, but when
the rain is over, the beds of the rivers
are dry and sandy.
Cafion of Colorado.
Do you remember our long ride in the cars across
the world ridge ? We climbed into high passes, and
rode through deep canions. In places the road led
along the sides of steep cliffs and across long bridges.
Of course no wagons could cross those rough places.
Here the little donkey proves his worth. He can
climb rocky paths and is not afraid to walk along the
sides of steep cliffs. His slender legs are very strong,
and he can carry a heavy load up the mountain sides.
The donkey in the picture carried tools and food
for men who built a railroad to the top of a high
mountain, called Pikes Peak.
60. Colorado Caion.
Where is the Great Basin? What mountains are
east of the Great Basin ? What ranges are west of it?
What river basin lies south of the Great Basin ?
What river is on the north ? -
The Colorado river is noted for the deep valley
which it has worn. In some places this stream flows
between steep banks of solid rock, more than a mile
61. The Height of Land.
Where are the Great Lakes ? How
many of these lakes are there ?
What large river flows from one of the
About halfway between the gulf of
Me cico and the Arctic ocean a low swell
.f 1.lid runs eastward from the Rocky
iii'iiut.ins. It is called the Height of Land.
S in' il..brts of the Height of Land are hilly,
u.it in m nst places the land slopes so gently
that it looks level.
The Great Lakes are in a chain of valleys
on the southeast slope of the Height of Land.
The St. Lawrence river flows from the lowest
of the lakes.
The Niagara river flows from Lake Erie to
Lake Ontario. This stream is noted for the
grand falls which are about midway between the
Cafon in Arizona,
TIE MISSISSIPPI BASIN.
Just above the falls of Niagara the
river is about a mile wide. Below this
point the stream narrows and plunges
over a precipice about one hundred and
fifty feet in height.
Below the falls the river flows in a
wide, rocky gorge.
The water that in a single minute
makes the leap of Niagara would fill a
box fifty feet wide, fifty feet high and
more than a mile long.
A canal has been made between Lake
Erie and Lake Ontario, and ships can
go back and forth, without sailing upon
the Niagara river.
62. The Mississippi Basin.
What large river basin is south of
the Height of Land?
In what general direction does this
basin slope ?
Into what body of water does the Mis-
sissippi river flow ?
What bounds the basin of the Missis-
sippi on the west ? On the east ? On
the north ?
What large river from the west flows
into the Mississippi? Where does the
Missouri river rise ?
r~-t. .- -~ --- ____
- -~ -
Pxairie Scenes in WImei and a
in n-l l .In section does the Ohio river flow?
Int.. -.-hat does it flow ?
W1l Ire are the prairies? Where are
the western plains ? Where are
the southern plains?
The vast plains that spread
Sound the Great Lakes on nearly
--i all sides are called prairies. The
."-. soil in most places is deep and
Mile after mile of nodding
j-. ,. cornflower, mile after mile of
waving wheat, grassy fields
dotted with sleek cattle, these
are some of the sights on the
prairies in summer.
summer. Mile after mile of drifting
snow, mile after mile of frozen
streams, these are .,:,m.- tli. sights on the prairie in winter.
- - - -
- --- ------ ---------
The southern plains are very fertile, and they are
warmer than the prairies. A great deal of corn is
raised on these plains. Here, also, are vast fields of
cotton. What have you learned about the growth of
this useful plant ?
Perhaps some of the clothing which you now wear
is made of cotton that grew on the southern plains.
What have you read about the western plains ?
63. North of the Height of Land.
Where is Hudson bay? A large
river flows into Hudson bay, and
another flows into the Arctic
The basins of these rivers are
mostly in cold regions.
Northwest of the Great Lakes
there are broad prairies, with i"
many rich grainfields.
64. Appalachian Highland.
What highland is on the east of the
Mississippi basin? Is it higher or
lower than the Rocky Mountain high- -
Why are there no very large rivers
east of the Appalachian highland?
The mountains of the Appalachian high-
land are not very high. They consist chiefly
of long rounded ridges or folds.
65. Atlantic Slope.
Many short rivers flow across the narrow
plains east of the Appalachian highland. Some
of these streams are deep enough to float large
vessels. The slope east of the Appalachian
highland is called the Atlantic slope.
Where is the Hudson river?
The largest city in America is at the mouth of the
Find out at home all you can about this city, its
long bridge, its great statue, its bay and its park.
66. Pacific Slope.
The slopes west of the Sierra Nevada and
Cascade ranges are short, and some of them
are very fertile. A low range lies near the
shore of the. Pacific. It is called the Coast
The picture on page 9 shows a very small part of
the Pacific slope. This part is not very far from the
southern end of the Sierra Nevada range.
Many beautiful groves of oranges and lemons grow
in these warm valleys, along the foot of the ranges.
The region west of the Sierra Nevada and
Cascade ranges is known as the Pacific slope.
67. Surface of Asia.
A.-i. is the ir-.t 4..f thll-
i,:-., ly >,--, ..ll t.-, th :,t ,.I1 A IL -, i:.i .
Th-L_ hi-, lui dl ,.t Til,-t i.-, ril,
Its plateau is nearly three miles
above the level of the sea, and
peaks are almost as high again.
some of its
The giant range of Himalaya mountains
rises at the southern edge of Tibet. The
word Himalaya means the abode of snow.
Even during the hottest part of summer a
white mantle covers this range for a distance
of about two miles from its crest.
Mt. Everest, in the Himalaya range, is
thought to be the highest peak on earth. It
rises five miles and a half above the level of
On the north, east and south, vast slopes
stretch away from Tibet, They form wide
plains along the shores of three oceans.
The pictures show a Himalaya peak, a
group of natives on the tundras and a bath-
ing scene in a large river south of Tibet.
What is the elephant doing?
r-.!I -. 2
', .J t -. "..t
.^ S -^ A -^ *' f' "^ (
t*T a 3
4 1 n !.., . ,
S.v _,,, -w .. a -i ,i-' i.4 t
-_ I 1
. .. : *f '. U.,, .s, .. -
. 1, 1 ' "
I-. ,*r '
^^^^E^Lt 'JS B ^'' i; i/
REILIEP MAP OF ASIA.
LCL~ ---- C
68. Map Studies.
What oceans lie between North America and Asia ?
What ocean is south of Asia ?
Where is the highland of Tibet ? On which side of
Tibet is the longest slope. ?
In what direction would you have to travel from
your home to reach Asia ?
What strait separates North America from Asia ?
Look at the relief map, and describe Asia.
69. Arctic Slope.
The longest slope of Asia reaches from
Tibet to the Arctic coast. A large portion
of this slo, is a vast low plain, and is crossed
by several large rivers.
During the greater part of the year the
Arctic coast of Asia is icebound. The
frozen mass then reaches from the shore to
What have you read about the tundras?
Where are they?
A dense forest covers a large part of the plain south
of the tundras. In this forest live many little ani-
mals that are hunted for their thick fur.
Here is found the cunning beaver. It feeds on
berries, leaves and bark. The beaver builds its hut
at the edge of a river or lake.
Do you know any stories about beavers? Have
you ever seen any beaver fur?
The elk is a very large kind of deer that is found
in the northern parts of Asia and Europe.
70. Caspian Basin.
Where is the Caspian sea? Can you find any
streams flowing- from this sea to the ocean ?
The great plains around the Caspian sea
send no rivers to the, ocean. These plains
are mostly level A
ti 1 Ir I I~'\
7 : : I
PLAINS OF CHINA.
Large herds of cattle and horses graze on
The Caspian sea has no outlet, and it is
therefore salt. Several
',." .' I 1.- i .-- ..i- iw hjli :t tt li,
71. Plains of China.
The most important slopes of Asia are
east and south of Tibet. On the east lie
the plains of China, sloping to
the Pacific c(.,-., ...
The tea plant grows on the plains of
China, east of Tibet. It has a pretty
white blossom, with a yellow center.
This plant is raised for its leaves.
Several times a year the new leaves are
picked and baked. They are then sent
to .people in nearly all parts of the
When fresh tea leaves are roasted
quickly they form green tea. When
dried in the sun and then roasted they
form black tea. If you will unroll a
piece of coarse tea grounds you will
see a tea leaf.
72. The Ganges Basin.
The warm slopes of the Ganges basin lie
south of Tibet. In what direction does the
Ganges river flow? Where does it rise?
Ti Ganges river flows from melting ice and snow,
ti 1'1' on the side of the Himalaya mountains.
Countless little streams rise near by and
flow to join the Ganges.
This river enters the sea through a
great delta which. swarms with people.
The soil of the delta is very rich, and
.* here may be seen acres and acres of flat
---' rice fields, with groves of bamboo and
S cocoanut trees.
One of the most useful products of
southeast Asia is bamboo. This is a
coarse grass, growing to the height of
S from fifty to seventy feet.
"' The seeds and tender shoots of the
bamboo are used for food. The hollow
J stems make good water pipes.
Strips of the stem are used in mak-
Sing baskets, chairs, beds, boats and
Strong fibres of bamboo are woven
into cloth and twisted into rope. The"
hull, ropes and sails of the vessel shown
on page 78 were all made of this useful plant.
Many of the native huts are made of bamboo, with
dried grass for roofs. Groups of such huts are
often hidden by groves.
A Village near the Ganges.
73. Surface of Europe.
Europe lies west of Asia.
The greater part of southwest Europe con-
si] c of nlo plateaii nnd ---
!11. ..1 ---.. i i: --:- .- :----
S ;,,,,,,,, ^-:--
tops of some of the peaks are buried in snow
and ice all the year. Long rivers of ice creep
down the sides of the mountains, and melt,
thus forming beautiful streams and lakes.
plains that lie an angry goddess. Io swam the strait that forms
north and northeast of High Europe. the outlet of the Black sea.
Where is the Swiss highland? Where are The strait took its name from this story, for the
the Alps? word Bosporus means heifer's ford.
SAt its narrowest part, the strait of Bosporus is
SThe Swiss plateau is low, but the ranges only a few hundred feet wide.
that rise above it are high and rocky. The great city of Constantinople is built near
The Alps are famous for their beauty. The this strait.
* -. I- I
RELIEF MAP OF EUROPE
74. Map St,'dies.
Look atherelief map, anddescribeEurope. State
where it is ; what large bodies of water surround it;
where its highlands an lowlan/ s are, etc.
On which side of the w,.i ,d ridge is Europe ?
75. Slopes from the Swiss Highland.
-"^ 'I' '.-" ',*'; -', -'' "
The sloes that extend from the Swiss high-
land to the sea are i ,. and the river basins
Where does the Danube river rise?u In what
direction hoes basin slope? Into what sea oes
Other river e of te 1 r e is ow?
land to the sea are -irt. and the river basins
Where does the Rhine river rise? n
In what direction does its l. win s lopet ?
What long peninsula is south of the
Swiss plateau? Where is the penin-
sula of SpIini?
The strait of Gil.i.lt.ir connects the
Athni:ii.:- o.reanu ind the rd.1itaii U.
se-:. N ors. tie- strait a huge mass of
lo.:k rike- o1 tli .:.st ---f Si..-iLn.
Frnl :i i:litn-- tlin- rock of ,;ibraiV.r1
.li.ok' li-.-Ik inrl i.t.rren. A nearer view
shows many grassy slopes, with groves
of olive and orange trees.
At times 'ill flowers cover many parts -t t1h- lock
The lt--i' caves that run through nearly -'.-. ry t
i S'-e pictures of the Rhine on pag 14.
2 Gibraltar belongs to Great Britain.
of this great mass have given it the name "hill of
In these vast hollows the rock has made, iiele-
forms of great size and beauty. Some of these look
like animals, and others look like forests of marble,
rising to the roofs.
A few small apes live on the highest. parts of
Gibraltar. They often injure the fruits, but. nobody
tries to harm the little creatures.
Gibraltar is a strong fortress.2 On oiune parts of
the rock cannon bristle at every point.
The smsll buildinbl on the very
t':'lo :.. th, ro:.I.k i i i s .lu station.
-W- .I h it built So l, h h
-- Findr the -tr.ait of
h w-m ,-,,.ed nm,. ,. Eor ,.:ro,-.e.
Rock of .Gibraltar.
76. Valdai Hills.
Where are the Valdai hills ? Whhre does the
Volga river rise ? Into what sea does the Vo-. fl.,:-. ?
The Valdai hills rise only a little above the
great plain of Em ,ope. They
contain the sour'--:f ..
many large stream -
The Volga river --..
rises in a marsh
in the hill re-
gion, and flows
into the Cas-
pian sea. The
basin of the
Volga is the
largest river basin
in Europe, but it
is not one half so '-." "-
as that of the M issi-ippi
What seas receive streams
from the region of the Valdai hills?
The vast plain that spreads round the V.M:ii.ii hil.-
is crossed by a network of canals. These connect
with the rivers, and form the main highwi-ty- of
The canals reach lumber and fur regions on the
north, rich mines of gold ,andu-i.'.-r_ in the moun-,
tains that lie to the east, rud ft-til.- grainfields on
In return for the products of these r-._i.: !i' tle
canals carry cloth, tea, sugar ii.d: farm:ii.1 t .,:.l t,
the people of the plain.
77. The Caspian Sea.
The Caspian sea is the I:l *1et. body :f w\:ter
having no outlet to the ocean.
Its area is much ,Iti,-i tliln that
of the Great L.-ikej; of No,rth
The Caspian sea is salt, and its
surface is a little below the level
of the ocean.
The (' 1loi.,u sea is often swept by cold' winds fr:rn.
the n.:rth. In winter the mouth of the Vi,:lea is
closed by ice. During the open -e.i:s.in many .-sels
trade ait ti- ports by the sea and on tli- i '
The Caspian sea and the streams that flow into
S -. .it are very rich in fish. Among
Stl1 1-- I the sturgeon.
--- ---- Thii fish often grows to
... t, length of t.-n feet.
P "art of its body is
8 covered with bony
plates. Its mouth
Sis small andtooth-
-- less, and is undpr
Sthe long snout.
M iany thousand
people earn their
and living by catching
fish in this sea and
Min the streams that
78. British Isles.
What i.~t-ids are west of the mainland of
A few low ranges cross the British' Isles.
These are the 'most important il1n, ea, rth.
The 'trade between the people ct the-BaIiti.i_, TIIs
and of the United St: t'-s is very l:,I..
Ben-Nevis is the highest mountain i tuhe Biiti',
I F liv it _..ii01t e 7..1 mr.y a
A Highland Cottage.
79. Surface of Africa.
A part of the world ridge extends along
the eastern side of Africa.
Nearly all Africa is a plateau. The northern
half is not very high.
also is in middle Africa. The main slope of
this basin is towards the west.
Nearly all the northern part of Africa is a
vast desert. It is called the desert of Sahara.
Which picture on this page shows a part of
r .t .-.,: ,:t in...unt it lie .-,Al ln.- th-
\:htr part :f the hi,:,.-t.. Btw -n
l a I, f t u. T V
n ,rr',-w plains.
the east .nd ste K o.
Whe ,re- i psrt o th Nl... l AIsin i.s.in
"WVh.:,t h.- Ue v, ,..:,d ;,h,-ut -:_ e :-
"pmonteain .ofuth -A-i. thTi. hisbasi: Th
lai.hla,.ud ,-,t A by. 'ini, i ..,l:,,:,ut ;, |.
lftv :.s that .-.f M\xi..
A tiira i;.-, ..-v,_r:al v-t,- !n-r.- i.,r
asin..' Among these are the Nile
and the Kongo.
The ulpp-er part of the Nile basin is in the
Plateau of I middle Africi:a. This basin is long
and narrow, and it sl:ipes to the north.
The upper portion of the Kongo basin
Africa is a land -of large and fierce animals.
On page 85 there are pictures of some of
Find the Atlas mountains on the map of
Africa, page 113.
4 Ig .r .l.
ti. a' .
** '' *
-i 'i -
*^^ fiBh *
RELIEF MAP OF AFRICA.
: t~ i
THE RIVER NILE.
What bodies of water surr
Look at the relief map, an
What isthmus joins Asia a
A great ship canal has bee
of Suez. Thou-
sands of steamers
pass through it -
Before the Suez
canal was made,
the water route 1
canal cuts off
about one half
What seas are joined by
the land near the canal look
81. The Ri
Where does the Nile river
does its basin slope ? Into
found Africa ?
d describe Africa.
bnd Africa ?
n dug across the isthmus
Every summer the Nile overflows its banks. The
water comes from great lakes near the middle of
Africa, and from melting snow on the mountains of
At this time hundreds of muddy streams flow
down the steep slopes, and swell the branches of the
Nile. The river rushes and foams over the rough
places in its bed, and the
-- II '"" 'I' i' i .-- *' 1 ,. ,..,,,' and
In it- 1:.,-1 1,.,I1 t he Nile
fI 1: ii' :. li h low- alley
.l ,JIt i.,,, ,_ w I ill. w ide.
|_Th. l_.. ."- bqt i- teenn
1~ 1, lit-. _1 --- desert
I-., -.-- -, the
Two Views of the Suez Canal.
the Suez canal? Does -
fertile or barren ?
rise ? In what direction
what sea does the river
OASIS IN THE DESERT.
1eelds, and looks like a
At length the river begins to grow smal
pass, and now it-flows again in its narrow
The water has left a thin coating of
'banks. The land is ready for seeds, ai
valley will soon be covered with grain.
be food for the next dry season.
Thus the high slopes supply soil for
it is carried down by the great river Nil
is by tiny rills and brooks.
82. Oasis in the Desert of S
What have you read about the great de
L .& ,
* O ---_
A n Oaii;d .- -
1,, I _i, 1i. ..-.. t of the desert? What ocean is
WOWi.-,l -:,1 i,,t i the great desert there are springs
..t t-Ih .i.-. Atter days of hot and dusty travel,
i,., -ii 1 1 h. ti, ll r.- people and camels are to reach
-.-: ,l'- II U:-1 they find rest.
SVillages grow up near these
springs. Date trees are planted,
'- S and soon bear clusters of sweet
Dates are the chief food of
many people who live in hot
deserts. Some of the fruit
is pounded and pressed into
cakes. Camels and horses are
sometimes fed on dates.
Low and High Nile. A fertile spot in a desert
is called an oasis. The vast barren tract in the
. Weeks north of Africa is the desert of' Sahara.
soil on the
soil on the 83. Kongo Basin.
nd the long
There will It is thought that the basin of the Kongo
plants, and equal in
e, just as it
of the Mis-
sert ? The Kongo
river flowS --'~
ir.ii,:,- ir-.,r the west coast. There it flows
ti n- ii..i, the mountains, and rushes into
the low plains that lie along
SVessels cannot sail very far
up the Kongo. For this
reason there is very little
-.,- trading done with the negroes
who live in the Kongo basin.
S Tie world ridge ends near the
c. p' of Good Hope.
Find Cape Town on the map,
84. Surface of Australia. The largest river basin in Australia is
that of the Murray. It is thought to be
Australia is the smallest of the grand nearly one half as large as the basin of the
divisions. Its area is equal to about one Mississippi.
third that of North America. Where does the Murray river rise? In
--i t L ..1i .1 I.-1 its
tains *,_ .- al.. _, ],. v
COalt. ex.:-l, thiat
pal t .-.t ; ,i.ll.1.
Austr -i-i. In um:,n\
place- tl.._ pll.,in
are di-y a~d iidy. -
None of the Tree Ferns.
ranges in Australia are very high. The main
range lies along the shore of the Pacific
ocean. This range is highest near its southern
The mountains along the north and west
coasts are in low and broken ranges. In
places they are but little more than hills.
Many strange animals are found in Australia.
Among these is the kangaroo. There is a picture
of this animal on page 85.
See how large its hindlegs are. These strong legs
are used in making long leaps.
The black people of Australia eat the flesh of the
kangaroo. Many of the skins are sent to our country
to be made into shoes.
Irk ..- -
A .r >4
RELIEF MAP OF AUSTRAIAL
85. Map Studies.
In what direction from Asia is Australia? In
what direction is it from Africa? From North -.L
On which side of the equator is Australia ? On
which side of the world ridge is it ? What bodies of ;
this grand divi-
sion ? Describe
---. the surface of
What large is- .
.-- land is north of : .
',, Australia? ? ,
..... \ How does this :_ -
-- grand division
compare in area
.iL: ki -i, with South
,: : .E'.- America ?
86. Tibbu, the Kongo Boy.
This tall hut is the home of little Tibbu. It is
near the great river Kongo. Find this river on
the map, page 113.
STil, ,u'- f:,,:e
Sh I th 11 ..i ,l!
,12- 1.A i i-
110 t-he 'ii
h~, in::t L-, 1 ,_,,b 1W
=- = ." T.-,,-,I-v Ti;,i..L
must drive the
baboons away from the cornfield, and so he sets out
early with his little bow and arrows. He will
not be lonely, for he will make a play-hut, just
like the one in which he sleeps.
Shall we watch him make the hut? First he
breaks off many strong reeds, and sets them in
a circle in the ground. Then he ties others
together to form the roof. He has no string,
but he uses long grasses in its place.
Now he ties bunches of grass all over the reeds,
and his hut is done. He has left a place for a
doorway, but there are no windows. He needs
no chimney, for the fire is built outdoors.
What will Tibbu put in his hut ?
He is making a pretty mat of grass
',' for a bed. Now he is shaping little
dishes in clay. He will bake the
-clay in a fire, and it will be very
Come, Tibbu, it is time to go
home. The sun is low in the sky,
S and the lions and elephants will
.,,;..,soon come down to the river to
:-- drink. Take your bow and arrows,
and run very fast.
What has Tibbu's sister been
... doing to-day? In the morning she
a". pounded corn between two stones,
:ii iim.:i, meal for porridge. Then she helped
lih: rini.:ther make cloth.
Yi.ui ..:oild never guess how they made the cloth.
Ti'h ....'i ed long strips of bark in water, and then
1iiid.-o.le them till
th,-, '.-,re soft.
h,-i tih.- bark was .
ti l gave it to
i_, th 'to make
S1.ul1 tIl you like
to know what these
black children eat?
Supper is ready and here are eggs, fresh fish
and corn porridge. When they wish sweet food,
they eat sugar cane or bananas.
Everybody goes to bed at dark, for there are
no lamps in the village. Isn't this a queer place?
There are no books nor schools, and Tibbu never
saw a picture. If you should show him the picture
of a lion, he would run away.
TIBBU, THE KONGO BOY.
The Negro children are very fond of music.
They keep time well, and often make sounds
like birds, running brooks, etc. They have many
games, also, and like to dance and play ball.
Many Negroes have been taken from their
homes in Africa, and sold as slaves. In our
own land there are millions of black people, but
they all are free.
dishes made of baked clay, spoons and pans of
tortoise shell, and skins filled with milk. For
weapons there are clubs, bows and arrows.
Among the Hottentots women do all the hard
work about home. They help also to tend the
cattle and sheep.
The dress of these people is very simple. It
varies from red-brown to black, but they all
belong to the black race.
The Kaffirs make garden tools and weapons
of copper and iron. They are a brave people, and
have fought hard to prevent the white men from
taking their lands.
The Kaffirs have herds of, cattle, and they raise
large crops of corn. Milk and corn are their chief
articles of food.
'Let us look into this Hottentot hut. Here are
L.in.-.r t- ','_, f thl .-. f NI-,t IL.. I -0,! i a I i 1. 1, l l. l t.
i.,nt thle ,'-i,, m ,nr 1,_-'1.,1,,:- w i.,n ,.,.i v ,_e' elp.,kiii-.
why they dwell in tents.
Many white people have now settled in southern
Africa. These have taught the tribes near them
how to make better homes and to use better weap-
ons. Other tribes still live in their wild state.
Does Tibbu live in a warm land or in a cold one?
Name some of the plants that grow in the Kongo basin.
Name some of the animals that are found there.
Describe the hut which Tibbu made.
Can you tell what the Kaffir huts are made of?
Tell how the Hottentot hut is made.
JAPAN AND ITS PEOPLE.
87. Japan and its People.
To-day we will visit the homes of the little
yellow people who live on the islands east of Asia.
The girls and boys of Japan have round faces,
bright black eyes and pearly teeth.
They often have ruddy cheeks, t.1 ii..i: l
their skin is brownish yellow.
It will puzzle you at first t:' ko!-A ll,
which are boys, for they dress Uii.l- i .
like girls. Look closely and .:.u i ll
see that the boys' heads are I i
almost bare, while the girls'
hair is twisted into all sorts
of odd shapes.
What large sleeves! Let
us look inside one of them.
It is used as a pocket, and .
here are dolls, tops, small
kites and many other toys.
How should you like to wear
a pair of their shoes? They
are simply wooden soles tied
on with strings. These shoes
are not worn in the house, but
are slipped, off at the door.
The fathers and mothers of
Japan do a great deal to make
the children happy. You
should be there on the day
which is set apart for the
"feast of the dolls."
Every girl has a set of
dolls. Perhaps her mother
used some of them years ago,
but they are very pretty.
Here is one that looks like .
the Mikado, or ruler of
Japan. This one looks like Scenes
his wife, and there are many
other dolls like the nobles and ladies of hgh rank.
Each set of dolls has a full outfit for house-
keeping. Here are tiny wooden pillows, soft
mats and tea sets. On this happy day the whole
land is alive with dolls.
Then there is the flag day" for boys. On
this day every boy plays with a set of dolls
dressed like soldiers. Here are armies of dolls,
with flags, guns, swords, cannon and pretty
uniforms. At this time the boys hear many
T i. the great war-
"'J c T'h riors of their
e sg1 s are lined with
shops in which
toys are sold.
Here is a man
o .. b a on a street cor-
pe -p ner, shaping
animals out of
pi.e--'-' The boys and
i w around and call
,u*'it tlh o,,m._s, as soon as they
., wi..t he is making.
[ iw,I:' i!, 1 hlie monkey, wolf,
.._" I.i. ii r rl ih y other animals
Sii ,r. ii ti.lad in Japan, but
ith- .:1 it know the sheep.
T!i 1 In.ia has an oven
.,.h hi ,i i-ents to boys and
I 1I. I-e 1 Ives them batter,
ill1 th,- ..-ok and eat their
-a-u ihtitl.: .ikes. If you do
ili t i;l-e i:,ttercakes, he will
!-.,1i .u .:1 ,ake that is cov-
I:<,, n ilth b, weed and fish.
H.:. e vi, found out what
Ilh, ,iU 1_i the picture have
n tli 1 ks? They wish
t-, !11,,-. iut there ar6 little
I...-,1. .:t I...ine who must be
n Japan. cared for. The girls tie the
SJapan. babies upon their backs, and
are soon playing just as hard as the other children.
ShEll we enter one of the houses ?. It is made
of bamboo: and has very wide eaves. See the paper !
paper windows, paper doors, paper fans, lanterns,
hats, cups, cloaks, napkins and many other things.
JAPAN AND ITS PEOPLE.
Isn't this a queer bed? Should you like to Peep into this workshop. Here is a man who
crawl into one of the wadded quilts, and rest your is making-beautiful vases of clay. Another is
carving pretty figures in ivory. A third is
spreading fine varnish over wood. Near by
there is a room in which soft silk is being
woven into costly cloth.
Now let us leave the city and take a trip
..into the country. Climb into this light cart
and away we will go. There are ponies in
Japan, but most people prefer to travel in the
way shown in the picture.
What is this tall grass with feathery tops
and long sharp leaves ? It looks like corn
but it is many times as tall. 'This is bam-
-- I boo, of which many of the houses-are made.
A Japanese Village.
head upon the wooden pillow? This girl will
soon wake and drink a cup of tea. Can you see
the pretty tea set?
There are no chairs in the house. The Japanese
sit on mats of wadded cloth or of straw. Sit
oni a mat, and your little friends will bring you a
liinhl. There is no table, but the boiled rice and
s.tean-inil tea will be served on a dainty tray that
tnl-s o:,n short legs. In some houses you would
see meat, fish, beans and a grain called millet.
It would amuse you to see the people of Japan
eat rice. Two slender chopsticks of wood or of ivory
We know what grows on the flat land, for
we have seen pictures of fields of rice in our own
country. But what
is this shrub with
white flowers and
green leaves? Oh,
yes, it is tea, like
that we saw on the
plains of China.
II.t y'u- ever seen a spider spin its web
TIh. ie -s ft rolls were spun by silkworms. They
mi.il- tin- line thread, and then wound themselves
in the1-r- gl1 ssy prisons. It took about three days
to wind each silken case, or cocoon, and
if the thread were unwound it would
reach more than two miles. Now you
know where the people get the silk
from which they make thread and
Some of the sports of the girls and
boys of Japan are like your own.
They spin tops, walk on stilts, fly
kites and sometimes roll snowballs.
ge. Most of the Japanese children are
MALAY OR BROWN PEOPLE.
always clean. They bathe in tubs of very hot
water, just before going to sleep in thick quilts
that are laid on the floor. They often have two
or three baths a day.
The people of Japan are eager to learn, and
hey have _
in the J
midst of .'
for they -
we follow I
the girls A
and boys i
to one of
ples on a r.
or festival d:v. TL i lea ti ii
little shoes ,,r l.ti.' at the lA ..r i a
enter the temi. le aild t aoi ,1 :tq-
ping their hi nil ..ft. Tin i., th.
offer their ic-hili .iS I .l -i thel iut
and play in tlh .- :1 .al ,-,.
Before -w,-nhtli:,'h, let et- ,1,, -l .e i.u
As we enitii.r ine .-,t thle ae t 4iv (1 i It'l
we see inay h,-,., -.uilt o-n i ,,at. n th- ,
decks there a~tl I: l 11 -'ill-uens, .d also. d :.,-1,
The babies on these boats are tied at the ends
of long cords, and the little girls and boys have
light gourds or pieces of hollow bamboo tied upon
their shoulders. These are to keep them from'
Uinking, when they fall into the water.
The people of
are set aslant.
about the house
China are yellow and their eyes
Some day we shall learn more
boats and the. large cities of
To what grand division does Japan belong? (See map
on page 111.) What ocean is east of Japan?
-i i+ l -, ,:. 1 i ,,-,,.t t t : .., t h.. [... ,:.[. I .. ..
SI- i. ii i ,, i : i 1 .. l i
N I, .- !t ,i .- I t -
,-I i : I.|.u ,,. a, h ,i ., .. ..* t i, ,,,
88. Malay or Brown People.
-- P li" h l.- '" .1.1 tvi, k l itt,
h-t ..: h itt -l er skin
-l ,,- l.t ,. -n a 1..1 .e '
-., .,, t 11 W I i L
,.hi, nt lo,,k li,..
r -i l I th,.
littli- .-h l. I ,.
thl.t hid eyl., ,11.,-
A Malay Boy.
people live on the A a
island of Java, southeast of Asia. Java is a land
of fruit and flowers. It is so beautiful that people
often call it the "Pearl of the East." Should
you like to visit the home of the brown people?
MALAY OR BROWN PEOPLE.
Here it is, a pretty hut in a shady grove. The
hut is made of bamboo.
Our little brown girl helps her mother keep
this hut very neat and tidy. She stuffs pillows
with soft white down that grows on a tree near
by, and she weaves dried grasses into the mats
that are used as
beds. Then she.
covers them with
pounds the yellow
husks off the rice
which they will
have for breakfast,
and he gathers a
few cocoanuts and
a bunch of ripe .
bananas. The fruit
is eaten raw, but
the mother cooks
the rice till it is Brown People of Fisi Islands.
soft and white. Their only table is a mat, and all
sit around it on the ground while eating.
Now they are ready for the day's work. The
coffee berries are t ni cl ii dark red, and the father
says it is time to pick them. This will be the
work of the mother and the girl, for the father
and the boy must let water in over the rice fields.
A coffee tree is a pretty sight. It has rich
gray bark, large green leaves and white waxy
blossoms. In a few months the little seed pods
of the blossoms grow into clusters of red orr
purple berries that look like cherries. Our little
girl must be very careful, for while the berries
are ripening other blossoms are growing on the
ends of the new branches. These blossoms must
not be broken off.
The. berries are spread out to dry, then the
pulp is pounded or rolled oitt and out come the
c .t-e.. seeds ready for market.
Java is very near the equator, and by ten
o'clock the sun is so hot that work in the fields
is stopped. Now the brown people sit in the
shade of palm trees and weave 1.-t. Wi ,r
thirsty they break open cocoanuts and drink the
cool milk that is inside.
The father says that snares must be set, for
bats have been nibbling the corn and the tender
shoots of the palms. Have you ever seen little
bats that look like mice with wings? Some of the
bats of Java are very large and are called flying
foxes. During the day they hang in dark clusters
in trees, but in the evening they flit about in
search of food. This evening the snares and nets
will be set to catch some of them.
By four o'clock the air is cooler, and the father
goes back to the rice field. Now the little girl
will help her mother spin cotton into yarn. Some
day they will weave the yarn into cloth, and
make new clothes for the whole family.
What is the little brown boy doing? There he
goes tripping across the rice fields .towards the
south shore. He knows of a cave in which
many swallows build their nests, plastering them
upon rocks. These nests are made of a glue-like
substance, and a few of them will make soup
for supper. Many of these nests are sold to
people of other lands.
Nearly all the girls and boys
of Java dress like these in the
pictures. While working in the
S sun the boys often wear large
hats made of very thin strips of
The brown people are called
SIsalays. Most of them live on
the large group of islands south-
east of Asia. In some places the
Malays have built cities, but the
White man rules over most of
.,. the brown race. Many of the
S Malays are '-.'i'. -, like the
people in the black tribes of
A Java Girl.
Find Java on the map on page 115. In what direction
is Java from Japan?
What new sights could a .Tn-.inpp. girl see in Japan?
W hat could -I..- -,: i i T i.l.... 1, i...!r..-
What do tl.- 1 -..!.i of Java eat? Of what are their
89. A Lapland Home.
Does this family live in a warm land or in a
cold one? Can you prove your answer by the
Which has the warmest coat, the deer, the dog
or the little boy peeping through the door?
[D HOME. 61
yellow people. Your sister, who is holding a
dipper, has dark hair, but yours is soft and light.
Let us glance into the hut. What is in this
bundle that hangs from the roof? It is a ham-
mock made of the warm skin of a deer, and in
it swings a pretty baby girl with eyes as bright
and cheeks as soft as your own.
.A a__- n o:- -- WEe .
A Lapland Home.
Isn't this a warm hut? See the thick sods
upon it. Do you think that rain can leak
through the roof ? See how the sods are placed.
What holds them up ?
Why is the- hut so dark? -Can you see any
Come out, little boy, where we can see you.
What large round eyes-you have, and what a tiny
flat nose Your eyes are as straight as ours, but
your face tells us that you are one of the little
Should you like to know where these people
Their home is in the north of Europe, near the
Arctic shore. They are called Lapps and they
live in Lapland. Can you find Lapland on the
map, page 109 ?
Ah here is a snowstorm. Now we know why
the LIp1.s wear boots with high tops bound
tightly round tLhir legs. Come! Let us hurry
into the .hut.
CHUGLU, THE ESKIMO BOY.
See the long strips of smoked meat hanging on
the walls. Here are dishes of sweet milk also,
and cakes of new cheese. Do you wonder that
the Lapps are kind to their deer? Where do you
think all this food came from?
Let us look at the boots and at this great hairy
coat. Can you tell what they are made of?
Some of the coats are made of cloth. At night
the children sleep side by side between large
Of course you wish to know what the reindeer
feeds on. In summer it bites off tender shoots
of trees and bushes, but in winter it paws away
the snow to find a little gray plant, called reindeer
It has stopped snowing. Now for a ride!
Hnlr -- a deer to a sled and away we will fly
Z-P- 1t c
-_ ', --. -_ .. .. : _.--- -- ---_
over the snow. How fast we go Will the fleet
deer never grow weary ? His master tells us that
he has driven him a hundred milet in one la\-.
Should you like to live in Laplan. '' Do: not
think that there is snow on the. ground all the
time. As early as May the fields are dotted with
pretty flowers, the birds sing sweetly, and later
the bushes and vines are loaded with berries.
Perhaps you would like to live with the Lapps
who catch salmon and trout in lakes and rivers.
or with those who wander with tents from place
to place, in search of good pastures for their herds
of deer. You would find that the Lapps are very
Hammerfest is a town that the Lapps often
visit. It is the farthest north of all the towns
Where do the Lapps live?
What are the uses of the reindeer ?
Can you tell some of the sights that Tibbu often sees,
but that the Lapland boys never see?
What would the Japanese boys miss if they went to
Lapland to live?
Why does Tibbu not wear clothes like those which the
Lapland boys wear?
If you were to go into a Lapland hut, what should you
expect to see?
90. Chuglu, the Eskimo Boy.1
If we knew the words that little Chuglu uses,
he could tell us a wonderful story about the land
of snow and ice in the far north.
Here is a picture of the hut in which he lives.
It is built of stones, with turf thrown upon it to
keep out the biting wind. The hut is now
covered with snow. During the summer
Chuglu lives in a tent made of deerskins.
The Eskimos are found along the north
-. coast of North America, and on the islands
near by. They live also along the south-
S west shores of Greenland. Find Greenland
on the map, page 105.
When Chuglu was a baby his mother kept him
i .i, bag of feathers. That was his cradle and his
1b Day after day he lay in the smoky hut, till
he was old enough to walk, and then his mother
made him a very pretty suit of sealskin clothes.
1 Chuglu was. one of the Eskimos at the World's Fair
in Chicago. The baby, Columbia, was born on the
World's Fair grounds.
CHUGLU, THE ESKIMO BOY.
On his jacket she sewed a fur hood that he could
draw over his head on very cold days.
The mother has a large hood on the back of
her own j.i:.ke-t, and many a cozy nap has Chuglu
taken in this hood, before he could walk.
At length Chuglu is old enough to go out and
see his father hunt seals. Bring out the sled and
harness the dogs! Si ',1'! goes the long whip, and
away they glide over the snow. The father kiows
whale. He paddles his canoe, or kayak, very
swiftly, and throws his harpoon with great skill.
The kayak is long and narrow: It is covered
with sealskins. The skins are sewed over the top
of the canoe, making it water-tight in all parts.
Eskimos are .so skillful that when a kayak upsets
they can right it again in the water.
Under the skin of the whale there is a thick
layer of fat, or blubber, which keeps the icy water
wh,.re the l 1,:1.,w
',ut of the i,:- ,.t,
Columbia. NIOW they al iie vlt
the place. Chuglu
is left with the dogs, while his father creeps up
behind a lhug'~ block of ice. .Yes, there are the
seals A rush, a blow, and one unlucky creature
is held on the end of the sharp spear.
It seems very uclel, but Chuglu must have
food, and now he can eat the flesh of the seal.
His mother will a.io make- a new jacket of soft fur
It is great sport for the Eskimo to chase a
tli:,-in .-:,illi,. th, ul.,:l--. T i e, E kiLmo 1u. es this
Ib l tler t W.- wan anl li:,'ht hi- hut.
Let u"s irturn t': tlh- hit. St.-p low. :.11
creep on your hiandis nd knue6. Now we are
inside. Can this be the home of little Chuglu?
How does he breathe in such a close and smoky
Look at the lamp. It is a hollow stone, with
moss for a wick. Where did the oil come
from? The lamp smokes, but it keeps the hut
Along one side of the room there is a long
bench. During the day it is used as a seat, but
at night it forms the family bed. ,
__ ____ __
CHUGLU, THE ESKIMO BOY.
Look at Chuglu as he takes off his jacket and
boots. He wears a shirt of birdskin, and stock-
ings of dogskin.
Inside an Eskimo Hut.
Now we can see his face clearly. The bright
black eyes are aslant, the hair is coarse and black,
and the skin is yellowish brown. Perhaps
Chuglu belongs to the same great family as do the
children of Japan, China, Laplandcandr Java.
Dinner is ready. Will you dine with Chuglu?
He will have a feast to-day, for his mother has
given him a large piece of blubber. His father is
eating a slice of raw frozen
flesh.. Now he helps him-
self to a piece that has
In this cold region no
grain grows, and so these
people have no bread.
There is no fresh milk
nor cheese such as we saw '- '
in the Lapland home, for
Chuglu's father has no .
Some days they eat fish and sea fowl, and when
Chuglu's father kills a great white bear, its flesh
feeds them for a long time.
Eskimos often move from place to place, to
find seals and fish. Sometimes they hunt far out
over the frozen sea. When they settle in a place
for a short time only, they make huts out of
blocks of snow, with ice for windows.
White people often visit the told seas of the
north, in search of seals and whales. These people
give or sell to the Eskimos, knives, needles, cloth
and other articles.
In making clothes the Eskimo women are very
skillful. They cut the sealskins to fit well, and
then sew them neatly together. Do you not
think that Chuglu has on a pretty jacket?
In autumn the days at the far north are very
short. Then the Eskimos hunt all the time while
it is light. They store up food for the long winter
nights that are near at hand. Some Eskimos live
in places where the longest night lasts many weeks.
In summer there is a day that is just as long.
Should you not like to watch the sun during
the long day? .Every noon it is in the south,
and at midnight it is in the north, but it does not
dip below the horizon. By and by you will learn
the reason for this.
Can-you find out how Chuglu's sledge is made?
Where do the Eskimos live?
Describe an Eskimo hut. What do Eskimos eat?
What strange sights would a Lapland boy see, if he were
to visit Chuglu's home?
What objects in your home would seem strange to
Which people wear the best clothing, those of Java,-of
Japan, of Lapland or of the northern 'coast bf North
America? Give a reason for your answer.
CHILDREN OF THE INDIAN TRIBES.
91. Children of, the Indian Tribes.
Can you tell what is in the cradle that hangs
on the tree? It is a tiny baby with round black
S eyes and red-brown skin.
This cradle is made of a
piece of board, wrapped in
cloth. There are pretty
Shed orn thb rlotfh.
IL:e N1111:1 .cL 1--it J--l 1l: lt. rl"-
SIQ l chiu'h a t it
Sl ,i t :- titt L .,i:, i,, l
.l -.7,., the little [.- In iaUni 1,.,- will
Some tribes of Indians live in good house~
made of wood, brick or stone. These have large
herds of cattle and fields of grain.
In some places many families live in one large
house or pueblo. It is made of stone or of brick
dried in the sun. On page 104 there is a picture
of a pueblo.
Each of the
1.rte n tildin
',.4,, ,: th
Mapow ,.-! r.p ; qs
.. 4di a-nd -he CaMPE
indirio arod 17eLI CdmpE
t, A ir.e .i _,.l w ll
e,,n t,, ~rite.-
.As he g't,,- ,,"ld:ier
he will run races, wrestle, swim, play ball, hunt
Can you tell what holds the tents up? What
do you think the tents are made of?
l tih.l villa.- S....o th o th:e tli--e th t lI. i
!.u,-i.,i,, h-,v- ,la g<. finiit ._2.:ov,+ a d *-i..-,intields .
Lt r. -' ii it .1u I,,.li.,n ,'..i p in the ,!.vening-.
H.-Ii- ,- ,:d i.irn t 'de 1v .,ttet,.lhii '- a skln over
., hil, ...v I,:.;. T hi,: ,erl ilt. <:,f tlii, ,L um :,all.
Seven t hey l l -.ilto storiesL. : liih te bae ideeds
eli ng. .1 t-t lther d.trn-, m:o.-ie l." nl,-. Then t!r:e
of their fathers, and then they go to their tents to
dream of the time when. k t lhey will be warriors.
.1- it thie Indian-,s wi.ie ti..'htin'_a' :] battle.
The >hiildrh-n l:,,:,k ,:,n with delight. S,:,mi,
day they will go through the same dance. This
evening they listen to stories 'of. the brave deeds
of their fathers, and then they go to their tents to
dream of the time when they will be warriors.
THE LAND OF THE ARABS.
The Indians are very skillful in making bows
and arrows, but their chief weapon now is the rifle.
The red-brown man taught the white man how
to make canoes of birch bark, and shoes of soft
deerskin. The dusky savage also showed the
paleface how to make corn grow in a forest.
The trees were first killed by cutting a ring
of bark from their trunks, or by burning off the
bark. The hot sun could then ripen the corn, as
there were no leaves to shade it.
Is there nothing to say about the Indian
While the boys are wrestling or hunting, the
girls must stay at home and work. They must
learn to- cook, to hoe in the garden, to skin
the animals that
have been killed,
and to take down
and put up the tents -
when moving camp.
They must also help
to carry all the tents -:
and kettles from
place to place. ~
The little Indian
girl finds some time 3
for ~lay. She is very
fond of dolls. What
kind of dresses do
you think she makes car
for her dolls? What kind of playhouse does she
Indians are found in nearly all parts of South
America,' and in the western part of North
America. Only a t-w 'tribes live east of the
The nu'iml,,:-r if Indians in the United States is
small. Tlieie are about as many here now as
there were when the white men first settled in
Where are Indians found? Can you draw an Indian's
What has the Indian taught the white man?
If an Indian girl were to visit Japan, what strange
sights would she see? What could an Indian girl teach a
92. The Land of the Arabs.
We start to-day for a land that lies far to the
southeast of the isthmus of Suez. The first
part of our trip is to New York. Can you show
on the map the shortest route by water from
New York to the isthmus of Suez?
It will take about two weeks to cross the ocean
and the long Mediterranean sea.
Now we are passing the great rock of Gibraltar
near the strait that opens into this long sea.
What grand division is this on the south? What
one is on the north?
Here we are at the isthmus. A small boat is
waiting to take us from the steamer to the land.
We are just in time,
-- -a caravan starts
to-day for the very
t. place we wish to
We must travel
on the backs of
camels, as our route
winds across a wide
desert. Here is a
camel kneeling for
you. Now you are
on,-hold fast while
va Let us wait a few
minutes near the great Suez canal.1 Here is a
long line of steamships ready to pass. through.
Should you like to look inside these ships and see
what they carry? This one is from southeast
Asia. It is loaded with tea, cotton, silk and grain.
This. cargo will be carried to the British Isles.
The steamer from which we landed is bound to
Australia. Below its decks there are thousands of
yards of cloth and many kinds of machines and
tools. This ship will bring back a cargo of wool.
Now the caravan is i-.:idv to start. We turn
our faces towards the southeast, and soon lose
sight of the little city by the canal. How dry
and sandy the land is, and how hot the air!
1 On page 51 there are two views of this canal.
THE LAND OF THE ARABS.
We camp to-night near this well of cool water.
In the early morning we are off again, and at
about ten o'clock we reach another well. Here
we rest till the sun is low.
Days pass, and we are still in the midst of the
burning sands. Now the wells are far apart, and
we must carry water in bags made of camel's skin.
It is noon, and we have halted for the day.
How the sun beats down !
See the dust whirling towards us What is
going to happen? The camels are burying their
noses in the sand.
We must be quick, or a hot whirlwind will
reach us before we are ready for it. Place a
piece of cloth on the sand, and press your face hard
down into it. While the hot wind is passing,
you must breathe the air that is in the sand.
Now the wind is here. We are stifling! It
seems as if hot coals were burning our bodies.
The whirling sand almost buries us. Five minutes
pass. They seem like hours. Now the camels
are rmai-i-n their heads, and the storm is over.
This is the simoon, or stifling wind of the desert
of Arabia. Where is this desert?
As w4 travel over the hot sand, clouds of locusts
fly about us. They look like grasshoppers. Bees
and wasps swarm upon the rocks that jut out of
the sandi Countless scorpions, with poison stings,
creep over the dry surface.
The plant life is scanty. The camels find a
few tufts of coarse grass, sharp thistles and
Our route now leads over higher land. Here
and there we see tent pitched under spreading
date palms. In the distance low mountains rise
on the plain. To-morrow our journey will end.
Here we are at last in a land of flowers I It
looks like a vast island-garden in a sea of sand.
Mile after mile of groves and grainfields stretches
away to the south. This is the land of the Arabs.
Should you like to go to school with these
Arab boys? They are reading the Koran, which
is their Bible. Listen to the strange words which
tell them not to press wine from grapes. In all
this fair land no wine is made from grapes, but
the fruit is eaten.
The Arab boys are dark, but they belong to
the white race. Have you not seen boys that
look like these?
School is over for the day, and our little friends
will show us their homes. First we must see the
How the Arab loves his horse He oils
its hoofs so that the hot sand will not crack
them. He chooses for it the finest grass and the
purest water, and often feeds it on dates and
barley. He places no cruel bit in its mouth, but
guides the noble animal by pressing his knees
against its sides. The Arabs have the most
beautiful horses on earth.
THE LAND OF THE ARABS.
Next we will look at the camels. These
animals are more useful than horses to the Arabs.
One kind of camel is used for speed, and another
for carrying heavy loads. The former will run
one hundred miles a day, and in
the cool part of the year will
sometimes travel eight days with-
Camels are to the Arabs what '~i '
reindeer are to the Lapps. For .-
supper to-day we shall drink the .- '
milk of the camel, and eat its
boiled flesh. We shall have fresh
butter and cheese, but these are
made of goat's milk.
The hair of the camel is soft
and fine. It is used in making
cloth. The tents of the Arab
tribes that live in the desert are
made of this kind of cloth. We Date 1
need not stop to look at the sheep and cattle,
for we can see many like them in our own land.
Let us go into the gardens. Here are bright
flowers, and the scent of sweet herbs fills the
air. The stifling wind never reaches this fertile
Arabia takes the place of wheat as used in our
own land, of rice in Japan and of fruit in Java.
Should you like to look into one of the wells?
It is only a few feet in depth, and the sides are
built of stone. In the desert the
Swells are much deeper. All the
Gardens of this land are watered
.from wells, for the seasons are
often very dry.
i.' Coffee is the chief drink of the
Arabs. The coffee berries grow
on the hilly lands, near the strait
that forms the outlet of the Red
Some Arabs live in good houses
of stone or of wdod. The people
are very kind and polite, and we
are sorry to leave the dusky
white boys, but we must begin
Palm. our long journey back to the
dearest land of all, America.
What bodies of water should you have to cross in going
from your home to Arabia?
Of what grand division is Arabia a part ?
In deserts, why are camels more useful than horses are ?
Name some animals that are found in Arabia?
Sludring ib? Koran
..A, far as the eye can reach, beautiful date
trees wave in the valleys. For breakfast to-morrow
we shall have fresh dates and also sweet cakes
made of the same kind of fruit. The date in
Inside of an Arab. louse.
Of what use are camels to Arabs?
What do Arabs eat? What berries that grow in Arabia
are used to flavor drink?
Where else does coffee grow?
CHILDREN OF THE LOWLANDS.
93. Children of the Lowlands.
To-day we will visit Holland, the land of canals.1
It is on the low plain through which the river
Rhine flows to the sea.
This land is crossed by a network of canals and
ditches. Its wide meadows look as level as a
fathers find work. When they are old enough
they have boats of their own.
Let us take a trip on one of the house boats.
See the long rows of windmills They are
pumping water from the low fields into ditches.
When the corn is ripe the windmills will help
grind it to meal.
VWh,-h ,.n.- th..-4, men d.:.i. Th,-y :ire '_ .iuttiigQ
-thiip, >:,t ...tt....i r i. ;,-ini 1. i '6:'i, tlheiml W.hielk- tlhely
- ill .hi v. Tll -he e --rtill:, .tll ill:!i, w- it ,- ts an-inl,
'i.t-,, .,-.l '.vill I, .,:-:.ld ft l.iuei-. T h ,': a.- e l. I r' 1 i ed
H ei i- .i l. 1 .a l ,, l_,,v. ,i-,n i .il;' S,-i- the ,ii-'M
I,,i ;-..it- ir l .-paultH_ the l,-l.I -
B ..,.it. 6 i_,i tiit,- .ii !
ows, but of course they are
in the canals. In handling the boats, girls are
often more skillful than boys.
Some of the children in Holland are born on
boats, and spend their' lives floating about the
canals. They go from place to place where their
1 Holland is also called The Netherlands, which means
lowlands. This name appears on the map, page 109.
working in the field. Yes, the mothers and
sisters in Holland often make hay, dig potatoes,
sow grain, hoe corn' and do all kinds of hard
work. They even help to draw the boats along
What queer shoes the horses wear in the fields !
They are flat boards tied under the hoofs. Why
do they wear them?
CHILDREN OF THE HIGHLANDS.
A large part of this low land is very soft and
boggy. It seems like a wet sponge. The ground
trembles under even the little children at play.
If it were not for wide shoes, the horses would
sink deep into the soil.
What a land this is for the barefoot girls and
boys They can splash in the puddles, wade in
Scene in the Alps.
the ditches, sail boats on the canals and catch
fish nearly everywhere.
You should see the children in winter, when
the canals are frozen. How swiftly they skim
over the ice For miles and miles the canals are
then alive with skaters !
Poor children use wooden skates, but they have
much fun. People go to market on skates. Here
is a little girl going to sell a basket of eggs.
She will bring back a small red cheese and a
loaf of bread about two feet long.
Should you like to wear wooden shoes? Of
course you would take them off at the door, and
not wear them in the house. Do you not think
that our leather shoes are much better than
Here we are at a bridge. Our house boat
cannot pass till the bridge is raised. The men
who move the bridge swing out to us a little
wooden shoe on the end of a pole and line, and
we drop into it a small piece of money to pay
them for their work.
Now we are near a city. It looks like a forest
of masts, trees and steeples. Boats, boats every-
where The houses are very neat. Perhaps the
kitchen is the front room, but what of it?
Should you like to live in Holland?
What large river flows across the plain of Holland?
Where does the Rhine river rise? In what direction is
Holland from the Swiss plateau?
What is a house boat? Are the rivers of Holland swift
What do the people of Holland use for fuel?
Of what use are windmills to the people of Holland?.
Of what use are canals?
Name some of the plants that grow in Holland.
94. Children of the Highlands.
Let us leave the "land of canals," and sail far
up the river Rhine. Hans, a Holland boy, will go
with us to visit the Swiss boys who live on the
plateau near the high Alps.
Here we are in a pretty village, close by the
snowy peaks. Wilhelm, a little Swiss boy, comes
down the road to meet us.
How strange the place looks to Hans He has
always lived on low land by the sea. Now for the
first time he sees great rocky ranges upon which
snow lies all the year.
What do you think that Hans misses most?
Yes, the quiet canals. In Wilhelm's home no
white sails seem to skim across rich meadows.
Many of the Swiss. streams rush and roar over
steep, rocky beds. Hans feels of the water and
finds it icy cold. Wilhelm says that it flows from
a long glacier.
The Swiss village is all alive to-day. Spring
has come, and the flocks must be driven up the
mountains to feed.
The men who go with the flocks will be away
from home till near the end of summer, and many
carts are loaded with food and bedding for them.
Hans and Wilhelm are very happy, for they are
going on the long trip.
When all are ready they set out with long lines
of cattle and sheep. The flocks graze for a few
days at the foot of the range, then as the snow
CHILDREN OF THE HIGHLAND.
melts they climb higher. In the valleys they find
the grass green and tender. Here they will graze
till the snow drives them down the slope.
Hans and Wilhelm help to tend the flocks, and
then they play by the swift streams, or search
for wild flowers. Once in a while they catch a
glimpse of a nimble chamois or an ibex, as it leaps
from crag to crag far above them.
The .:-hamo iii 1. .-Nltly i ,-: -- -i.-
1.-ei ani 1.,.i tly lilk .1 .,.-'. t. It i- -
s-,i ,h -, anud h ki, !u ,-.- !it ,i,.1_
winter tif iitti- .t .t1,.-:tu ,
t,-,s ,L ,, tender .li,,,,t- 6f th a ,]
,in, trees. Iu uI''111.01 -1 it I,. t,.,niud 1
-,:,-_ t, tthe l,..v r ed,.,e ..f th,-
Ii'-kl -- Il t hi -- I P J,
-,ii..iv> *[ r le l ..:i- r p --k ,: ..' e
soon it crashes along, sweeping all before it.
Large trees snap and break. Huge rocks whirl
down the slope. The earth trembles, and the fly-
ing mass gives out an angry roar.
That evening Hans tells a story about the sea
breaking through the dykes of Holland, and flood-
ing his father's field. Wilhelm tells about the
soft snow that slid down the mountain side last
Wilhelm's Home. .
The chamois is noted for its long leaps from
rock to rock, over deep chasms. It is very play-
ful, and is often seen sporting about in the light
Often at night the boys lie awake and listen
to the ice cracking and groaning, as it winds
slowly past their cabin. Wilhelm says that the
glacier walks and talks.
One day when the boys are far up the mountain
side, they see a great mass of ice and snow slide
into the valley. At first it moves slowly, but
It is the middle of Septem-
and boys march out with bells and ags to meet for
homie, Or they htay e ,:.aught
them. They all return a. shouting and singing.
The day is given over to sports and games.
ItThe young men wrestle, run races ad shoot. In
the evening boniae is dressed, and many holidancers
To-day the fathers and elder brothers come home
withkeep time to music. Infrom the mountaidst of the festival a
and boys march out with bells and flags to meet
them. They all return shouting and singing.
The day is given over to sports and games.,
The young men wrestle, run races and shoot. In
the evening bonfires are kindled, and many dancers
keep time to music. In the midst of the festival a
heavy snowstorm begins, showing that winter is at
hand. How strange it all seems to little Hans.
CHILDREN OF THE HIGHLANDS.
What have the girls and boys in the village been
doing all summer?
They have helped their mothers mow grass,
plait straw into hats, and take care of the cattle
that were not driven to the mountains. They
have also milked the cows and goats, and have
made butter and cheese.
Have you ever seen a churn? In this Swiss.
village the merry little streams are set at work
turning churns. Milk and cheese are leading
articles of food. Very little meat is eaten.
Many potatoes are raised, and these often take the
place of bread. Dried apples and pears are also
used for food.
Every year many thousand people visit the
Alps to see the snowy peaks, the long glaciers
and the mountain lakes. Many young men'earn
a living by serving as guides to the visitors. One
of the pictures on this page shows a party climb-
ing an ice point on a glacier.
WilhVi hn hi-m ml t _irl .ind
o"-:", fi'oi nthe t ll a t. Ip.tl H -, ,iha
Ieaii1i. them tell of great ships that
sail on the ocean, and of vast level lands, called
prairies.. Next year he will visit Hans and will
see many strange sights along the canals.
Now the time
has come for Hans
/ to return home.
S He will remain a
-.'.. s few days in the
ii, beautiful Swiss
cities of Geneva
.. and Bern, to see
..-:,, ., the great work-
shops. Here he
will watch the
people spin silk,
An Ice Point. and weave cotton
and wool into
cloth, but this will not be new to him. He
has seen the same kind of work in the cities
of Holland, near his own home.
STTWhIe I,- th,. S-.-.-iss highland?
h.-.,ii: i, l n: ..t the streams of this
1 1 h i .:. -,_ :.: come from ?
SD..ril.-e 1 S.-i- cottage. Can you
.1 t7-!i -h1- I i --I-- -tones are placed on
the roofs of cot-
What kinds of
work can the
girls and boys of
Switzerland do ?
What do the
people of Switz-
erland use for
Name six ani-
-nals that Swiss
-=-I .Oys see.
What kinds of
oods are made in.
Al Swiss cities ?
-. n the map, page
109. In what di-
electionn is it from
A Swiss cottage. Holland ?
95. Homes of the Races.
People live in nearly every land. Of course
there are many more people in some places
than in others, and we have seen that all do
not look alike.
Most of the black tribes live south of the
desert of Sahara and in Australia.
The "red men," or red-brown tribes, are
found in many parts of America.
The people of the brown race make their
homes mainly on the islands southeast of
The yellow people live in the river basins
of Asia and Europe sloping to the Pacific
and Arctic oceans. They are also found
along the Arctic coast of America.
In the Old World the home of the white
race is between the lands of the black and
the yellow races.
The map will show what parts of America
and Australia are now held by white people.
Page 87 tells about the people of the land
in which we live.
96. Homes of the Nations.
A long time ago Europe was the home of
many tribes of white people. Some tended
their flocks and others tilled the soil.
The tribes often fought for the best lands.
Those that lived on wide plains were open to
attack from all sides. In some places ranges
of mountains and arms of the sea kept the
Here and there a strong tribe would con-
quer many weak ones, and a single chief
would rule over all.. Perhaps he would add
to his land till it reached to the sea, to a
wide river or to a range of mountains.
In these and in other ways, the small tribes
grew to large ones, under a few rulers. As
years rolled by, the people of each large tribe
learned to use the same names for things
about them. After a time they began to
trade with other tribes, and to learn how they
did their work, how they dressed and what
At length people found out how to print
books from type, and then they became much
wiser. Now, of course, they have fine schools,
beautiful houses and railroads. Thus the
tribes have grown to nations, each having
its own land and its own rulers.
For ages and ages nations have been grow-
ing in nearly all lands, but there are still
many savage tribes. The home of a nation,
or the land in which it lives, is called a
country. The city or town in which the laws
of a nation are made is called the capital of
A nation may be a part of one race, or
it may be made of people of two or more
97. Map Studies.'
In what country do you live ? What ocean is on
the west ? What other bodies of water help to bound
the United States ?
What country is north of the United States ?
What ocean is north of Canada? What ocean is
on the east? On the west? What great bay indents
the north coast ? What bodies of water lie between
Canada and the United States ?
What country is south of the United States?
What ocean is west of Mexico ? What body of water
is on the east ? What river flows along the northeast
border of Mexico ?
Where are the West Indies? Name the largest
island of this group.
1 Many teachers may prefer to omit these map studies.
2 For answers, study the colored maps on pages 105 to 115.
What large river basin is almost wholly in Brazil ?
Which part of Brazil is a low plateau ? What ocean
is on the east ?
Where is Chile ? What is its shape? Into what
ocean do the streams of Chile flow ?
Name the long country east of Chile. What
divides the two lands ? Name the river system that
drains the northern part of the Argentine Republic.
Where are the British Isles? What sea is on
the east? What ocean is on the west? Where is
Ireland? Where is Scotland? Where is England?
What country covers the greater part of the low-
land of Europe? Name the largest river basin in
Russia. What bodies of water touch the shores of
What country lies north of the Swiss plateau?
Upon what seas does Germany border?
Between what countries are the Pyrenees moun-
tains ? What bodies of water partly bound Spain ?
What bodies of water partly bound France ? In what
country is the greater part of the Rhone basin ?
Where is Italy? What is its shape?
What large country is in the middle part of the
Danube basin ? Name the countries that lie north
of Austria-Hungary. On what sea does Austria-
Where is Egypt? What large river flows across
it ? On what seas does Egypt border ?
What river system drains the Kongo State ?
In what country is the Ganges basin? What
highland is north of India ? What ocean is on the
What large country is east of Tibet? In what
direction do the great rivers of China flow ? What
ocean is east of China ?
Where is Japan ? What vast country covers the
northern part of Asia ? What oceans border on
Siberia? What country is west of Siberia ?
Where is New South Wales? Where is Victoria?
101. High and Low Land.
The alpaca lives near the equator. Look at its
long wool. Do you not think that this little animal
suffers from heat? The wool is very
u. .i- i ut' tHi. Have you
.,. ,. 'any alpaca
"- The alpaca
looks like a
but it does
not live in a
Each toe has
a tough sole
Alpaca. to help climb
rocky places where the alpaca goes to find grass.
The home of the alpaca is high among the Andes.
Even in summer it can see snowy peaks only a little
distance above the places where it feeds. Do you
think that the alpaca needs its warm coat of wool?
Some m fi.iint.ils near the Pequnnr
are very cold. The suii :ttern
shines straight down -n /
lofty peaks that. are o:.-
ered with snow. .
The thin pure air on
hii-h plateaus and-
mountains is colder
-,than the air of the
Slowlands which are
at the same distance
as tlh. hi.-hl,tii. from
102. The Seasons.
Which is the coldest I ;'1,. ..f
part of the year? Which 1
is the hottest part ? S s
What season comes be-
fore summer? What one comes before winter ?
Can you name three kinds of fruit that ripen in
autumn? Three in summer?
In what season do most of the wild flowers
What can you see on a winter day that you cannot
see on a summer day ?
What games do you play in winter ? What ones
in summer? In spring? In
Which season do you like :
103. Change of Seasons..:;;. : '
Once a year the earth e,
goes round the sun. The ::':
path of the earth is almost t :'
a circle with the sun near Snows
its center. For six months
the vertical rays of the sun fall north of the
equator. During the other half of the year
they fall south of that line.
While the sun is north of the equator we
have spring and summer. While
it i .-:iuth of the equator we
1.:I: autumn and winter.
\ \When it is winter on one
'\ side of the equator it is
summer on the other
A Sign of Spring.
One sign of spring is
the coming of the storks.
They visit nearly all parts
of Europe, going as far
north even as Lapland.
The storks make their
nests of sticks on the tops
"9- I of buildings and in tall
trees. There they lay
Strassburg. their large white eggs.
These birds are always
welcome, as they are thought to bring good luck.
When the cold season begins in Europe, the storks
fly south. They cross the great sea and visit Africa.
0 0 L L3 T
7' L .. j li
~' ELT J-
:jj~j~jjjC9OL:r 0tLi .-:
Some of the storks wade along the shores of the
Nile, searching for frogs, snakes and fish. Others
feed in the swamps and marshes of the lake region,
where the Nile rises. Still others fly to the far-off
southern part of Africa, where summer reigns while
,it is winter in Europe.
What does this lesson tell about the seasons north
and south of the equator ?
Strassburg is in the upper part of the valley of
105. Belts of Heat.1
What river basins does the equator cross?
What rivers flow into the Arctic ocean? Are their
basins cold or warm?
What river basins are about halfway between the
equator and the poles ?
Which'part of the earth is in the hot belt?
What river basins are in this belt?
The hot belt has no winter. Here some
parts of the year are cooler than others, and
some months are rainy while others are dry.
What river basins are in the warm belts?
The warm belts are a little cooler than
the hot belt. They have long summers and
short winters. Snow is seldom- seen in the
warm belts, except on mountains, but there
are many frosty nights in winter.
What river basins are in the cool belts,?
The cool belts have cold winters and hot'
summers. The air of spring and autumn is
cool. The land is white with snow during
a large part of winter and early -pring.
There is but little land in the southern cool
The cold belt of the north has very long
winters and short summers. Along the Arctic
coast in this belt the soil' is deeply frozen the
year round. The hot sun of summer thaws
it only a few inches in depth.
Even in summer a wide field of ice and
snow spreads round each pole.
1 On page 125 there is a small map of the zones of light.
THE TRADE WINDS.
106. The Trade Winds.
In nearly all parts of the hot belt, and
for a short distance beyond it, brisk winds
blow in a westerly direction. These are
called trade winds.
The trade winds blow over about one half
the surface of the earth. As they sweep
over the sea they gather up a vast amount of
moisture and give it to the river basins in
What great river basins are in the hot
belt ? u
Junk on the Paoific.
In some places over the land, the trade
winds turn from their westerly course. Over
the sea these winds often blow for weeks
without changing either their speed or their
The winds that bear moisture to the river
basins of the warm and cool belts of the north
blow mainly from the southwest and west.
On the cover of this book there is a picture
of the fleet of Columbus. The trade winds
filled the sails of this fleet, during the famous
voyage to America, in 1492.
107. The Gulf Stream.
There are many streams of salt water in
the sea. These are called ocean currents.
Some are warm and others are cold.
Wide ocean currents flow westward under
the trade winds. A branch of one of these
currents winds among and around the West
Indies, and then flows northeast across the
Atlantic ocean. After passing Cuba this is
called the Gulf stream.
Between Cuba and Florida this stream is
about forty miles wide and half a mile
dorp. It flnws about five miles an hour. The
water is dark blue and very
As the Gulf stream crosses
the Atlantic, it widens and
flows more slowly. West of
Europe this warm stream
L- divides. One part flows
along the northwest shore
of Europe while the other
part turns towards Africa.
-- The Gulf stream warms
the winds that sweep over
it, and these winds bear
much warmth to western
Europe. They give mild
weather all the year to
the British Isles. By and by we shall learn
about other great currents in the sea.
The strange vessel in the picture is called a junk.
It is made of bamboo, a large grass-like plant that
grows in southeast Asia.
Several years ago a junk was wrecked off the
coast of China. Its masts were broken off and its
sails were blown away.
For weeks and weeks the hull drifted in a great
ocean current. At length it was found upon the rocky
shore of Alaska, thousands of miles from the place
where it lost its masts.
The junk drifted in the Japan current. In what
direction does this current flow ?
HEAT, WIND AND RAIN.
98. A Home Lesson for a Hot Day.
Find a place where the sun shines upon sand or
upon hard bare ground.
Hold your hand one inch from the sand or the
bare ground, then one foot away, and three feet
away. In which place is the air warmest?
Find a flat rock. Can you feel heat coming from it ?
Place your hand near the sand and then near some
water that stands in the sun. Which is warmer, the
air above the water or above the sand?
99. How the Air is Heated.
On a clear summer day, how hot the air is
over a sandy field, and how cool a breeze
from over the sea.
A flat rock in the sunshine may be hot, while
green grass close by it feels cold. On very
hot days, why do we like to sit in the shade ?
The sun warms the surface of the earth,
and the earth then warms the air just as a
Dust and clouds also receive warmth from
the sun, and help to
warm the air about
S / them. Can you now
d iA tell why the air be-
comes cooler when
heavy clouds form be-
tween us and the sun ?
When the sun is
shining, some parts of
the earth become
warmer than other
parts. For this reason,
Figure I '
the air in some places
is warmer than it is in others.
100. How the Earth is Heated.
Let us suppose that the straight lines in
Figure I. are rays coming from the sun to the
earth at noon and also at about nine o'clock
in the morning.
Count the slanting rays. Count the vertical
or upright ones. Which rays spread out
farther over the surface
of the earth ?
The more nearly over- : j '
head the sun is, the 'i! ,,l,
thicker its rays reach
the earth. In the morn- ,"./
ing, when the sun is
low in the sky, the rays
are very slanting, and
the earth warms slowly.
Which part of a day
is generally the warm- Figure I.
est ? Why does the
earth become cool or cold in the evening?
In summer the sun shines higher in the
sky than it does in winter. In the coldest
part of the year, the sun's rays are more
slanting than they are in summer.
On places near the equator, the sun shines
almost straight down every day in the year,
and makes a wide hot belt round that part of
As we travel north or south from the hot
belt, the sun's rays become more and more
slanting, and therefore we reach cooler and
cooler parts of the earth. Round the poles
there are wide regions of ice and snow.
In figure II., as many rays fall upon B as
upon A. Over B the rays are nearly vertical,
but over A they strike the surface with greater
Which is the wider space, A or B? Upon
which do the rays strike nearer together ?
Figure II. shows that while the sun is shining
nearly straight down on the hot belt, its rays
fall with more slant on other parts of the earth.
PLANTS OF THE HOT BELT.
110. Plants of the Hot Belt.
Which of the little people whom we have visited
live near the equator?
What do the people of Java eat? What plants
grow near the home of our Malay friends ?
Where is Tibbu's home? What plants supply
food to the people of the Kongo basin?
What have you learned about the selvas ? What
large lily grows in the shallow water of the Amazon
river ? Why is it so hard to travel in the selvas ?
What do you know about the seasons of the hot belt ?
The hot belt includes parts of the basins of
the Amazon, Nile and Kongo rivers, the pen-
insulas of southern Asia, and the islands
southeast of Asia.
This belt has a hot or a warm season all
the year, with plenty of. rain. The hot belt
is very rich in plant life.
Among the chief food plants are the plan-
tain, breadfruit, date and cocoanut.
The plantain is very much like the banana.
The banana often grows to the height of
twenty feet, with leaves ten feet in length.
Several clusters of fruit grow on each plant.
In hot lands the banana is widely used as
food. On many islands of the Pacific it is the
chief food of the natives.
Breadfruit grows on a tree that has large
glossy leaves. The fruit is about as large as a
melon. It is picked just before it is ripe, and
is often cooked by baking. This useful fruit
tastes like boiled potatoes and sweet milk.
The breadfruit is also cut into slices and
dried in the sun. The slices are then baked, or
they are ground to flour and made into bread.
The islands southeast of Asia are very rich
in spices. Among these are pepper, cloves,
nutmeg and cinnamon.
Cloves grow on trees. The buds are picked when
they turn red. They are then dried and sent to
market. Cloves have a hot, biting taste.
Cinnamon is the dried bark of a kind of small tree.
The outer bark
is taken off, and
only the inner .V
bark is dried for
market. Do you
like this fragrant I "'%.
fruit that grows
on a large tree.
The seed of this
fruit is taken out
and dried for sev-
eral weeks. It --- .
is then cracked -
open and out
comes a hard
This kernel is Banana Plant.
the nutmeg which is often grated into puddings
Pepper berries grow in long clusters on a climb-
ing shrub or vine. The berries are dried in the sun.
PLANTS OF THE WARM BELTS.
111. Plants of the Warm Belts.
There is a warm belt on each side of the
The warm belt on the north includes Mexico,
the southernn pqrt
of th-. iiii S11 it -_'
\ h. .i i.-- ii i. ...i t t .
h i,-, ,Li t ll ,.
,:,uth,..,n h ,lf ,-,f .
*.z A li % 111.1
\ ti :iL t 'l:tt, l,,- 1 ,,.1i D
hlit t -.,A A h i,-.:i 3- .*..
that lies south of the Kongo basin and
nearly all of Australia.
The seasons of the warm belts are long,
hot summers and short, cool winters. The
'it~ i ~iy
'A' Airt.-ii- thelc
.i-i u -t:- 'ef th- e
l [ii;-t i jjca1.th
Pianos 0 b te Heal Bell.
82 PLANTS OF TI
112. Plants of the Cool Belts.
The cool belt on the north is a wide path
across the middle of North America, Europe
There is but little land in the cool belt
south of the equator.
In the cool belt of the north the hot and
cold pseaons a.r bouit
.-I. i~ii ; i l ij i T ir- .,-, L -i- ,-,. -,
IE COOL BELTS.
113. Plants of the Cold Belt.
A cold belt reaches from the bleak slopes
near the Arctic shore to the north pole.
Very little is known about the islands in
the icy sea round the south pole.
The cold belts have very short summers.
Stunted trees and shrubs grow nearly as far
north as the Arctic shores.
M\ i -it ,.l,,,:. t i r,,l ,:-.:' t ,, ,:,r "
__ _ 'I
d'i'i-f 1 idI'I' l"-t I 1.1 iII. -- '
The l:),~t .-i.uzi ,.; .:irl- n, in t-he
,:'-,:.,l 1.:lt of tie n...i th. H ,- i: :nt, '
a!.-.,-, t! 1,.,r^.--,, t t_, s ,, soft
of the largest and richest garden regions on earth.
Over large areas the soil is more than fifty feet in
depth. The rainfall is plentiful, and the land is so
nearly level that most of the rain that falls here
sinks into the soil.
The picture on this page is a harvest 'scene on
the prairies. The large machines drawn by horses
reap and bind the wheat.
What kinds of grain are made into flour ?
Uses of Plants. \ \
Name.six 1.1-.ii tL:i. .i i l' food.
Wh., t inThl- of (!.,tl_ ..re- made from plants ?
What kinds of wood are used in 1I.i -'
Do you. know of any plants that ai- u:i :i for
What articles are made from bark? From sap?
From buds? Leaves' T:oot: .t Blossoms? Wood?
a~ w ;~
- r -S 7.L,
108. Where Plants Grow.
0 11'.in V-d1 n in11- J '.' in t h.t r.'I.' i : i J]"f
i.'.1 11 V,,ii t h.'i n0 thi, t -l w ih .1 -., h'lv l.1 i.-e "" '
W lh t fl.:,.. 1 ._ 1. V... u e.11 -- ,r,,w h.. _I i 1, th i c ,:, 1 ':.
O t wh ,i ,- f.- t h u: t tt :.I t lh e-- t h i tl, s e .l '
D.... v..y k ..v ..ft' a, y ---1-. i. i. I']t tit thl .y j
.i,, i : .Ia l. .ilt .'
Tr\ t.. liii. .t .- -.1 tlh.it w ill 11...t ,.,- ',X-it H .,w mi- 4hlt that -,.-d
be .,r iI ti,.i i -.n, 11:0,.- 1t, :,ni t]r- c.'
Il'.i L i, ii IiinL- .m i l.i- th ,-if t *:',* ,:,!i i+ee.l :.' I.IIL li-uita ',"
I 'ilt ',,H n m e a. L i eli- II t ll -: ,I o :.t ,:l.:- ,:,f thel -, llllt~ l....t .ltt,, t .l,,,to,
c:,! l a l,[,il .'
109. Soil, Water and Heat.
Every pliant .r,\ I:'-t where it lias the kindl of -o'il,
anl t-le, ,intoliint i:f .wat, r alnd heat tlinat it r'fei.ls.
WhlNVie d1:i pu's-y wi ll:w, anl :at-t;ils :r..\ '' Have v:o'u
.ver oe.nii tlhei I-,n i ah ii--ky pluact es.' Thei.- like sw-anps
iani th,: l:iank- f l'ii:ls ;iil .titraei s.
Where 1,- e- tile water lily r:,iw" Where, are its root s?
Do vuI think that von i-i .ll make a water lily 2r,:,w
il y i .ll i *-',F lil>-1 .
H:iX-'- y,.,u e-ver 'een tihe pretty white hi-4l< :,f ,clver
wav\ in2 in ,ly 1pa'tur-'. /7 A little re.- 1.l',,er al-u. ; 2lws
their 1lut mni,'h mn're ': f it is fouin:l in in'li.t Imea:l: ws.
Pinesl thrive :,n i:ryv ainl ri :-kv hilliiles. Wheat ,,r:ws
ie-t iln the ri h of iri ( Odi'iB ipeii in .-sunny
lardil wih.re the- \arim seas..in lasts nearly all thie year.
All over the earth, plants search out the soil, heat and
moisture that best suit their needs.
115. Animals,- Their Teeth, Claws, etc. The heavy horse with wide hoofs can graze
Name two animals that feed on grass? What on soft land and its feet do ot cling to the
kinds of feet or toes have they? grass roots.
Draw an eagle's foot, and a duck's foot. Can you The humming bird has a long slender bill
tell the uses of each ? which it thrusts deep into sweet blossoms for
How do the teeth of a cow differ from those of a
cat ? Why does a cow not need sharp teeth, like
those of a cat?
What kind of covering has a sheep ? A frog ? A
trout ? A robin ? Where does each live ?
Which do you think are warmer, feathers or furs ?
116. Animals and their Homes.
Every creature is suited to its proper home.
There are many kinds of bills, legs, feet,
tongues, noses and teeth, but each kind has
its special use. -It helps the animal to get
nectar and insects. The heron has long legs
for wading, and a neck of about -the same
length to reach down for food.
Animals have many kinds of coverings.
There are turtles with strong shells, fish with
thin scales, birds with light feathers, frogs
with smooth skin, sheep with curly wool,
and squirrels with soft fur. Some animals
are suited to live in water, and others on
land or in the air.
All around us there is a struggle for food.
food or to protect itself in the place where it Thiei skifp-'eye,- robin makes a dainty meal
lives. .of earthworms, and soon the cheery songster
The eagle has sharp claws and a beak to is in the claws of a cat. The owl flies about
hold and to tear the flesh on which it feeds.. in the evening, looking for field-mice.
8ag4 ANIMALS OF THE HEAT BELTS.
S Every creature has some
DUCKS. means of defense or of es-
-i--j cape. The fly, with its many
-Z. ^ ^^ I eyes and its wings, often
WPLLUR \-,--E E .. -L- saves itself by flight. The
turtle draws itself within its hard shell. The bee thrusts
U out its sting. The horse kicks, the cow tosses, the dog
bites and the squirrel leaps from branch to branch or
E .- darts into a hole.
Animals often roam about in search of food, but
NORT 'there are places that they cannot cross. They may
AMERIA be swift and strong, but they cannot live beyond
BIr. othe regions that produce their food.
TURKY. Cattle roam over meadows and high, grassy
S. plains, but they cannot pass over broad, rocky,
Heights or sandy tracts. The wild-horse must stop at
the border of the grassland. Animals whose food is in the
sea cannot wander far from the shore.
What a wonderful storybook Nature writes in each season.
SHow pretty the pictures are! Can you read the story that the
spider spins in its web ? Can you draw a picture as pretty
as that upon the wing of a butterfly?
-TE. 117. Animals of the Heat Belts.
SMany large and fierce animals live in the hot belt. Among
_1 _. these are the elephant, the lion and the gorilla.
*-A'2. Where is the. home of the camel? Of the tapir?
S. Thi.- .-rocodile? The boa? The rhinoceros?
/ T. Why cannot the animals of Africa reach Australia
CNoDO'-. or South America ?
o H ALG..AT.. Only a few animals can cross oceans, deserts
A i. or lofty highlands. For this reason the same
A'. kinds of animals do not roam over all parts
LLAMA. .TAPIR. of a heat belt.
O t See what queer animals live in Australia! There
.L is one with a bill like that of a duck. Another is
ALPACA. covered with sharp spines. Have you ever seen a
.- The giraffe feeds on leaves a]1:, bi .l ,l.-. Of what use is its long
neck? In which grand division is the giraffe found ?
RHEA. Where is the home of the llama and the alpaca,? Name a L;-.-i bird
that lives among the Andes.
ANIMALS OF THE HEAT BELTS.
live in the _-
of the south.
Name three in the warm belt of the
Where is the home of the
bison ? Of the buffalo ? The
yak? The moose? The
grizzly? The chamois ?
The elk? ?
Is the beaver found in
a cold land or in a warm
one? Name four an- C
imals of the cool belt
of the north. --a
Cattle, sheep and
horses are found
chiefly in the cool
and warm belts. CAM L.
Some animals .- AF
brave even the
in their search L .
for food. Neither -
the chilly wind, ...i.'
the frozen ground
nor the icy water can rob their
bodies of warmth, for they have soft
fur, downy feathers or oily flesh.
Name four large animals that live
in the Arctic regions.
Perhaps you can draw some of the
animals in the pictures.
.V rIZ- EBU.
118. Uses of Animals.
What animals work for man ? \
What uses does man inake of the cow? Of the
horse.?. Of the hen? Dog? Cat? Sheep?
What is made from skins? From shells ? From hair? Horns ? Furs ?
F-iethi-r ? B.::ne- *' What animals supply man with food ? With clothing ?
What ajiudil hi.t e ,-i:oi for pets at home?
POLA" NEAR IND REAL.
.I './' '~I
Coast near San Francisco.
THE UNITED STATES.
119. Surface of the United States.
The United States includes the middle part
of North America and all Alaska.1
The north shore of the gulf of Mexico is
at one third of the distance from the equator
to the north pole. The line which is just
halfwi.-iv between the equator and this pole
passes through the Great Lakes. The southern
part of the United States is in the warm belt.
The northern part is mainly in the cool belt.
REVIEW. What bodies of water border on the
United States ?
Between what high mountains does the Great
Basin lie ?
Where does the Colorado river rise ? For what is
it noted ? Into what gulf does it flow ?
Through what high range does the Columbia river
flow ? Into what sea does the Yukon
Where are the Great Lakes ? Name them. What
river flows from Lake Ontario ?
What bounds the basin of the Mississippi on the
west? On the east? On the north?
Name'a large river that flows into the Mississippi
from the west ? Where does the Missouri river rise ?
Into what does the. Ohio river flow ?
Where are the prairies? The western plains ?
The southern plains ? Tell what you have learned
about the surface of the United States.
Where is the city of New York?
Southward from New York, along the
Atlantic ocean and gulf of Mexico, the coast
is mainly low and sandy. The best harbors
are near the mouths of rivers or on large
East and northeast of New York the coast is
in many places rocky and broken, and there are
many fine harbors. There are
---- ... I h 4 ti l, T i: S, t i,-
.=2 -& -. P.,'-. .-i.- ,:. i.:" ti,-. lTi, it i:-,l Stit'"
Coast of Southern California.
Coast of Maine.
Coast of Florida.
Who was Columbus? When did he live?
What people lived in America at that time ?
Nearly all the early settlers in the land
now called the United States made their homes
along the Atlantic coast. Let us see why: -
a. The early settlers came from Europe
and landed on the east coast.
b. There were no roads nor long rivers
leading inland from this coast to the prairies.
the Atlantic coast and the prairies.
d. Savage tribes held the lands that were _
I" '' '
ships from Europe.
After a time, people found that there were
vast fertile prairies west of the mountains,
and that trey could treac s thby sail-t
ing down the Ohio river or up the Great
Lakes. TheMany also went up the Mississippi
river from its mouth
After a time, people found that there were
and that they could reach tstood! by sail-
ing down the Olio river or up the Great
Lakes. Many also went up the Mississippi
river from its mouth.
Towns soon grew up along the lake and
rivers. Many of them were trading stations
where the Indians sold furs for beads, knives,
powder and other articles.
About fifty years ago gold was found near
the Pacific coast, and many people went there
in search of fortunes. Some crossed the vast
plains and basin region, in wagons or on
horses. Others sailed round Cape Horn.
Still others went in vessels to the isthmus of
Panama, crossed that neck of land, and then
I a-=*--- '
sailed up the coast. Thus the west s:ore of
From time to time new deposits of silver
. r ... .. .... ''
tion of cities and towns. Where are the ots. .
largest and thick?
1EOPLE .-. -,
From time to time new deposits of silver i
SRocky Mountain highland. Mining camps
tion of cities and towns. Where are the dots
1 The star on the map shows the center of population,
according to latest census.
according %0 latest census.
JULY 4, 1776.
Which has the greater number of dots,
the Mississippi basin or the Rocky Mountain
highland? What part of the' Mississippi
basin is most thickly settled ?
,-- ,.- -- -_ -,
Where is the Pacific slope? Where is the
Atlantic slope? Which of these slopes is the
more thickly settled? Can you tell why?
About one tenth of the people of the
United States are Negroes.
A long time ago, many black people from
Africa were sold as slaves in the United
States. Their labor proved most helpful in
the cotton fields of the South.
At length all the slaves were set free, and
most of them made their homes on the southern
plains where they had worked.
The number of Indians in the United
States is very small as compared with the
number of Negroes. The red-brown people
of the United States have in most cases been
placed on lands set apart for them in various
parts of the. country.
121. July 4, 1776.
Each band of early settlers formed a colony.
The people of the colonies were called colo-
,nists. Most of those who made their homes
along the Atlantic coast came from England.
During the wars which the colonists had
with the Indians, many of the small colonies
united to form larger ones. Can you tell
why they did so ? After a time there were
thirteen large colonies.
The king of England made the colonists
pay unjust taxes, and at length wise men
in the colonies were chosen to decide what
should be done.
On July 4, 1 776, these brave men voted
to declare their land free from English rule,
and to form a new nation.
The "liberty bell" was the first to ring out
the glad news of freedom. This old bell still
hangs in Independence Hall, in the city of
Each colony was called a state, and all the
states together formed the United States of
At that time the United States held the
land as far west only as the Mississippi river.
The country now reaches from ocean to ocean,
and many new states have been formed.
The city of
Washington is the
capital of the
All the states
send men to Wash-
ington, and these
make laws for the sl
whole nation. -s
Each state is also
somewhat like a
nation, and can
make laws for itself, but such laws must not
conflict with those made in Washington.
Each state has a capital. Cities and towns
that are capitals are marked by stars (,) on
Find out all you can about the "minute
122. .Map Studies of the States.'
In what state do you live? In what part of the
United. ates is it;? (See map on next page.)
Name the states that border on the Atlantic ocean.
What states are separated ",y ti- Delaware river?
By Delaware bay ? By Chesapeake bay ? By the
Potomac river? By the Savannah river?
Name the states along the gulf of Mexico. Ir
which state'is the delta of the Mississippi? Whal
two gulf states are separated by the Mississippi
river ? What river flows between Texas and
Which states border on Lake Erie? On. Lake
Michigan ?. On Lake Superior ?
Name the states along the north bank of the Ohio
On what lake does each of these states border?
What states are on the south bank of the Ohio ?
In what state does the Mississippi river rise?
Name in order the states along the left bank of thiE
river., Name those that lie along the right bank.
What states are crossed by the Missouri river
Between which does it flow ? Across what state,
does ,the Arkansas river flow? 2
What states are crossed by the Rocky mountains
What states border on the Colorado river? Whick
are separated by the Columbia river ? In what state
is the Great Salt lake ?
W1- t -i it-:- border on Mexico? On the Pacific
ocean? .. On Canada ?
1 How. to pronounce the names of states:
ALABAMA il'a-biilma IOWA
ALASKA' a-ls/fka KANSAS
ARIzoNA ,: r r-l-zo/na KENTUCKY
ARKANSAS artlkan-sa LOUISIANA
CALIFORNIA kAk'l-fS6rni-a MAINE
CAROLINA' ktr-6-11ina MARYLAND
COLORADO kil'o-rado MASSACHUSETTS
CONNECTICUT k6n-ntlil-kiit MICHIGAN
DAKOTA da-klfta MINNESOTA
DELAWARE d(Eia-war MISSISSIPPI
FLORIDA flSri-da MISSOURI
GEORGIA.- j6r1j-a MONTANA
IDAHO' ir da-ho NEBRASKA
ILLINOIS,. l-1-noi NEVADA
INDIN hn'dl-Inia NEW HAMPSHIRE
STUDIES. ... 89"
1- 23. Leading cities.,
Find on the map the following cities. Tell in
which state each city is located; also, where it is,-
whether near a large river, lake, bay, gulf, mountain'
range or near the sea.
KEY ':" ale, cfre, am, arm, final, all; eve, vent, end, her, recent; Ice, Ill; 1ld, 6bey, f6r, n ; use, ip, ffir; food, fo't;
g as in gbo.
'To Teacher: It does not seem desirable at this time to make a distinction between states and territories.