• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Foreword
 Part one
 Status of curriculum revision in...
 Tentative point of view
 How to use the materials of this...
 How to make travel on streets and...
 How to buy intelligently
 How to create more desirable health...
 How to develop a sound farm economy...
 Part two
 How to protect Florida's fores...
 How hobbies may contribute...
 How to develop a wholesome...
 How to establish and maintain social...
 How to recognize propaganda
 How to improve housing conditions...
 How to encourage a wider use of...
 How to improve relations between...
 How to earn a living














Group Title: Curriculum bulletin
Title: Source materials for the improvement of instruction
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00082812/00001
 Material Information
Title: Source materials for the improvement of instruction a guide for exploratory work in the Florida Program for the Improvement of Schools
Series Title: Curriculum bulletin
Alternate Title: Guide for exploratory work in the Florida Program for the Improvement of Schools
Physical Description: 245 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Program for the Improvement of Schools
Florida -- Dept. of Public Instruction
Publisher: State Dept. of Public Instruction,
State Dept. of Public Instruction
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1939
Copyright Date: 1939
 Subjects
Subject: School improvement programs -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Curriculum enrichment   ( lcsh )
Education -- Curricula   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00082812
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 22177147

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
        Table of Contents 3
    Foreword
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Part one
        Page 3
    Status of curriculum revision in Flordia
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Tentative point of view
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    How to use the materials of this bulletin
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    How to make travel on streets and highways safer in Florida
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    How to buy intelligently
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    How to create more desirable health conditions in our community
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    How to develop a sound farm economy in Florida
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Part two
        Page 96a
        Page 96b
    How to protect Florida's forests
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
    How hobbies may contribute to leisure
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
    How to develop a wholesome personality
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
    How to establish and maintain social security
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
    How to recognize propaganda
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
    How to improve housing conditions in Florida
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
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        Page 176
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        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
    How to encourage a wider use of religious institutions in the community
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
    How to improve relations between capital and labor
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
    How to earn a living
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
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Full Text






Source Materials

For the Improvement

of Instruction


A GUIDE FOR EXPLORATORY WORK


IN THE FLORIDA PROGRAM
FOR THE IMPROVEMENT
OF SCHOOLS . . .









CURRICULUM BULLETIN NO. I
April, 1939









STATE DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA

COLIN ENGLISH, Superintendent








BULLETIN NO. I


NOVEMBER, 1938


A GUIDE

FOR EXPLORATORY

WORK



IN THE FLORIDA PROGRAM
FOR THE IMPROVEMENT
OF SCHOOLS . . .










M. L. STONE, Adviser
DOAK S. CAMPBELL Consultants
JOHN E. BREWTON


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M. W. CAROTHERS
Director of Instruction


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TABLE OF CONTENTS


PART I.


CHAPTER I. STATUS OF CURRICULUM REVISION IN
FLORIDA ........................................................... 3
II. TENTATIVE POINT OF VIEW .......................... 5
The Democratic School .................................. 6
The Meaning of Discipline in a Democratic
School ...............................................................
Individual Differences ...................................... 9
How the Learner Learns ....------...........................---11
Subject-Matter and the Curriculum .............. 13
Evaluation ......-.. --....... ------....................---- 14
Social Sensitivity ........................................ ..15
Organizing Instructions .................................. 17
III. HOW TO USE THE MATERIALS OF
THIS BULLETIN ................................................. 20
SPurpose ....-..........---......................---........-- 20
Meaning of the Problem .................................. 20
Approach ................................ ........ ........ 21
Suggested Activities ........................................ 21
Bibliography ............ ..... ........ ..........-... 21
Evaluation ....................................-................ 21
The Nature of a Unit of Work ....................... 22
Development of a Unit of Work --............---- 22
Conclusion of Unit .............---.........-.. .......... .. 23

PART II.
IV. HOW TO MAKE TRAVEL ON STREETS AND
HIGHWAYS SAFER IN FLORIDA ....---.........--. 24
Importance of the Problem -...........--..-.....--.....- 2t
Possible Approaches to the Problem .......-..- 29
Suggested Pupil Activities ...-----............................ 29
ISuggestions for Evaluation .................-- ......... 34
Bibliography .......................--.......-............... 35
V. HOW TO BUY INTELLIGENTLY .---........-...... 42
Importance of the Problem .............................. 42
Possible Approaches to the Problem ........... 46
Suggested Pupil Activities .--......... -................ 46
Suggestions for Evaluation ............................ 51
Bibliography .....................--... ... ................. 51


11036









CHAPTEi VL HOW TO CREATE MORE DESIRABLE
HEALTH CONDITIONS IN OUR
COMMUNITY ..................................-........ -- 60
Importance of the Problem .........................----- 60
Possible Approaches to the Problem ........ 64
Suggested Pupil Activities ........................----.. 65
Suggestions for- Evaluation .........-......-........- 68
Bibliography .......................-..................... 69

VII. HOW TO DEVELOP A SOUND FARM
ECONOMY .............................-.....-- -- ....--.. 77
Meaning of the Problem ...............................- 77
Possible Approaches to the Problem ---........... 81
Suggested Pupil Activities ....-................-...... 82
Suggestions for Evaluation ............----............... 92
Bibliography ...........-....--.... .......---- ---.. ... 92
VIII. HOW TO PROTECT FLORIDA'S FORESTS.... 97
Importance of the Problem .......................... 97
Possible Approaches to the Problem .......... 99
Suggested Pupil Activities .........-------.............100
Suggestions for Evaluation .......................-102
Bibliography .--------------................---............---103
IX. HOW HOBBIES MAY CONTRIBUTE
TO LEISURE ........................--- ........................ 108
Importance of the Problem .........................108
Possible Approaches to the Problem ..........110
Suggested Pupil Activities----- ............................112
Suggestions for Evaluation ................---........114
Bibliography .....----------........................115
X. HOW TO DEVELOP A WHOLESOME
PERSONALITY ..............................................121
Importance of the Problem ..........................121
Possible Approaches to the Problem ..........124
Suggested Pupil Activities .....------......................124
Suggestions for Evaluation ........................128
Bibliography ................................................129
XI. HOW TO ESTABLISH AND MAINTAIN
SOCIAL SECURITY .----..................------.....................138
Importance of the Problem ................----..........138
Possible Approaches to the Problem ..........143
Suggested Pupil Activities ............................-------144
Suggestions for Evaluation ..----..........................----149
Bibliography ...................---------.....................150
XII. HOW TO RECOGNIZE PROPAGANDA.......... 154
Importance of the Problem ..............------............154
Possible Approaches to the Problem .........-158
Suggested Pupil Activities ..........................-------158
Suggestions for Evaluation ........................-----161
Bibliography ................. ....-----------...............162









CHAPTER XIII. HOW TO IMPROVE HOUSING CON-
DITIONS IN FLORIDA ..................................166
Importance of the Problem ..........................166
Possible Approaches to the Problem ........174
Suggested Pupil Activities ........................175
Suggestions for Evaluation ........................186
Bibliography ................................................187
XIV. HOW TO ENCOURAGE A WIDER USE
OF RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS IN
THE COMMUNITY ..........................................201
Importance of the Problem ........................201
Possible Approaches to the Problem ........204
Suggested Pupil Activities ......................204
Suggestions for Evaluation ........................205
Bibliography ...............................................205
XV. HOW TO IMPROVE RELATIONS BE-
TWEEN CAPITAL AND LABOR .........-........208
Importance of the Problem ........................208
Possible Approaches to the Problem ..-.....210
Suggested Pupil Activities ..........................211
Suggestions for Evaluation ........................216
Bibliography ..............................................217
XVI. HOW TO EARN A LIVING ..........................222
Importance of the Problem ........................222
Possible Approaches to the Problem ........227
'Suggested Pupil Activities ..........................228
Suggestions for Evaluation ......................234
Bibliography ................... -----..................... 234



























FOREWORD

-0---


The instructional phase of the Florida Program for the Im-
provement of Schools was planned during the summer of 1938 and
approved by the Courses of Study Committee on September 23, 1938.
From the beginning of work on the Florida Program for the
Improvement of Instruction it has been recognized that special
emphasis should be placed on the necessity for continuous coopera-
tion of lay and professional groups. The problems confronting
our schools today require the wholehearted cooperation of all the
people within our state.
To assist teachers in developing units of work in respect to
problems that are held to be important to all individuals, materials
related to a number of selected activities have been included in this
bulletin.
The materials contained herein were produced during the sum-
mer of 1938 in the Curriculum Laboratory of the George Peabody
College for Teachers at Nashville, Tennessee, under the directions
of Dr. Doak S. Campbell and Dr. John E. Brewton, General Con-
sultants, and M. L. Stone, Curriculum Adviser, State Department.
of Public Instruction, Tallahassee, Florida. The members of the
Florida Committee who attended Peabody College and contributed
to the preparation of' this bulletin are: Dan P. Folsom, Columbia
High School, Lake City; Leon Henderson, Plant High School,
Tampa; Kenneth Kidd, P. K. Yonge Laboratory School, Gainesville;
W. L. MacGowan, Robert E. Lee High School, Jacksonville; Robert
C. Moon, Sealey Memorial School, Tallahassee; Clara Olson, P. K.
Yonge Laboratory School, Gainesville; and Earl Ramer, P. K.
Yonge Laboratory 'School, Gainesville. Contributing also to these










materials were members of the High School Curriculum Course
which was offered during the 1938 Summer Session of the Univer-
sity of Florida. Those enrolled for the course were: Jesse Bryant
Beasly; Homer Monroe Biddle; Gordon Brokenshire; Harvey D.
Browne; Valery Dekle Butler; Alfred Van Clark; James Bryant Cox;
Milton T. Curry; R. Dugan; Samuel E. Hand; Dorris H. Johnson;
Cecil H. E. Johnston; Erwin F. Johnwick; Robert J. Knight; Samuel
T. Lastinger; Dorothy C. Lord; Joseph Daniel Nelson; Daniel C.
Palmer; Julian Vernie Revels; Sidney 1. Ross; Doris R. Turner;
Alton H. Wentworth; Joseph A. Wheeler; David Evon Williams;
Merrill O. Worthington; and John W. Young.
'Staff members of the State Department of Public Instruction
read the manuscript wholly or in part and offered helpful sug-
gestions.
We wish to express our appreciation to all who contributed to
the preparation, of this bulletin and trust that in using this material
.both the teachers and pupils of Florida schools will gain much.





State Superintendent of Public Instruction
















PART ONE

--

CHAPTER I.
STATUS OF CURRICULUM REVISION IN FLORIDA

Curriculum revision on a state-wide basis is not new to the
people of Florida.
The only state-wide curriculum revision program in recent
years in Florida extended over a period of approximately three
years. It was begun in 1929 and came to a close in 1933. The
program was sponsored by the 'State Department of Education and
financed by the General Education Board. Dr. Doak S. Campbell
and Dr. Hollis L.' Caswell of George Peabody College, Nashville,
Tennessee, were the consultants.
A revision of the complete program for grades 1-12 was under-
taken. No one acquainted with the results of this program would
deny that out of all the tangible achievements, the greatest was
the preparation and printing of the Florida Elementary Course of
Study. Even though a revision of many of the secondary school
subjects was completed, their results have been less far-reaching
than those achieved by the elementary course. No doubt this
superiority of the Florida Elementary Course of Study over the
courses of study for high school lies chiefly in the approach used
in its development. On the elementary level unification was accom-
plished by relating the content of various subjects to the interests
and needs of elementary children, while the revision of the high
school courses consisted primarily of reorganization of subject
matter in specific fields.
Furthermore, the delay in printing and distributing the high
school courses of study militated against their effective use once
they were printed. Some have not been printed even at this date.
One of the recommendations which grew out of the program of
1929-1933 was that curriculum revision should be considered as a
continuous process. Now, after a lapse of almost ten years, the
need for further work in this field is evident. Research and success-
ful practice have uncovered newer practices in curriculum revision
so that there is now a need for complete revision of the instructional
program in light of the newer practices. If a program for curricu-
lum revision and development is to be successful, it will require the
whole-hearted support and cooperation of county superintendents,
principals, supervisors, curriculum advisers, classroom teachers, and
















PART ONE

--

CHAPTER I.
STATUS OF CURRICULUM REVISION IN FLORIDA

Curriculum revision on a state-wide basis is not new to the
people of Florida.
The only state-wide curriculum revision program in recent
years in Florida extended over a period of approximately three
years. It was begun in 1929 and came to a close in 1933. The
program was sponsored by the 'State Department of Education and
financed by the General Education Board. Dr. Doak S. Campbell
and Dr. Hollis L.' Caswell of George Peabody College, Nashville,
Tennessee, were the consultants.
A revision of the complete program for grades 1-12 was under-
taken. No one acquainted with the results of this program would
deny that out of all the tangible achievements, the greatest was
the preparation and printing of the Florida Elementary Course of
Study. Even though a revision of many of the secondary school
subjects was completed, their results have been less far-reaching
than those achieved by the elementary course. No doubt this
superiority of the Florida Elementary Course of Study over the
courses of study for high school lies chiefly in the approach used
in its development. On the elementary level unification was accom-
plished by relating the content of various subjects to the interests
and needs of elementary children, while the revision of the high
school courses consisted primarily of reorganization of subject
matter in specific fields.
Furthermore, the delay in printing and distributing the high
school courses of study militated against their effective use once
they were printed. Some have not been printed even at this date.
One of the recommendations which grew out of the program of
1929-1933 was that curriculum revision should be considered as a
continuous process. Now, after a lapse of almost ten years, the
need for further work in this field is evident. Research and success-
ful practice have uncovered newer practices in curriculum revision
so that there is now a need for complete revision of the instructional
program in light of the newer practices. If a program for curricu-
lum revision and development is to be successful, it will require the
whole-hearted support and cooperation of county superintendents,
principals, supervisors, curriculum advisers, classroom teachers, and












laymen. It is not the purpose here to outline all procedures for a
long-time program, but merely to call attention to some of the more
immediate needs if such a program is carried forward.
The heart of curriculum improvement is the individual teacher's
philosophy and method. It is proposed, therefore, that a bulletin
be prepared in the summer of 1939 which may be used as a hand-
book in curriculum study. This bulletin should set forth the issues
basic to the formulation of an adequate philosophy of education for
the schools of Florida.
If real progress is to ensue, it becomes necessary not only to
furnish to teachers materials from which a philosophy may be de-
veloped, but also to furnish to lay groups, members of parent
teacher associations and all other people who are interested in the
development of education in the State, pertinent facts concerning
the problems facing the Florida schools. Permanent good will re-
sult to the extent that' the roots of understanding reach back into
the public mind. Therefore, it is also proposed that a study bulle-
tin for parents, setting forth the problems confronting the Florida
schools, be prepared in the summer of 1939.
The State Department of Education has secured the coopera-
tion of the officials of the Colleges of Education at the University
of Florida and at the Florida State College for Women, whereby the
P. K. Yonge Laboratory School and the Demonstration School may
be utilized as laboratories in which newer practices in the curricu-
lum may be introduced and tried out. It is the intention of the
Department to select a small group of schools in which these newer
practices may be carried out during the school year 1939-1940.
With each successive year the Department will attempt to extend
these improvements throughout the State.
Curriculum work in the State will be expedited by services of
the curriculum laboratory established by the State Department of
Education at the P. K. Yonge Laboratory School, University of
Florida. The function of this laboratory is to collect materials for
the improvement of instruction, to disseminate information for the
assistance of all schools in the State, and especially to encourage
the interchange of the results of progressive curriculum practices.
Teachers are urged to send to the Laboratory accounts of worth-
while experiences and activities used by them in developing pupil
purposes and to write for any information that will assist in im-
proving their teaching. ,
In developing a curriculum program for Florida great care
must be exercised in guarding against participation by only a few
individuals. All people engaged in any phase of education, including
both administrative work and classroom teaching, must contribute
to the development of the plans.












CHAPTER II.
TENTATIVE POINT OF VIEW
A philosophy of education may be thought of in one sense as
a "guiding light," in that it points the way, gives purpose and
direction to our endeavors, steers us clear of obstacles and bar-
riers, and finally accelerates the rate of travel. Before any group
can accomplish anything worthwhile in improvement of instruction
or any other undertaking requiring concerted action, there must be
a basic point of view or philosophy commonly accepted by those
who participate in the enterprise. Unity of purpose and agree-
ment on basic assumptions are indispensable to improvement of
instruction. Any individual's philosophy of education must be de-
rived from a study of the child and of the society which maintains
the school. An individual's philosophy of education is the sum
total of his thinking concerning the relationships existing between
the child and the society' of which he is a part. Therefore, a state-
ment of point of view must include the basic principles and as-
sumptions of education subscribed to and must be in harmony with
the ideals of the society which the school serves.
The philosophy of education in any country is derived from the
beliefs, feelings, attitudes and purposes of the people who support
and direct the education of the country. It would be foolish for
any nation or people supporting schools not to provide experiences
whereby the ideals of the people may be preserved. The ideals of
the maintaining society, however, vary from country to country.
The purposes of the schools in Germany, Russia, and the United
States are, therefore, different. What then are the ideals of our
maintaining society?
Stated in brief the ideals of the maintaining society in America
are fundamentally the same' today as they were in 1776. There has
been, however, a broader interpretation placed upon them. In
brief, the. democratic ideal may be characterized by a society in
which there are: (1) desire not only for personal success and hap-
piness, but also for the success and happiness of others; (2) recog-
nition of and love for the inalienable rights such as, free speech,
unrestricted access to the facts on important questions, the voting
franchise, right to worship as one pleases, justice, equal protection
of the laws, and the great triad-life, liberty, pursuit of happiness;
(3) recognition of the right of the people to determine the form of
government; !(4) recognition of the right of the people to resort
to debate, conference, compromise and cooperation instead of force
in settling public questions; (5) recognition of the rights of each
individual to a full development of his capacities and abilities;
(6) recognition of the worth of an individual regardless of birth,
social or economic status; and finally, (7) recognition of the rights
of an individual to rise as high as his abilities and energies will
permit. If the schools fulfill their obligation to the maintaining











society, the democratic ideal must permeate education in its entirety.
The democratic ideal implies for education the right of all the
children of all the people to such educational advantages as will
develop their abilities and capacities to such a degree that they
may become successful, happy, and contributing members of the
society of which they are a part. This does not imply in any sense
of the word that all individuals are equal in ability or in social and
economic background, or for that matter in any other respect. It
does imply, however, that every member of society has a delegated
responsibility for the preservation, improvement, and reinterpreta-
tion of the democratic society. This responsibility demands such
development as will enable the individual to make a maximum con-
tribution according to his abilities in this direction.
The school, particularly the secondary school, has been accused
of being undemocratic because of its recognition of different qual-
ities of education as represented in the college preparatory curricu-
lum, general curriculum, and commercial curriculum. However, the
development of different types of curricula should be regarded as
relatively democratic in that it suggests some attempt to provide
for the various abilities and capacities of the students represented.
To have provided merely a college preparatory curriculum would
have been undemocratic; but to provide three different types of
curricula is at least a step towards meeting individual differences.
Only when principals and teachers in Florida understand the
requirements of democratic living, can education in our state meet
the' requirements and demands of a society dedicated to the prin-
ciples embodied in the democratic ideal.
The task of education is then determined by these conceptions
of democracy. It becomes the duty of the school, therefore, to pro-
vide such experiences as will develop the pupil himself to his maxi-
mum and at the same time enable him to keep a balance between
himself and society. In other words, the democratic school has a
two-fold obligation, viz. a full development of all the abilities and
capacities of each individual looking toward continuous growth,
and the preservation, improvement and reinterpretation of the
society.

THE DEMOCRATIC SCHOOL
The question naturally arises, What can the school do towards
the attainment of the democratic ideal? The first and most im-
portant step is to organize the school in such a way that children
will have experience in democratic living. It is possible to organize
and operate a school in which democratic living is a reality only
when the faculty members have developed a philosophy necessary
for this type 'of school organization. "As the principal so is the
school" is a familiar saying. Therefore, the, obligation of guiding
the faculty to a fuller interpretation of 'the responsibility of the
school to society rests largely upon the principal. Democratic ideals











should become objectives for administrative planning and procedure
as well as for classroom procedure. The democratic way cannot
suddenly be instituted in a school that has followed the opposite
way. In other words the democratic school will evolve gradually,
and the place for the principal to begin is by practicing the demo-
cratic way with the teachers. However, teachers supervised by
those who are themselves undemocratic will not likely be democratic
with students. The important thing here is to get boys and girls
and teachers and principals and parents to feel a responsibility for
living the democratic way. This cannot be accomplished in this
selfish world without much devoted work on the part of the prin-
cipal. It should be pointed out, moreover, that the school is striving
to promote proper conduct through living. Every activity, assembly
program, athletic contest, school play, in fact, all that takes place
within the school should be evaluated in terms of the conduct of
the boys and girls. The type of behavior developed by the school
should be in keeping with our democratic ideals.

A school organized according to the democratic ideal will of
necessity need teachers with a wide social purpose, a rich cultural
background, and full appreciation of the leadership children must
assume in a democratic school. Teachers should also see the rela-
tive value of a broad social education for boys and girls as com-
pared with mere mastery of subject matter, however important such
mastery may be. Moreover, if the school is to be successful from.
this standpoint, there are other appreciations and understandings
which the faculty, public, and students must possess.

Is there any doubt that in many schools children become less
democratic toward their fellow-students and teachers as they pro-
gress through school? If the principles of democracy were allowed
to function in school living the contrary might be true. Often
snobbishness, exclusiveness and clannishness are observed among
high school students. Would such conditions exist had democratic
living been promoted between pupils and teachers and had there
been a constant attempt to reinterpret and to make more meaning-
ful the democratic way of life? Living according to any ideal,
religion, or creed presupposes an understanding of the principles on
which the ideal, religion, or creed is founded. The real foundation
of democracy is exemplified in the concept of Christianity-that
man is more important than things.

"Take heed, and beware of covetousness; for a man's life
consisteth not in the abundance of the things he
possesseth."

The goals of the public school for the development and attain-
ment of the democratic ideal are set forth in the Sixteenth Year-

1Luke 12:15.











book of the American Association of School Administrators as
follows:
1. To cultivate a deep regard for democracy and an intelli-
gent appreciation of democratic institutions.
2. To develop those qualities of character and methods of
action which are of special significance in a democracy.
3. To develop the willingness and the ability to cooperate
effectively in a democratic society.
4. To develop an active interest in and concern for the
progressive development of the democratic ideal. 2
In conclusion, it is well to point out that the operation of a
democratic school calls for more work and better planning. It re-
quires, likewise, a sincere devotion to and a belief, in the democratic
way of life. The application of the democratic principle in school
may be summed up in the words of Emerson: "Go put your creed
into your deed; nor speak with double tongue."

THE MEANING OF DISCIPLINE IN A DEMOCRATIC SCHOOL
The purpose of including a discussion of discipline here is to
point out that discipline in a democratic school is almost the exact
antithesis of discipline in an autocratic school. In the democratic
school, what one thinks and how one acts in relation to his thoughts
are the important elements. A constant attempt is made to pro-
vide experiences whereby thinking and action are in harmony. In
the autocratic school little attention is given to what one is thinking
if he is "behaving", conforming to the regulations imposed and in
general complying with the dictates of the one in charge. In the
democratic school discipline comes from within the child. It re-
sults from understandings and appreciations of issues which finally
develop within the child the desire to live abundantly and to secure
for others the same privilege. In the autocratic school little or no
attempt is made to develop understandings. Regulations are im-
posed through coercion and force. The pupil may behave in one
way in school and in still another out of school. The autocratic
school does not concern itself with the pupils' out-of-school be-
havior.
A school organized on the democratic basis emphasizes group
living, freedom of speech, self-direction, and a great deal of pupil
planning and responsibility. In a democratic school the old adage,
"Bring up the child in the way he should go, and he, will not de-
part from it", is interpreted literally and then practiced. "The way
he should go" is interpreted in the democratic school as being the
democratic way. Dr. John L. Childs in "Education and the Phil-
osophy of Experimentalism" has summed up the theory of discipline
in a democratic school. He says:

2 American Association of School Administrators, Youth Education Today,
Sixteenth Yearbook, 1938, pp. 112-143.











"The problem of discipline becomes something radically
other than thatof merely keeping order in the school-room,
or of demanding that certain facts be learned, and that a
number of specific skills be acquired. It becomes the prob-
lem of how to develop respect for consequences; of how
to increase ability to observe and to discriminate more
adequately, to plan more wisely, to purpose more broadly,
to be more resourceful in devising means for achieving
one's ends; of how to develop a critical, and yet confident,
attitude with respect to one's own efforts. If one be con-
cerned, as the experimentalist is, with the democratic ideal,
the problem of discipline also involves the problem of how
to help each child learn to cooperate with others, and to
evaluate the consequences of his acts and of those of
his group in terms of their bearing on the welfare of others
as well as his own welfare." 3
It should be observed here that this approach is not altogether
a right about face. The real purpose behind the old type discipline
is very similar to the purpose of the democratic way of living in
that in both instances the chief concern of those guiding the child's
activities is the best good of that child. Both emphasize conduct and
behavior. They differ primarily in point of view and in the means
of achieving the end product. In the democratic way the process
by which this end is attained is especially important.

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
Research has definitely shown that individuals differ in abil-
ities, capacities, rate of learning, extent of learning, and in many
other ways. If maximum development of all the children of all the
people is to be realized, the school must provide for individual
differences. One of the principles of the democratic ideal is a be-
lief that any normal person can make some contribution to the
general welfare and to his own happiness. Therefore, it is the duty
of the school to provide this opportunity.
Although the principle of individual differences appears to be
universally accepted among teachers and administrators, there is
yet much to be accomplished, particularly in the secondary school,
before its application becomes a reality. Perhaps the greatest
deterrent to the realization of the principle of individual differences
has been the acceptance of the concept of common achievement.
Achievement tests with their established norms have contributed
much towards this situation. For instance, it is not unusual to
find a school system that rates its teachers and their ability to in-
struct on the percentage of the pupils above the norm of a given
test. Salaries havel been known to be determined on this basis. Any

3 Childs, John L., Education and the Philisophy of Experimentalism, D. Ap-
pleton-Century Company, New York, N. Y, 1931, pp. 156-157.








10

teacher will soon realize that the surest way to keep the average of
a class above the norm is to give special attention to the large group
which is close to the norm. The brilliant pupil will keep above the
norm without instruction, while the dull cannot reach it any way.
Therefore, the tendency of the teacher working under such a plan,
is to work with the middle group. Textbooks and courses of study
have tended to perpetuate the, acceptance of the concept of common
achievements.
An appropriate slogan for many American schools might be:
"An average education for an average child." Too long has the
school program been planned for the average child with little con-
sideration for the dull and the brilliant. The duty of the school is
to provide for each child experiences in keeping with his capacities,
abilities, interests and needs. This presupposes that a wealth of
knowledge concerning the child, such as his background, his inherit-
ance, his interests, his capacities, his abilities and his skills, his ec-
centricities, are all valuable information.
What does provision for individual differences imply? It im-
plies that since individuals are different, their needs are different.
What then are the needs of youth? Are these needs common to all
the group? How can they be discovered?
To assist teachers in analyzing the needs of children, the follow-
ing classification is suggested:
I. The needs which the child himself feels. An adolescent
took his girl to the theatre. He became embarrassed
later when he learned that the girl rather than he
should have followed the usher down the aisle. The
next day he proposed to the principal that tenth grades
be given a course in manners.
2. The needs which the child has, but does not perceive.
A high school girl is eager to hold the important position
in her group to which she feels entitled because of her
family's wealth. She is attractive, capable, and agree-
able; however, she usually fails to discharge the re-
sponsibilities which she assumes, being especially adept
in avoiding all unpleasant tasks. Her classmates, find-
ing that she cannot be depended upon, have ceased to
include her in their plans. She is most unhappy and
feels unfairly treated. She must be helped to under-
stand that a position of security in one's group comes
as a result of personal behavior which the group ap-
proves rather than as a result of one's economic posi-
tion or of a mere wish for popularity.
3. Those needs which the teacher through her study of the
child knows he has if he is to develop capacities and
abilities to the maximum. A teacher in her study of a
child visits the home. During her visit she learns dur-










ing discussion with the parents that they not only
fail to encourage the child, but they are actually dis-
couraging him by criticizing, branding him as "dumb"
and in general have caused him to build up a lack of
confidence.
4. The needs which society demands and expects. A
student about to be late to school drives up to a red
light. He sees that no one is coming from any direc-
tion, and, therefore, decides he may run past the red
light with no possible harm to himself or anyone else.
He needs to understand why society has a right to
demand and expect that he wait until the traffic light
changes.

HOW THE LEARNER LEARNS
The knowledge of psychology of the learning process is im-
portant not only for the classroom teacher, but also for administra-
tors, and especially is it necessary for people engaged in curricu-
lum work. Little is known about the learning process, but what is
known is extremely important. A knowledge of what is known in
psychology is important for all people who work with children.
SAn understanding of human nature and how an individual
learns has been assumed by adults since the teaching of the young
began. This was assumed by Adam and Eve in training Cain and
Abel, by Rousseau in training Emile, as well as by many a modern
couple. The mere assumption of an understanding of human nature
and the learning process by teachers today does not make their
understanding true. Most of the teaching in Florida is built on the
psychology of the so-called laws of learning-readiness, exercise,
and effect. Through psychological research since these laws were
suggested, much of their prestige has been lost.
During recent years new psychologies have grown u3, had their
influence, and passed into oblivion. It might be said, however, that
every system of psychology has contained some good and has con-
tributed much towards the present accepted psychology. From the
point of view of many educators, the psychological concept having
the most profound influence upon the reorganization of the school
and the curriculum today is usually designated as organismic
psychology. This concept is different from the mechanistic con-
cept in that it claims that one learns by wholes rather than by parts,
that is, in any learning situation the whole individual is involved.
One learns not merely to skate, but one learns many other things
along with skating. Organismic psychology maintains that all
learning is a result of an interaction between the individual and his
environment, and that the individual is a part of a big, dynamic
energy system, and that the individual is himself a dynamic energy
system.
Dr. William H. Kilpatrick in his article, "New Developments,











New Demands", in the National Education Association Journal,
November, 1935, summed up quite well the developments in the field
of psychology:

. psychology is now moving perceptibly away from
physiology, which seems but body non-thinking and
mechanistic, to biology which gives full sway to all the or-
ganism can do; away from atoms like S-4- R bonds or con-
ditioned reflex to the organism acting as a whole, with think-
ing, feeling (emotion), impulse, physical moving, glandular
action, etc., etc., as aspects (not separable parts) of one or-
ganic action. In particular, this better psychology rejects
such an analytic procedure as grants the same behavior to
small pieces in separation as when in living contents." 4

An understanding of the new psychology and its bearing upon
the human nature and the learning process is needed by teachers in
Florida if classroom practices are to be improved.
The use of pupil needs, pupil purposes, and pupil interests and
their utilization in the learning process is still in the embryonic
stage. Instead of the school being as it once was, namely, a place
where children were prepared for adult life through a consideration
of adult problems, it is now believed that, life in school should be
as nearly like life out of school as possible; that the problems of
children form an excellent basis for school work and that children
should be given opportunity under guidance to solve their problems;
that if children learn how to solve their problems at successive age
levels they will be more able to solve their problems when they are
adults. There is one thing that is definitely known-the best
preparation for adult life is not a study of adult problems as such
by children. This implies the necessity for finding problems in
keeping with the maturity and interest of children.
Motivation grows out of the experiences of the child. The
effort behind goal-seeking and the activities employed in reach-
ing goals is purpose. Pupil purposes are extremely important in
the learning process. There is probably no learning where there
is no purpose. Conceived in this light, purposes are basic to learn-
ing, and it, therefore,. becomes the duty of the teacher to guide
students in the selection of purposes which are in keeping with the
aims of education.
Of equal significance in the learning process with pupil pur-
poses are pupil activities. If growth is to follow, the child not
only must accept the goal towards which he will strive, but also must
actually engage in the activities through which the goal may be
achieved. These activities must bear a direct relationship to the

4 Kilpatrick, William H., "New Developments, New Demands", National Edu-
cation Association Journal, 24:261, November, 1935.











goal sought, and the child must see the reasonableness of perform-
ing these activities as a means of reaching the goal.
When it is understood that learning results when the student
sees and feels that the activities performed assist him in approach-
ing his goal, the task of the teacher may be classified under three
heads:
"(1) He must induce the learner to accept worthwhile
goals;
"(2) He must help the learner to see the relationship be-
tween his activity and the goal which he has ac-
cepted as his own;
"(3) He must at the same time endeavor to make the
learner increasingly independent in directing his own
educative processes and increasingly capable of
expanding his own effective environment." 5

SUBJECT-MATTER AND THE CURRICULUM
Subject-matter was once thought of as being the facts, general-
izations and topics treated, and the information contained in text-
books. This conception of subject-matter has been extended until
today teachers consider information in pamphlets, magazines,
reference books, etc., as subject-matter. A broad program for the
improvement of instruction requires an, even more liberal interpre-
tation of the term subject-matter. Within recent years the meaning
of subject-matter has been conceived as being any part of the ex-
periences of the race utilized by a student in the solution of a prob-
lem. Hammer, nails and boards with which to build a dog house are
subject-matter for the seven year old boy as much as the square
on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the
squares on the other two sides is to a boy who is laying out a
baseball diamond. Dr. John Dewey's conception of subject-matter
is that it consists of the facts observed, recalled, read, and talked
about, materials and tools used and the ideas suggested, in the
course of a development of a situation having a purpose.
It might be said that Dr. Dewey's definition of subject-matter
removes all possibility of its being found wholly in textbooks. The
trends are not only toward making subject-matter more inclusive
of the experiences of the race, but also toward using any portion of
the "group culture" which aids students in the solution of problems.
The shift from memorization of facts to utilizing subject-matter in
the solution of student problems by no means indicates less use of
subject-matter or the cheapening of subject-matter. On the con-
trary it implies a fuller use of subject-matter in the solution of
goals set up by pupils. The new conception of subject-matter

5 Handbook on Curriculum Study, Curriculum Series Bulletin No. 1, Decem-
ber, 1937, Departuent of Education, State of Oregon. P. 42.











is nothing other than an attempt to use subject-matter in meeting
the needs, interests and purposes of students.
Some Criteria for the Selection of Subject-Matter
1. "Must be capable of yielding desirable outcomes in at-
titudes, appreciations, and ideals as well as knowledge
and skill.
2. "Must be adapted to the abilities, physiological ten-
dencies, and different age levels of the pupils.
3. "Must be based on present needs of the pupil, grow out
of life experiences and acquire interest of the pupil". 6
4. "Must have high frequency of occurence in the common
activities of present social life." 7

5. Should have a high frequency of occurence in the com-
mon activities of present social life, but not be taught
by any outside social agency." 8
6. "Must be justified by one or more of the major ob-
jectives of education." 9

EVALUATION
Any complete program for improvement of instruction must
of necessity give serious consideration to evaluation. If curriculum
revision is to be successful in Florida there must be a consistency in
philosophy from beginning to end. To organize the school program
on the basis advocated in this bulletin, yet evaluate it by merely
giving written tests and examinations would render the whole pro-
gram worthless. How then is evaluation made under this type of
program?
There are two types of evaluation, viz. the evaluation by the
pupil and the evaluation by the teacher. The evaluation by the
pupil is always in terms of the goal set up. The evaluation by the
teacher is always in terms of pupil purposes, interests, needs and
growth in their relation to the aims of education.
There is a familiar saying that nothing succeeds like success.
Pupil evaluation of himself provides not only a chance to feel
success, but is also a part of his learning and gives him practice in
doing in school the thing he will have to do frequently when he be-
comes an adult, viz. evaluate himself. The curriculum is con-
ceived as being the sum total of all the experiences the child has
under the direction of the school. Therefore, a program of evaluation

6 Draper, E. M., Principles and Techniques of Curriculum Making, D. Apple-
ton-Century Company, New York, 1936, p. 271.
7 Ibid., p. 271.
8 Hopkins, L. T., Curriculum Principles and Practices, Benjamin H. San-
born & Co., New York, 1929, p. 134.
9 Ibid., p. 271.











from the child's viewpoint must have consideration in any curricu-
lum reorganization.
When a pupil purpose has been realized, the teacher should,
assist children to judge how they have achieved their goal. This
does not imply that pupil evaluation comes primarily with the final
activity. As a matter of fact pupil evaluation has always taken.
place and always will when learning is involved. Evaluation in the
learning process is continuous from the very beginning and reaches
a climax when the final goal is achieved. Each activity is evaluated
before and after it is performed as to appropriateness and fitness
to assist the child in achieving his purpose.
"Such questions as the following may help the pupil to evaluate
his work critically:
"1. Is this activity helping me to accomplish my purpose?
"2. Is there a better way to do it?
"3. Am I wasting time or materials in this activity?
"4. Am I doing by best work?
"5. Am I helping anyone else?
"6. Do I need any more help than I am getting?
"7. Do I need more skill or more information to do good
work on this activity?" 10
Although evaluation should always be in terms of the ultimate
aims of education, there is necessity for intermediate steps in,
evaluation: first, the evaluation of pupil activities in terms of
purposes, needs, interests, considering the skills and tools needed;
and second, the evaluation of appreciations, understandings and at-
titudes. From this classification it is readily seen that the written
examination, the objective test, are still important in the evaluation
of skill; nevertheless, this type of evaluation is a minor part of
the whole job. The bulk of evaluation is primarily concerned
with an appraisal of student conduct in terms of the aims
of education. Through this observation of conduct should come
the information necessary for proper guidance of the student.
A folder containing the teacher's observation of the student's work
habits, appreciations, skills, attitudes, and understandings should
be kept. It should be emphasized here that this type of evaluation
necessitates a continuous, everlasting process of checking pupil
conduct in terms of the aims of education.
SOCIAL 'SENSITIVITY
The importance of social sensitivity in the development of the
school program has received emphasis throughout this bulletin.
It not only played a part in the selection and development of the
problems contained herein, but also permeates the entire point of view.

10 Mississippi State Department of Education, Mississippi. Program for the
Improvement of Instruction, Bulletin No. 5, Jackson, Miss., October, 1937.










Social sensitivity is a phrase used to express that balance between
the individual and society which emphasizes social consciousness
as opposed to rugged individualism, co-operation as opposed to
exploitation. The duty of the school, therefore, is to check con-
stantly for a balance in the school program between the emphasis
upon developing the individual's capacities and abilities to the
maximum and upon the individual's responsibility for the preserva-
tion, improvement, and reinterpretation of the democratic society.
The accusation is made by some educators that neither of these
objectives has been achieved to any great extent. Whether or not
this be fact there are two indictments against our Florida
schools. The first and the most outstanding neglect in our present
program in Florida is the lack of emphasis on cooperative living:
the accepted philosophy should be-I am my brother's keeper. Sec-
ondly, in spite of the avalanche of criticism flowing from "mouth
and pen" concerning the inappropriateness of learning materials
out of harmony with the needs, interests and purposes of students,
little change has come, in the secondary school especially.
Therefore, at this time it becomes particularly significant to con-
sider the school program from this angle. While it is recognized
that much that is good has come out of schools of the past, the
need for constant examination and re-evaluation of the relative im-
portance of currently accepted content and procedure is keenly
felt. The importance of this need is succinctly put by Dr. Currien
Smith in his article in the Peabody Journal of January, 1938.
He. says:
'Agricola, agricolae, agricolae . .' so goes the chatter
of the schoolroom while the American farmer seeks a way
to have more and yet produce less. 'Amo, amas, amat, ..'
and syphilis runs rampant among five per cent of the popu-
lation. 'I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him, . .' and
the war lord is cooking up a scheme to send the poor sap
who is repeating this to be gassed like a rat. 'The ships
used by Columbus were the Pinta, the Nina, and the Santa
Maria, . .' and a great air transport crashes against the
side of a snow-capped mountain, killing all occupants.
'Tomorrow you will study the life of Milton, . .' and the
newsstands have just sold out of the latest edition of 'Can-
did Confessions'. 'Napoleon was a tryant, . .' and the
automobile industry is at a standstill as a result of a
general sitdown strike. 'Prehistoric man risked his life to
clothe himself, . .' and ten million able-bodied workers
are in desperate circumstances because of unemployment.
Thus the American secondary school busies itself with
trivial molehills and ignores a threatening avalanche which
may destroy it". 1

11 Smith, C. Currien, "A Basis For The Selection of High School Subject-
Matter," Peabody Journal of Education, January, 1938, p. 203.












If the schools of Florida are to achieve to any extent the two-
fold objective of education, they must, constantly re-evaluate what
is being taught in light of the needs, interests and purposes of boys
and girls, remembering that many of their needs are identical with
the needs of society.
ORGANIZING INSTRUCTION
A cursory investigation of educational literature will reveal
many meanings attached to the word curriculum during the past
decade. In this evolutionary process of the meaning of curriculum
the terms program of studies and the curriculum were used some-
what inter-changeably. For instance, college preparatory curricu-
lum, general curriculum and civic curriculum are merely adminis-
trative conveniences for the arrangement of a group of subjects for
a certain group of students. As teaching progressed and prin-
cipals and teachers began to plan more elaborately, the meaning of
curriculum was extended to include not only the courses but also
the arrangement of the content of the courses. However, the
definition of the curriculum upon which this bulletin is made is:
The curriculum consists of all the experiences the child has under
the direction of the school.
In light of the foregoing discussions it will be seen that there
is a need for a fundamental reorganization of instruction in the
secondary school. In order to insure the maximum development of
the learner, instruction must be organized with respect to the var-
ious levels of maturity of pupils. Experiences appropriate to the
levels of maturity and in keeping with the interests of pupils must
be provided. This may be referred to as the psychological basis of
instruction and may be said to determine the sequence or order in
which experiences should take place. It should be pointed out in
this connection that little is known about subject-matter suited to
given levels of maturity, and that, consequently, Florida teachers
will need to be on the alert to discover the results of any research
already completed or in progress in this field. Likewise, teachers
may themselves contribute to a better knowledge of children's
interests by observing and recording evidence of interests of their
own pupils.
In order to insure the maximum social development of the
learner, instruction must be organized with respect to the problems
which individuals in a democracy face. Moreover, in order that the
individual may contribute to the maximum of his ability to society,
his special capacities and talents must be developed. Experiences
relating both to common problems and to individual interests must
be provided.
In this bulletin have been included materials of value in pro-
viding common experiences which should result in social develop-
ment. At present in this bulletin further treatment of the organ-
iza'ion of instruction will be restricted to that phase of the program











which is provided for all the sons and daughters of all the people.
This center, or focus, or core, provides those common experiences
considered essential to every boy and girl for successful participa-
tion in the ever changing social order. For convenience these com-
mon experiences will be referred to subsequently as the core
curriculum.
The use of the social functions approach in determining the
scope of the curriculum has proved effective in organizing instruc-
tion. "This procedure is based on the assumption that the activities
of children in school should be organized in such a way as to carry
over with greatest ease to real life situations." 12 This implies that
the school program should be organized in such a way (1) that
experiences are provided whereby children may develop ever-in-
creasing understandings of the major problems of life, (2) that
school and life are synonymous and, therefore, worthwhile exper-
ience is related to the immediate environment of children; and (3)
that all children regardless of their social, economic, intellectual,
and physical differences should contribute to the solution of their
common problems.
An analysis of society from the beginning of time down to to-
day will reveal certain common problems. These problems, if
classified, will be found to cluster around certain major functions
of society which may be called persistent problems of life. After a
comparison of the persistent problems used by the various states
in developing their curriculum programs, the following problems
were selected tentatively to compose the scope of the core curricu-
lum for Florida.
1. Conserving Human and Natural Resources-Caring
for Our Minds and Bodies and for Natural Resources.
2. Making a Home-Securing and Enjoying a Place to
Live.
3. Participating in Government-Organizing and Con-
trolling all the Elements of Our Lives.
4. Engaging in a Vocation-Securing and Earning a
Living.
5. Expressing Religious Feeling-Finding an Outlet for
Our Spiritual and Aesthetic Feelings.
6. Providing for Recreation-Enjoying Our Free Time
Profitably.
7. Producing, Distributing and Consuming Goods and
Services. Satisfaction of Material Wants-Trying to
Produce and Distribute the Things People Need and
Want.

12 Hollis, L. Caswell and Doak, S. Campbell, Curriculum Development, The
American Book Company, New York, 1935, p. 173.











8. Traveling, Transporting : and ,Communicating-Trans-
mitting Ideas to One Another, and Transporting Goods
and People from Place to Place.
The foregoing classification requires refinement. It includes
institutions as well as major social problems. It has been felt,
however, that Florida teachers will find it helpful in improving
instruction, especially in developing a core of socially significant
experiences. Careful study of it is invited and teachers are urged
to make available to the State Department both constructive criti-
cism of the classification, and narrative accounts of specific uses
of it.
This bulletin has not attempted to set up a plan for develop-
ing all of the problems implicit in the foregoing areas. Farther
study is needed to do that. No attempt has been made to indicate
grade placement. The purpose of this bulletin mainly is to stimil-
late teachers to study the very complex problems involved in edu-
cating young people to live the democratic way. It has been felt
that the materials in the subsequent chapters will be helpful to
teachers in developing units of work regardless of the type of
organization their school may have.











CHAPTER III.

HOW TO USE THE MATERIALS OF THIS BULLETIN

Purpose
To assist teachers to develop units of work in respect to prob-
lems in the lives of all individuals, materials related to a number
of selected activities have been included in this Bulletin. The ma-
terials are suggestive and are for exploratory purposes. The plan
of treatment includes (1) the meaning or importance of the prob-
lem, (2) possible approaches to the problem, (3) suggested activi-
ties, (4) bibliography, and (5) suggestions for evaluation. Ap-
parent inconsistencies may be found in the several treatments. A
more detailed account pf the purposes of each section follows:

Meaning of the Problem
Usually problems of concern to all individuals may be treated
from the point of view not only of the individual, but also of the na-
tion, the state, and the immediate community. They may be shown
to be of interest not only to adults but also to children. They may
be treated historically and contemporaneously. Teachers need to
be keenly aware of the social significance of such problems. In
order to develop with pupils experiences which lead to ever-enlarg-
ing concepts of major social problems, teachers need to see such
problems in their many relationships. The ability to see such re-
lationships may be called social sensitivity. Briefly, the purpose of
the "importance of the problem" is to help teachers to develop a
greater degree of social sensitivity in respect to the problem. Con-
sequently, facts of state and national import are included. Rela-
tionships are pointed out. Several aspects of the problem are
treated, any one of which may indicate to the teacher the phase of
the problem most suited to development in her particular school.
Having studied the problem in its many relationships, the
teacher selects the phase best suited to the needs of her pupils and
her community. She studies the community for available materials
and sources for developing significant direct experiences. Such
sources may include trips to a cigar factory, a canning factory, a
newspaper plant, a botanical garden, a cross section of a highway,
a session of court, a curb market, a civic club, city offices, a house
under construction, a slum section, the waterworks, or interviews
with individuals. The teacher likewise gathers facts and materials
of significance to the problem in relation to the state. She studies
the problem in its historical setting. When she has developed what
may be termed an awareness of the social significance of the prob-
lem, she is then ready to consider the interests pupils may have in
the problem.










Approach
In the treatments of the various problems included in this
Bulletin, two kinds of approaches have been developed. In the first
type the problem is treated in respect to some particular community
interest related to the problem. In the other type, the interests
pupils may express in respect to the problem are treated. Although
both types are important, teachers will find it helpful to give close
study to the latter. If the interests of pupils are utilized, more
significant growth is likely to take place. In some cases a continu-
ation of these approaches may be indicated, as for example, making
use of a community interest to arouse pupil interest.

Suggested Activities
A number of activities have been suggested. With few ex-
ceptions the pattern has been to name a purposeful activity in
which pupils may engage and to follow this by a paragraph or two
of more or less detailed activities that might be engaged in to
achieve the purpose of the larger activity. There has been an at-
tempt to make the larger activity, the statement of which begins
with a participle, pupil-centered. The detailed activities are more
or less teacher centered. Their purpose is largely to suggest a
possible development.
All activities need not be developed. Teachers should select
those most suited to the interests and needs of their pupils. Many
of the activities are "subject-matter" centered. It is hoped that
teachers will be able with the assistance of their pupils to develop
activities that are pupil-centered. Study of the nature of a unit of
work may help teachers to do this.

Bibliography
It is not expected that teachers will have access to all the
references included in the bibliography. The lists have been made
as suggestive as possible in order to assist schools to increase their
materials relating to some of the major social problems. Teachers
are urged to add as much Florida material as possible.

Evaluation
Teachers should study carefully the section on evaluation in
chapter II before studying the suggested evaluation included
with each problem. There has been an attempt to show ways
that might be used to evaluate more than the mere intellectual
growth of the pupils. The point of view has been that teachers
cannot ignore attitudes and appreciations; that what pupils do is
more important than what they may recall. Evidence of desirable
changes in behavior is what teachers must seek in evaluation.
Florida teachers are urged the coming year to devote much thought-











ful study to methods of evaluation and to report significant prog-
ress to the State Department. : :

The Nature of a Unit of Work
A unit of work evolves. It evolves from the experiences which
pupils find necessary to. the accomplishment of some purpose
which is to them real. It is significant to the extent to which the
achievement of the purposes of the pupils contributes to their pro-
gressively enlarging understanding of the problems of living in a
democratic society. That the unit of work which develops under
her guidance may be significant requires of the teacher continu-
ous study of the interests and needs of the pupils and an ever
growing knowledge of the problems of democratic living. This
implies thoughtful planning. For it is by planning that the teacher
is prepared to give significant direction to the interests, purposes,
and activities of pupils.

Development of a Unit of Work
A unit of work may be said to be on its way when the pupils,
challenged by either a problem or certain aspects of a problem,
set out to do something about it and plan ways to go about reach-
ing their goal. The challenge may come from the physical environ-
ment, from their relationships with each other or with the home and
community, from intellectual curiosity developed from reading, dis-
cussing, and listening, and from stimulating questions directed by
the teacher to a consideration of the problem. Until pupils are
challenged, however, purpose is hardly likely to ensue, and activi-
ties without purpose cannot be expected to result in measurably
significant growth.
It is not enough for a problem to be of immediate interest to
pupils. It must have within it possibilities for developing continu-
ous, socially significant experiences. In this connection it may
be pointed out that a unit of work is in reality a segment of ex-
perience the limits of which are defined by the purposes pupils form
in respect to socially significant problems felt by them to be real.
Once a problem has proved challenging to pupils and they have
begun to do something about it, a highly important process may be
said to be under way. Possible solutions for solving the problem or
reaching the goal are suggested. Steps in each solution are dis-
cussed. Materials are collected and digested. First hand exper-
iences are planned from which valuable data may be derived. At
appropriate intervals checks are made on progress to determine
how nearly the endeavors are leading to the accomplishment of
the purpose. Solutions are proposed. The relative merits of each
solution are considered. Rejections are made, and finally a pro-
posed solution is arrived at or recognition is made of the necessity
for further investigation, and as a result of these deliberations new











goals are then set up. The nature of a unit of work implies a pro-
cess not unlike reflective thinking.
Moreover, the nature of the development of a unit implies a
way of life. In developing plans for the solution of a problem, if
all pupils assume and share responsibility, if the right of each
pupil to express opinions and contribute to the common purpose is
recognized and protected, if the welfare of the group is a motivat-
ing ideal, if the final conclusion is made after all suggestions have
been thoroughly weighed and possible compromises made in inter-
est of the common purpose, the unit becomes the democratic pro-
cess. A teacher may evaluate that democratic process by asking
herself such questions as the following:
Is there a democratic situation in the room?
Do' I respect the pupils?
Do pupils have a part in planning?
Do all the pupils participate?
Do the pupils have an opportunity to choose, judge, and
evaluate? 13

Conclusion of Unit
A unit of work may be said to be complete, when the goal, or
purpose, of the pupils has been reached and proper evaluation of
the success of the undertaking has been made by the pupils. It is
desirable in many experiences that the final activity be related
directly to the larger community. Pupils may share through this
activity the results of their study or investigation with other
groups. They may recommend to appropriate groups improvements
for life in the community. They may themselves make improve-
ments in the community. Such activities break down barriers be-
tween school and community, and units of work become in fact
units of living.

13 Division of Surveys and Field Studies, Supplement IX, "Criteria for
Evaluating Learning Activity," George Peabody College for Teachers,
Nashville, Tennessee, May 10, 1938.












CHAPTER IV.

HOW TO MAKE TRAVEL ON STREETS AND HIGHWAYS SAFER
IN FLORIDA

IMPORTANCE OF THE PROBLEM
Twenty or thirty years ago the problem of protecting human
life and property from accidents on the highways was of little
significance in any part of the United States. For, then, people
owned few automobiles and the roads, too, did not encourage fast
travel. In 1913 the United States had only 1,258,062 automobiles
registered. Florida had only 3,000 of these. In 1913 Florida had
few good highways. At this time "road construction and mainten-
ance in Florida was conducted by the several county commissioners
with limited funds derived from county and district levies upon motor
driven vehicles. Although a number of the richer districts had con-
structed a few highways of shell, sand-clay, or marl, most of the
work consisted of temporary repairs on unimproved roads". 1
But now the problem has changed. The automobile industries
are building more cars, cumbersome trucks and trailers are crowd-
ing the highways, more types of people are driving automobiles, and
states are spending more money for building and repairing high-
ways. Highway safety has become an acute national problem, not
because the driver has become a worse driver, but because there
are more people driving cars. The death rate per 10,000,000
gallons of gasoline has varied from 25.5 in 1925 to 22.3 in 1930,
to 22.8 in 1935. Florida's death rate per 10,000,000 gallons of
gasoline consumed decreased 8.3 per cent from 1934 to 1935.
In the United States in 1936 the majority of the 125,000,000
people crowded the miles of highways in 28,221,291 automobiles.
In 1936 alone there were 4,616,274 new cars and trucks sold in the
United States, enough to form a line reaching across the United
States several times. Driving these cars are approximately 40,-
000,000 self-trained drivers. Each year 2,500,000 new drivers, both
boys and girls, reach the legal driving age, most of whom have not
had instruction in driving safely.
Automobiles were once driven at a speed of twenty to thirty
miles per hour. Now, the modern automobile is driven at a speed
of sixty miles per hour. Such great speed increases the potential
danger of automobiles. When a moving car strikes a solid object,
the impact is nine times as great at a speed of sixty miles per
hour as 'at a speed of twenty miles per hour. The force of the
automobile against the object is equivalent to the impact that the
automobile would receive had it been driven off a building 120 feet
high. More things can happen to an automobile in a second when

1 State Road Department of Florida, Highways of Florida, Tallahassee,
Florida, p. 16.











it is driven at a speed of sixty miles per hour than when it is
driven at a more moderate speed. In coming to a stop an auto-
mobile traveling at sixty miler per hour covers a distance about
nine times as great as that of an automobile with a speed of twenty
miles per hour.
The problem of protecting life from automobile accidents is
not peculiar to any part of the United States. Every section has
witnessed a meteoric increase in the number of automobiles
registered and the number of miles of improved highways. The
number of automobiles in Florida alone increased from 3,000 in
1913 to 408,339 in 1936. This number is sufficient to carry the
1,614,000 people of Florida at one time if only four people ride in
each automobile. In 1937 Florida had 12,184 miles of state high-
way, 7,676 miles of which were surfaced. The influx of tourists
into Florida greatly increases the congestion of traffic and driving
hazards. Over 500,000 out-of-state cars-more than are owned
by the people of Florida-enter the state annually. Many of the
tourists have trailers attached to the cars. These trailers may con-
stitute another minor driving hazard in congested traffic.
The automobile accidents themselves forcibly put before
us the universal importance of the problem of the prevention of
accidents. In 1936 there were 868,800 accidents in the United
States, killing 36,800 people. Within the last fifteen years Ameri-
cans have slaughtered more people with the automobile than were
killed as a result of all the wars in which the United States has
engaged during its history. During the eighteen months preceding
January, 1937, several thousand more Americans were killed in.
automobile accidents than were killed in a similar time of the
World War. Within a period of five months traffic accidents re-
sult in the death of more people than reside in Tallahassee, Flor-
ida. If the automobile accident rate continues as it is, one person
in twenty will receive injury or death as the result of automobile-
accidents within the next five years. In 1935 the United States had
26.8 automobile fatalities per 100,000 estimated population;
Florida had 37.4 such fatalities per 100,000 estimated population.
To account for this partly is the fact that Floridians consume
more gasoline per capital than do the people of most states. Never-
theless, Florida's death rate per 10,000,000 gallons of gasoline con-
sumption in 1935 was 24.6 as compared with 22.8 for the Unitedi
States. In Florida alone over six hundred people annually meet
death in automobile accidents. As a group we say this is terrible,.
but as individuals we consider ourselves good, safe drivers, and
think that accidents will happen to the other fellow.
The enormous increase in accidents has awakened our citizens
to the necessity of protecting our people from such hazards. Be-
fore the problem of safety on our highways can be solved--and it
is a fact generally accepted ,by -ojp1 leading research men in this
field that the problem .cai,ie salv'd t .:'area"oha'ble extent-it is

. ,:.- '. "
C 5 * :* .
o ..... :.. .. .'.











.necessary to discover the factors contributing to the high rate of
.automobile fatalities. Studies have indicated that among these
:factors are the road, the driver, and the pedestrian.
Civil engineers and traffic engineers are applying their intelli-
gence to improve the first factor. Florida is making progress in
building safe bridges, surfaced roads adapted to higher speeds, and
railroad over-passes. Yet many obstacles must be overcome be-
fore all of Florida's highways are safely adapted to the high
speeds of modern travel. 'Some highways in Florida still follow the
old section land lines where they were first placed. These unim-
proved roads have many forty-five degree angle curves which have
not been properly banked to permit fast travel. There are many
railroad crossings which take their toll of deaths annually. Al-
though the topography of Florida makes it expensive to build over-
passes over railroads, nevertheless, many such desired safe cross-
ings are being added to our highways. Grazing of cattle on the
:shoulders of the highways is another menace to safe driving in
Florida.
Efforts are being made continually to improve driving condi-
tions in Florida. Traffic engineers are making traffic surveys and
*preparing traffic control signals and other safety aids. "Approx-
imately 2,000 traffic count stations of varying significance form
.a network over the entire state, from which comes a composite
picture of the flow of traffic over every mile of public highways
and the relative use of each and every section. There are 54
mobile loadometer weight scale stations and four permanent pit
scale stations to gather information regarding weights, measure-
ments, and loading practices of all types of vehicles found on the
highways. Ten automatic recorders are in use for continuous
records of representative traffic flow. Six of the counters are on
main highways at points of typical characteristics and four are
located on secondary roads. . . A clock mechanism in the re-
corder totals hourly and daily traffic on a roll tape." 2
In all the automobile factories engineers are increasing the
safety of automobiles by offering better brakes, stronger frame-
work, safety glass, low center of gravity, better lights, and the
like. It is the responsibility of each driver to himself and to society
to keep his car in safe driving condition. The brakes, lights, steer-
ing apparatus, wheels, and other parts should be tested periodically,
so that the automobile may respond more effectively to the driver.
Nevertheless, many automobiles which are sadly in need of repair
are driven daily on the highways of Florida. To combat such
hazards we should have more rigid regulations of highway travel
adopted and enforced uniformly in all states.
Probably the greatest factor in automobile accidents is the
-driver. Various surveys show that young drivers sixteen to
., ,# '
2 Ibid. pp. 32-3. .7 ;: ..


0'... .. ....' 0

0 : ~











twenty-five years of age have more than their share of accidents.
"Of the 7,082 recorded accidents of 29,531 Connecticut drivers-
during 1931-1936, the drivers younger than 25 years had 1.83 times
as many fatal accidents .. as might have been expected from,
their relative number. There were 2,467 drivers involved in fatal
accidents in Connecticut during 1932 through 1936. Of these, 316
were less than 21 years of age and had 1.72 times their share of
the accidents." 3 Another conclusion drawn from the various sur-
veys is that there is in most states a group of people who are in-
volved in almost all the automobile accidents and a group of peo-
ple who do not have accidents. This group "prone" to accidents
constitutes only a small part of the drivers of America but
causes a large percentage of the accidents.
Even under favorable conditions the automobile can instantly
turn from an effective means of transportation into a vehicle of
death. When the driver passes on a curve, when he speeds ona
slippery road or gravel, or when he is driving with his brain mud-
dled and his reactions slowed by alcohol, he is gambling with-
death. Yet such things cause hundreds of people of Florida to-
meet a premature death. Accidents don't "just happen". The
driver behind the wheel and the pedestrian cause accidents. If the
car is made well, any accident due to mechanical failure of the
automobile is really the fault of the driver, because he did not take-
proper care of his automobile. In order to travel safely, the driver
must have knowledge of traffic regulations; he must be alert at
all times; he must be aware of traffic hazards on the highways and:
know how to avoid them; he must know how the factors-fatigue,
drowsiness, alcoholic beverages, excitement, and diverted atten-
tion-make one unfit to handle an automobile; he must know the-
significance of road signs; and he should at all times be courteous
to other drivers.
In 1935, 15,950 pedestrians were killed in 285,930 accidents.
Twenty-five per cent of all automobile accidents involved pedes--
trians, while forty-four per cent of all automobile deaths were-
pedestrians. Most of these accidents could be avoided, if motorists
and pedestrians followed rules of safety. The practices of the pedes-
trians which result in the most accidents are the following: cross-
ing at intersections, crossing between intersections, playing in the
streets, coming from behind parked cars, walking along highways,
riding or hitching on vehicles, and waiting for or getting on or off
street cars. Every child in the schoolroom may not be a driver,
but every one as a pedestrian is affected by traffic conditions.
Never before has there been so much done to promote safety
as at the present time. Safety is receiving national recognition
and thought as the result of activities of the schools and of sev-
eral national organizations such as the Congress of Parents and

3 Crum, R. W., "Who Have the Highway Accidents?" Scientific American,~
159:6, July, 1938.











Teachers, the American Legion, The American Red Cross, Boy
Scouts, Girl Scouts, the American Automobile Association, the
National Safety Council, and the National Board of Casualty and
Underwriters Association. These organizations have many pam-
phlets, posters, and films on safety available for use by schools or
-civic organizations.
Insurance companies have recently started a safety drive in
an effort to reduce automobile insurance rates by reducing auto-
mobile fatalities. Insurance companies refund part of insurance
premiums to drivers who carry insurance on their automobiles and
who do not have accidents.
It is an important problem of the schools of Florida to direct
corrective measures toward the first group of drivers in accidents,
the youth. Professor Heyhart of Pennsylvania State Teachers
College has shown that safe drivers may be produced by good
teaching. Many schools have seen the importance of the problem
of safe driving and are offering courses in traffic safety as well
as instruction in proper driving habits. As a group the students
of such classes excell adult drivers, in spite of the better coordina-
tion of the adults.
The second group, those "prone" to accidents, must be reach-
ed outside the school. Many states examine the drivers before they
are permitted to drive on the highways. Their eyes are tested for
sharpness of vision, color blindness, ability to read and interpret
signs along the road. Before a driver is licensed to drive on the
highway his hearing, emotional characteristics, common sense,
coolness, and time of reaction are tested. What should the state
of Florida do with drivers who may legally drive, even though they
are not physically or emotionally able to do so? Should Florida
follow other states in requiring all drivers, after a satisfactory
examination, to obtain license to use the public highway? During
a six year period, accidents have fallen twenty-five per cent in
states with drivers' license laws, but have increased twenty per
cent in states without license laws.
The ultimate solution of the problem for America is to give
the driver safe roads and automobiles, to instill in the whole popu-
lation knowledge of better driving practices, to arouse in the drivers
.a less individualistic attitude and a greater sense of personal re-
sponsibility, and to enforce uniform and rigid traffic regulations
over the nation. We need to enlist the school children of today in
this problem, because they will be the drivers of tomorrow. If all
the young people enrolled in the schools of America since the
World War had received good training in traffic safety, and if all
the states had required drivers to pass examinations before allow-
ing them to drive on the highway, almost all of our present drivers
would now be trained and we would not be confronted with such a
large toll of accidents.
Consequently, the results to be achieved from having junior











high school students develop the problem should include an under-
standing of the operation of various parts of the automobile with
actual instructions in driving, knowledge of proper driving prac-
tices, proper habits as a pedestrian, unbiased attitudes toward
problems of safety in the State of Florida, and a less selfish atti-
tude with regard to the rights of others.

POSSIBLE APPROACHES TO THE PROBLEM
Every automobile accident in the community brings into sharp
relief the realization of the need for preparing the students to
avoid the hazards of modern travel. Clippings from newspapers of
automobile accidents posted on the bulletin board will result in dis-
cussion on the part of the students. The teacher may arouse in-
terest in safety through the use of posters, films, and other ma-
terial supplied free by the national organizations previously re-
ferred to.
Notices of safety campaigns conducted by other cities, schools,
or states, may challenge the students. The problem of coming to
school safely each morning is of vital importance to many students.
Community or state traffic situations, such as the use of
liquor, natural hazards, congested highways, and free range of
cattle along the highways, are of vital significance to the safety
of the citizens on the highway. The problem of state drivers'
license for the people of Florida should start an interesting dis-
cussion among the students. Any information or problem previous-
ly referred to may serve to secure the interest of the students.
The teacher may introduce these materials through any problem
that the pupils feel is their own and for which the pupils feel a
solution is needed.
The automobile fascinates boys and girls of high school age.
Each of them eagerly awaits the time when he will be given the
opportunity to drive. This characteristic interest will greatly aid
the teacher in finding some way to make the problem concerning
the safe use of our wonderful and effective means of transporta-
tion of vital significance to each student.

SUGGESTED PUPIL ACTIVITIES
Making a survey of road and driving conditions in Florida that enter
as factors in causing and preventing accidents.
Write the State Road Department for booklet on The High-
ways of Florida. Ask men from the road department or highway
patrol to talk to the class on the highways of Florida and how the
department carries on highway traffic surveys. Compare the
roads of today with those of twenty-five years ago in Florida.
Show how the mileage of improved state highways is increasing.
Obtain from the highway patrol the number of railway crossings
and the number of accidents at each. Find out the number of











new railroad overpasses that have been constructed in Florida and
the cost of each.
Survey the highways in the county and list the improvements
that could be made in them to make driving safer. Find out the
number of accidents on Florida highways caused by cattle on
highways. Find by asking people in the community why the prac-
tice is not prohibited by state regulations. Debate the question of
free range of cattle along Florida's highway. Discuss the effects
on safe driving of bill boards along the highway. Find out the
regulations of the state regarding billboards along the highway.
Make a collection of drawings of the signs appearing on
Florida's highways. Discuss the significance of each to safe driv-
ing. Survey the highways in the county and list the location of
signs that would improve highway safety. Discuss the regulations
concerning the exact location of these signs.
Find out how many out-of-state cars pass along the highway
each day. Obtain information from the road department of the
total influx of tourists into the state in winter, and the number of
trailers with cars. Discuss the possible effect of the tourist travel
upon the safety oi Florida's highways. Make a line graph of the
automobile fatalities in Florida by the months to find what effect
the seasons of the year have on highway safety. Make a drawing
of the cross section of a surfaced highway. Illustrate how the
modern highway is banked on curves to allow faster travel.
Debate the question of lighting the highways at night to reduce
danger of night driving. Discuss the desirability of indicating the
sharpness of curves on the curve signs along highways as a means
of letting the driver know how fast to travel around the curves.
Make a drawing or model for display of a "clover leaf" intersection,
discussing its use and purpose. Place this model on display at
school and in some prominent place in the community. Construct,
if possible, a group of cars to travel along the road over the inter-
section, showing how the intersection operates. Connect an electric
motor to drive the mechanism.
Write a paper on "What Florida Is Doing to Make Travel
Safer", and "How a Well Constructed and Well Regulated High-
way Lessens Driving Hazards". Prepare a poster of the things
that the highway department is doing to provide better roads and
to eliminate driving hazards in Florida. Use pictures of the high-
ways and of the work of the department. Prepare another poster
entitled "What Needs to Be Done to Make Driving 'Safe". Use pic-
tures of cows grazing on the highway; railroad crossings; sharp
curves; narrow roads without a center line, etc. Place the poster
in a downtown display window.
Making a survey to determine how accidents are caused and
distributed.
Consult the World Almanac for information about the com-
parison of the number of accidents for the last twenty years, the











comparison of deaths by automobile in Florida and the deaths due
to hookworm, malaria, and tuberculosis, and the distribution of ac-
cidents to states. Find the population of the states and the number
of automobiles registered in each state. Calculate the number of
automobile fatalities per 100,000 population. Rate the states as
to the per cent of automobile fatalities. Discuss the reason that
some states have a larger percentage of fatalities than do others.
Make graphs to illustrate any of the foregoing information.
Obtain free material and films from the sources listed in the
bibliography to illustrate causes of accidents. Find the informa-
tion to show the location of accidents on different types or parts
of highways, such as at intersections on curves, on straight roads,
etc. Find the distribution of accidents as to different speeds, time
of day, and days of the week. Learn from the road department or
highway patrolman the location and cause of accidents in the com-
munity. Collect clippings from newspapers of automobile acci-
dents and classify the clippings as to cause of the accidents. Find
the relationship of intoxicants to accidents. Read references in
magazines such as Popular Science, Popular Mechanics, or Scienti-
fic American to find out what is being done to make night driving
safer. Discuss the question of night driving's being more dangerous
than day driving. Make poster to illustrate the causes of acci-
dents. Write a story for newspaper about the number, causes, and
distribution of' automobile accidents.
Making a set of rules for pedestrians to follow.
Obtain information from the World Almanac to show the com-
mon practices of pedestrians that result in deaths. Make a list of
pedestrian deaths in community, state, or nation, and find causes
of the accidents. Illustrate how to get off buses, trains, street cars,
and cars. Find out how many school children are killed annually
on the highways and streets. Make posters entitled "Always Play
Safe". Find out what per cent of automobile fatalities involve
pedestrians. Make a graph showing the distribution of pedestrian
accidents to different age group of pedestrians.
Make a graph showing the stopping distance of cars at various
speeds. Make a list of rules for safe walking. Send the list to the
newspaper for printing. Organize safety patrols to guard school
children when crossing the street. Make posters to be placed around
school and in prominent places around the community on a drive
to secure safe habits among pupils and adult pedestrians.

Practicing safe driving habits.
Obtain from the World Almanac information on the practices
of drivers which result in accidents. Make a list of "do's" and
don'tt" for drivers, and make a poster illustrating these for dis-
play. Make a list of ways to signal when driving. Discuss some
of the common courtesies of the road. Make a list of rules for
driving on curve. Make a list of rules for hill driving.











Observe a safety motion picture to compare the kinds of
drivers. Make a graph showing the annual deaths per 100,000 of
drivers of the different age levels. Compare the young and adult
groups of drivers as to safe driving. Make a list of reasons for
the results. Find the per cent of drivers who have no accidents.
Find the number of accidents some drivers have annually. List
conditions of drivers that make them physically unfit to drive.
Practice driving safely. Conduct a mock trial of a hit and run
driver. Discuss some accident, ficticious if necessary, and decide
which driver was to blame. Present to class several common set-
ups of accidents and have pupils find the cause of each. Make a
list of the characteristics of a safe driver.
Investigating how the car enters as a factor in causing or
preventing accidents.
Inspect several makes of cars to learn the operation of the
main parts. Ask a mechanic or salesman to explain the working of
the car. Explain what would happen if these parts failed to work.
Make a list of all safety devices on car. Make a list of the parts
of the car which should be inspected.periodically. Understand why
such inspection is necessary.
Enlist the support of the police in testing the stopping dis-
tances of cars. Experiment with several cars. Make a graph of
the average stopping distance at different speeds. Compare the
results with those given by other sources. Make an investigation
of any factors affecting the stopping distances of cars, other than
the speed.
Demonstrate the centrifugal force acting on a car on a curve.
Demonstrate how the banked road, radius of curvature of curve,
width of wheel base of car, speed of car, tread on tires, and the
surface of the road are factors in causing a car to turn over on
a curve. Demonstrate the importance of friction in safe driving.
Relate instances of cars getting out of control because of lack of
friction between tires and road.
Enlist the aid of police and test cars for safe performance.
Ask. the police for information about accidents in the county caused
by unsafe conditions of the automobiles. Read current issues of
Popular Science, Popular Mechanics, and Scientific American to
learn about new inventions for safe driving. Make a suggestion of
some practical safety device which may be placed on the automobile
in the future. Debate the question of equipping all cars with gover-
nors to keep their speed from exceeding fifty miles per hour.
Making a survey of how the community regards safety.
Make a survey of the community to find hazards of safe
driving and learn what is being done to remove them. Make posters,
take pictures, and describe such hazards for school exhibit. Inter-
view leading men in the community to obtain their opinion of the
safe driving conditions in the community. Find, by inquiring, to











what extent drivers of the community observe highway signs. Make
a survey of some busy traffic corner for fifteen minutes daily and
list the errors made by pedestrians and drivers. Classify these
errors as to age level and sex of driver. Determine the cause of
the violation. Suggest measures to correct same. Compare traffic
violations of the community with those of other communities. Send
a report of your findings to the local newspaper.

Reducing automobile fatalities through regulatory measures.
List the traffic regulations in the community and show how
each is related to safety. Make a map of the streets of the com-
munity, locating the safety lights, stop signs, school zones, etc. Ob-
ta:n the information from the police department necessary to dis-
tribute the local accidents on this map. Find out if any causes of
accidents or hazards have been overcome by regulatory measures.
Suggest other regulatory measures that would make driving safer
in the community. Set up standards to be followed by school bus
drivers in the state. Obtain from the Department of Education at
Tallahassee the set of regulations for school bus drivers of the
state. Learn the precautions taken by the bus driver to drive safely.
Obtain the safety regulations for bus drivers in Florida with re-
spect to safety.
Find out the regulations to be observed by the farmer when
using the highways. Determine why such rules are necessary. De-
cide what the regulations should be. Find what regulation there
is concerning the mechanical condition of the car being driven.
Account for the results. Debate the question of testing cars
periodically and keeping all cars not in safe driving condition off
the highway. Find out what has been done toward having a law
requiring all drivers to be tested and licensed to drive in the state.
Construct an examination that might be given to drivers of Florida
who desire a driver's license. Debate the question of requiring all
drivers of Florida to have competent instruction and to pass an
examination given by state traffic officers in traffic. Find out
what states have driver's license. Find the rate of automobile
fatalities per 100,000 population in the states that have driver's
license and compare with that of Florida. Find out how many
students are driving in the school and how many of these would
be eligible for a driver's license.

Improving the conditions of safe travel in Florida through the
school.
Enlist the aid of the local and school newspaper. Draw safety
cartoons or posters to be reproduced in the papers. Send debates
or safety news to the papers. Send the results of the survey of
driving hazards in the community and common errors of the pedes-
trians and drivers to the newspaper. Prepare displays on different
phases of the safety problem. Secure permission from business
men and place these displays in display windows. Persuade some











civic organization, local newspaper, or some other business to
sponsor a safety contest among students. Have papers written by
the students, or talks made on "Safety On a Bicycle". Show a good
motion picture on safety to the entire school. Invite parents of
the children to attend. Invite members of highway patrol or police
to visit class and talk on safety. Take pictures of hazards in the
community, an automobile wreck, dilapidated cars on highways, or
safety activities around school. Develop pictures in a dark room.
Place pictures on a safety poster for .display. Send pictures to
school paper or local newspapers. Count the cars passing along
the highway per hour in front of the school. Draw a graph show-
ing the number of cars passing at different hours of the day. Use
this information as an argument for securing a safety light, or
markers near the school. Park cars at meetings attended by many.
Take charge of the cars in school parades and school trips. Write
letters to the national organization interested in safety to find
out what sort of program they are carrying on to make the public
safety-minded. Read school magazines to learn of the activities
of other schools in safety. Investigate the insurance companies to
find what they are doing to encourage safe driving. Decide why
they are doing this.
Prepare a mock trial of some imaginary traffic accident.
Present this trial and a summary of the survey of common errors
of the pedestrians and drivers of the community to the student
body as an assembly program. Plan a safety campaign and make
a drive to prevent accidents in the community. Cooperate with
civic organizations in helping to make safety posters. Make a
large "thermometer" graph in some prominent place in the com-
munity to record the number of "deathless" days in the community.
Present the mock trial, stories of accidents, and safety talk over a
radio hook-up. Send similar articles to the local newspapers.

SUGGESTIONS FOR EVALUATION
The purpose of a study of the problem of safety on the high-
ways is ultimately the reduction of automobile accidents. There-
fore, the test of effectiveness of a study of the problem by the
school children is the reduction of the number of automobile acci-
dents that occur to the children. Such an evaluation may be made
only after a period of several years. Nevertheless, the effective-
ness of the activities in which the students engage may be evaluat-
ed at the end of the work on the problem by the actions and atti-
tudes of the students.
Are the boys and girls who drive automobiles more cautious
while driving?
Are the students interested in eliminating the traffic hazards
in the community and in Florida?
Do the students observe traffic regulations while crossing the
streets?










Do the students play in the streets?
Do the students show a better spirit of cooperation with traf-
fic officers?
Are the students more cautious in walking along the highways?
Are the students who ride the school buses more cautious while
getting on or off the buses?
Do the students show greater concern for and greater interest
in the safety of themselves and others?
Are there fewer accidents among the school children?

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books:
*Allen, T. H. J., Safe Driving and Sane Use of Highways, E. M.
Hale and Company, Milwaukee, 1936. $1.
Barbour, Ralph Henry, For Safety, D. Appleton-Century Co., New
York, 1936.
*Buckley, H. B. and others, Roads to Safety, American Book Co.,
Chicago, 1938.
*Bush, G. L.; Ptacek, T. W.; and Kovats, John, Jr.; Senior Science,
American Book Co., Chicago, 1937.
Contains good questions for class discussion.
"Douglas, Richard A., Common Sense in Driving Your Car, Long-
mans, Green and Co., New York, 1936. 43c.
*Dull, C. E., Safety First and Last, Henry Holt and Company,
New York, 1938. $1.75.
Eno, W. P., Simplification of Highway Traffic, The Eno Founda-
tion for Highway Traffic Regulations, Inc., Saugatuck, Conn.,
1929, pp. 13-25, 105-109.
*Fitzgerald, James A.; Hoffman, Carl A.; Bayston, John R.; Drive
and Live, Johnson Publishing Co., Atlanta, Ga., 1937.
Excellent for grades 7-12.
*Floherty, John J., Youth at the Wheel, J. B. Lippincott Company,
Philadelphia, 1937.
Very good reading for students on how to drive a car safely.
Gentles, H. W. and Betts, G., Habits for Safety, Boblis-Merrill Com-
pany, New York, 1937. 67c.
Hamilton, J. 'R. and Thurstone, Louis L., Safe Driving: Human
Limitations in Automobile Driving, Doubleday, Doran Com-
pany, Garden City, N. Y., 1937. $1.00.
**Hanna, Paul R., Youth Serves the Community, D. Appleton-Cen-
tury Company, New York, 1936. $2.00.
Contains safety campaigns and projects.
*Hyde, Florence S. and Sloan, Ruth C., Safety Programs and Ac-
tivities, Beckley-Cardy Company, Chicago, 1935, $1.25.


* Indicates excellent book for student use.
** Indicates excellent book for teacher use.










**Kuhn, Ray F., Automotive Service, Bruce Publishing Company,
Milwaukee, Wis., 1931.
Laporte, R. J., The Operation of An Automobile, Bruce Humphries,
Inc., Boston, 1932. 84c.
*Nelson, F. and Cottrell, H. L. Safety Through the Year, McGraw-
Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, 1937.
*Page, Victor B., Prevention of. Automobile Accidents, Norman W
Henley Company, 2 West 45th St., New York, 1932. 42c.
Robins, B. S.; May, M. A.; and Kirby, R. S.; Sense and Safety on
the Road, D. Appleton-Century Company, New York, 1936.
*Sherman, R. W., If You Are Going to Drive Fast, Thomas Y.
Crowell Company, New York, 1935.
*Stevenson, Idabelle, Safety Education, A. S. Barnes and Company,
New York, 1931.
*Stoeckel, Mary, Sense and Safety on the Road, D. Appleton-Cen-
tury Company, New York, 1936. Excellent text.
*Whitney, Albert W., Man and the Motor Car, National Bureau of
Casualty and Surety Underwriters, New York, 1936. Excellent.
*Wood, Clement, Carelessness: Public Enemy No. I, Hillman Curl,
Inc., New York, 1937. $1.00.
Periodicals:
Billings, Curtis, "Are You Safe to Drive?", Reader's Digest, 24:
9-12, April, 1934.
Braley, B., "Alphabet of Safety", Popular Science, 131:41, August,
1937.
Calkins, E. E., "Let's Reward Safe Drivers", Reader's Digest,
32:18-20, June 1938.
Clark, N. M. and Hoffman, P. G., "White Line Isn't Enough",
Saturday Evening Post, 210:12-13, March 26, 1938.
Clousing, Lawrence A., "Are You Driving A Lethal Chamber?",
Reader's Digest, pp. 98-100, March, 1936.
Crum, R. W., "Who Have The Highway Accidents?", Scientific
American, 159:5-7, July, 1938.
Dickson, B. L., "Safety On the Highway", Hygeia, 15:751, August,
1937.
Eaton, R. W.,'"Heavy Safety Offensive Reduces Injuries 35% in
Providence", American City, 53:99, March, 1938.
Eiselen, Malcolm R., "The Horseless Carriage", Reader's Digest,
29:69-71, November, 1936.
Engel, L. H., "Highway Accidents", Science, News Letter, 86:14,
December 10, 1937.
Flynn, J. T., "Thou .Shalt Not Kill", Collier's, 100:14-15, September
4, 1937.
Furnas, J. C., "-and Sudden Death", Reader's Digest, 27:21-26,
August, 1935.


* Indicates excellent book for student use.
** Indicates excellent book for teacher use.










Goodrich, Herbert F., "Smash", Reader's Digest, 21:47-49, Novem-
ber, 1932.
Hoffman, H. G., "When You Drive After Dark", Reader's Digest,
28:69-70, February, 1936.
Hygeia, "Safe Driving Examination", 16:185, February, 1938.
Industrial Arts and Vocational Education, "Safety, Safety, Safety",
26:369, November, 1937.
Jenkins, A., "Drive Right", Reader's Digest, 25:67-70, August, 1934.
Knight, A. W., "Safety First, 1938 Slogan For American Homes",
Hygeia, 16:11-14, January, 1938.
Learned, R. A., "No More Accidents", Hygeia, 16:623-25, July, 1938.
Leslie, V. A. and Quinn, T. J., "You Bet Your Life! How Much Will
An Accident Cost You?", Forum, 99:38-42, January, 1938.
Life, "The Traffic Problem", 5:43-53, July 4, 1938. Excellent.
Lindley, D., "Make Safety Pay", Collier's, 101:63-66, March 26,
1938.
McClintock, M., "Speed", Review of Reviews, 96:49-50, July, 1937.
McEvoy, J. P., "Automobile Manners", Literary Digest, 125:25,
January 1, 1938.
McNeil, D. M., "What Causes Accidents in Pittsburgh?", American
City, 53:99, March, 1938.
Macdonald, Malcolm, "The Dangerous Age", The Education Digest,
January, 1937.
Magee, H. W., "Caution! Danger Ahead!", Popular Mechanics,
68:194-97, August, 1937.
Morrison, J., "Learn It While Driving", American City, 52:149,
September, 1937.
Nelson, F., "Sources of Materials on Safety", Hygeia, 15:751-52,
August, 1937.
Peters, Russell Holt, "Death on the Highway", Reader's Digest,.
26:19-22, April, 1935.
Peters, Russell Holt, "Stop, Look, and Listen", Reader's Digest,.
25:77-79, November, 1934.
Popular Mechanics, "Life -Saving Inventions Payi Dividends",
69:698-701, May, 1938.
Reader's Digest, "Foolproof Roads", pp. 53-57, October, 1936.
Reader's Digest, "Old Cars and New Hopes", 20:47-49, February,
1932.
Ries, E. H., "Safe at Home-But Are You?", Better Homes and
Gardens, 16:76, April 1938.
School and Society, "Safety Education Program in the High Schools
of New York State", 47:365-66, March 19, 1938.
Science News Letter, "Four Types of Auto Drivers Are Hazards on
the Roads: Alcoholic, the Feebleminded, the Stupid, and
Psychopathic", 33:384, June 11, 1938.
Scientific American, "Enforce the Law", i57:9, July, 1937.
Scribner's Monthly, "I Killed A Man", 102:57, September, 1937.
Shuman, J. T., "Effective Safety Instruction Through Boys' Clubs",










Industrial Arts and Vocational Education, 27:130-32, March,
1938.
Society for Curriculum Study, Building America, "Safety", Volume
I, No. 7; Volume II, No. 2, 425 W. 123rd St., New York.
Stearns, M. M., "Don't Dent Your Fenders", Collier's, 99:22, June
12, 1937.
Stupka, Peter J., "Sportsmanlike Driving", School Life, pp. 5-6,
September, 1936.
Theiss, L. E., "5,658,500, One Year's Home Accident Toll;", Amer-
ican Home, 19:39-40, April, 1938.
'Thone, F., "Youth is a Killer", Science News Letter, 33:150-51,
March 5, 1938.
Waldron, W., "Youth At the Wheel", American Monthly, 125:30-31,
June, 1938.
Waring, James, "Higher Education for Drivers", Reader's Digest,
28:51-53, May, 1936.
Wiggam, Albert Edward, "Women Drivers", Reader's Digest,
22:35-37, March, 1932.
Wood, L. A. S., "Night Driving Can Be As Safe As Day Driving",
American City, 52:129, August, 1937.
Wood, L. A. S., "Pedestrians Should Be Seen and Not Hurt",
American City, 52:135, November, 1937.

Miscellaneous:
Free and inexpensive material:
Aetna Casualty and Surety Company, Hartford, Conn.
Let's Be Skillful, 13 pp. illustrated
How Good A Driver Are You? 2 pp. safe driving examination
Saving Seconds or Saving Lives
American Automobile Association, Safety Division, Penn. Avenue
at 17th St., Washington, D. C.
The Trial of Carelessness, 2 pp. Mock trial
Normal Safe Approach Speeds
Motorist, posters for the month
Sportsmanlike Driving, Series
Driver and Pedestrian Responsibilities, 77 pp.
The Driver, 85 pp.
His Honor The Owl, 18 pp.
Standard Rules For the Operation of School Boy Patrols, 8 pp.
illustrated.
Uncle Will-Be Careful Broadcasts A Surprise, playlet, 15 pp.
illustrated.
Summary of Materials and Services of the Safety and Traffic
Engineering Department.
Sportsmanlike Driving; An Outline for a Course in Traffic
Safety and Driving for High Schools, 35
Bet You Don't Dare! playlet, 17 pp.










American Museum of Natural History, Dr. George H. Sherwood,
Department of Education, Film Division, 77th Street and Cen-
tral Park West, New York.
Carbon Monoxide, The Unseen Danger, No. 121, motion picture,
1 reel, 16 m. m.
Saving Seconds, No. 228, motion picture, 1 reel, 16 m. m.
Automotive Manufacturers' Association, Detroit, Michigan.
Auto' Facts and Figures, annual publication
You in Your Car on City Streets, 1936
When You Drive Safely, 1935
Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University,
New York.
Parents and the Automobile, 1936
Chicago Motor Club, Chicago, Illinois.
Sportsmanlike Driving, 1935, 51 pp.
Your Capacity as a Safe Driver, 12 pp.
Federation of Women's Clubs, 1209 N. 17th St., Sheboygan, Wis-
consin.
Women and the War on Accidents
Fisher Body Division, General Motors Corporation, Detroit,
Michigan.
An Outline History of Transportation, 1934.
Chemistry and Wheels, 1934
How To Park in a Tight Place
We Drivers, 1935
When The Wheels Revolve, 1934
Consumer Research and Consumer Education, 1936
Metallurgy and Wheel, 1936
Hardware Mutual Casualty Co., Stevens Point, Wisconsin.
The Motorist's Handbook
International Harvester Company, 606 S. Michigan Avenue, Chica-
go, Illinois.
I Drive Safely, 1935
John Hancock Mutual Life Insurance Company, Boston, Massa-
chusetts.
Carbon Monoxide Gas, 1936
Massachusetts Department of Education, Safety Committee, Bos-
ton. Massachusetts.
Course of Study in Highway Safety Education
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York.
It's Up To You
Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, New York.
Calling All Drivers
Studying the Movement of Motor Vehicles, 24 pp.
The Junior Safety Volunteer
Check Your Car For Safety and Performance
The Safe Walker's Memo Book










Motion Picture Bureau, Y. M. C. A., 347 Madison Avenue, New
York. The following free films may be obtained:
Facts Behind the News, 16 mm No. S-144, 3 reels, sound. The
Pennzoil Co. "March of Time" treatment of thrilling new
achievements in modern transportation, safety and speed by
air, rail, highway, and water.
Follow the White Marker, 16 mm No. 1608, 1 reel, silent, Uni-
versal Atlas Cement Co.
Human Mileage, 16 m m No. S-156, 2 reels, sound, General
Tire and Rubber Company. Lowell Thomas interviews leading
traffic and insurance authorities to learn why automobile ac-
cidents occur and how they can be prevented. Types of ac-
cidents demonstrated.
Over 'Here, 16 m m No. S-147, 2 reels, sound, B. F. Goodrich
Company. comparison of loss of human life on highway to sac-
rifice of individuals to save a nation in times of war.
Safety's Champion, 16 m m No. S-143 or 35 m m No. 10005, 2
reels, sound, Firestone Tire and Rubber Co. Interesting story
of speed record breakers.
The Beneficent Reprobate, 16 m m No. 1642 and S-132, 4 reels,
-silent and sound, National W. C. T. U. No preachment, but a
well-balanced evaluation of alcohol in various uses.
National Bureau of Casualty and Surety Underwriters, No. 1 Park
Avenue, New York City.
Course in Automobile Driving in Secondary Schools
Highway Lighting and Public Safety
National Safe Drivers Test
Organizing Courses in Safety in High Schools
Public Safety As Affected by Street Lighting
Stop Signs-Their Proper Use
Creating Safer Communities, 1936
A Teacher's Manual (by Stack, N. V.)
National Conference on Street and Highway Safety, Washington,
D. C.
Guides to Traffic Safety, 1936
Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices, 166 pp., 1935
National Congress of Parents and Teachers, 114 E. 32nd Street,
New York.
Organized Safety, 16 pp., 1936.
National Conservation Bureau, No. 1 Park Avenue, New York.
A Complete Safety Program for Secondary Schools
Training Tomorrow's Drivers
Teaching Safety Through Visual Education
The Secondary School and the Traffic Safety Problem
What Can We Contribute to Safety?
National Education Association, "Safety in Pupil Transportation".
Research Bulletin, Volume XIV, No. 5, November, 1936.










National Safety Council, No. 1 Park Avenue, New York.
Accident Reporting Cards
Bill's Day in Court, (play)
Monthly Accident Tally and Summary Forms
Safety and the New Schools
Safety in the Small Community
Teaching Safety in the Modern School
Saving Lives Through A Drivers' License Law
The New War on Accidents
School Buses: Their Safe Design and Operation
National 'Safety Council, 20 N. Walker Street, Chicago.
Vocational Safety News, (magazine)
Safety Practices, (pamphlet)
Public Safety Memo No. 22
Safety Instruction Cards
Too Long at the Wheel, 1935, 48 pp.
Industry's Part in Saving 38,000 Lives
Accident Facts, 1937
New York Life Insurance Company, New York.
Haste, 1936.
Ocean Accident and Guarantee Corporation, New York.
Controlled Speed, 1932.
Packard Motor Company, Detroit, Michigan.
With Jack and Jill in Motor-Car-Land, 32 pp.
Port of New York Authority, New York City.
A Trio of Warnings, 1935.
Portland Cement Association, Kansas City, Missouri.
Straight Thinking About Highways
Short Court Traffic Surveys
Concrete Road Design
State Department of Public Instruction, Tallahassee, Florida.
Standards and Regulations Relating to the Transportation of
Pupils to the Public Schools of Florida, 1938.
Recommended.
The StudebakerFCorporation, South Bend, Ind.
Questions Ind Answers That Will Help You Treat Yourself,
Your Car With Greater Care
Travelers' Insurance Company, Hartford, Connecticut.
Fun With Facts
You Bet Your Life
'Live and Let Live
Thou Shalt Not Kill
United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C.
Uniform Act Regulating Traffic on the Highways
Uniform Motor Vehicle Operators' and Chauffeurs' License Act
Model Traffic Ordinances
Drive Safely
Utica Mutual Insurance Company, Utica, New York.
Murder on the Highway, 1936.












CHAPTER V.

HOW TO BUY INTELLIGENTLY

IMPORTANCE OF THE PROBLEM
Consumption is a vital part of living. Each day, regardless
of our wishes in the matter, we must consume. Whether or not
we do so wisely depends to a great extent upon our training.
Whether or not we receive full value for our money depends upon
our having a body of knowledge that is all too often lacking.
At one time in our history, producers and consumers met face
to face to buy and sell. Confidence was established between them,
and it was comparatively easy for an honest agreement to be
reached which was satisfactory to both. The producer stood ready
to defend his product and to substantiate claims made for it. Such
a; situation was, conducive to the welfare of both buyer and seller.
Conditions now, however, are far different. Facilities of pro-
duction, transportation, and communication have changed to such
an extent that it is no longer possible, or even desirable in many
cases, for the producer and the consumer to meet. Hundreds or
thousands of miles now separate them, and middlemen have appeared
to bridge this great gap of time and distance. The highly imper-
sonal relationship resulting, desirable in many ways, has created
problems for the ultimate consumer. He is no longer in position
to distinguish readily between products which are good and those
which are bad.
Thousands of new products appear annually on the market
and usually there are many brands of each. In one city in 1930
there were eighty-seven different brands of breakfast foods on
sale; forty-six brands of flour; sixty-seven brands of noodles;
seventy-six brands of tooth-paste; sixty-eight brands of mouth-
wash; one hundred ten brands of washing machines; one hundred
sixty-four brands of fountain pens; sixty-eight brands of automo-
bile tires; one hundred one brands of packaged coffee. 1 The list
could be easily extended. .This multitude of trade names, each per-
haps advertised to the sky, bewilders the consumer and leaves him
unprepared to make a wise choice. Or, perhaps even worse, some
advertisement may convince him that its product is really the
only brand which exactly meets his needs.
All advertising, it is true, is not to be criticized, but it is com-
monplace that much of it is wasteful and misleading. When four
tobacco companies spend fifty million dollars a year on advertising,
it is high time the American people are checking up on values. 2 It
must be remembered that the primary aim of most producers is to

1 President's Research Committee on Social Trends, Recent Social Trends,
II, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1933, p. 876.
2 Ibid. p. 903.











make money and not to guard the welfare of consumers. To make
money their goods must be sold. To sell goods producers must
keep them before the public in a favorable light. A demand must
be created. Their stock must move, but in the process it is all too
evident that the welfare of consumers is left out of consideration.
Increasing dangers in the use of consumers' goods are paral-
leled in many cases by increasing costs. It is even becoming ex-
pensive to die. Dying and being interred in the old days was
rather a simple and inexpensive process, but now the story is dif-
ferent. More and more morticians' goods are being used. Shrouds
and coffins are being styled to the last minute, and advertising has
moved into this new but extremely productive field. It is an open
secret that many morticians take advantage of the generous
tendencies of the bereaved by selling them ridiculously expensive
coffins, shrouds, and other articles less necessary to burial.
The keeping of a budget is an important factor in intelligent
buying. For one to be able to see where one's money goes often
points the way toward eliminating many unnecessary purchases.
The saving over a period of years resulting from such a system can
well mean the difference between financial success and failure.
Twenty-five cents saved each day for thirty years amounts to $2,-
737.50 without interest. If such daily savings were invested wisely,
the total would be far more. The budget should help the individual
or the family to live within the income and make reasonable savings.

Installment buying has been of great service to the American
people. The use of this method in buying houses, Larn and some
other things is not to be criticized in the least. But in recent years
widespread installment buying makes it advisable to point out
certain dangers that may result. To begin with, individuals are
tempted to buy more than they can afford. They see the prospect
of securing those things which they desire and paying for them at
their leisure. This system of "living off the future" has proved
disastrous to many. Finding themselves unable to complete the
payments on articles bought in this manner, they are often required
to relinquish their purchases, thus losing the amount they have paid
up to the time of repossession. Nor is this the only disadvantage.
The interest rates are usually very high. Consumers often pay a
price fifteen or twenty per cent higher than the cash price simply
for the privilege of extending payments over a period of a few
months. This is false economy and should be discouraged. In
one Lowell, Massachusetts store in 1935, a radio was priced at $100
cash and $104 on time. The terms were $5 down, the balance to be
paid in twelve monthly payments of $8.25. The dealer held the
carrying charge t6 be 4 per cent. For cash payment, however, he
would deduct $10 from the regular price. In other words it would
cost the customer $14 to pay off a debt of $85 over a period of one
year. When the annual rate of interest is calculated, it is found











to be over 30 per cent. So the 4 per cent rate quoted was not the
true rate. 3
*Short time payments or credit accounts may be condemned in
the same manner. As an illustration of the high interest rates for
a thirty day time payment, consider the following: A man's hat at
a certain store costs five dollars cash. If payment is postponed
for one month a carrying charge of fifty cents is added, thus bring-
ing the total cost of the hat to $5.50. Upon first thought this seems
a reasonable charge. Ten per cent one would say. But it should be
remembered that this ten per cent is for one month only. The pur-
chaser is really paying 120 per cent interest for the use of $5.00!
The folly of this is too often overlooked. There are many
people who make purchases in this way year after year, with ap-
parently no realization that opportunities for making substantial
savings are slipping by.
Closely akin to this is the practice of making frequent short
term loans of thirty days or less, the sums borrowed usually being
from five to twenty-five dollars. Here, as in the case of credit
buying, one may expect to find exorbitant rates of interest. Those
who make these loans for a business have come to be known as
"loan sharks." These modern Shylocks often charge several hun-
dred per cent interest and manage to evade the law because of the
usual reticence of those who feel forced to borrow. This condition
applies principally in the case of unlicensed lenders. "The lowest
rate commonly charged by illegal lenders is 120 per cent a year;
the usual rate is 240 per cent; and the highest rate is above 1200
per cent. The rate, however, is not the worst feature of the busi-
ness. The usual aim of these lenders is to get the borrower into
debt and keep him there. When the borrower attempts to pay off
his debt, he is urged to renew his loan. Often, when he cannot pay,
he is passed on to a company of another name owned by the same
lender; and then he is charged, in addition toi interest, a sizable re-
financing fee. In case after case, a man borrows, let us say, $50,
pays in interest $300, and still owes more than he borrowed." 4
Students should be taught to manage their business affairs so they
they will not need to resort to this method of borrowing money.
In considering the problem of buying intelligently, patent
medicines deserve particular mention. Every year the American
people literally throw away millions of dollars on nostrums that
are worth less than nothing. Without question, much of this money
goes to pay the cost of advertisements which create imaginary ills
in the minds of credulous individuals the world over. Unfortunately,
the monetary consideration is not the only issue involved. The
health of the people is at stake. Proprietary medicines may work
evil in two different ways. First of all, they may be actually dan-

3 Credit for Consumers, Public Affairs Pamphlets, No. 5, 1936, pp. 11-12.
4 Credit for Consumers, Public Affairs Pamphlets, No. 5, 1936, p. 18.










gerous to use. Made frequently by amateurs, they may contain
drugs positively harmful to the body. In the second place, they may
cause harm in an insidious way by leading seriously afflicted indi-
viduals to believe they are really being helped, when in reality their
recovery is being delayed because of the want of competent medical
advice and care. Untold suffering and death can be attributed to
the ignorant purchase and use of patent medicines.
Wise expenditure of money depends upon factors often not
considered by those who find it hard to save. By taking advantage
of seasonal sales, for instance, the average person may save much
more money than he might suspect. This is true particularly in the
buying of clothing. For men, and for women to a somewhat less
extent, conservative dress differs little from year to year. Clothing
may be purchased at the end of seasons and substantial savings
made thereby. Annual savings of from fifteen to fifty per cent
may be effected if this practice is rigorously pursued.
With the great rise in variety and quantity of products on the
market and the seemingly ever increasing competition among pro-
ducers, salesmanship has become increasingly important. Sales
knowledge has increased. Almost all modern sales practices have
strict scientific bases. Salesmen are trained to appeal to character-
istic human traits such as maternal love, fear, and desire for ap-
proval. Armed with previously rehearsed sales talk, a good sales-
man often finds it easy to create a demand for his product. "High
pressure salesmariship" or "super salesmanship" are the terms
usually used to refer to this process of creating a desire or de-
mand where actual need does not exist.
Thus the art of salesmanship has increased out of all propor-
tion to the art of buymanship. The average consumer is little
prepared to cope with the wiles of super salesmen who beset his
path at every turn. This presents a serious problem to sane, think-
ing educators. How may individuals be trained to take stock of
themselves before making purchases? How may they be trained to
use proper sales resistance at the right time? The answers to these
questions are many, but in general it may be said that instruction
in the schools is a wise approach.
The need of protection for consumers is evident. Nor is it
difficult to know what should be done. In general, three things
are necessary: education, legislation, and cooperation. When edu-
cation along consumer lines begins to permeate the public mind,
then great strides will have been taken. Cooperation will follow,
and legislation passed to restrain those who would disregard the
welfare of societyN will be easily enforced because of the pressure
of an enlightened public opinion.
To these ends the schools must direct their efforts. After
considering the problem of buying, students should have developed
certain attitudes, abilities, and gained adequate factual knowledge
to enable them to become better buyers and consumers. They











should know more about comparative values of various products.
They should know more about production costs. They should have
developed the ability to organize and interpret facts. They should
be convinced of the importance of thrift and economy and the
desirability of beginning savings early in life. And finally, they
should be imbued with a desire to derive just returns from their
expenditures. If these results can be accomplished, the gains from
the study of the problem will be immeasurable, both to the
students and to society.
POSSIBLE APPROACHES TO THE PROBLEM
Pupil interest in this problem should be easily aroused in a
number of ways. Girls of the class should be particularly interested
in studying the relative values of cosmetics. Boys and girls alike
should be interested in the buying of clothing. The study of valid
and spurious testimonials in advertising always appeals to them, and
they should derive much important information with this as a
means of approach.
Community resources to help in the study of this problem are
plentiful. Newspapers and magazines furnish first hand informa-
tion regarding advertisements of almost all the nationally-known
products. The experiences of the students themselves form a de-
sirable means of approach. Food, clothing, and other products on
sale at the local stores may be used to great advantage in making
a comparative study of consumer's goods. Community surveys
having a bearing on the problem may be made.
It is important that the teacher should secure helps from every
available source. Needless to say, most textbooks offer very little
information concerning this problem and as a result, teachers must
look elsewhere. All of the various private and governmental test-
ing agencies should be consulted. Most of the information from the
National Bureau of Standards may be secured free, while the ser-
vices of most of the private testing agencies cost several dollars
per year. Regardless of price, all agencies should be questioned re-
garding the type of service they render.
Actual experiences of students as well as those of their friends
and families should not be overlooked. These form perhaps the
best approaches as they are more meaningful to students.
Recent books in the field of consumer education should be ob-
tained if possible. Most of these books hold the interest of students
from beginning to end. They present in a clear and convincing
manner the many problems encountered by consumers as they make
their purchases from day to day. Several of the best of these are
indicated in the bibliography.

SUGGESTED PUPIL ACTIVITIES TO BE USED IN DEALING
WITH THIS PROBLEM
Finding the need for consumer education.
Go to the grocery stores in your community and list all of the











brand names of coffee, tea, and other products. Determine the
price, weight, and other factors of each and make a chart of the
results. Examine bottles and other food containers for deceptive
appearance as to size and content. Notice varying prices for dif-
ferent brands. List any other factors illustrating the need for
intelligent buying. Bring to the class newspaper clippings and
magazine articles of interest to consumers. Construct charts and
graphs showing the rise and fall in prices of various foods and
articles of clothing over a period of years. Determine the primary
aim of the average producer of goods. Suggest ways in which we
may influence production. List ways in which the consumer may
influence production. Read to discover the diseases or afflictions
that may result from the use of impure foods and drugs. Find im-
perfections in present legislation. Suggest remedies. Write a.
paper in which you show the need for consumer education.

Determining factors affecting the prices of consumers' goods
Read to understand the law of supply and demand. Make a
graph to show varying prices charged for fresh fruits and vege-
tables the year around. Account for the change in prices. Com-
pare prices of women's clothing and men's clothing. Estimate the
extent to which the difference in price is due to style. Determine
the extent to which the prices of milk. electricity, gas, and water
are regulated by the local government. Discuss the reasons why
this regulation seems necessary. Suggest reasons for prices de-
pending upon the number and size of the companies making and
selling goods. List factors making it possible for chain stores to
sell at lower prices than independent stores. Show by means of a
chart how prices fluctuate with general business condition. Discuss
the idea that prices are largely dependent upon how much con-
sumers are willing to pay for goods. Debate whether or not people
as a rule will buy the most expensive brands of goods which they
can afford.

Budgeting your income
Keep careful account of your expenditures for one week. Re-
view the account with the idea of trying to find unwise or unneces-
sary purchases. With the help of reference books, prepare a list
of important things to be remembered while making a budget. In-
terview someone who keeps a budget. Ask him to discuss with you
some of the problems of budget making. Prepare a chart in which
you contrast varying proportions of the income devoted to the
ordinary items of expenditures as found in model budgets. Write
to the National government for information about personal budget-
ing. Study model budgets with a view to making one of your own.
Compare various forms for keeping a budget. Prepare a budget










for a single man or woman who earns $100 per month. For one
who makes $200. Make a tentative personal budget. At the end
of one month check carefully every item and consider the need for
revision. Write a paper on the importance of planning personal
finances. Summarize advantages and disadvantages of operating
on a budget.

Finding the work of consumer cooperatives in America
Make a study of the cooperative movement in Europe. Trace
the spread of this movement in the United States. Read to under-
stand the objectives of these organizations. Determine whether or
not cooperatives are located in your section. If so, interview
members to find the products bought collectively. Read to under-
stand how retail consumer cooperatives purchase their goods. Find
the function of wholesale cooperatives. Debate whether or not
consumer cooperatives can compete successfully with efficient pri-
vate businesses. Compare and contrast the methods used by each.
List possible disadvantages accompanying the cooperative system.
Suggest ways in which one of these organizations might render
service 'in your community.

Using sales resistance
List the various human characteristics to which trained sales-
men appeal. Attempt to analyze the tactics used by house-to-house
salesmen. Prepare a list of "get-rich-quick" schemes. Write a
paper on super-salesmanship. Contrast methods of selling goods
now with methods used one hundred years ago. Prepare a report
on the scientific basis of modern salesmanship. Discuss with other
members of the class the proper reactions to make when approach-
ed by a salesman. Make a list of standards to be used in helping
one decide whether or not to make a particular purchase. Read
magazines for salesmen to find current sales practices. Listen to
the sales talk of clerks in local stores. Write a paper on the need
for the development of sales resistance.

Buying healthful and economical foods
Make a chart showing the caloric value of our most common
foods. Report on an investigation of prices of various sizes and
weights of canned goods. Compare and discuss the labels on can-
ned foods. Compare prices on identical items of food sold in various
stores in the community. Prepare a chart showing calories and
vitamins derived from meats and vegetables. Contrast the food
value of prepared and unprepared cereals. Compare cheese and
meat on the basis of price and food value. Visit dairies, bakeries,
meat markets, slaughter houses, and restaurants to observe sani-
tary and insanitary practices. Compare the prices of several dif-
ferent brands of the same foods. Estimate the weekly expenditure
for food per person each week in your home. Contrast food prices
now with prices in 1932. Investigate the problem of food waste in











the home. List advantages and disadvantages of package buying;
bulk buying. Formulate standards for selecting proper foods.
Read and discuss state and national laws relating to the processing
of foods. Compare milk with other foods on the basis of price,
calorie content, and vitamin content. Explain why cereals are
cheaper according to food value than meat.

Evaluating advertisements
Make a scrapbook in which you contrast misleading advertis-
ing and advertising which should be of real service to the consumer.
Place outstanding examples of deceptive advertising on the bulle-
tin board. Analyze several advertisements to find out why they are
appealing. Analyze the steps through which we go in making
choices. Make a poster exposing deceptive labels. Prepare a chart
showing the annual expenditures for advertising in the United
States since 1900. Debate whether or not advertising raises or
lowers the prices of articles. Ask local merchants or businessmen
to give you concrete examples of the power of advertising. Obtain
statistics from several companies with the idea of showing the in-
crease of sales accompanying an increase of advertising costs. In-
vestigate the validity of testimonial advertising. Determine whether
advertising may have an effect upon what is printed in newspapers.
Test your memory of trade names in order to discover the im-
pression made by advertising. List well-known slogans used in
this country. Anaylze them as to truthfulness. Make a chart to
show the annual expenditure of money in the United States on ad-
vertising as compared to amounts spent for food, education, church
support, and recreation. Investigate agencies which try to improve
standards of advertising. Estimate the part advertising plays in
the cost of various products. List possible benefits and evils de-
rived from advertising. Write a paper on the history of advertis-
ing. Prepare a report on what can be done to take advertisements
for what they are worth.

Guarding against the use of dangerous drugs and cosmetics
Investigate federal and state regulations concerning drugs. Ex-
plain the conditions which led to the passage- of the Pure Food and
Drugs Act. Show why this act is not as effective as it should be.
Find out what national consumer legislation is now pending. Inves-
tigate to discover Florida laws dealing with drugs. Compare and
discuss the labels on various types of patent medicines. Consult
personal acquaintances to get their experiences with dangerous
drugs. Determine the present status of the Copeland Bill. Consult
the reports of testing agencies to determine safe and harmful medi-
cines. List the possible dangers encountered in the use of face
powder, rouge, dipilatories, deodorants, and mascara. Consult the
book, Skin Deep, to learn some of the dangerous cosmetics. Pre-
pare a report on the history of cosmetics in which you summarize
your knowledge of dangers accompanying their use.











Buying better clothing for less money
List some of the advantages of bargain sales to buyers; dis-
advantages. Relate style and fashion to economy in the purchase
of clothing. Consult the reports of Consumers' Union, Consumers' Re-
search, National Bureau of Standards, National Consumers' League,
and other testing agencies to determine the relative worth of various
brands of clothing. Prepare a chart showing the fall in prices
during seasonal sales. Discuss the influence of changing styles on
the price of clothing. Compare prices of similar and identical
articles of clothing sold in various stores. Make a list of standards
for use in purchasing clothing. Explain how one's standard of
dress may be made better through wise buying. Prepare a per-
sonal clothing budget. Find the taxes on various articles of cloth-
ing. List types and styles of clothing that are fads. Contrast the
cash and time payment charges on apparel in local stores. Analyze
the factors which enter into the price of garments.

Understanding the cost of installment buying and short term loans
Go to local stores and find the difference between cash and
time payments on various articles. Determine the annual interest
in each ease. Find the annual interest charge paid by a boy who
bought a $20 suit of clothes, paying $4 extra for the privilege of
paying $4 down and $4 per month. Consult local banks or finance
companies to find the interest rate charged for borrowing $25 or
less for a period of one month. Determine the legal rate of interest
in your state. Explain how some small finance companies can
operate without requiring collateral or indorsements. Make a re-
port on pawn shops. Prepare a paper on the rise of installment
buying. Suggest cases when it may be wise to buy on the install-
ment plan.
Making a survey of information available to consumers.
Write to the following places for information concerning the
type of service they render consumers and the cost of obtaining it.
American Association of University Women, 1634 I St., Washington,
D. C.
American Medical Association, Chicago, Illinois.
American Standards Association, 29 W. 39th St., New York.
Consumers' Research, Washington, N. J.
Consumers' Union of the United States, Inc., 22 E. 17th St., New
York.
Cooperative Distributors, 30 Irving Place, New York.
Cooperative League of America, 167, W. 12th St., New York.
Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Home Economics, Washing-
ton, D. C.
Department of Interior, Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C.
Eastern Cooperative League, New York.
Inter-Mountain Consumers' Service, Inc., Denver, Colorado.
National Canners' Association, Washington, D. C.











Salt Lake Committee on Consumer Problems, Salt Lake City, Utah.
Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C.
United States Printing Office, Food and Drug Administration, Wash-
ington, D. C
Make a survey of the consumer magazines on the market to
determine the types of help they give. Make a bibliography of
books on consumer education. Watch for current magazine articles
of interest to the study of this problem. Bring these to class for
discussion.
SUGGESTIONS FOR EVALUATION
There are two important methods of evaluation which should
not be overlooked. First of all, teachers should have certain ques-
tions in mind to use as a general basis for discovering student re-
action to the problem. Among the questions teachers should be
continually asking are:
Do the students seem more nearly aware of the importance of
intelligent buying?
Does it seem that they have grown in their desire to save?
Are they more wary of advertising?
Do they seem to be more nearly aware of the dangers of im-
pure food and drugs, installment buying, and short term loans?
Are they better equipped to stand the pressure of modern
salesmanship?
Do they show interest in getting better returns for their money?
Are they more discriminating when making purchases of food?
Of clothing?
In the second place, students should be asking themselves ques-
tions such as these:
Am I devoting a proper amount of time to this problem?
Am I using available materials to best advantage?
Do I understand the objectives to be attained?
Am I becoming better prepared to evaluate advertisements?
Am I using more care and forethought in buying food, clothing,
and other consumer needs?
Am I developing a better system for carrying on personal
finance?
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books:
*Arnold, Joseph I., Cooperative Citizenship, Row, Peterson and Com-
pany, Evanston, Illinois, 1933, pp. 306-19.
*Arnold, Joseph I., Problems in American Life, Row, Peterson and
Company, Evanston, Illinois, 1934, pp. 155-70.
Baker, A. 0.; Mills, L. H.; and Conner, W. L.; Dynamic Biology,
Rand McNally and Company, 1933, pp. 147-64.

* Indicates excellent book for student use.
** Indicates excellent book for teacher use.











Baker, Jacob, Co-operative Enterprise, The Vanguard Press, Inc.,
New York, 1937.
"Barrett, Theodore, and Spaeth, Lovis B. Jr., What About Dollars,
McClure Publishing Co., New York, 1936.
Distributed by Educational Research Association, Pasadena,
Calif.
*Bennett, Harry, More For Your Money, The Chemical Publishing
Company, New York, 1937.
A buyers' guide telling how to judge a wide variety of con-
sumers' goods.
"Bent, Silas, Ballyhoo, The Voice of the Press, Boni and Liver-
right Publishing Corp., New York, 1927.
*Brainard, Dudley S. and Zeleny, Leslie D., Problems of Our Times,
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1935, pp. 126-134.
96 cents.
*Brindze, Ruth, How to Spend Money, Vanguard Press, Inc., New
York, 1935.
*Bush, George L.; Ptacek, Theodore W.; and Kovats, John, Jr.;
Senior Science, American Book Company, Atlanta, Georgia,
1937. Chapter V.
*Chase, 'Stuart and Schlink, E. J., Your Money's Worth, The Mac-
millan Company, New York, 1927. $1.00.
A study in frauds, misrepresentation, quacks, cure-alls, etc.
Coles, Jessie Vee, Standardization of Consumers' Goods, The Ronald
Press Company, New York, 1932.
**Cramp, Arthur J., Nostrums and Quackery and Pseudo-Medicine,
Vol. III, Press of the American Medical Association, Chicago,
1936.
Crobaugh, Merryn, Economics For Everybody, William Morrow and
Company, Inc., New York, 1937. $2.50.
A story of economic thought told in clear non-technical
language.
Dale, Edgar, HOW To Appreciate Motion Pictures, The Macmillan
Company, New York, 1933.
A manual of motion picture criticism prepared for high school
students.
*Eaton, Jeanette, Behind the Show Window, Harcourt Brace and
Company, Inc., New York, 1935. $2.50.
Edmonson, James B. and Dondineau, Arthur, Civics Through Prob-
lems, The Macmillan Company, New York, 1935, pp. 425-46.
Good treatment of the consumer and his economic problems.
*Ellison, E. Jerome and Brock, Frank W., The Run For Your Money,
Dodge Publishing Company, New York, 1935. $2.50.
Telling how one may be swindled and how to avoid it.
*Erkel, Agnes M. and Shiras, Sylvia R., Mrs. Consumer's Dollar; An
Aid in Consumer Education, Burgess Publishing Company, 1935.

* Indicates excellent book for student use.
** Indicates excellent book for teacher use.











Erkel, A. M. and Wagner, W. P., Today's Consumer Family, Burgess
Publishing Company, Minneapolis, 1937. $1.25.
Foreman, Clark, and Ross, Michael, The Consumer Seeks A Way,
W. W. Norton and Company, Inc., New York, 1935. $2.00.
A book endeavoring to show a means of escape from consumer
difficulties and intelligent consideration of the needs of the
common man.
**Fowler, Bertram B., Consumer Co-operation in America, The Van-
guard Press, Inc., New York, 1936. $2.00.
Describes the accomplishments and aims of the consumer
movement in this country.
*Giles, Ray, How To Beat the High Cost of Living, Simon and
Schuster, Inc., New York, 1937. $1.00.
864 money savers for everyday use. Good help for students
and teacher. Practical advice.
Goslin, Ryllis A., Cooperatives, Foreign Policy Association, New
York, 1937.
Greenan, John T., American Civilization Today, McGraw-Hill Book
Company, Inc., New York, 1934. 80 cents.
Recommended for every social studies classroom. A summary
of Recent Social Trends, findings of the President's Research
Committee on Social Trends. Touches practically every phase
of American life.
Gruening, Ernest, The Public Pays, The Vanguard Press, New York,
1931.
Haas, K. B., Studies in Problems of the Consumer, Bowling Green
University, Bowling Green, Kentucky, 1936. 127 pp. mimeo-
graphed.
Harap, Henry, The Education of the Consumer, The Macmillan Com-
pany, New York, 1924.
*Harding, T. Swann, The Popular Practice of Fraud, Longmans,
Green and Company, New York, 1935. $2.50.
Exposing frauds in law, drugs, food, science, clothing, cos-
metics, advertising, psychology, and economics.
*Hawes, Elizabeth, Fashion Is Spinach, Randon House, Inc., New
York, 1938. $2.95.
Vocation and consumption.
Henderson, Fred, Capitalism and The Consumer, George Allen and
Unwil, Ltd., London, 1936.
*Hill, Howard C. and Tugwell, Rexford Guy, Our Economic Society
and Its Problems, Harcourt, Brace, and Company, New York,
1935, pp. 431-59. $1.72.
Raising levels of living by right use of income.
*Hillis, Marjorie, Orchids On Your Budget, Bobbs-Merrill Company,
Indianapolis, Indiana, 1937, Chapter VI.


* Indicates excellent book for student use.
** Indicates excellent book for teacher use.











*Hughes, R. 0., Building Citizenship, Allyn and Bacon, Boston, 1933.
Chapter 23 presents a simple treatment of how buying and
selling take place. Chapter 13 treats of human wants and
their satisfaction.
Irwin, Will, Propaganda and the News, Whittlesey House, New
York, 1936.
**Johnson, Julia E., Consumers' Co-operatives, The H. W. Wilson
Company, New York, 1936.
*Kallett, A. and Schlink, F. J., 100,000,000 Guinea Pigs, The Van-
guard Press, New York, 1933.
Exposing dangers in everyday buying.
*Kallet, Arthur, Counterfeit, The Vanguard Press, New York, 1935.
Kenner, H. J., The Fight for the Truth in Advertising, Round Table
Press, New York, 1936. $2.50.
Kinneman, John A.; Browne, Richard E.; and Ellwood, Roberts;
The American Citizen, Harper and Brothers, New York, 1936,
pp. 209-24.
Protecting the consumer.
*Klein, Jacob and Colvin, Woolf, Economic Problems of Today,
Lyons and Carnahan, New York, 1936, pp. 9-38.
Advertising and the consumer. Reducing the cost of living.
How the consumer directs production. Good treatment.
*Lamb, Ruth DeForest, The American Chamber of Horrors, Farrar
and Rhinehart, New York, 1935. $2.00.
Landis, B. V., A Primer for Consumers, Association Press, 1936.
10 cents.
Lutz, Harley L.; Foote, Edmund W.; and Stanton, Benjamin F.;
An Introduction to Economics, Row Peterson and Company,
Evanston, Illinois, 1933, pp. 361-99.
Economic importance, principles, and standards of consump-
tion. pp. 100-9, Influence of the consumer on production.
Lynd, R. S., "The People as Consumers," Recent Social Trends,
Chapter XVII, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York,
1933.
*Matthews, Joseph Brown, Guinea Pigs No More, Covici-Friede, Inc.,
New York, 1936.
Suggesting remedies for many of the problems confronting the
consumer.
Michels, Rudolf K., Economics, Gregg Publishing Comraany, New
York, 1937, pp. 52-71.
Economics of consumption.
*Palmer, Rachel Lynn and Alpher, Isidore M., 40,000,000 Guinea Pig
Children, The Vanguard Press, Inc., New York, 1937. $2.00.
Warning against exploitation of childhood by advertisers. Does
for children what 100,000,000 Guinea Pigs did for adults.

* Indicates excellent book for student use.
** Indicates excellent book for teacher use.










Paustian, P. W. and Paustian, E. C., An Elementary Sociology,
Lucas Brothers, Columbia, Missouri, 1937, pp. 128-45.
Sociological aspects of consumer education.
*Phillips, Mary Catherine, Skin Deep, the Truth About Beauty Aids
-Safe and Harmful, The Vanguard Press, New York, 1934.
Information in this book supplied by Consumers' Research.
"Pitkin, Walter B., Let's Get What We Want, Simon and Schuster,
Inc., New York, 1935. $2.00.
Aim of this book is. to describe the crisis of consumer in the
four necessities of life-shelter, health, food and clothing, and
to tell how we must end the crisis.
Pitkin, Walter B., The Consumer, His Nature and His Changing
Habits, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1932.
*Reich, Edward and 'Siegler, Carlton John, Consumer Goods; How to
Know and Use Them, American Book Company, New York, 1937.
**Reis, Bernard J., False Security, Equinox Co-operative Press, Inc.,
New York, 1937.
Showing how the American investor has been betrayed, and how
he may avoid dangers.
*Robinson, L. N., and Nugent, Rolf, Regulation of the Small Loan
Business, Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 1935. $3.00.
Rugg, Harold, An Introduction To Problems of American Culture,
Ginn and Company, Boston, 1931, pp. 447-77.
Treating of advertising and the consumer.
Schlink, F. J., Eat, Drink, and Be Wary, Covici-Friede, Inc., New
York, 1935. $2.00.
Smith, A. H., Economics, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New
York, 1935, pp. 38-57.
Good treatment of economic aspects of consumer education, pp.
115-26. Material on cooperative enterprise in its economic
aspect.
Todoroff, A., Food Buying Today, Grocery Trade Publishing House,
Chicago, 1938. $2.00.
Trilling, M. B.; Eberhart, E. K.; and Williams, Florence; When You
Buy, J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, 1938. $1.80.
Wofford, K. V., Modern Education in the Small Rural School, The
Macmillan Company, New York, 1938.
Excellent source for small rural schools. Sections on free and
inexpensive materials and equipment suggestions regarding curri-
culum making and the daily program.
Periodicals:
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science,
May, 1934. Whole issue devoted to problems of the consumer.
Atwater, R.; Shook, F. M.; and Ross, M., "Labeling Canned Goods",
Journal of Home Economics, 21:425-31, September, 1935.

* Indicates excellent book for student use.
** Indicates excellent book for teacher use.










Blake, D.," Stop Pinching and Lift, Smell and Look Instead", Colliers'
964:22, September, 1935.
Carpenter, H., "Adventure with a Market Basket", Ladies' Home
Journal, 51:34-35, April, 1934.
Chaney, M. S., "Truth in Food Advertising", Journal of Home Eco-
nomics, 24:705-7, August, 1932.
Consumers' Buying Guide, Inter-mountain Consumers' Service, Inc.,
982 South Pennsylvania Street, Denver, Colorado. $3.00 per year.
Consumers' Co-operation, 167 West 12th Street, New York, N.
Y., $1.00 per year.
Consumers' Defender, Co-operative Distributors, 30 Irving Place,
New York. Published several times a year.
Consumer Education News Letter, American Home Economics As-
sociation, Mills Building, Washington, D. C., $1.00 per year.
Consumers' Guide, United States Department of Agriculture, Wash-
ington, D. C. Bi-weekly, free.
Consumers' Research, Washington, N. J. $3.00 per year.
Consumers' Union Reports, Consumers' Union of the United States,
Inc., 55 Vandam Street, New York. Monthly, $1.00 per year.
Harap, Henry, "Survey of Twenty-eight Courses in Consumption",
School Review, 43:497-507, September, 1935. Reprints may be
obtained from the Division of Surveys and Field Studies,
George Peabody College, Nashville, Tennessee. 10c.
Harding, T. S., "Where Can Consumers Get the Facts", Christian
Century, 53:1358-60, October 14, 1936.
Kyrk, Hazel, "Who Shall Educate The Consumer", Annals of the
American Academy of Political and Social Science, 182:41-49,
November, 1935.
Montgomery, D. E., "Consumers Under Way", Survey Graphic,
27:213-17, April 14, 1938.
National Consumer News, 509 Fifth Avenue, New York. $1.00 per
year of twelve issues. Information concerning the consumer
movement.
Price, R. G., "The Schools and The Consumer", Journal of the
National Education Association, 25:48-49, February, 1936.
Raitt, Effie I., "What Can Business Do To Remove Consumer Sus-
picion?", Journal of Home Economics, 28:5-8, January, 1936.
Reich, E., "How To Teach Consumers", Printers Ink, 182:81-92,
February 17, 1938.
Taylor, M. Y., "Leading a Study Group in Consumer Purchasing",
Journal of Home Economics, 28:289-95, May, 1936.
Ware, C. F., "The Consumers' Approach to Economic Studies",
The Social Studies, 25:222-25, May, 1934.
Winkelhape, M. Elizabeth, "Advertising From the Standpoint of the
Consumer", Journal of Home Economics, 29:88-92, February,
1937.











Miscellaneous:
Allertz, Norma C. and Dye,, Lucius W., A Course in, Consumer Edu-
cation, Social Science XLI-X, Extension Division, University
of Nebraska, Lincoln, 1938.
A correspondence course in consumer education. Compiled in
book form.
American Museum of Natural History, 77th Street and Central
Park West, New York, 250 films, educational and industrial,
some 35 M-M, mostly 16 M-M, silent. Free.
Blackburn, B., and Dodge, B., Floor Coverings, Better Buymanship
Bulletin No. 10, Household Finance Corporation, 919 N. Mich-
igan Ave., Chicago, 1934.
Building America, Columbia University Press, New York. Three
issues devoted entirely to this subject: "Foods", October, 1935:
"We Consumers", March, 1937; "Health", July, 1936. 25e per
copy.
Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Washington, D. C. Write for
pamphlet on Inspecting, Standardizing and Grading F'oods
and other consumer materials.
Clarke, Edwin L., Consumers' Problems. Write to Treasurer, Rollins
College, Winter Park, Florida, 1936. 25c.
This pamphlet is the syllabus Professor Clarke uses in his
class in consumer problems at Rollins College.
Consumer Problem Manual, Written and published jointly by the
Salt Lake Committee on Consumer Problems and the Adult
Education Program of the Works Progress Administration,
Salt Lake City, Utah, 1938. 15c. Units covering Weights and
Measures, Fruits, Meats, Vegetables, Nutrition, Clothing.
Department of Labor, Consumers Project, Washington, D. C. Write'
for copies of "Consumers Notes."
Evaporated Milk Association, Feeding a Family At a Low Cost, 203
North Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. Free.
Flynn, John T., "Is Our Public Opinion Controlled by Propaganda'",
Bulletin of American Town Meeting of the Air, 3, No.' 24:12-13,
April 18, 1938.
Food and Drug Administration, Washington, Write for a copy of
"Notices of Judgment" and other free material of interest to
consumers.
Goslin, Ryllis A., Cooperatives, Foreign Policy Association, 8 East
40th Street, New York, 1937. 25c.
Story of cooperative movement here and abroad.
Hodsell, R. S., Developing Intelligent Consumers, Hiram High School..
Hiram, Ohio. 15c.
Projects in Consumer Economics. About 25 pp. Mimeographed.
Institute for Propaganda Analysis, Inc., 132 Morningside Drive,
New York, Propaganda Analysis.
A monthly letter to help intelligent citizens detect and analyze
propaganda.











Institute for Propaganda Analysis, Inc., 132 Morningside Drive,,
New York, Propaganda, How to Recognize It and, Deal With It,
Bulletin, 1938.
International Educational Pictures, Inc., 40 Mount Vernon Street,
Boston. Write for information.
International Film Bureau, 59 E. Van Buren Street, Chicago.
Write for information.
Iowa State College Visual Instruction Service, Ames, Iowa. Write
for information.
Lamb, B. P., Government and the Consumer, National League of
Women Voters, 726 Jackson Place, Washington, D. C., 1935.
51 pp.
Libby, McNeil, and Libby, Facts Concerning Canned Goods, Home
Economics Department, Chicago. Free.
McHibben, Hazel, Suggestive Material for Teaching Consumer
Buying in Secondary Schools, Home Economics Division, Iowa
State College, Ames, August, 1935. 35c.
Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, New York, Family Food
Supply; What to Buy and When. Free.
Metropolitan Motion Picture Company, 108 W. 34th St., New York.
Write for information.
Midcontinent Pictures Corporation, 4327 Duncan Ave., St. Louis.
Write for information.
National Canners' Association, Stop Wondering, Here Are the
Facts; How To Buy Canned Goods, Washington, D. C. Free.
National Motion Picture Company, Mooresville, Indiana. Write for
information.
National Motion Picture Service, 723 7th Ave., New York. Write for
information.
New York State College of Agriculture, Cornell University, It, Pays
To Buy Foods Wisely, No. 237, 1932. Ithaca. 10c.
,O'Brien, Ruth and Hartley, Olive, An Analysis of Consumers' Facil-
ities for Judging Merchandise, U. S. Department of Agriculture,
Bureau of Home Economics, Washington, D. C.
Pinkney Film Service, 1028 Forbes Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Write for information.
Public Affairs Committee, Inc., 8 West 40th Street, New York.
This organization provides excellent public affair pamphlets
at 10c each. Write for information.
Starr, M. and Norton, H., The Worker As a Consumer, Brookwood
Labor College, Latonah, New York, 1934. 26 pp. Mimeographed.
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Home Economics and
Extension Service, Washington, D. C., Getting The Most for
Your Food Money, 1931. Free.
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Home Economics, Wash-
ington, D. C., Planning and Recording Family Expenditures, No.
1553, 1927. 5c.











U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Home Economics,
Washington, D. C., Present Guides For Household Buying, 1936,
Misc. Pub. No. 183, 35 pp.
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Consumers' Counsel Division,
Washington, D. C., Sources of Information on Consumer Educa-
tion and Organization, No. 1, revised, 1936.
U.S. Office of Education, Consumer Buying in the Educational Pro-
gram for Home-Making, Superintendent of Documents, Wash-
ington, D. C., 1935. 20 cents. Treats course outlines and lists
source material. Good treatment of consumer buying at the
secondary level.
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. Write for free and in-
expensive material.
Visual Education Service, 470 Stuart Street, Boston. Write for
information.
Wholesome Film Service, Inc., 48 Melrose Ave., Boston. Write for
information.
Yale University Press, Film Service, 386 Fourth Ave., New York.
Distributors of "The Chronicles of American Photoplays' pro-
duced by the Yale University Press. Write for titles and prices.
Y. M. C. A. National Council of Motion Picture Bureau, 347 Madi-
son Avenue, New York. Write for information.











CHAPTER VI.

HOW TO CREATE MORE DESIRABLE HEALTH CONDITIONS
IN OUR COMMUNITY
IMPORTANCE OF THE PROBLEM
Two million adults in the country are constantly too ill to
work, according to several estimates, and about three-quarters of
.all families under the care of the various welfare agencies have one
or more health problems serious enough for calling a doctor. This
illness saps vitality and prevents the individual from thinking and
acting at his best. When it stops the breadwinner and interferes
with the homemaker it breaks not only into rest and recreation and
the education of the children, but also lowers the family's standard
of living, and not infrequently breaks family morale, thereby in-
creasing the sense of failure and inferiority characteristic of de-
pendency. Sickness begets poverty and poverty in turn begets sick-
ness, because all the labors of public health agencies and the finest
traditions of medicine in giving services to the poor have not yet
been able to give all who need it adequate medical care.
The lack of adequate medical attention and care for so many
does not arise from stagnation and inactivity in the world of medi-
cine and surgery. Statistics show that many diseases have been
brought under control and that the average span of life has been
lengthened. In keeping with the manifold achievements of the
modern era, America's physicians and scientists have taken their
places of leadership in advancing the ancient and honorable science
of healing. These guardians of life and health in the community
are looked up to and depended upon more today than ever before.
Leaders among them see infinite possibilities for continued im-
provement of health. Medical associations have sponsored health
associations and other cooperative agencies for spreading the bene-
fits of preventive and curative medicine alike. Yet, despite efforts
that are constantly being made, health conditions in our society are
not as good as they ought to be in an age with so many possibil-
ities for improving human living.
The annual toll in economic and social living which is taken by
,disease is too great. In Florida, malaria, tuberculosis, syphilis,
hookworm, influenza, and pneumonia create misery, hamper effi-
ciency, and break body resistance to such an extent that commun-
ities are filled with the poverty-stricken, and the state and county
institutions for the feeble-minded, the insane, the blind and the deaf
are overcrowded. In 1936 more than 1,300 deaths occurred in
Florida as a result of heart disease, brain stroke, nephritis, can-
cer, pneumonia, tuberculosis, influenza, premature birth, and syphilis.
A number of common diseases evidently are masked under "heart
disease" when death reports are sent to the Bureau of Vital Stat's-
tices. In multiplied thousands of instances poverty and illness











conspire to form a vicious circle, each tending to lead to the other,
thereby creating individual hopelessness and a public menace be-
cause of present inadequate medical service.
The executive secretary of a county tuberculosis and health as-
sociation reported a case among numerous others in July, 1938,
which is an example of the many problems health and social work-
ers find throughout Florida. Her report follows in part.
"July 11, 1938. A relative of the family of a very ill woman
came to the Association's office to ask for a bed for her at the
County :Sanatorium. The family lives in an almost empty house
and sleeps in one room. The bed consists only of quilts spread on
the springs for there is no mattress. The eleven-year-old girl sleeps
on an old auto seat on the floor. 'She is badly emaciated but, a
tuberculin test and an X-ray last week showed no tuberculosis ac-
tivity yet. The man earns two dollars a week and his food. Moral
conditions are bad. The family refused to cooperate with agencies,
but I believe the child welfare workers will find a way of removing
the child from the so-called home and placing her in the care of a
good woman in the next few days. This family is a health and so-
cial menace to society."
One of the obligations of the schools is to provide stimulating
experiences whereby pupils will become more conscious of their re-
sponsibilities not only for securing and maintaining their own health,
but also for promoting health in their communities. It is not suf-
ficient for students merely to acquire health habits and to learn the
possibilities of maintaining their own health so that they them-
selves will be no liability to society. Let it be supposed that the cur-
riculum of the schools could develop in the majority of the students
the knowledge of how to avoid and to overcome disease together
with the necessary habits and ideals which would make them do
all in their power to live healthy lives. Yet, would there not still
remain the necessity of considering factors beyond the control of
the individual? Citizenship in a democracy requires that the in-
dividual be concerned not only with his welfare, but also with the
welfare of the group.
As society is organized today some of-the factors beyond the
control of the individual, particularly if he has a low income, in-
clude lack of doctors and health officers in his community, too
distant and too expensive hospitalization and clinical facilities, too
expensive medicines and serum, inconstant health education and
planning of health programs, and limited quarantine and immuniza-
tion of contagious diseases.
There are numerous public and charitable health agencies,
organizations, and institutions in Florida which furnish concrete
illustrations of the activity in which we would have young citizens
become interested while they are still in high school. Moreover, it
is highly desirable that we go beyond interest and guide them into
actual participation in sharing in and working for these deserving











organizations whether under the auspices of government or of
private charity.
In Florida most of the health work is under the direction of
the State Board of Health with headquarters in Jacksonville. Bu-
reaus and divisions include those on Dental Health, District and
County Health Work, Drug Inspection, Engineering, Epidemiology,
Health Education, Laboratories, Maternal and Child Health, Public
Health Nursing, Sanitation, Tuberculosis, and Vital 'Statistics.
Several counties have established full-time health units, and definite
plans are under way for establishing more throughout Florida. At
the beginning of the summer of 1938 there were health units in
Leon, Wakulla, Escambia, Jackson, Broward, Taylor, Gadsden, Mon-
roe, Pinellas, Hillsborough, Highlands, Orange, Gulf, Calhoun, and
Franklin counties. The last three combined to operate under one
office. In addition the Rockefeller Foundation cooperates with the
State Board of Health in malaria research. The United States Bu-
reau of Entomology, as well as other branches of the United States
Public Health Service, lend assistance to health work in Florida.
The larger municipalities also employ full or part-time medical of-
ficers to direct health departments.
The Florida Public Health Association was organized in 1930
by State Board of Health employees and City Health Department
representatives to "provide for scientific advancement of its mem-
bers and extend and develop the public health movement in an as-
sociation of public health workers." The Florida Tuberculosis and
Health Association and numerous affiliated county associations are
doing much in tuberculosis treatment and control. In January,
1938, Florida's Tuberculosis Sanatorium, near Orlando, was dedi-
cated. It was built at a cost of $700,000 and accommodates 312
patients. When the State Tuberculosis Board can purchase more
equipment, it can take care of more than 400 patients. Societies
for cancer cure, maternal welfare, and for the control of other
diseases do all they can to make better health conditions for the
people of the community and state. The Parent-Teacher Associa-
tion, civic clubs, women's clubs, and chambers of commerce make
a common attack on diseases and poor health conditions.
The Florida Medical Association has active committees work-
ing on cancer control, tuberculosis, maternal welfare, child health,
venereal disease control, and other phases of health. Florida has
a Workingmen's Compensation law to provide help for the indigent
in industry. The Federal Government under the Social Security,
the Farm Security Administration and the Works Progress Ad-
ministration made money available to supplement state and local
funds for the promotion of community health work. A proposal
has been before Congress for some time for the creation of a De-
partment of Welfare which would include more federal aid and con-
trol of medicine and health services. The American Medical Asso-
ciation, fighting to keep control of medicine within the profession,











countered with a proposal for establishment of a National Depart-
ment of Health rather than a. Department of Welfare.
Late in July, 1938, the national government's Technical Com-
mittee on Medical Care reported a five-point program at a meet-
ing of the National Health Conference. The proposals are to be
presented to Congress in 1939. The first recommendation was for
an appropriation to fight such diseases as pneumonia and tubercu-
losis through an expansion of public health facilities to be carried
out under already established Social Security agencies. Second, it
recommended a federal appropriation for care of mothers and
children. The third proposal was for building five hundred health
centers in selected areas and for adding 360,000 hospital beds to
the nation's 1,024,000 already set up in hospitals. Fourth proposal
was to spend $400,000,000 a year to supply free medical care to
forty million persons in families with incomes of $800 or less. And,
fifth, a compulsory health insurance plan was recommended to
cover groups earning less than $3,000 a year.
The question of state medicine has been a very live one for
two or three years in the Florida Medical Association and at mid-
summer of 1938, the Medical Economics Committee of the Florida
Medical Association, fighting off socialized medicine, laid plans
for establishment of an experimental bureau designed to give ade-
quate medical care by their own physicians to all persons regard-
less of income or ability to pay. The American Medical Associa-
tion has" a survey under way to ascertain whether medical care is
adequate in the United States. The fact-finding part of the survey
is being left to county medical societies. The American Hospital
Association, organized in 1933, has increased from a few thousand
members to more than two millions, and operates a form of health
insurance in more than forty cities. The plan helps the individual
budget against time of sickness or accident. Similar plans have
been tried in industry in the country and in various clubs in Florida,
particularly in the Latin Clubs of Tampa, for many years.
Since England's Public Health Insurance Act became law in
1911, the issue of state medicine has been discussed widely in
America. Other European countries have had socialized medicine
for a long time. Whether or not socialized medicine comes in
America is yet to be determined, although advocates on both sides
of the issue agree that conditions in America are different from
those in Europe. It is a generally accepted principle that private
practice should never be forbidden here, nor should those who are
able to pay for medical care be prohibited from having as much
attention as they care to pay for. Americans like to choose their
personal physicians, and they ignore class distinction which in
England enters into hospitalization with entirely separate hospitals
for the "lower" classes. At its 1937 session, the Florida Medical
Association passed a resolution on hospital and health insurance as
follows:











"The Florida Medical Association looks with unequivocal dis-
favor upon the control, direction, or employment of doctors of
medicine by any lay individual, group, association, or corporation,
whereby the services of such doctors are to be sold or dispensed
by the said individuals or agencies."
Speaking before the 1937 convention of the Florida Medical
Association, Dr. W. A. McPhaul, state health officer, discussed
what are considered hindrances to health promotion in Florida in
his address, "Barnacles of Public Health." They are:
1. Indifference of legislative and appropriative bodies.
2. Uncertainty of tenure of office.
3. Indifference of the public.
4. Lack of complete cooperation between public health and
organized medicine.
5. Lack of constant professional education.
6. Lack of pioneer spirit and professional pride.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt has placed the blame for a
higher death rate among citizens of a low economic rank on the
"indifference of local governments." He said:
"Other than indifference of local government-there is no rea-
son for tuberculosis to be twice as prevalent in some sections as
in others; for death and illness from diphtheria to. continue to occur
when some municipalities have been able to stamp it out entirely;
for twice as many babies to die each year in some cities as in those
where a modern health program is in force; for the rate of de-
cline of many preventable diseases and certain death rates to be
higher in rural communities with no organized health service, than
in urban communities where health service is available, or for citi-
zens of the lower economic rank to suffer a higher death rate from
practically all causes."

POSSIBLE APPROACHES TO THE PROBLEM
Among the pupil interests and community situations the teacher
may use in the introduction and development of this problem are
family doctor bills, dropping out of school of a student because of
doctor bills or illness of the breadwinner, absence excuses from
school because of illness, an epidemic of a contagious disease,
deaths in the community, or personal illnesses of members of the
class during the past. A slum clearance project in one of the larger
cities may have brought the health problem to the attention of
boys and girls in some schools. Other pupils may have heard a
preacher, a nurse, a doctor, a candidate for public office, or par-
ents say something striking about medical care and the public
health services. The Tuberculosis and Health Association may be
conducting a tuberculin testing program among school children. Re-











sults of audiometer and telebinocular tests in the school may have
just been announced. A noteworthy medical achievement may have
recently become known, or plans for group hospital insurance may
have been formulated for the families of the community. Many of
these situations may be common backgrounds of interest among
the pupils.
In fact, the boys and girls may already know something about
the work of, the County Health Unit and the Statel Board of Health.
They may have been following agitation of public opinion on the
issue of socialized medicine. In a problem so personal to every-
one the teacher should have no trouble in discovering possible ap-
proaches to a consideration of this problem.

SUGGESTED PUPIL ACTIVITIES
Finding out what the people of the community think about inade-
quate medical care.
Express opinions on having or not having a school nurse; a
school physician to give physical examinations. Interview repre-
sentative people in the various occupations in the county to find
out what they think about the adequacy of health services and
medical care. Recall instances of deaths in families due to inability
to pay for medical care. Get opinions on the community need of
more extensive medical care by interviewing officials of such or-
ganizations as the 'Social Security Administration, Works Progress
Administration, Tuberculosis and Health Association, Community
Chest, Juvenile Court, Parent-Teacher Association, civic clubs, and
welfare associations. Find out the attitude of county commissioners,
legislators, and city councilmen on the need for more health ser-
vices. Discuss the recommendations accompanying the most recent
health or sanitary survey in the community. Write an article for
the school paper on the findings of public opinion on this subject.
Post a copy of the article on the bulletin board.
Discovering causes of health problems in the community.
Locate and mark on a map the principal breeding places of
mosquitoes and flies in the neighborhood. Find out whether sewer-
age disposal in the community is safe. Map the polluted streams
and bodies of water in the community. Get the State Laboratory
nearest you to analyze the purity of the drinking water. Check up
on the purity of the milk and food supplies used by the people of
the city or county. Cite instances of lack of proper quarantine and
immunization. Get figures from the city health officer on the
death rate in slum areas of the large city nearest you in compari-
son with death statistics in the better residential sections of the
same city. Find out how the State Hotel Commission rates the
restaurants, hotels, and rooming houses of the community. Dis-
cover any instances of refusal of patients to cooperate with health
agencies. Recall examples of stinginess and other drawbacks to











adequate medical care in families which could afford to pay for it.
Discuss why timidity and ignorance contribute to lack of medical
and surgical treatment. Investigate the extravagant claims of
patent medicine advertisements, and determine whether people of
the neighborhood have been misled by them. Discover where Florida
stands among the states in maternal and infant mortality rate.
Find reasons for the high rate. Ascertain whether or not hospitals,
clinics, and doctors are available in the community, and to
what extent compared with the area of the community and the
total population to be served. Investigate to find out whether the
economic status of the family and ability to pay for medical ser-
vices is generally reflected in dental care. Find out how child
labor creates poor health. Compare unemployment of heads of
families and health conditions within the families. Gather informa-
tion on how transients and tourists increase the health liabilities
of the community. Find out to what extent the middle classes
of the community do not have proper medical care. Find out the
number of people in the community who have confining illnesses
and list the causes.

Discovering to what extent the benefits of the best achievements in
medicine are accessible to all people of the community.
Summarize the more recent advances in medicine, surgery, and
dentistry, and recall examples of their use known to members of
the class. Find out what diseases were a scourge a few genera-
tions ago, but are now practically stamped out. List other diseases
which could be eradicated if the right kind of effort were made.
Check up to find out whether there are some diseases more pre-
valent in your community than in similar places in Florida and in
the United States. Find out how many hospital and clinical beds
are available in the county. Find out what Class A hospitals are
in your community or in a nearby community. Describe special
equipment they may have. Find out to what extent physicians who
do general practice are backed up by specialists in the various fields
in the community. Find out what amount of training is necessary
for becoming a physician, and estimate the costs by examining
catalogs of universities and medical schools. Get information on
the number of doctors in the community who attend the Annual
Graduate Short Course for Doctors of Medicine at the University
of Florida. Find out how many doctors in the community have not
studied for a few weeks within the last five years at some first
class medical school. Suggest ways by which the best in medicine
and surgery may be made accessible to all the people of the com-
munity.
Finding out fhow people in other countries attempt to solve their
health problems.
Write to a health department or a health association of a
foreign country for copies of health laws or pamphlets and litera-











ture. Compare the death rate from various diseases in Northwest
European countries with the death rate from the same disease in
your community, state, and nation. Study newspaper and maga-
zine articles on state and socialized medicine in England, Sweden,
Denmark, Germany, and other countries, and list arguments for
and against such systems. Find out how patients are assigned to
doctors under the "panel system" in Great Britain. Find out
whether all classes are admitted to the same hospital in England.
Discover any differences between England and America which
might matter in working out a program for taking care of the medi-
cal needs of the people.

Driving malaria out of the community.
Chart on a community map the location of stagnant pools and
streams where mosquitoes breed. Find oft the location of cis-
terns, barrels, cans, and other mosquito breeding places. Tell the
life history of the mosquito. Diagram the 48-hour development of
the malaria parasite in the red blood cells of the body. List the
distinguishing characteristics of the Anopheles mosquito. Tell how
it carries malaria from one person to another. Outline plans for
getting rid of the Anopheles mosquitoes in the community. Draw
up plans and estimate costs of preventing access of mosquitoes to
well people in their homes. Find out how to prevent the infection of
mosquitoes so that they will not carry the disease in the community.
Tell how quinine immunizes people against malaria fever. Work out
a program that would be necessary to rid the community of malaria,
and estimate the cost. Write a letter to the County Health Unit or
to the State Board of Health offering the cooperation of the class
and of the school in ridding the community of malaria.

Eradicating hookworm disease in the community.
Report experiences with or observations of so-called "ground
itch", "toe itch", "dew itch", or "foot itch". Locate a drawing or
a picture of the hookworm. Write descriptions of the symptoms
of hookworm disease. Find out how hookworms get from one per-
son to another. Find out how a person may determine whether he
has hookworms. Write to the State Board of Health to get infor-
mation on the fight against; hookworm in the community. Make a
survey to find out how many open-surface toilets there are in the
community. Draw up plans for simple, cheap, and safe disposal
of sewerage in villages and on the farm. Compare model sewerage
disposal plants and model out-door toilets in the community. Com-
pute the losses to the community resulting from hookworm disease.
Find out what must be done to prevent recurrence of the disease.
Ascertain whether the State Board of Health and the County Health
Unit give medical assistance to those unable to pay for hookworm
treatment. Outline a continuing program for hookworm eradication
in the community. Find out what each one in the class is willing
to do to carry the program into effect.











Seeking the solution to health problems in the community.
Find out what agencies are doing to eliminate poor health in
the community. Secure information on their plans for the future
and discuss the possibilities of attaining them. Analyze the health
programs of the Tuberculosis and Health Association, the American
Red Cross, and other societies to discover their possibilities for
bringing adequate medical care to those who need it. Discuss co-
operative group health and hospital association plans to find out
what they are, and what they are doing; contrast them with govern-
ment regulated health insurance plans in some other countries.
Discuss the kind and amount of charity work done by physicians.
Discuss how much charity work physicians should be expected to
do. Discuss the meaning of the Oath of Hippocrates.
Find out what the City Health Department does to improve
health conditions in the city. Discuss how physical and health
education programs in the schools contribute to better health. De-
termine what may be expected of community recreation in parks
and playgrounds for health improvement. Does Florida need a
medical school? And schools for training social welfare workers?
'Suggest probable needed health legislation. Discover ways for using
the community sanitation and health surveys to better advantage.
Analyze carefully the organization and work of the State Board of
Health. Find out how doctors cooperate with it and how it co-
operates with doctors. Suggest ways by which the work of the State
Board of Health might be improved. Secure information on how
a County Health Unit is organized and maintained. Find out the
duties of the officers of a County Unit. Get information on how
the proposed federal aid program in public health would affect what
is being done. Discuss probable effects of such a plan. Work out
a five-year plan for creating better health conditions in the com-
munity.

SUGGESTIONS FOR EVALUATION
Pupils, after experiencing the learning activities of this prob-
lem, should not only appreciate their responsibility for mainten-
ance of personal health, but should also realize the importance of
group health to all. "I am my brother's keeper" may truly be the
goal for development of pupil attitudes on improving community
health conditions. The boys and girls themselves, looking forward
to that part of their lives ahead of them and standing to profit
most from improved health in the community, should feel the de-
sire to start immediately to do their part in an effective. health pro-
gram. They should soon recognize that they must cooperate with
others, and that their own health may affect a whole community.
Perhaps the teacher may set up such criteria as the following to
help determine the effectiveness of the unit that he and the class
develops on this problem:











Do the pupils have a better picture in their minds of the health
hazards in the community?
Do they feel a desire for maintaining better personal health?
Do they have a personal desire to raise the health conditions
of the group?
Do they show willingness to cooperate with agencies already
at work on health problems?
Is there an inclination to plan for more effective public health
programs?
Is the general health of the community improved?

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books:
American Public Health Association, Appraisal Form for City Health
Work; and Appraisal Form for Rural Health Work, American
Public Health Association, New York, 1934.
Arnold, J. I., Problems in American Life, Row, Peterson and Com-
pany, Evanston, Ill., 1934, Chapters XXXIV to XXXVI.
Baker, Sara, Josephine, Healthy Babies, Little, Brown and Company,
Boston, 1923.
Bannington, B. G., English Public Health Administration,: P. S. King
and Company, London, 1929.
*Bauer, William W., Health Questions Answered, The Bobbs-Merrill
Company, Indianapolis, 1937.
*Bauer, William W. and Hull, Thomas G., Health Education of the
Public, W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 1937.
Bennett, Thomas G., A Health Program, for the Children of a County,
Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, 1933.
Binder, R. M., Health and Social Progress, Prentice-Hall, Inc.,
New York, 1920.
Blount, Ralph Earl, Health, Public and Personal, Allyn and Bacon,
New York, 1930.
Brainard, Dudley S. and Zeleny, Leslie D., Problems of Our Times,
Volume II, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1937,.
pp. 232-239.
Brown, Bertha M., Health in Home and Town, D. C. Heath and Com-
pany, Atlanta, 1922.
*Buehler, Ezra C., Free Medical Care, Nobel and Noble, New York,.
1935.
Bush, G. L.; Ptacek, T. W.; and Kovats, John, Senior Science,
American Book Company, Atlanta, 1937.
Cabot, Hugh, The Doctor's Bill, Columbia University Press, New
York, 1935.

** Indicates excellent book for teacher use.
* Indicates excellent book for student use.











Carpenter, Niles, Medical Care for 15,000 Workers and Their
Families, The Committee on the Costs of Medical Care, Wash-
ington, D. C., 1930. A survey of the Endicott Johnson workers
medical service. U. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1930.
Charters, W. W. and Hindman, D. A., The Duties of Ohio Public-
Health Commissioners, Ohio State University, Columbus, 1933.
Chenoweth, L. C. and Morrison, W. R., Community Hygiene, F. S.
Crofts and Company, New York, 1934.
Clark, Evans, HOW to Budget Health, Harper and Brothers, New
York, 1933.
Cole, W. E. and Montgomery, C. S., Sociology for Schools, Allyn
and Bacon, Atlanta, 1936, Chapter XIV.
'Committee on the Costs of Medical Care, Medical Care for the
American People, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1932.
Cramp, Arthur J., Nostrums and Quackery and Pseudo-Medicine,
Volume III, American Medical Association, Chicago, 1936.
Davis, M. M., Clinics, Hospitals, and Health Centers, Harper and
Brothers, New York, 1927.
Davis, M. M., Paying Your Sickness Bills, University of Chicago
Press, Chicago, 1931.
.De Kruif, Paul Henry, Men Against Death, Harcourt, Brace and Com-
pany, New York, 1932.
De Kruif, Paul Henry, Microbe Hunters, Harcourt, Brace and
Company, New York, 1926.
De Kruif, Paul Henry, Why Keep Them Alive? Harcourt, Brace and
Company, New York, 1936.
De Kruif, Paul Henry, The Fight for Life, Harcourt, Brace and
Company, New York, 1938.
Diehl, Harold S., Healthful Living, McGraw-Hill Book Company,
Inc., New York, 1935.
Dublin, L. I., Health and Wealth, Harper and Brothers, New York,
1928.
Falk, Isidore S., Security Against Sickness, A Study of Health
Insurance, Doubleday, Doran and Company, Garden City, New
York, 1936.
Falk, Isidore S., Organized Medical Service at Fort Benning, Geor-
gia, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1932.
Falk, Isidore S.; Rorem, C, Rufus; and Ring, Martha D.; The Costs
of Medical Care, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1933.
**Fishbein, Morris, Syphilis, The Next Great Plague to Go, David
McKay Company, Philadelphia, 1937.
**Fishbein, Morris, Health Books, Old and New, American Library
Association, Chicago, 1936.
Fishbein, Morris, Modern Home Medical Adviser, Garden City Pub-
lishing Company, New York, 1937.
Frankel, Lee K., Health of the Worker, How to Safeguard It, Funk
and Wagnalls Company, New York, 1924.
* Indicates excellent book for student use.
-** Indicates excellent book for teacher use.











Freeman, Allen W., A Study of Rural Public Health Service, Ameri-
can Public Health Association, The Commonwealth Fund, New.
York, 1933.
Gavain, R. W.; Gray, A. A.; and Groves, E. R.; Our Changing Social
Order, D. C. Heath and Company, Atlanta, 1934, Chapter X,
XII, and XIII.
Greenan, J. T., American Civilization Today, McGraw-Hill Book
Company, Inc., New York, 1934, pp. 100-102.
Gregg, Fred M. and Rowell, Hugh G., Health Studies, World Book:
Company, Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York, 1932.
Hackett, James D., Health Maintenance in Industry, McGraw-Hill;
Book Company, Inc., New York, 1925.
Hall, F. S., Medical Certification for Marriage, Russell Sage Found-
ation, New York, 1925.
Hamilton, Walton H., Statement, Medical Care for the American
People, Final Report of the Committee on the Costs of Medical
Care, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1932.
Hathaway, E. V., Partners in Progress, McGraw-Hill Book Com--
pany, Inc., New York, 1936. History of medical progress.
*Hughes, R. O., Building Citizenship, Allyn and Bacon, Atlanta, 1933,.
Chapter VI. Many topics under health and recreation in the-
community.
*Johnsen, Julia Emily, Socialization of Medicine, H. W. Wilsom
Company, New York, 1935.
*Julius Rosenwald Fund, New Plans of Medical Service, Julius
Rosenwald Fund, Chicago, 1936.
*Kallett, Arthur and Schlink, F. J., 100,000,000 Guinea Pigs, The
Vanguard Press, New York, 1933.
Kenyon, Josephine, Healthy Babies, are Happy Babies, Little Brown,
and Company, Boston, 1934.
Lape, E. E., American Medicine; Expert Testimony Out of Court,.
The American Foundation, New York, 1937. What is wrong.
and what is right with American Medicine?
*Lee, Roger I.; Jones, L. W.; and Jones, Barbara; The Fundamen--
tals of Good Medical Care, University of Chicago Press,
Chicago, 1933.
**Long, W. B. and Goldberg, Jacob A., Handbook on Social Hygiene,
Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 1938. For the teacher only.
Graphic materials relative to the campaign against syphilis and
gonorrhea.
*Love, A. G. and Davenport, C. B., Defects Found in Drafted Men,
U. S. Surgeon General's Office, Washington, D. C., 1925.
Revelations which awoke Americans to their health problem..
Lynd, R. S. and Lynd, H. M., Middletown, Harcourt Grace and Co.,.
New York, 1929, Chapter XXV.

* Indicates excellent book for student use.
** Indicates excellent book for teacher use.











Major Ralph H., Disease and Destiny, D. Appleton-Century Co.,
New York, 1936.
Mangold, George B., Social Pathology, The Macmillan Company,
Atlanta, 1932, Chapters XIII, XIV, and XV.
Mayers, L. and Harrison, L. V., The Distribution of Physicians in
The United States, General Education Board, New York, 1924.
Moore, Harry H., American Medicine and the People's Health, D
Appleton and Company, New York, 1927.
Moore, Harry H., Public Health in the United States, Harper and
Brothers, New York, 1923.
Morell, Peter, Poisons, Potions and Profits; the Antidote to Radio
Advertising, Knight Publishers, Inc., New York, 1937.
Newsholme, Sir Arthur, Evolution of Preventive Medicine, The
Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore, 1927.
Newsholme, Sir Arthur, The Story of Modern Preventive Medicine,
The Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore, 1929.
Newsholme, Sir Arthur, Medicine and the State, The Williams &
Wilkins Company, Baltimore, 1932.
XNewsholme, Sir Arthur, Fifty Years in Public Health, George Allen
and Unwin, Ltd., London, 1935. A personal narrative with
comments.
Overton, Frank and Denno, W. J., The Health Officer, W. B. Saund-
ers Company, Philadelphia, 1919.
Palmer, B. B., Paying Through the Teeth, The Vanguard Press,
New York, 1935. Deals with patent medicines, quacks and
quackery.
Palmer, George T. and others, Health Protection for the Pre-School
Child; White House Conference on Child Health and Protec-
tion, The Century Company, New York, 1931.
Parran, Thomas, Shadow on the Land: Syphilis, Reynal and Hitch-
cock, New York, 1937. Written by the Surgeon General of the
United States who initiated the public campaign against
syphilis.
Parran, Thomas, County Health Departments; Needs, Activities,
and Organization, New York 'State Department of Health, Al-
bany, 1930.
Phelps, Edith M., The Socialization of Medicine, The H. W. Wilson
Company, New York, 1930.
*President's Research Committee on Social Trends, Recent Social
Trends in the United States, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.,
New York, 1934, Chapters, XII, XXI.
Ravenel, M. P., A Half Century of Public Health, American Public
Health Association, New York, 1921.
Reed, Louis S., The Ability to Pay For Medical Care, University of
Chicago Press, Chicago, 1933.

* Indicates excellent book for student use.
** Indicates excellent book for teacher use.











Reuter, Edward B., Population Problems, J. B. Lippincott Company,
Atlanta, 1923. Questions and problems pertaining to rising
and falling birth and death rates, with their results upon civil-
ization and individuals.
*Rogers, Frazier, Water and Sewerage Systems for Florida Rural
Homes, State Home Demonstration Department, Tallahassee,
1937. Free. Excellent diagrams and plans which ought to be
in the hands of every small town and rural home owner.
Rorem, Clarence R., Private Group Clinics, U. of Chicago Press,
Chicago, 1931.
Ross, E. A., Civic Sociology, World Book Company, Atlanta, 1935.
Chapter IX.
Sand, Rene, Health and Human Progress, The Macmillan Company,
Atlanta, 1936.
Simons, A. M. and Sinai, Nathan, The Way of 'Health Insurance,
University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1932.
**Smillie, Wilson George, Public Health Administration in the
United States, The Macmillan Company, Atlanta, 1935.
Sydenstricker, Edgar, Health and Environment, McGraw-Hill Book
Company, Inc., New York, 1933.
Turner, Clair E., Personal and Community Health, The C. V. Mosby
Company, St. Louis, 1935.
United States Public Health Service, The Work of the United States
Public Health Service, U. S. Government Printing Office, Wash-
ington, D. C., 1934.
Walch, John W., Complete Handbook on State Medicine, Platform
News Publishing Company, Portland, Maine, 1935.
Walker, E. E.; Beach, W. 'G.; and Jamison, 0. G.; American
Democracy and Social Change, Charles Scribner's Sons, At-
lanta, 1936, Unit 4, Topic 4.
Walker, Watson F. and Randolph, Carolina R., Recording of Local
Health Work, The Commonwealth Fund, New York, 1935.
Wallace, G. A. and Wallace, W. D., Our Social World, McGraw-Hill
Book Company, Inc., New York, 1933, Chapter XXIII.
Williams, Jesse F. and Dansdill, Theresa, Health and Service, B. H
Sanborn and Company, Chicago, 1929.
Williams, Pierce, Purchase of Medical Care Through Fixed Periodic
Payment, Natural Bureau of Economic Research, New York,
1932.
*Winslow, Charles E. A., Health on the Farm and In the Village,
The Macmillan Company, Atlanta, 1931.
*Winslow, Charles E. A., A City Set On A Hill, Doubleday, Doran
Company, New York, 1934.
Periodicals:
Bierring, Walter L., "The Family Doctor and the Changing Order",
Journal of the American Medical Association, June 16, 1934.
* Indicates excellent book for student use.
** Indicates excellent book for teacher use.











Eliot, M. M., "Progress in Maternal and Child Welfare Under the
Social Security Act", American Journal of Public Health De-
cember, 1936.
Foster, W. T., "Dollars, Doctors, and Disease", Atlantic Monthly,
January, 1933.
Johnson, Wingate M., "Medicine and the Middle Class", Atlantic
Monthly, March, 1931.
Parran, Thomas, "Health Security", American Journal of Public
Health, April, 1936.
Miscellaneous:
American Dental Association, 212 E. Superior Street, Chicago,
Ill., List of Dental Educational Material. Pamphlet, free
Stories, lantern slides, exhibits, posters, programs, radio talks.
American Public Health Association, 50 West 50th Street, New York,
American Journal of Public Health, $5.00 a year.
American 'Social Hygiene Association, lists of social Hygiene books
and pamphlets, 50 W. 50th St., New York.
Annual Report of the State Chemist, Department of Agriculture,
Tallahassee, Fla.
British Medical Association, Tavistock Square, London, British
Medical Journal.
Bureau of Public Relations, American Dental Association, 212 East
Superior St., Chicago, Dentistry and Public Health.
Florida State Board of Health, Jacksonville.
*A Decade in Public Health, 1923-32. Excellent.
Annual Report.
Bureau of Vital Statistics.
*County Health Unit Law, Chapter 1496 (No. 268), General
Laws of 1931.
Survey of Health Conditions in Duval County, 1937.
*Malaria Catechism, 1930.
*Florida 'Health Notes.
Good Teeth Council for Children, Inc., 400 N. Michigan Boulevard,
Chicago. Free booklets, folders, etc.
Hookworm Disease-How to Prevent It. pamphlet, Metropolitan Life
Insurance Company, New York.
Hygeia, The Health magazine, published monthly by the American
Medical Association, 535 North, Dearborn Street, Chicago, $2.50
a year. Written for the layman.
Journal of the Florida Medical Association, Box 1018, Jacksonville.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 535 North Dearborn
Street, Chicago.
Medical Care for the American People, University of Chicago Press,
1934.
Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., New York, Health Bulletins.

* Indicates excellent book for student use.
** Indicates excellent book for teacher use.











National Tuberculosis Association, Bibliography of Free and Inex-
pensive Health Education Material for Teachers- Free. 50
West 50th St., New York.
Newquist, M. N., Medical and Surgical Service in Industry and
Workmen's Compensation Laws, Bulletin of the American Col-
lege of Surgeons, March, 1934.
Prudential Insurance Company of America, Newark, N. J. Free
pamphlets dealing with health.
Robb, J. M., "What Shall Be the Attitude of the Physician Toward
Insurance Plans?" Bulletin of the American Medical Associa-
tion, 1933.
*Technical Committee on Medical Care, Sub-committee of the
Inter-departmental Committee to Coordinate Health and Wel-
fare Activities, Washington. Made report at 1938 National
Health Conference recommending large appropriation by the
National Government for five-point health program to be pre-
sented to Congress.
The Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, Control of Communicable
Diseases, Macmillan Company, Atlanta, 1934.
The H. W. Wilson Company, Educational Film Catalog, 950 Univer-
sity Avenue, New York.
United States Public Health Service, free pamphlets on the govern-
ment's campaign against venereal disease:
Pamphlet A, For Young Men
Pamphlet B, For the General Public
Pamphlet C, For Boys
Pamphlet D, For Parents
Pamphlet E, For Girls and Young Women
Pamphlet F, For Educators
United States Public Health Service, U. S. Government Printing
Office, Washington, D. C.:
Recommendations for a Venereal Disease Control Program in
State and Local Health Department, 1935, 5c.
Public Health Nursing, 1937, 5c.
*Walsh, William H., The Essential Principles of the Group Purchase
of Hospital Service, Bulletin of the American College of Sur-
geons, December, 1933.
The following films may be obtained from the Y. M. C. A. Motion
Picture Bureau, 347 Madison Avenue, New York.
Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., New York,
"Men Against Microbes", one reel, 16 m. m. silent
"Conquest of Diphtheria", one reel, 16 m. m. and 35' m. m. silent

* Indicates excellent book for student use.
** Indicates excellent book for teacher use.










76

Public Health Commission of the Cup and Container Institute,
"Drinking Cups", two reels, 16 m. m. silent

New York City Housing Authority,
"First Houses", two reels, sound
"Poisoned Daggers", one reel, $1.00 per day rental. The
mosquito-where and how they breed, how they carry and
spread infectious disease-how to exterminate them-and ex-
cellent microscopic production.
* Indicates excellent book for student use.
** Indicates excellent book for teacher use.












CHAPTER VII.

HOW TO DEVELOP A SOUND FARM ECONOMY IN FLORIDA

MEANING OF THE PROBLEM
The economic success or failure of the people in any region is
largely determined by the way they use their land. Different types
of soils are suited to different types of agriculture and it is highly
important that farmers everywhere find the uses to which their soils
are best adapted. Only in this way can the desired agricultural
conditions in this country be achieved.
Of all the regions in the United States, the Southeast is the
most backward in agriculture. "In comparison with the mode in
other regions, it lags in every item of a twelve-point scale. These
include farm ownership, balanced animal and plant production,
balanced plant crops, enrichment of the land and increasing of
values, adequate home-grown feeds, efficient cultivation, adequate
fencing, well, planned fields, and forest areas, adequate housing for
animals and tools, farm management and accounting, care in
preparation of commodities for market, motivation for the enrich-
ment of farm life, measured by the type of housing, household
equipment, and cooperative arrangements." 1
The Southeast produces only about 2% of the wheat of the na-
tion, 15% of the corn, 12% of the beef cattle, 12% of the milk,
13% of the butter, 15% of the eggs, 8% of the hay, 4% of the sheep
and lambs, 9% of the horses and colts, 13% of the cattle and calves,
and 15% of the hogs, while at the same time it produces 85% of
the tobacco and 60% of the cotton. 2 These figures show clearly to
what extent specialization in cotton and tobacco in the South has
led to the scarcity of many of those products so necessary to the
health and vitality of the people. Deficiencies in the southern re-
gion can be further illustrated by comparing samples of the lowest
southeastern state with the highest of other regions: value of do-
mestic animals per farm, $247 and $8,385; gross income from live-
stock, $209 and $4,371; value of farm lands and buildings, $1,800
and $25,000; gallons of milk per farm, 333 and 6,829. 3 It is true
these statistics do not present a fair and complete comparison, but
they do show just how far the South must climb to attain heights
other sections have already reached.
In the southeastern group it is estimated that the minimum
dietary requirement for milk should be 2,450,000,000 gallons. There
is actually a deficit of 1,161,455,000 gallons. Florida contributed
heavily to this shortage. In 1929 less than 40% of the farms in
Florida reported milch cows, while 62% was reported for the entire

1 Odum. Howard, Southern Regions, University of North Carolina Press,
Chapel Hill, 1936. p. 47.
2 Ibid., p. 65.
3 Ibid., pp. 44-45.











region. 4 The production requirement deficit of dairy products and
eggs merits particular attention in our state. Nearly $3,000,000
worth of canned and condensed milk is imported annually. Glass
lined railway tank cars have brought milk from the North to supply
the Florida market. Florida spends nearly $7,000,000 annually for
butter and over $1,000,000 for cheese; for poultry, $2,500,000 and
for eggs, $3,000,000. In order to meet the minimum dietary stand-
ard, Florida would be required to increase its dairy production 403%
and its egg production 341%. The former figure represents a de-
ficit higher than any other state in the southeastern group.
It should be remembered that the great divergence between the
milk production in the Southeast and in other sections must not
be explained in the light of information regarding the number of
cows alone. The average annual milk production of cows in the
Southeast was 394 gallons as compared with 618 for the North-
east, 638 for the Far West, and 530 for the Middle States. The
explanation lies to some extent in the fact that the number of pure-
bred registered dairy cattle per farm reporting cows milked was
less than one per cent in the Southeast as compared with 28% for
the nation. Another important factor not to be overlooked is the
shortage of proper pasturage in many sections in the South. Florida
alone imports annually about $8,000,000 worth of hay and mixed
feeds.
In 1934, Florida imported over 68,000,000 pounds of beef and
veal at a cost of $10,500,000 and during the same year spent $11,-
000,000 for 59,000,000 pounds of pork. At this time there were in
all Florida only 477,000 hogs, these being valued at $1,526,000 or
about one-seventh the value of pork imported in one year. There
is a shortage in the Southeast of almost all plant seed for field
crops, garden, grasses, and legumes. A $20,000,000 shortage of
field peas reflects a threefold remedial deficiency-land improvement,
feed production, and cash income. 5
According to the twentieth census of crops and manufactures
compiled by the Florida State Department of Agriculture in 1932,
the state has approximately 1,730,057 acres of land in actual culti-
vation, including the land devoted to citrus. But at the same time,
there are millions of acres of unproductive and tax delinquet lands
which should be turned into state forests. In addition to protecting
trees in the areas concerned, the state forests serve as demonstra-
tions of timber growing which permit private landowners to secure
greater profits from their forests. Under such conditions, these
areas are developed for their best use, such as hunting, fishing,
camping, and other recreational activities. In this way the land is
not allowed to lie idle and become worse from year to year because
of fires and erosion, but is devoted to the greatest good to the
greatest number of people. A trend for the better may be shown

4 Ibid., p. 65.
5 Ibid., p. 45.












by the fact that Florida had but 133 tree nurseries in 1920, yet
twelve years later their number had increased to 500. This repre-
sents a growing belief in our state that trees must be planted on
sub-marginal land. 6
One of the most important phases of agriculture to farmers of
Florida is the growing of soil-improving crops. All too often this
has been neglected by agriculturists in every section.
Soil-improving crops increase the humus in the soil, increase
its water holding capacity, and encourage the growth of bacterial
life so essential to plant growth. On sandy soils, especially, is it
wise to grow one of these crops each year, for leaching entails a
rapid loss of humus and nitrogen. In clay soils, however, the re-
sults of soil-improving crops are more lasting, and frequent plant-
ing is often unnecessary.
There are a number of soil-improving crops of the legume type
that are desirable for almost all conditions in Florida. These are
velvet beans, cowpeas, beggarweed, crotalaria, vetch, pigeon peas,
and Australian winter peas. In addition to the legumes there are
also a number of soil-improving grasses adaptable to Florida. Full
information concerning them may be obtained by writing to the
State Department of Agriculture.
In addition to imparting humus, nitrogen, and other properties
into the soil, cover crops also help to prevent erosion. It is true
that erosion in Florida is not so serious as in other states in the
Southeast, but that which does exist could be greatly reduced and
the land immeasurably benefited by an increased use of these
cover crops.
The home vegetable garden considered either for its monetary
value or as a4 source of wholesome and healthful food is one of the
most valuable pieces of land on the farm. A good garden can
easily mean an additional several hundred dollars annually to the
average farm family. The value of the produce should not be calcu-
lated from the number of dollars for which it could be sold, but
should be based on the cost of the produce if purchased in a retail
market. No farm should be without a garden. From the stand-
point of health and income it is indispensable.
Over twenty-five years ago, after considering the lags and
potentialities in the South, Dr. Seaman A. Knapp, founder of
farm demonstration said: "I estimate that there is a possible 800
per cent increase in the productive power of the farm laborer in the
average Southern state and I distribute the gain as follows: 300
per cent to the use of more and better mules and farm machinery;
200 per cent to the production of more and better stock; 150 per
cent to a rotation of crops and better tillage; 50 per cent to seed
of higher vitality, thoroughbred and carefully selected, and 50 per
cent to abundant use of legumes and the use of more economical

6 Ibid., p. 33.











plants for feeding stocks." 7 The South, no doubt, has made great
progress since this estimate of Dr. Knapp's was made. But, even so,
there are still possibilities of great improvement.
The single and double crop system in the South has proved
disastrous to many farmers. Thoughtful agricultural leaders are
looking to a proper balancing of' plant production and animal pro-
duction as the fundamental reform needed in 'Southern agricultural
practice. Southern farmers must increasingly turn from cotton
and tobacco to livestock, dairying, and poultry raising. It isn't
unreasonable to believe that the South should support additional
thousands or millions of cows, chickens, and livestock. Natural
factors make it clear that the problem presents no insurmountable
obstacles, but requires better management and financing. Physical
and human resources for the raising of standards along almost
every line are available.
A few years ago in a small town in Alabama the farmers
erected a monument to the boll weevil. This appears strange when
it is considered that this insect has been perhaps the greatest
enemy of the cotton grower. But incredible as it seems, these men
were grateful to the weevil for forcing them out of a one-crop
regime and into a diversified agriculture which brought them far
more prosperity than.they had ever known under the old system.
Out of necessity, more and more farmers are taking up diver-
sification. All over the South farmers are beginning to acquire im-
proved breeds of cattle and hogs. They are expanding their acre-
age of vegetables and other special money crops. They are giving
closer attention to soil improvement and other factors so seriously
neglected in the past. But the movement has just begun. It must
continue unabated until the South, according to one writer's optim-
istic prediction, ". .will develop a proper balance between plant
production and animal production, between crops and livestock. It
will thus profitably utilize more of its land, more of the time of its
workers, and more of their intelligence. It will take better care of
its soil fertility. It will utilize partly for pasture and feed produc-
tion and partly for scientific forestry, its vast areas of now virtually
unutilized lands. It will learn standardization of products and co-
operation in marketing. It will train hosts of young people in club
work and in vocational agriculture. It will develop better credit
systems. It will learn to encourage thrift. It will find ways to re-
duce tenancy and stimulate homeownership." 8
What Henry W. Grady said over forty years ago probably con-
stitutes the best one-sentence description of the ideal for which
Southern farmers should strive. He said:
"When every farmer in the South shall eat bread from his
own fields and meat from his own pastures, and, disturbed by no

7 Couch, W. T., ed., Culture in the South, University of North Carolina
Press, Chapel Hill, 1935. p. 342.
3 Couch, op. cit., p. 343.











creditor and enslaved by no debt, shall sit among his teeming gardens
and orchards and vineyards and dairies and barnyards, pitching
his crops in his own wisdom and growing them in independence,
making cotton his clean surplus, and selling it in his own time and
in his chosen market and not at a master's bidding-getting his
pay in cash and not in a receipted mortgage that discharges his
debt, but does not restore his freedom-then shall be breaking the
fullness of our day."
After considering the development of a sound farm economy,
students should have certain attitudes, abilities, and factual knowl-
edge to enable them to make a distinct contribution to society.
They should know outstanding resources of Southern agriculture and
the problems which face farmers of Florida and of the -South.
They should have suggestions to make regarding the solution of
these problems. They should have increased in their ability to or-
ganize and interpret facts. And, above all, they should have de-
veloped better attitudes of cooperation with a willingness to post-
pone decisions until indisputable evidence is available.
Teachers should be trained to meet the problems encountered
in rural communities. If such training has not been acquired then
the burden of acquisition is upon the teacher. She must get this
training as best she can, relying upon the resources of the com-
munity and upon publications issued by state and national govern-
ments.

POSSIBLE APPROACHES TO THE PROBLEM
In almost all the high schools of the state, a large percentage
of the students has a rural background. In all probability some of
them are acquainted with the outstanding problems of farmers and
may even be somewhat interested in seeking solutions to such prob-
lems. But it is a fairly safe prediction that most of them are not
interested and are not planning in the least to enter agriculture as
a vocation. As a matter of fact it is likely that many of them are
definitely looking away from the farm because of the adverse
economic conditions already experienced there. They see no hope
for the future in agriculture and thus look toward other fields for
a life's work. Such a situation is unfortunate and should be cor-
rected as much as possible in the schools.
Farm conditions can be improved and high school students
should be led to see this. Farm life can be made better and more
livable in every way. It is inconceivable that our great basic indus-
try has sunk to such a depth that it no longer offers opportunity to
the youth of our land. In view of the fact that many of the
students will be farmers or farmers' wives in spite of their wishes,
it is extremely important that they learn something of the de-
sirable features of farm life and ways and means of improving
farm conditions.
Various local facilities may be used to advantage in approach-
ing the problem of farm economy. The advice of successful farm-











ers in the community should be sought. The interest of parents
should be solicited. The county agricultural agent should be relied
upon to furnish much inspiration and advice, for he usually wel-
-comes the opportunity to capitalize on group interest touching those
problems which he faces daily.
Much free and inexpensive materials may be obtained from
the state and national departments of agriculture. This material,
by all means, should be available to both students and teacher. By
taking advantage of this service, a teacher may build up a veritable
storehouse of information in a relatively short period of time. The
need of this becomes more significant when it is considered that
many of our most modern textbooks have very meager information
to offer on this subject. In short, the teacher must take advantage
of all possible resources in making the study of farm economy
effective.

SUGGESTED PUPIL ACTIVITIES
Making a survey of agricultural magazines with the view of dis-
covering those best adapted to developing farm economy in your
section.
Collect as many different agricultural magazines as you can.
Talk with the county agricultural agent and ask his opinion re-
garding the best magazines for your section. List important
problems in your immediate vicinity and use these in comparing the
magazines. Make a chart supplying the following information re-
garding leading agricultural periodicals: price per year, number of
issues annually, circulation, special features, place of publication,
and date of origin. Make a list of magazines catering to special
types of farming. Analyze the content of these magazines to find
the types of material in each. Rate the magazines on the basis of
their treatment of problems important to your section. Make a list
of the magazines selected and place a copy of it on the school
bulletin board. Give copies, together with the standards used for
selecting the magazines, to farmers in the community.

Suggesting ways for providing for more adequate home-grown feeds.
Determine the sources of the feeds used in your community.
Find how many are secured from other states. List the feeds you
think should be produced at home. Estimate the cost of raising
certain feeds at home and make a chart comparing the estimated
cost with the feeds on the market. Interview farmers in the' com-
munity to determine the amount of money they spend annually for
feeds. List the crops most successfully grown under soil, climatic,
and surface conditions similar to your own. Estimate the amount
of each kind of farm-grown feed necessary for the livestock on
your farm. Compare these quantities with the quantities usually
produced. Find the market demand for various feed crops you
may grow. Give a combination of these crops which will give the











best distribution of labor. Tell which crops can be grown most
economically. Draw a rough map of the farm and mark the crops
on each field for the past five years and then suggest the one you
would change. Talk with farmers and find the best time to plant
certain feed crops and the best time to harvest them. Show how
these should be preserved for use and sale. Discuss the place of
the silo in the storage of feeds. List the crops most often stored in
the silo. Find the best way for filling the silo. Investigate the use
of the silo-filling machinery. Investigate to find the most econo-
mical size silo for the farmer to buy. Show whether it would be
more economical for the farmer to own or to rent the silo filling
equipment. Discuss advantages and disadvantages of a trench silo.
Find some of the most important pasture crops- in Florida. Make
a summary of your findings concerning home-grown feeds. Show
this to farmers in the community and ask them for suggestions.
Write to Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville, for the
following bulletins:
A Composition of Sorghum Silage, Peanut Hay' and Cottonseed
Hulls as Roughages For Fattening Steers.
Soybeans For Silage.
The Feeding Va!ue and Nutritive Properties of Citrus By-
Products.
Write to The Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee, for these:
Dwarf Essex Rape.
Forage and Pasture Crops in Florida.
Legume Feed Crops Grown in Florida.
Non-Legume Feed Crops Grown in Florida.
Silos.
Sorghum for Silage and Forage in Florida.
What and When to Plant.

Finding ways ,of improving livestock.
Contrast the milk production of scrub cows with the production
of cows of a better breed. Make a list of various breeds and at-
tempt to rank them according to butterfat production. Talk with
farmers in your community and find the breed they think is best
for milk and butter production, the best for beef. Visit herds of
the best breeds in order to become better acquainted with their
characteristics. List outstanding characteristics of different
breeds. Name the advantages of using the dual-purpose animal.
Make a score card for grading and breeding beef cattle. List the
ways Florida cattlemen may increase their profits from cattle.
(These may be found in the bulletin, Beef Cattle in Florida.) Show
how beef herds may be improved through breeding. Tell what fac-
tors should be considered in the selection of foundation breeding
cows. Show that conditions in Florida are conducive to the de-
velopment of the dairy industry. Name the dominating influences
in the choice of a breed of hogs. Show the importance of good











breeds of hogs to Florida growers. Tell why Florida is a good
state for the production of hogs. List the breeds best suited for
lard; for bacon. Determine the desired characteristics in selecting
the foundation animals. List the advantages in using purebred
hogs for breeding. Describes the care that should be given the hogs.
Make a score card for judging good breeds of hogs. Determine the
major breeds of hogs in the community. Compare these with the
breeds recommended by the State Department of Agriculture. Out-
line the National Poultry Improvement Plan for growing chickens.
Find six factors included in Florida's "Grow Healthy Chick" pro-
gram. Determine the desired characteristics of the breeding stock.
List the kinds of chickens, best suited for egg production; for meat
production. Find the chickens that are most profitably raised in
your community. Estimate the value of culling. Find the best time
for culling. Make a score card for judging fowls. Interview farm-
ers for points to remember in judging livestock. Prepare lists of
these suggestions for the bulletin board and for distribution to
farmers in the community.
Write to. the State Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee, for
the following bulletins:
Beef Cattle in Florida.
Dairying in Florida.
Ducks and Geese in Florida.
Goats in Florida.
Hogs in Florida.
Livestock in Florida.
Poultry in Florida.
Profitable Hog Production in Florida.
Write to the Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville,
for these:
Beef Cattle Improvement in Florida.
Beef Production in Florida.
Swine Production in Florida.
Write to the Agricultural Extension .Service, Gainesville, for


these:
Feeding for Milk Production.
Culling for Egg Production.
Growing Healthy Chicks and Pullets.
Houses and Equipment for Poultry in Florida.
Lessons for Pig Club Members.
Secure also the bulletin entitled U. S. Florida
orum Tested Hatcheries and Breeding Flocks from
Stock Sanitary Board, Tallahassee, Florida.
Discovering means for enriching the land.


Approved-Pull-
The State Live


Find data showing how much of our soil is washed away each
year.
Determine to what extent erosion exists in your community.
Make a diagram of the proper way to plow a field to prevent











erosion. Examine terracing in your community or read to discover
how it reduces erosion. Show the value of trees in the prevention
of erosion. Tell to what extent they are used as such in your
community. Determine the type of land best suited to crop produc-
tion and that best for pasture and woodland. Investigate the use
of cover crops in your community as a preventive of erosion. Dis-
cuss the value of cover crops to the land. Determine the effects
of summer cover crops on crop yields and on the soil. Discuss the
importance of winter soil-conserving crops. Determine the im-
portance of crop rotation as a means of enriching the soil. List
the advantages of crop rotation. Name the characteristics of a
good program of rotation. Estimate the evils of the one crop sys-
tem. Talk with progressive farmers in your community to find
which crops are best suited to your section. Draw a rough map
of a farm and mark the crops on each field for five years. Modify
this for the next rotation period. Show how good rotation helps
maintain fertility. Give a combination of crops best suited for
this purpose. Find how often legumes should appear in the rota-
tion program. Find adjustments that could be made in the estab-
lished crop rotation system in the community to. improve it. List
the advantages and disadvantages of permanent pastures on high
priced land. Investigate to find how many permanent pastures are
justifiable on the best farms in your community. Discuss the ad-
vantages and disadvantages of setting aside land for woodland.
List chemicals removed from the soil by crops. Show how these
may be replaced by fertilizers. Price fertilizers on the market.
Estimate the increase in farm production as a result of fertilizers.
Show how crop rotation might be equally as good. Talk with suc-
cessful farmers in your community to find how they replace chemi-
cals in the soil. Find how much they depend upon fertilizers and
the extent to which they depend upon crop rotation. Draw up a
list of ways in which the average farmer could easily and economic-
ally improve his soil. Make copies available for those interested.
Write to the Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville, foi
the following bulletins:
A Cover Crop Program for Florida Pecan Orchards.
Effects of Summer Cover Crops on Crop Yield and on the Soil.
Effect of Frequent Fires on Chemical Composition of Forest
Soils in The Longleaf Pine Regions.
Studies; on Summer Cover Crops in a Pineapple Orange Grove.
Write to the Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee, for these:
Growing Peanuts in Florida.
Floridan Keys with Reference to Soil Productivity.;
Soils and Fertilizers.
Soil Improving Crops for Florida.
Secure also the bulletin, Effects of Winter Soil-Conserving
Crops, from United States, Department of Agriculture, Washington,
D. C.











Write for the bulletin, Course in Conservation of Florida's Soils,
State Department of Public Instruction, Tallahassee, Florida.

Finding ways of getting proper seed for the farm.
Consult progressive farmers in the community to determine best
ways to save various types of seed. Contrast the yields of crops
grown with inferior seeds and the yields grown with good seeds.
Prepare a paper on the best methods of saving a particular seed
in the community. Submit your paper to the teacher who will in
turn combine the class papers into a booklet.

Finding how farm products in my community may be marketed
more effectively.
List some of the changes that have taken place since pioneer
days to complicate the marketing of farm products. Name the
interests of the farmer in marketing. Enumerate the influences
which cause market demands to vary. List some of the ways the
consumers let their wants be known to the farmer. Name the fac-
tors that normally govern prices. Talk with farmers regarding the
effects of high prices on farm production. Discuss with them the
effects of low prices on farm production.
Determine the points in your locality where livestock, grain, or
other products may be marketed successfully. Compare the prices
in different markets on several farm products. Trace the channels
through which butter and lard reach consumers. Enumerate the
kinds of services involved in marketing. Find how local growers
finance marketing or secure money on crops not sold. Discuss the
advantages and disadvantages of the crop mortgage system. Name
the products that should probably be increased on local farms.
Show why. List the factors that aid in determining whether any
product should be increased or decreased. Show how farmers can
help other marketing agencies. Investigate how economic and ef-
ficient production assists in the marketing of products. Determine
the five most important items produced on your farm; the possible
markets in which they may be sold; the comparative advantages of
each market; how consistently the prices at the different markets
move together.
Name some of the factors that make the marketing problems
different for different farm products. List the common, farm prod-
ucts of your region and classify as to consumers' and producers'
goods. Discuss the effect of perishability on marketing problems,
and make a classification of farm products rating them according
to perishability. Discuss the effect of the seasons on production
of different products and the marketing of them. 'Show how mar-
keting problems are affected by the bulkiness of the product. Dis-
cuss the influence of elasticity of demand for a product on its
marketing problems. Classify each farm product in your com-
munity as to the elasticity of demand for it.











Estimate the average price received by producers for corn and
potatoes. Make a graph showing how the price of potatoes varies
more than the price of corn. Find the distance from market for
each of the farm products produced in your community. Find out
from elevators, cream stations, and other places that buy farm
products how the receipts of each kind of farm product are dis-
tributed during the year. Name the cash crops of your region in
order of their importance. Determine how important the climatic
conditions are in affecting corn prices. Show how the supply of
corn affects the price. Tell why changes in the supply of corn do
not have the same effect on price in surplus and deficit areas.
Name factors that may indicate when to sell corn at harvest time
and when to hold it for higher prices later. Investigate to find
what it costs to store corn on the farm. Ask farmers when the
shrinkage is greatest. Debate whether or not corn should be held
or sold at harvesting time. Name the market grades of corn and
define each. Discuss the importance of the market news. Name
the most important sources of market news on the important crops
in your community. Discuss effect of the size of the potato crop
on prices and the best time to sell. List the common market grades
of potatoes. Determine whether or not it is more profitable to
sell potatoes sacked or in the bulk. Give specific reasons.
Suggest measures by which the individual farmer can increase
his success in marketing fruits and truck crops. Name some of
the most important large markets for fruits and truck crops. Find
the kinds and sizes of containers and the kinds of packs which are
preferred by the different markets available to your community for
truck crops; for fruits. Estimate the number of fruit and truck
crops that are marketed directly to the consumer. Show to what
extent there is an opportunity for more direct marketing of fruits
and truck crops in your community.
Name some of the important hay marketing problems in your
community. List the crops for which your county is usually a
surplus area; a deficit area. Show how this might be readjusted
on your farm. Investigate the process of hedging. Ask grain deal-
ers about hedging. Report to the class on the meaning and im-
portance of hedging. Debate whether or not dealing in futures by
speculation is of benefit to farmers. Talk with a freight agent and
learn how to order cars for shipping grain or other produce. Ask
him railroad rules regarding length of time allowed for loading each
car. Investigate the truck rates and decide whether the truck or
the railroad is cheaper and more efficient for hauling Interview
several farmers who have been marketing products directly to con-
sumers to ascertain the success and failures they have had and the
methods they use. Find out from your local freight agent the ap-
proximate number of cars of hay that were shipped into your com-
munity last year. Find out also the proportion of the different











kinds of hay shipped, if possible. Determine how much of this hay
might well have been produced in the community.
Name the outlets a hog producer has for his products. List
conditions that are favorable to the profitable sale of breeding
hogs. Investigate the conditions under which it is desirable to
butcher and sell the meat. Make a comparison of hog prices over
a period of a year. Do the same for other farm meat products.
Compare these with cured meat prices for the same products over
the same period of time. Estimate the cost of curing meat. Dis-
cuss these comparisons in the light of farm economy. Find the
conditions that are favorable to the sale of feeder pigs. Give the
best reasons for selling fat hogs. List the common methods for
selling fat hogs. Determine the precautions that should be observed
in the shipping of hogs. Find what commission agents are and
what they do. Discuss the importance of grading and classifying
hogs for market. Find the basis on which they are graded and
classified. Discuss the value of hog market reports.
Name the two types of beef cattle farming and the special
marketing problems of each. List the conditions that are favorable
to the sale of breeding cattle. Show the importance of marketing
to the feeder of beef cattle. Discuss the difficulty of marketing
successfully a carload of cattle gathered together from many farms.
List the channels through which feeders are generally sold. Inves-
tigate the basis for grading and classifying beef cattle on the
market. Name the common grades and classes of beef cattle.
Determine the extent to which cattle are graded and classed in
local markets. List different forms of dairy products marketed
from farms. Find the practices in handling milk which make it
possible for farmers to market a product of the highest quality.
Name points that should be considered in marketing dairy animals.
Make a survey to find whether there are many farmers in the com-
munity who produce dairy products insufficient for home use.
Suggest a plan for encouraging a wider production of dairy products
in your section.
Investigate to find how the small producer of eggs can improve
his market. Discuss the advantages of selling eggs on a graded
basis. Find how the producer of eggs on a large scale may secure
higher prices than those paid on the local market. Consult farmers
to find the best method of disposing of the surplus males when
chicks are raised.
Visit a public sale of livestock in the community to observe the
arrangements that are made before and after the actual sales in
the ring. Listen to the radio market reports on farm products in
order to keep informed concerning current prices. Notice and ac-
count for day to day fluctuations. Clip market quotations from
newspapers and explain the terms used. Investigate the possibility
of a curb market in your community.











Visit a curb market in operation. Determine the products sold
there and the price of each. Compare these with those products
sold in the stores in the community. Plan, after summarizing your
conclusions concerning marketing, a program for improving farm
and marketing in your community.
Write to the State Department of Agrictulture, Tallahassee, for
the following bulletins:
From Field to Market with Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits.
Marketing Florida Truck Crops.
Write to the Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville, for
the following:
Cold Storage Studies of Florida Citrus Fruits.
Florida Truck Crop Competition.
Grading, Packing, and Storing Florida Produce.
Secure also the bulletin on Meat Inspection, Act, from the State
Live Stock 'Sanitary Board of Florida, Tallahassee.

Discovering ways of improving the family diet with farm produce.
Determine the dietary needs of the average growing child; the
average adult. Find out how various types of diet deficiencies
affect the body. Construct a chart showing vitamins and calories
obtained from their most common foods. Invite a physician, nurse, or
some other authority to lecture to the class on the importance of a
good diet. Ask the speaker to emphasize the fact that many of the
elements essential to a good diet may be produced on the farm.
Keep a record of your diet for one week and at the end of that
time examine it to see if there are any deficiencies. List the home
grown foods included in your diet and those that were bought on
the market. Estimate the number of the latter that could have
been raised at home. Estimate the amount that could have been
saved had these been produced on the farm.
List the causes to which you attribute improper diet in your
community. Show how the diet may be improved by the addition
of fresh leafy vegetables grown in the home garden. Talk with a
successful farmer and ask him for an expense estimate for grow-
ing a garden. Compare this cost with the cost of vegetables on
the local market. Investigate to find the cost of canning the sur-
plus garden products. Compare this cost with the cost of the same
canned foods on the market during the winter time. Discuss the
importance of milk and cheese in the diet. Explain why cheese may
well be substituted for meat. Estimate the cost of keeping a cow.
Compare this cost with the cost of an ample supply of dairy prod-
ucts for the family bought on the market. Explain why the diet
probably would include more milk and butter if a cow were owned
than if the milk had to be bought. Show how the surplus milk and
butter may be marketed to offset the cost of feeding the cow.
Find the best way of drying surplus food for winter use. De-
termine the food value of a variety of dried foods. Tell the place










of such in the family diet. Prepare a paper on the preservation of
foods. Read to discover elements lost from foods in the canning
..process. Find how these may be replaced in the diet. Study var-
ious ways of preparing the same foods in order to make them at-
tractive and appetizing. Show how the farmer can easily raise
enough surplus of the easily grown products such as potatoes,
onions, peas, etc., to pay for the products that have to be bought
on the market, such as coffee, sugar, tea, spices, etc. Investigate
.the raising of bees and the use of honey as a substitute for sugar.
List the vegetables most suited to gardening in your community.
List the cool season crops and then the warm season crops. Name
.the ones that are commonly raised. Suggest those you would add.
Investigate the making of syrup from sugarcane. Discuss the ad-
vantage of adding syrup to the diet. Compare this syrup with that
bought on the market as to cost, purity, food value, and taste. In-
vestigate the ease with which grapes may be grown in Florida. Find
different uses for them which may add to the family diet.
Determine the extent to which meat is used in the diet of your
family. Suggest ways you might meet such dietary needs without
using many meats bought on the market. List the essential factors
to be considered in the successful canning of meat. Discuss the
importance of the steam pressure cooker in canning. Have the
county home demonstration agent demonstrate the use of a steam
pressure cooker. Outline the necessary plans before canning a
whole animal. Draw the proper way for cutting an animal, identi-
fying different cuts of meat. Collect recipes for preparing canned
meats in appetizing ways. Discuss the canning of chickens. Find
advantage of canning chickens. Give different uses for canned
chicken. Determine whether any of the food value is lost in the
canning process. Suggest ways of serving canned chickens. After
consulting bulletins, prepare directions for canning various types
of meats and vegetables. Make copies adding a summary of why
farmers should can more. Distribute these in the community.
Write to the State Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee, for
the following bulletins:
Beekeeping in Florida.
Blueberry Culture in Florida.
Grape Culture in Florida.
Growing Sugarcane for Syrup.
Florida Honey and its Hundred Uses.
The 'Home Vegetable Garden in Florida.
Write to the Agricultural Extension Service, Gainesville, for
a copy of The Home Garden, and to the Agricultural Experiment
Station, Gainesville, for the bulletin, Selecting and Using Beef and
Veal.












Write the State Home Demonstration Department, Tallahassee,.
for these:
Buy Health with Your Food Dollar.
Meat Canning.
Family Food Supply for Florida Farm ,Families.
Investigating means of cooperating in buying and selling.
Explain the use of the cooperative associations. Make a.
study of the development of cooperative associations in this
country. Show how cooperative buying and selling helps the-
farmer. Consult some farmer to find out how marketing associa-
tions are assisting him. Discuss the importance of cooperative
organizations in the selling of agricultural products. Show why
farmers are more interested in cooperative buying and selling at
some times than at others. Consult farmers and find what
their experiences have been with cooperative marketing and
buying. List some of the most important trends in cooperative
marketing that have developed during the past few years. Give-
the essential characteristics of a true cooperative organization.
Enumerate conditions necessary to the success of a cooperative as-
sociation. List the benefits of cooperative buying; of cooperative
marketing. Give other benefits that the cooperative associations
render their members. Discuss the limitations of cooperative buy-
ing and selling. Enumerate the ways cooperatives, can help grade
and standardize farm products. Give the qualifications of a good
manager of a cooperative association. List the qualifications of
a good member. Discuss the importance of salesmanship in co-
operative associations. Show how a large volume of business aids
in cooperative buying and selling. Make a list of the ways state-
and national laws are helping the cooperative movement. Find if
there are any local cooperative associations in your community.
Find out all you can about the products which they handle, how
and where they sell or purchase them, how many farmers are mem-
bers, and any other facts that seem to be important. List the'
states having grain cooperative marketing organizations. List
those having cotton, livestock, tobacco, or fruit cooperative organ-
izations. Show how a cooperative association helps non-members.
Write a summary paper on the need for a farmers cooperative-
in your section.
Write to the State Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee, for-
the following:
Cooperative Associations.
Comparative Marketing Laws 'of Florida.
Fundamental Principles of Cooperation.
Secure the following bulletins from the Agricultural Experi-
ment Station, Gainesville:
No. 1, Farmers' Cooperative Associations in Florida.
No. III, Farmers' Cooperative Association in Florida..











Write to Agricultural Extension Service, Gainesville, for these:
Butchering and Curing Pork on The Farm.
Club Work and the Farm Boy.

SUGGESTIONS FOR EVALUATION
During the consideration of a problem such as this, two types
of evaluation should go on simultaneously, pupil evaluation and
teacher evaluation. In one way or another the pupil selects a
definite procedure in order to reach the objectives he thinks he
should attain. It is extremely important that he continually
evaluate his actions in order that he may improve his technique.
This process of continuous evaluation should help him develop a
keenness of perception and a more acute awareness of his needs.
Among the questions he should ask himself are the following:
Why am I considering this problem?
What is the purpose of the activity connected with it?
Am I making full use of the resources of the community?
Am I more interested in the problems of farmers?
Am 1 beginning to see greater possibilities in farming?
Have I a greater understanding of farm difficulties?
Do I recognize agricultural advantages in this section?
Have I a greater appreciation of farming as a life's work?
The teacher should observe the growth of each pupil. During
the time the problem is under consideration she should be asking
herself such questions as:
Do the students seem more aware of the problems of farm
economy?
Do they seem interested in possible solutions?
Have they enough information to discuss intelligently the im-
portant issues involved?
What changes in their immediate environment have they at-
tempted to encourage?
Have vocational interests in agriculture been observed?
Has the general attitude of the students toward farm life been
changed for the better?
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books:
App, Frank, Farm Economics, J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadel-
phia, $3.00.
*Chapman, Paul W., and Sheffer, L. M., Livestock Farming, Turner
E. 'Smith and Company, Atlanta, 1936.
High school text. Excellent treatment of dairy cattle, beef cat-
tle, swine, sheep, horses, mules, and poultry.
*Chapman, Paul W., and Sheffer, L. M. Pleasant and Profitable
Farming, Turner E. Smith and Company, Atlanta, 1934.
A basic text in elementary agriculture.

* Indicates excellent book for student use.
**Indicates excellent book for teacher use.











*Chapman, Paul W. and others, Farm Crops, Turner E. Smith and
Company, Atlanta, 1925.
High school text. Good treatment of soil improvement crops,
peanuts, and sugar cane.
Coffey, Walter C., Productive Sheep Husbandry, J. B. Lippincott
Company, Philadelphia. $3.00.
Cox, Joseph F. and Starr, George E., Seed Production and Market-
ing, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1927.
Currier, E. L.; Lennes, N. J.; and Merrill, A. S.; Farm Accounting,
The Macmillan Company, New York, 1924.
Davis, Kary C., Productive Plant Husbandry, J. B. Lippincott Com-
pany, Philadelphia. $2.00.
Day, George E., Productive Swine Husbandry, J. B. Lippincott
Company, Philadelphia. $3.00.
**Edmonds, J. L. and others, Producing Farm Livestock, John Wiley
and Sons, Inc., New York, 1932.
Fritts, Frank and Gwinn, Ralph W., Fifth Avenue to Farm, Harper
and Brothers, 1938. $3.00.
Gary, L. F., Guide in Farm Organization and Operations, Burgen
Publishing Co., 1936, Minneapolis. $1.50.
Gay, Carl W., Productive Horse Husbandry, J. B. Lippincott Com-
pany, Philadelphia, $3.00.
Getman, A. K. and Chapman, P. W., The Young Man in Farming,
John Wiley, and Sons, Inc., New York, 1933.
*Grimes, W. E. and Grimes, E. L., Modern Agriculture, Ginn and
Company, Atlanta, 1931.
Hinshaw, Kenneth, 4-H, A Story, Orange Judd Publishing Company,
Inc., New York, 1935.
Hopkins, J. A., Elements of Farm Management, Prentice-Hall, Inc.,
New York, 1937.
*Kaupp, B. F., The Essentials of Poultry Raising, Johnson Publish-
ing Company, Richmond, 1920.
*Lancaster, D. iS., and others, Livestock and Poultry, Turner E.
Smith and Company, Atlanta, 1934.
High school text.
Lloyd, John W., Productive Vegetable Growing, J. B. Lippincott
Company, Philadelphia. $3.00.
*Macklin, Theodore; Grimes, W. E.; and Kolb, J. H., Making the
Most of Agriculture, Ginn and Company, Atlanta, 1927.
High School text. Good treatment of cooperative marketing.
Malcolm, Ola M. P., Successful Canning and Preserving, J. B. Lipp-
incott Company, Philadelphia. $3.00.
McCormick, T. C., Agriculture for Rural Teachers, The Macmillan
Company, New York, 1929.
*McIntosh, D. C. and Orr, D. M., editors, First Problems in Agri-
culture, American Book Company, Atlanta, 1934.
Junior high school text.
* Indicates excellent book for student use.
** Indicates excellent book for teacher use.




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