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A G-UIDE FOR ORGAITIZINT AI DETVELOPINI
A KINDERGAE'TEN PROC -F 1i II: FLORIDA
Organization and Administration of the Kindergarten ...
Values of Early Childhood Education . . . . .
Legislative Provisions for Early Childhood Education .
Teacher Certification . . . . . . . . .
Physical Facilities . . . . . . . . .
Illustrations Classroom and Playground Equipment
Educational Program of the Kindergarten . . . . . .
Planning Programs . . . . . . . . .
Scheduling the Kindergarten Day . . . . .
Sample Schedul s . . . . . . . .
Supervising Transported Pupils . . . . .
Suggested Room Arrangements . . . . . .
Providing for Child Health and Well-Being ...
Securing Parent-School Cooperation . . . . . .
Using Records . . . . . . . . . .
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . .
. .. 2
. . 4
. . 9
. . 17
. . 24
. . 28
. . 32
. . 33
. . 43
. . 45
A -i.l'E FOR O. o T7I.T'T. ALID 1i'- LTING
A 7TTER.-iA EII PROC-GRAi IN FLORIDA
BULLETIN NO. 53A
. L..T. Df.. --.Ti ? OF EDUCATION
TA:.:_/-A T, FLORIDA
COLIN ETGTISIH, ;.' SG;' -iT .:'.'.2? OF PUTLIC INSTRUCTION
L3 7,5, v1 0
During the fall of 1947 regional meetings were held in the state
for kindergarten and first grade teachers, principals, supervisors
and county superintendents to discuss problems pertinent to the kinder-
garten program. As an outgrowth of these meetings, and in response to
numerous requests from administrators and teachers in the state, a
committee was designated to develop suggestions for organizing and
Membership of the committee included: Miss Martha Alexander,
Elementary Supervisor, Tampa; Miss Dorothy Cook, Florida State
University; Miss Theresa Graves, General Supervisor, Alachua County;
Miss Betty Hatch, Florida State University; Dr. Kate Wofford, University
of Florida; Mrs. Dora Skipper, Miss Sara Kruntzman, and Miss Sarah Lou
Hammond, State rc--rt.: t of Education.
This committee, assisted by Miss Kathloen Plumb, Elementary
Supervisor, Pinellas County; Mrs. Mary Cranen, Euclid School, St.
Petersburg; and Miss Dorothy Stovall, Woodlawn School, St. Petersburg,
prepared the material contained in this bulletin.
The manuscript was reviewed by Dr. Mary Df.bney Drvis, Specialist
in Nursery-Kindergartrtn-Primary Education, and Dr. Hazel F. Gabbard,
Specialist in Extended School Services, U. S. Office of Education.
They offered very helpful and constructive suggestions. Mr. J. Fred
Horn and Mr. Jamos Garland, School Architects, have rendered valuable
assistance in describing physical facilities. Appreciation is extended
to all those who assi-tedd in the preparation of the guide and
particularly to Miss Sarah Lou Hammond, of the State Department of
Education, who assumed major responsibility for compiling the material
contained in the guide.
State Suporintondent of Public Instruction
ORGAHIZATIO OT -TD AD-iHTI STPAT ION
VALUES OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION
The purpose of this bulletin is to assist administrators, super-
visors and teachers to plan and provide a kindergarten program in which
each boy and girl will have an opportunity to:
1. Practice and establish desirable health habits such as
toilet routine and hand washing,.. relaxation during rest
period, desirable attitude toward nourishing foods.
2, Live, work and play with others in a program of learning
activities that provide daily practice in sharing
possessions, assuming responsibility for his own acts,
acting as a leader and follower, and giving up individual
wishes or plans for the good of the group.
3. Use materials freely and constructively which may result
in incr-asinr initiative, creative power, independence and
4. Develop motor .skills and coordination through play with
appropriate apnarstu-. This improved motor control is
reflected by better :handling of classroom equipment--blocks,
pencils, scissors, crayons, as well as other equipment.
5. Express himself freely, yet in a courteous manner,
6. Have experioncos with picture books, stories, music, and
singing. These activities not only will enrich the life
of the child, 'but will .provide experiences which increase
the vocabulary and will arouse an interest in reading.
7. Develop a sense of security and well-being in a school
In the kindergarten attitudes and habits are developed as children
work and play together in an environment which provides physical, mental,
emotional, spiritual and social growth. Suggestions for providing and
maintaining this environment follow in this bulletin,
LE GAL PROVISTOiTS FOR KINDERGARThNS. AND 1I3MRSLRY SCHOOLS
Law Authorizing Kindergartens and Nursery Schools
According to the school law enacted by the 1;;7 session of the
Legislature, counties in Florida are authorized to use state funds for the
support and maintenance of kindergartens, which conform to the provisions
of the law and the regulations of the State Board of Education. Section
228.16, Florida Statutes, 1941, was amended to read thus:
"SUPPORT OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS. The public schools shall be supported and
financed as prescribed below and in Chapters ?36 and 237; Provided,
that no matriculation or tuition fees shall be charged pupils whose
parents are bona fide residents of Florida, except as prescribed
"(1) NURSiRY SCHOOLS. Nursery Schools, where organized as public
school classes, shall be supported and maintained from county
taxes, district taxes, or from such funds supplemented by
tuition ci rgos, or from funds from Federal or other lawful
sources, exclusive of state sources.
"(2) ETI!C:'..-Li3l. Kindergartens, when organized as public
schools or public school classes comprising children who have
attained the age of four years and nine months on or before the
first day of the calendar month within which schools open in any
county during any year, shall be considered as part of the
L:em:;1intary aIch.ol organizationn .h.id shall, 'e: 'upsoirt.-d .",d
maintained by funds from state, county, district, federal or
other i riful source or combinations of sources."
Law or Basis for Kindergarten Units, Number of Pupils.
When initiating a kindergarten program a county should comply with the
school law and the regulations of the Stabo Board of Education as regards
average daily attendance and enrollment. The law reads as follows:
"Section 236.04. UNITS FOR KII'L.- A.l.~?I'; Instruction units for
kindergarten pupils in counties qualifying under law and regulations
of the State Board for such services shall be computed by allowVing
one such unit for each 25 pupils or major fraction thereof in average
daily attendance in kinderg':rtens in the county when teachers are
employed on a full time basis; Provided th thtthe State Board shall
have authority to authorize one unit for each class of twenty or more
pupils in isolated centers where fewer than twenty-five pupils of
kindergarten age are availiblo; and Provided, further, that when
kindergartens are being o- -r.i.-,d in any county the State Board shall
have authority to authorize during any ye-r one unit for each class of
twenty or more pupils proposed by the county board to be or'eniz _d in
any now center in the county; Provided, also thab if at any school the
kindergarten and one or more elementary grades are taught by one
teacher, instruction units shall be computed on the basis of :,11
kindergarten and elementary pupils in attendance in schools of such
State Board of Education regulations, adopted July 3, 1947, as regards
minimum and maximum enrollment by school classification read thus:
"a. The minimum number of pupils required for establishing kinder-
gartens shall be 25 children. The desirable enrollment should not
exceed 30 pupils for any one teacher.
"b. In schools designated as isolated by the State Board of Education
where less than 20 children desire kindergarten experience and the
number of kindergarten pupils plus first grade pupils would make a
desirable teaching load, not to exceed 27 pupils, and when a
qualified teacher and sufficient space are available, a combination
kindergarten and first grade may be established. The program for such
a combination shall be approved by the State Department: of Education."
It is strongly recommended that the maximum number admitted to a unit
be placed at 30, for a teacher can not render satisfactory service if the
enrollment is too heevy, In cases where a county must, because of space
limitations, operate double sessions of kindergarten, it is necessary to
have a different teacher for each session. If for expediency one teacher
assumes a double session temporarily, additional assistance and a lightened
responsibility should be assigned.
Entrance Age of Pupils
Children who haPve "attained.the age of four years and nine months on or
before the first day of the calendar month within which schools open in any
county during any year" are eligible to enter kindergarten (Section 228.16,
Florida School Laws). The county board should determine the local policy
as to late entrance of children of legal kindergarten age. If the class is
small and there is ample space and equipment, it would seen advisable to
permit late entrance of kindergarten children in view of the fact that even
a few months of kindergarten will be highly beneficial to every child.
Length of School Day
Section 227.13, Florida School Laws, defines the school day as "that
portion of the day in which school is-actually in session" and provides that
the day shall comprise "not less than three not hours in kindergarten and.
nursery school grades." .According to State Board of Education regulations,
adopted July 3, 19t7, "the length of the day for the kindergarten teacher
shall be the seme as for other elementary teachers, including the kinder-
garten program of activities, parent conferences, home visits, and assistance
with the instructional program of the school (giving individual instruction,
relieving elementary teachers, otc.),"
The regulations of the State Board of Education, adopted July 3, 1947,
establish the following teacher qualifications:
"a. Beginning kindergarten teachers shall hold a certificate in Early
Childhood Educaticn, as set forth in Certificate Bulletin A,-Cortifi-
cation of Instructional Personnel, 1947.
"b. Kindergarten teachers, now.in service, holding certificates in
Elementary Education shall have until July 1. 1951 to meet requirements
for certificate in Early Childhood Education as set forth in Certifi-
cate Bulletin A, Certiification of Instructional Personnel, 1947.-
provided that at east six semester hours are earned each summer,'1
Certificate Bulletin A, Juno:.1947, sot up the following requirements for
certification in Early Childhood Education:
"The following requirements for the Graduate Certificate are to be
considered only as a minimum Institutions of higher learning in
Florida are permitted to develop programs for the education of teachers
which may vary in detail from the requirements listed; Provided the
total number of.hours in each area is not less than the total number
listed under each heading in this bulletin; and Provided such.
institutional programs are approved in writing by the State Department
"GENEAL PriEPAr ATIOTN. A broad general background is considered essenti,..
in the preparation of teachers. Comprehensive courses covering the
areas listed below are most desirable. Where such a plan has not been
followed; the transcript of theo.pplicant will be reviewed to ascertain.
the extent to Ihich the scope and purposes of general education have
been mot. A total of not less than.forty-five semester hours in
general preparation is required including not loss than eight semester
hours in each of the five groups listed below:
1l. The Arts of Communication:
(P.:1;.i:, writing,. speaking English; speech)
NOTE Foreign ]o3-,u-aec may also be.counted, but in every
case six semester ho.:)rs of credit in English are required.
"2. Hurnan Adjustment:
(Iecalth, Physical sduc,-c ion,- Psychology, Religion, Logic,
Ethics, Nutrition, Problems of Living in Home and Family,
"3. The Biological and Physical Sciences, Mathematics:
(C, 1r ::' nsive courses o'r separate subject arrangements
are acceptable, but 1'he applicant must have some credit
in either physical science or in mathematics)
"4. The Social Studiess:
(Coiprohensivo courses or separate subject credit in at
least two of the following: Geography, History, Political'
Science, Sociology, Economics)
NOTE: Credit in ,'r-,;:,c.n History, in U. S. Government, and
in Geography is particularly desirable under the separate
"5, Humanities and Applied Arts:
(Comprehensive course in the Humanities or separate subject
credit in at least two of the following: Literature (English,.
American, World): literature written in a foreign language;
technological arts: constructive design and fine arts; skills
in music: music appreciation; personal and family living.
"PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION. Professional preparation includes only those
courses which are definitely designed to acquaint the prospective
teacher with the instructional task. The requirements for professional
preparation include 'Course Requirements in Education' and requirements
regarding 'Practical Experience in Teaching.' Under each of these
classifications there is a description of the requirements as these
pertain to elementary teachers, secondary teachers, and to adminis-
trative and supervisory personnel.
"1. Course Requirements in Education
a. For Elementary Teachers
(1) Foundations of Education--6 semester hours.
(Such a comprehensive course should provide the social and
psychological basis of an instructional program. Separate
courses such as those dealing with School and Society, Intrc-
duction to Education, Educational Psychology, and Growth and
Development of the Individual will count toward meeting this
requirement but are not as desirable as a comprehensive
(2) Teaching in the Elementary School-6 semester hours.
(Such a comprehensive course should deal with principles of
teaching, curriculum, methods, evaluation, organization, and
administration as these relate to planning and conducting a
good instructional program for the elementary school child.
While the comprehensive course is preferable, separate courses
dealing with equivalent material are acceptable.)
(3) Special Methods-3 semester hours.
(Unless the comprehensive course above includes adequate at-
tention to methods of teaching reading, a separate course i3
required. In case the techniques of teaching reading have
been presented in the general course, this special requirement
of 3 semester hours may be met through a course dealing with
evaluation or with organization and administration of schools
from the viewpoint of a classroom teacher.)
NOTE: A course in special methods which carries credit
either in tEducation' or in the 'Special Subject Field' may
"2. Requirements Regarding 'Practical Experience'
a. For Teachers (Elementary and Secondary)
The applicant must have fulfilled one of the following plans
for obtaining actual classroom experience:
Plan 1, He must have served in a collage internship program
approved by the Department. The internship should carry not
less than 6 semester hours. (Ten semester hours are per-
missible if seminar discussions are included.) The internship
must have been done in the fields) and at the age levels)
which the applicant intends teaching.
Plan 2. He must have at least.6 semester hours of observation
and practice teaching in the fields) and at the age levels)
which the applicant intends teaching, (Not less than 90
clock hours is required. The student should have full charge
of the class for at least 54 clock hours.)
Pl a 3. He must have had not less than 5 years of teaching
experience in public schools of which at least 24 months
murs' h1-e been completed during the five year period
irmindiately preceding the date of application. In addition he
must h',ve earned not loss than 6 semester hours in field
c03rri;nces, workshops or canpus courses, or clinics
suupervised by college staff mnomors where there is opportunity
to stu1uy and analyze teaching and learning in a situation
whore. an actual class of boys and girls is used as the
'SPECIALIZAi'T -Li EUIREMENT FOR CERTIFICATION IN EARLY CHILDHOOD
EDTiC AT PIT
(F,:r ,,iork with children before the age of six)
IHOTi This type of certification is that which nursery school and
*kindert,'r,.-;h teachers should have. Individuals interested in obtain-
ing positions in any of the grades 1-6 should seek to meet the
requirements for elementary certification as described.,in: Sectibn. 8
bel.bw, .Certification is given under two plans:
Plan 1. The applicant must have completed a program .'in -, recognized
institution having a major in early childhood education approved by
the' State. Department of Education. Such a program will not be
hlr-rovcd unless its design corresponds closely to that prescribed
under Plan 2 (below).
Plan 2.;, To be certificated in 'Early Childhood Education' the
applicant must present not less than 27 semester hours credit covering
the five sub-arcas listed in Section 8 (below)--Elermentary School
Course. The content of the sub-areas will be adjusted to meeting the
needs of the chill up to the age of 6. All statements mado in
Section. 8 prior to the listing of the five sub-areas.apply here. also.
NOTE : It is expected that the required professional, .c-tu'rs and
practical experience in teaching ......... would be.-n'im-Lrly adjusted
to a-'di- in with the child prior to the age of 6.
"8. Elementary School Course.
Twenty-seven semester hours taken from the following five
areas must be presented. Not less than 2 semester hours each
must be presented from areas 1, 2, and 3; not less than 6
sonester hours from areac-4; and not les's than 8 soeicstur hours
from area 5. '
AREA 1. INTRODUCTION TBO iTERIALS FOR USIlTH CWILDEN..
(This. includes familiarity with 'textbooks, library irnter Lal,
literature for children, visual'"aids, etc,)
AREi 2. EMPLORIG TEE., CHILD S PHYSICAL EVIRONVPI .' (This
irnciudes content fromcthe field. of science f6r'rise with',
c13aentary pupils and some experience ,with simple'" achines.
and tools.)' .. .
AREA 3. EXPORTl7 ;G TIE CHILD'S SOCIAL AiKD ECOIOMI ENVTIhONMETNT.
(This includes content .giving particular criphaYls to:'school-
coimninity study, to. ways of living of different people, -to
hu;-:. a nd natural resources of Florida, to..liviig. in home-.ahd.
family, to ments primary economic needs-food,s~.elter,
clothing. ] -. .. ....
IIC' :.; If ,a course in geography covering *essentia.il"y. the 'same
material has been taken under general preparation,- ...-..'.., it
may be substituted for this area.,
A .... EXPLORINGG THE CHILDIS..ER? :iilA.-SOCIAL EINVIREOl NTI.:
(This- includes content in physical education,'health safety,
and home arts. with roper :cm.phasis on nutrition, clothing,"
.siholter. ) .
ITOT.': U.less a comprehensive course is developed .not less.than
33' se aster hours in physical .education and-3. semebt8er hours in
.ihoilt "'-education riust have becn- earned. It- is-presumej d .that
the om~. o.ensive course,. will cover both of 't lis .subjects,
.5. C EATIVE ARTS 2 D .M.TEDRIALS FOR US~ Ir:: C:HILIRnT.
(Txhi. includes content from both :I,: area.'6f c.rn tructive
design and that of music for s.:lo with t l1:. olmentary.pupil.).,
ITDT'D: Unlessi.a comprehensive course is' developed.ot "less than
-. seme st or' hurs in public school music and:- '4 emd ester hours
'iL .1ic school art' must: have 'been. earned'" It is-.- preRuned
that the. comprehensive cours' will cover bothh.'
Applica ti6h"or Approval. .. '.
SThe. cunt''- bcard miust(iubmit an epplic~tiont for kinde.rgar-tiun units to
:the 'State Dejp rtrient of. education' in 'nc.crd/l. ncea with State.':oard regulations,
adopted J.ue ,-.3:1947,.. which read as .foflow :.. 'C"qunties iitiating
:kindergart-ns ssh.._ll submi'., an. over-all plan to the' State Department -of'
EBducation f-or. approval. This plan shall include. teacher per.sonn6l, .pro gra
..ofr activtres;, physical facilities and.! -.r i-ram o t fr transportation." .. Frms
for 'this purpO'se 'are, furnished by -the Stat Dertict of Education., -On'
Foirm A,. lapplcat etion is made "for.the numberr of units 'needed.; 'on For.m B,:
information in rreard to certification, rank aihd.. salary. of,, personnel 'is
listed.: Forim is f.-?llHd out by .thie tridividual teachers -nd submitted
to the' county. uupreirintn'dent for hi' a..pproval arid forward "tc the State
Department of Educat ion....
Location of Kindere rten
Placement of Permanent Classrooms. The kindergarten should be on the
ground floor -and included as an intgrc.l part of the elementary school.
It may be -a part of the main building or located in a separate unit.
If it is a part of the main building, it is advisable to keep the
kindergarten and primary'grades on the ground floor in one wing. If the
kindergarten is in the main building, it should have a separate entrance
and direct access to the outdoor play pace.
Temporary Housing. Temporary buildings, such as war surplus units or
houses, and community centers, such as women's clubs, lodge halls or
churches may be used temporarily to advantage. However, permanent
rooms for kindergartens are certainly much more desirable. .No temporary
housing should be placed in use as kindergarten rooms unless adequate
light, heat, ventilation, and toilet facilities are assured no as to
protect the children's health, comfort, and educational opportunities.
Indoor Space : .
*Size of Classroom. The desirable size of the classroom should provide
for thirty or more square feet of floor space per child. There should
be,- in addition, an alcove or work room of approximately two hundred
square :feet. A space 231 x 501 is usually adequate for a good program
for.a. maximlrx of 30 pupils. A patio adjoining the classroom is highly
desirable. If.possible, the kindergarten room should have a movable
par.itiion or glass doors so th:.t thl indoor and outdoor facilities may
be used, as one. There should be many opportunities for working .in the
open. air and .sunshine.
Floor Coverihng *The covering for floors should be durable, non-conduc-.
tivo, noise .resistant, resilient, and easy to clean. ,..Wood,. cork tile
flooring, rubber tile, or asphalt tile are acceptable. ..However, Battle-
ship liinoleummay be used. Floors should be warm and. free fom draft.
Souid Prbof i :. Ceiling materials should have definite acoustical
Windoi,;s. .The window pace should be one-fifth or more of the floor
area.. Th'-- should be low enough for the children to see out. The sill
heights -.6,.oil- be not less than 24" nor. more:than: 28" .above the floor.
,.uhilein P: There should be armple space- for bulletin..boards, It
i. d'siracl cto I have bulletin boards along thei full length of.the inside
1wall.. iTh:. material should be soft enough to receive;.thumb:. tack or. the
board br;~ap covered for the use of pins. 'The bottom of the .bulletin
boards sh-uld be:nht more than 20" from the floor.- Little value is
recoived'frrom display.space, more than 50" from'the floor.
Cloakroom or Lockers. It is recommended by some that each room have a
cloakroom for keeping children's wraps and that each child have his own
individual locker in which to keep his supplies. Others recommend that
locker units take care uf children's wraps and supplies. Temperature
varies so widely that one recommendation is not feasible for the entire
state. Careful thought should be given to the need for. coatrooms,
wardrobes, shelves, lockers and their like to provide whatever facility
is needed for the program and the latitude in which the building is to
be erected. Individual lockers are of value in helping the child to
establish proper habits of.caring for clothing and supplies. There is
less danger of spreading contagious diseases when children's wraps are
kept separate in individual lockers.
Toilets. Toilet facilities should either be a part of the kindergarten
unit o'r.locited nearby. The stools should be 10" in' height. Wash
basins should be twenty-four inches in height. Two stools should be
provided for cach kindergarten unit when ,connected with the classroom.
When the regular school toilet rooms are used, it will be necessary to
provide one small toilet. There should be a mirror and towel containers
in each toilet room,.p!i.ced at appropriate heights from the floor.
Lighting. Lighting should be such as to provide a minimum of 20-foot
candles of light at each workingg place. In order to secure maximum
benefit-from natural lighting, translucent sha des hung from the center
of the windows should be used and maintained in good repair. Ganerally
a north exposure will be more economical because no shades or blinds
are needed. '
Heating. Adequate heating should'be provided so' that a temperature of
68 degrees to 72 .- r- .::'can be. maintained throughout .the day;. Thel
heat ing system should be so designed' that t .c temperature line is within
30" of .the floor.' The .thermo tat should be. placed at the:breathihg
level of 'kindergarten children when 'seated. ".This. is lower. than in a
.usual: school. room.
Color of Walls and Ceil inws.' .The walls should b .'painted in light
pastel' .-h d; with :at ica.t 0,' reflection value..''The color depends
Son.the: .x :p?'s ur -. ,arm colors look :well t,. rooms 'with north light.
Cold. bolo.s enhance rooms wiith south light.. We -A',.'o:rk should' be the
same color as the walls,, a little .darker in shade. The ceilings should
be light cream or white, having a' reflective factor of 80%.
Outdoor Space. ,
Area, The. play space should.' be at least 4500 square feet.. If shared,
a-plan for use should be developed and policies establi shbdf .0or the
special care of the kindergarten equipment. If. possible,' this should
be -fenced in with an entrance from the. kindergarten room...:Hedge
fencing and 1good landscaping can enhance.. the" appeeranice 6f.''the plant.
Shade and Sun. There should be a balance of shade and sun for this
Play Space. There should be a paved area where balls may be bounded
and such games as hop-scotch played. A clay surface for the court is
better than sand or tar. Rock asphalt and tanbark have been found
satisfactory. There should be a grassy soot for oply and also a spot
for pets and gardens. The play suace should be used as an integral
part of the plant. By all means, take advanta e of the sunshine.
Materials, Squinment a.d Sunplies
A good kinder.-arten provides children with a variety of materials.
These ar te the mediams through which children develop physical growth and
motor coordination, dramatic nlay, creative activities, and social adaptation,
There should be available, therefore, large pieces of apparatus for climbing,
balancing and building. These should include packing crates, ladders, balls,
seesaws, carts, and large and small building blocks. Raw materials with
which to create and manipulate should be available also, for example, clay,
paints, large crayons, finger paints, etc. Simple books with good pictures
and stories of interest .nd quality should be had by the children. The
children will enjoy looking at or handling such books, but the teacher will
read them to the children, not teach the children to read. These books are
not to be read by a five-year-old. Opportunities for musical experiences
should be provided also by songs, rhythms and simple tone instruments.
ITot only should materials in variety and abundance be made available to
children, these should also be usad creatively. The teacher will make an
effort to see that children feel free to express themselves through
language as well as materials. She will never ask children to color or copy
and she will avoid such expressions as: "Letts paint a cow," "Put a chimney
on the barn," or "ITow, b,.ild. a store." The wise teacher knows that young
children in the arts are their own best teachers, and that her responsibility
is to provide suitable materials and conditions under which creative activity
Equipment and supplies for the instructional program of the kindergarten
need not be expensive. Frequently, the materials which children enjoy most
are those which are home-made or which they bring from home. Left-over
scraps of cloth from home or the home economics department, orange or Trape-
fruit crates, cereal boxes, empty spools, feed sacks, old clothes, cleaned
and renovated for "dressing up" are a few of the many inexpensive materials
which are available in all communities. Others will occur to ingenious
teachers with imagination.
Children frequently like to bring their toys from home to show with one
another. Dolls, toy tracks, engines, doll carriages, toy tea sets and other
materials are usually a'-c.lable if the teacher is wise in tapping such
resources. Children wi'.' also bring and share picture books, if encouraged
to do so.
If the school has shops or if older boys with tools and skilled hands
are available, frequently work and play materials may be built inexpensively.
Handy parents with tools also may contribute such equipment. Cots, work
benches, work tables, hollow and solid blocks, ladders, etc., are a few of
the materials which have been built locally.
However, some supplies nmu st be :ui'.l.:-: and these are of two kinds:
(1) those to be purchased as part of a long-time purchasing plan and (2)
those supplies which should be included in the yearly budget.
Materials to be purchased on a lonz-time purchasing plan (estimated
for 25 children). This list is not inclusive.
Furniture and Furnishings
Rectangular tables, preferably light in color, of two hcights--
twenty inches and twenty-four inches-should be pro.ided. Each
table should seat from four to six childro.e. M~-Acblc chairs and
tables are desirable because they can be moved to one side of the
room. This makes possible a large floor area for rhythmic games,
dramatizations, and other activities. Children of this age need
experience in working together. A tabl.i provides opportunity for
this social oxc. orionce.
Twcnty-five chairs of two heights--tvwe.ve and fourteen inches or
eleven and thirteen inches--should also be .. part of the
Locker space each for 25 children.
Special tables. a few of them circular, for science, books,
displays, exhibitss. etc,
A large work bench, or several individual benches, each equipped
with a vis6.
An adequate supply of tools, not toys, hammer, saw, nails, bit and
A storage box or rack to take care of lumber.
Three or four double easels for large painting, or one end of the
room covered with beaver board low enough for painting.
At least one steel filing cabinet with locks.
Cots for re~ti-g are highly desirable. : '. ts and a small
blanket may b: brought from home by the pupils. Often individual
mattresses ar3 used to advantage,
Two clay or earthenowre churns or jugs.
Printing set -- typewriter
There should be low built-in shelves along a convenient wall
space for toys, blocks, books or science materials.
Phonograph and records
largo ,oll hous; childrenn can oet inside)
Table and chairs
Cu-pboard and dishes'
EroOm -7 dust pan -- was. tub -- board
Cloth line andP pins
Dolls vith clothing
Large and small balls
W oo den puzzles
Large beads to string
B'ith c-lid and hot l -lare u nouL-h to ma!:: structures
t>.t children c;n actually use. Sug.'-jstod siSea:3
12" : 12" x 1C"
12" x 12" x 6"
24, x .12 x 5"
-A pot cage,
A t>-,, .. tar
S.bo.t g: bar, :: s'.,,.-shoe
nr Ti r.r I
.: o.. The library corner sh'.uld be made as attractive :i .nd
inv-ting as possible. It is important to' have many, miny woll
selOcted "books 'to meet the varied interests of fivo-yonr-olds. 0.::
a, ew bT cs should d be -ut out at a time an;i should be changed oft -:.
*s that the chili: en will not tire of them.
Bookca ,es. There should. be one or .two srall movable units for
children's 'bn ',s. Those should be. plo.aced .ear the library table.
Li'br'--- T'.b1 .. C' i. A library table in a ell-li-ghted
section of th room 'is vital. The table may. be circular or square.
The finish and height of. table and chairs should be the some as.
classroom tables iand. chairs..
Easel. .An easel is valuable for displaying lar.:e books.
Low horizontal bars
Bags with moss
Covered sand box
Utensils for sand play:
Tin dishess or mrolds
Thei outdoor sand box should be located so as to be in the sun
a "art of the day c-nd rL'ust be covered when not in use.
Stationary equipment is expensive.
u -:..t must be carefully and safelly intalled.
equipmentt miust be ,:ept in good repair.
Adequ_-t; provision needs to be made for the storage of outdoor
ecuipment.r when not in use.
Materials for 25 Children to be Included Annually in the Budgct
(This list of natorials is not inclusive. Provisions should be made
to supplement it throughout the year.)
1 roll of un-rinted newspaper
1 roll of y.rd-i-de, wrapping paper
3000 shoots (6 pad':~--:) Manila paper, 18" x 24"
6 packa:o r corstruction paper of varying shades
1-1 dozen large cra:-ns of different colors (about 5/8" in diameter)
2 pou.d.s eac.h ol, pr:-nary colors of cold water paints
3 boxes of f.hingr nr..'its
300 sheets Fin-or p"'.i".it ing paper
1 qurrt shellac
25 camal hair brushes, 1" l :id 1~-" in width
1 ,all.l;L of patte
100 pounds clay>--wot cla from locnl clay b,'ds, if possible,
othew'.'is-ai, -!:,wA'ore( d cl:ay
Scrapr of lunbor--soft -ina" snd cyprnris
2 pou-ns l:r,:,o hoad nails
1 dozon blunt scissor.:
25 picture books suitable for fivo-year-olds
Others according to soeci:.l needs
Those lockers may be constructed
in units. If rollers aro used, they
may be moved about in the classroom
and serve as partitions for groups.
IDr i.f]- IIT S
Two ap-le boy:es placed uxprl'ht
on top of orange --ate imay orve
as lockors. Coat hiook.i3 may be
inserted inside the a.:-le box for
- -~ -':
Two sizes of cots may be made, other
24-"154" or 27 "-57
,^.._ -. Canvan Cove-"
S" Corners of frame should be
rounded slightly. C nva
..-- out away to show cover
Mtcr.tr.ls srl.g r for 27"x57" Cot
Frame COa!. spmruce, fir or c'Loar yoll:,:w prine,
.. a. -~ .) !I.
2 p occa 1-3/" / -/" x 57"
2 -ICGS 1-3/4i" r 1-5/8" : 27"
2 p:.-.-s 1-3!L" .x x 26"
I piece s 1-3/4" x 1" i 14"
Hr.rdwaro 4 3" r:.;'la irc:is
4 5/16" x 3" bolts
2 doz. 3/4" ~8 screws
In Pr'oar ine
Prvnm: In joining corners fasten with corrugated fasteners.
Reinf-rce with corner anlos 3"' x 3" on the bottom edges.
Logs: 3/4" x 1-3/1" x 10"
Top bonds rounded so as, net to tear c;.ui '!:s i2Then folding
under. Bottom handss cut on sloe t.o -it ithe floor.
Secured to act rith car'5 iR.a,- bolts 5/16" x 3!" rnd washer
beto,:en -,lg .nd frame. Leg should d project boutt 1-1/4"
beyond onr of cot. LT,oG braces 3/4" 1-3/4" x 1'9"
secu0r:'d to log w. ith scri-ws.
COnvras: 29: wide, 10 oz. prc:'hrunk, stretched smoothly and
tacked to bottom end c f frame. May be cut at corner on
diagno3 and folded undcir to avoid corner fold.
This easel can be made of scrs
7.umber, apple boxes; or new.- material
-y'. be used. The lees .are :,ade of
i aorial that is one i.nch by two inches.
"ho hinges are thr it ihlch strap. The
-.dustment is twc short pieces of
rope. If you con m.'ke the face of
the easel from some kird of material
-R.t will take a thufi.b tack it will
oe better. The e.r.s l im:a bo made so
it can be used on both sides. They /
'.re simple to make annd cost very.
Thi 3 type of easel lcndc itself
:o work that a child c-r d c
Uittin? in a chair vith its
knees stuck under the print
i.ol cr. --~
Thi- wo-rd or Vail Board.
Ii !! i1
........~.* -.~-~.--- ..-.I 7
EXPERIENCE CEAIT RACK
This rack m'r.y- be moade of one by two
inch ?meter;il and it may also be scrap
material. The round piece that holds
the chart rinses -nay be a piece of brocm
stick. The ri:a;s are obtained from ar.
dime store and shrold bI, of the kind
that can be opened.
The charts can either be made by the
teacher or obtained from a school
supply house. The width of the rack
will depend on the width of the
experience charts used. The heijg.t of
the rack should be about four feet.
. 'TT4(1.''[ .Z
-' -- --- ------- --
.~- -. ?r- -3--~----~:
I Ir '\
A cleat should be boltCed t the botto.L of the play plank 6 inches from
the end to keep the plank from ,li;nijng t'hen placed on boxos or sawhorse.
The pl maplank may be placed Cacros ,h:; sri-horse to :; ak a seesaw or. on
two boxes as e. v!al!:.inT: board fo:. children to nractico .balancing. It is
suggested that the plenk be of yellow pine 2 inches thick, 10 inches wide,
and 12 feet long.
Ai : i:i
A tire swing may be made by
using a casing from which the ihacr
tube and valve havc been removed.
A single rope is fa.stened firmly
to the tire.
/ ..i U J U ~ -- /t
Peg board cut from l" plank.
Plane smooth and paint. Pegs made
from broomsticks. Bore holes for
pegs through the plank, then nail
three-ply wood to bottom of board.
BU::" 3 BLOCKS
building "blocks may be cut in proportionate length
from the sane pieco of l. bar.
., .' / t .
'"- *" >
.Al piece-.;: are 2-5/8
This p-lay platform offers manrQ
possibilities for dramatic plWy a.nd can
be usec. by a. ruamer of children at the
w~o ti:o. It can 1be built~ or~u; o a
tr'o and serve as a trco houso platform.
-iveo iS n Sid" Lo
---"... -::---. :Y .."--> .\
.!- ... . .... ...
The floor of h snd box is covered wih brick or about
ih from to nc sand. It is nce y tht the \
\- - '
I; '- -- - \
sand. Outside dimenio.s :uor 51 x 8'.
..-.-..-- I~ -r1 "^L J i .. .- i
Tho floor of "f-,ho sandi bo. is coveroi wakith brick or about
4 inches o .. grr...l to fac:ltiUzf, o dra!oinar:o and is then filled
r,.ith from 18 to 2L34 "nchOes f sand. It is nrcessr:ry that the
sand. box bo coveLod in order' tcc .koeto dirt and. refuse out of the
sand. Outside dir.ens-ions pare 5' x 8'
0 ~ -F T
Length of School Day
Many :inder -,rtons in the United Sta-tes ha;ve been organism ed on the bas s
of a one-half school day. This practice .-.rt.ly developed so that teacher:
of the five-year-olIs could use the other half of the school day for visiting
and conferring with parents. From its inception, leaders in the kindergarten
movement laid great stress upon the .acat.ion of parents as an important
phase in the educ-tion of young children.
Horwver, Jkindergartens now arc moving rapidly toward a full day prograOe.
This program usually runs from 8:30 or 9:00 o'clock in the morning to 3:00
or 3:30 in the afternoon for five days a week These changes a'.re occurring
for three reasons:
1. If the nrogrnm is well _A- *,. five-year-old children seem to
profit from the longer school day. .zrp -.ience with all day
kinderg-.rtons for the children of ...:1-',L; mothers in war
industries scom to bear out the above statement.
2. turacl five-yer-olds ,tra.nso.-rtcd to consolidated schools have
been often forced, because cf bus schedules, to remain at sch.;-
the whb.cle day. All day kinr;.giarten programs for such childr-"<
not only seem sCenniblo but dosirahble.
3, Because of crowded school buildings in the post-war period ma-:.i
quo st ionabl.e practices havo crept into tho half-day kinder"gart..
progra-c.. As a conseequonce, :- kindergf.rton teachers oare n.:'
toachir j children in two shifts--one in the morning, and. :n::o i"
the afternoon. TThi.s practice chokuld never be allowed .; di-'i:'.
in Florida. In L real sense it can become the "'stretch out"
system oC industry applied to teachers arnd children.
i- ".A.rs cannot give the needed individual care, pgaidanco, and education ,
t. large numbers of five--yer-old children. 'o b.o w'l] er 'r yo7-n.1 bil'.:,',:-
should be taught ia sr.ill groups bv -:ac ers with pi'enty t. ti. e f'r ,ndii,.
':-.. l3:\.i ccho'l coav, n. ret, pr'vid" s for ?.'C-h "ise 1 sir brti., :of *ia.'
7 w P* i -.l.- *- T': 7. 1 i. i .s~
In th-e -traditional sem- th.erc a.re no required, subjects in thi- kinder-
garton. The program, ther.ef'or, * never rigidly prescribed. However, t.he:
are certain curriculum principles which the teacher of five-year-olds should
apply to the pla.ntir.? o d the daily krogran. A few cf the mc-Ast important
of these follow:
1. A o .d c-i nd rart:n '.r.:.i -ro;: rovis ron' oi.;p.ortunities for
_social ... t fiv- -,i-v.'r-olis ar'. individualists,
and one of ,hoeir, mostc' important developmental task s i to learn
to play and .or with other boys and girls. They must learn,
by eperi peace, to share toys and equipment, to take turns, and
to plan and act with individuals and groups. This need for
social adjuntmonrt can be nmt in part by ouch activities as
playing -games; 7:T I1-.- trios, parties andi celebrations;
collecting:; eoin< on. picnics; nd acting out stories, poems
2. A -o'2d ki~d.ercrton program develops from the immediate
eaivirornment of tne children. Five-year-olds are interested in
all that goes on about them. Their immediate environment points
up and emphasizes such interest. For example, rural children
are more likely than not to be interested in animals, plants,
rock.,, the stars, farm machinery, insects, birds, water, seeds,
etc. A Florida rural child is interested in specific birds,
water life, and so on 'hlich are a part of the environment in
which he lives. Urban children in Florida, on the other hand,
will most likely be interested in machinery, transportation-
pa;r.icularly boats and aeroplanes--and, the birds, insects,
storms and trees which compose their immediate environment.
3. A acod kindergarten program allows ,_ of time and adequate
o rT u i ties for children to presses themselves freely throual.
many media. Children of kindergarten age like to work with
things; to get their hands into water, to paint with their
fingers or with brushes, to pound nails into wood, to "dress up''
i t~;' clothes of adults, or even in a highly colored scarf, to
w:.-k with clay, and to build with blocks or other constructive
mri.te rials. Children do not grow tired of using such material,
pr.-vIded they are encouraged et., use then creatively and as th- .
wish. Materials, liked by 'ive-yesr-ol.ds, should be provided
in abundance, and should be easily accessible, and time should
be provided for their use each day.
. A onod). kindergarten nro er allows a child to use his whole beo.
aP i.3 delop wholesome attitudes tc.wa.' it. The kindergarten
is a place for children to use their voices in talking, singing,
and whistlin.g. It is a place for laughter and dramatizing. I.
is a good n-lace to dance, to engage in rhythms and to sing. '"..
scho day s-.oul help establish also the rhythm of bodily
fuj.'.Ltions in uihe taking in of food, in resting, sleeping,
elim.,ination, and in the establishing of all acceptable health
habits. The whole child comes to the kindergarten and those
,who -Ilan for his welfare should take this fact into consider-
ation. The school day in the kindergarten should have both
balance and rhythm.
5. A -ood kindergarten orogramr utilizes the exTeriences of
childr-eni especially in a readiness gro-eram which meets their
nes-.ds as five-yeer-olds and at the .sa m time builds firmly o;'
the exrienceo of being six. It has been well established by
mn:yr. authorities that five-year-old children are not ready for
fo.,.al ringg experiences. True, it is possible to teach
fi --year-olds to read, to count by rote, and even to identify
all thie Jicturos In an encyclopedia. However, the practice is
not only questionable but fraught with danger. Many five-year-
olds pushed into formal learning before they are ready for it
develop frust::.-tions about reading or numbers, learn to hate
school, and become so emotionally disturbed about the process
that they may be ever after dubbed "slow learners." Thero is
some evidence that encouraging five-year-olds to read load
even to permanent eye injury from which they never recover.
However, the good kindergarten program does not ignore the so-
c-.al formal subject matter fields. On the contrary, it
provides experiences which get children "ready" for them. These
experiences include listening to stories, told or read, looking
at illustrations in books, making up stories, telling
exi..'iences in a sequence, dramatizing stories or experiences
an- reporting on trips. The modern teacher is alert also for
experiences to assist children in acquiring and understanding
mathematical concepts as in measuring materials for cookies,
discussing time as measured by days, months and the seasons,
and. in counting chairs, books and pencils.
6. .The good kinder-earten prcramE cnideors the interests and need.
of parents as ws o as children. '..~la'i the program is planned
1for five-year-old, the teacher should take into account that
different families have special needs. whether r the kindergart>u.,
should be a half or a ,-hole day, for example, should be
deosermined, in oart at least, by whether the children live on
isolated farms and need the companionship of other five-year-
olds. Moreover, since younC.g children are so closely identify:.,
with their parents, the kindergarten teacher should make evur;
effort to discuss policies and plans wibh them. Provision
should be made also in the teacher s professional load for
parents' meetings, conferences with pareaots, and for frequent
home visits. Both the program and the school day should.
pr-oide time for the work of teachers l.th parents.
Scheduliing the ,'.KnerI': t," -
Samples of :rsted pro,-rams are given. A word of caution seems
necessary here. These progress are not patterns. They are cnt intended to
be used as such, a..u teacher are wi.arned against making. such use of the
programs. As a matter of fact, programs depend upon so many factors that a
program to fit all situations is not possible. Some of the factors which
influence the scheduling of a program follow. The ;cr nr.:lities of the
children and the teacher will, in long measure, dotermine how the arrange.mer .
of the program is made. Indsed, time allotments should change during the
year as the teacher understands better the needs of her children as they
mature. The vast experiences of the group ':ill determine the points where
emphasis will come. Teachers should work for a day which has rhythm to it.
The day should always include periods of rest, play, toiloting, etc, then
the out-of-door :.lay is scheduled for other children will in 7'art determine
when the kinderga::ten c'hilcron will uso the playground. Programs should
provide also for horence time with parents. This is arranged by
experienced kindr.rtn teachers in mat.y different w .ys.. Sometimes
conference pericds a.re arrar:ed fcr a wook bofor.. school. SomEtimos nuch
c i.r.P are provided :b c.' hrte. .0 the school day during the first weeks of
the school year. This is a -roblem which t?':ach.ors mmost face when a schedule
is made, especially when con.:;tructed for a -:olo day kindergarten. A plan
which has worked well in such a kindorgart-n is to shorten the program to a
half-day on Mondays or Frid..ys, thus leai ng tim for the scheduling of
conferences With .nareuts.
Below arr- iTven samples of a few programs. These should be considered
temporary and tenrtativc, only.
Tentative Program for the Fi've-Yoar-Ol1s Vho S-iDnd the 'hole D': ay in Kinder-
12:00 12 45
Children arrive, are welcomed warmly and affectionately by
the teacher, are given a health check up and are toileted.
; .L activities a.s watering the plants, feeding pots, getting
out materials are begun.
Small group activities are bco;?'n in using materials and in
cs.rrying through plans. Children decide what to do
individually or in small grifca, working at w.ork: bench,
modeling in clay, painting at easels, finger painting, water
Sl.ny, Icoking at books, playing house dramatic play. Small
g:'r ups of four or five children or individuals are desirable
for ,working on such actir:C'bios. Toward and of period the
jhil.dxr.a gabber in a group about the teacher to tell of thei:i
activities and sho-w wI-hat they haveo done or tell what they
pla; to do. If the -ea.ther is 1 -.:.t this time may be
rp'ont in out-of-door play.
T cleting, hand waso.hing, mid-morning lunch of fruit juice,
milk and crackers.
Chidrc.n rest 1-,ith shades drawn and lying down, if possible
on. cots o.: on fc or rugs.
,Lrge ,roup activityy is organized. The children listen to
stories, poens, discuss trips, make plens, sing songs, talk
about holida .s, etc.
Children gct outi ande nake up cots with sheets and blanket
w.asn hands and r'r':,pare for lInch. If children eat'lunch in a
lunch room, time must. bo provided so they do not foel
hurried. If lunch is served in the kindergarten the childr:..n-
hn.ould help -et ready for it by assisting -. .ith table setting,
.-E, -.should be pleasant period where children are taught to
tcke turns, to be considerate and to wait to be served.
Prep:r.tion io-" ITaps
Naf. witn she's off, on eats or on floor blankets or blank-ets
*on tablle. with :.idows darkened, the room cool end ,uilet.
Incividuel or s.. all group activity. Out-of-door ..-A. period
using seesaw,, sand boxes, jumping ropes jungle 7ym,: swEing:s,
tree houses, out-of-door play houses, etc.
Large group activity. Music: rhythms, singing, listening to
music or dramatizing poems "to say and play" or discussing
gro~ring things, cocoons, insects, rocks or whatever children
hnve brought to school.
Discuss plans for next day and get ready for dismissal.
Tentative Program for the Five-Year-Olds !ho S-Dend a Half Day in School
Children arrive, are warmly welcomed by the teacher, are
.ivon a check up and bbegin on responsibilities in the care
of the room---atering the plants, feeding pets, getting out
Small group activities or activities by individuals--block
b u.i.di ng, dramatic play, painting, clay modeling, playing
houi.e, working at work berc~s, locking at books. If weather
is pleasant children may play, out-of-doors.
Large ;,ro.up activity. Children ',anther in circle to show
teacher and one another ",ihat has been accomplished and
e na.l at"e i ork,
Children sing w.5th teacher and engage in rhythms.
':iLeti-.ng, h.and washing, mid-morning lunch of fruit juico
a.rl crackerF3 or milk and crackers.
Chi.drez rest .-with shades drawn and the room quiet.
should lie dow:n, if possible, on cots or floor rugs.
Story or poems, singing or rhythms, or out-of-door play
Ma'-ing clans and getting ready for dis-missal.
In schools designated as isolated by the State Board of Education, a
combination kindergarten and first grade may be established, subject to
regulations of the State Board. Adjustments in the program must be made
for these children. Suggestions for such adjustments follow:
Suvgested Program for Room in Which Five-Year-Olds and First Grade
Children are Enrolled
Children arrive, are greeted by the teacher and select
activity on an individual or group basis.
Group meeting of all children to show results to work, to
discuss plans for the day and for further activities.
Stories or rhythms or singing for all, or all three for all
Out-of-door play for all.
leading e-pcriences for those ready for them (with the
Activities for the fic--year-olds.
Lunch for all.
PEst for all oni cots or floor rugs. ooom should be
cdr'oncr d and ouiet.
Storier or .',--:-. or singing or dramatic play for all
Activities for first grade children at seat or in back of
room. Reading readiness activities (with the teacher) for
Play o'ut--of-doors for all.
Science experiences or language, or dramatic play for all.
Children are dismissed.
During the 1946-l7 school term Florida had 47L. one-teacher schools.
Here all of the elementary grades or a large number of them are taught by
one teacher. Enrolled in these small schools as in the larger schools of
Florida, are children of five years of age. By careful planning the teacher
of these one-rooLr schools c an make adjustments to the needs of five-year-olds.
Suggestions for such adjustments follo-:
Sungested Progran Adjusted to f:Teds of Five-Year-Olds in One-Room School
(Other children are working at seats or woork tables when teacher is with
5 and 6 year olds, known as Group D.)
Children arrive. Group as whole plans the work of the day.
Pive-year-olds listen and participate in planning. Children
tako care of room activities (five-year-olds assist older
children in these) such as watering plants, caring for
an.irCals, ri'-r f'ln;' flowers, etc.
Group D. L-,lee.-.o activities with teacher--telling stories,
listening to stories, draraatization, talking things over,
Group D. Quiet activities, such as painting, working with
clay, or playing. Sometimes Group D listens in to reading
lesson of the soven-year-olds.
Iid-morning lunch and play out-of-doors for all children.
Grour D continues out-of-door play for 30 minutes after
other randes have continued school work. Older children
right .lternate responsibilities in the supervision of this
eoteni~d play period.
All children sing, have rhythms, enjoy poetry or stories.
Lunch and rest in the hall, on the norch, in the back of the
room on cots,if available, or on floor rugs.
Reading activities of six-year-olds with teacher. Five-
year-olds listen in if they are interested.
Health or science for whole school. Group D participates
or "listens in."
P.lay. out-of-doors for all. Group D remains out-of-doors
under suirvision of older child. Other children return
to school work.
Children continue t, play out-of-doors until dismi'sal.
Children are dismissed.
Yive-yor'-olc ruLr ,l children transnortod to sch':cl on buses and
attOnding a half--day kindeigarton ha'ro special problons -hich merit attention.
These difficulties ar7.: increased ,hl*.n tho kindergarten teacher is aci... .-
to teach overflow aov :;s in other grad-c.. Th five- r-olds arc too
frequently then left "to take n.ps," "to play in the school : yard," or to
have the run of the school provided they "are quiet and do not get in the
way." This is a form of exploitation of young child.r:n, and works the
greatest hardships upon those transported Cometimes great diostnces from
home. Administrators ho.v'e met this problem in various practical warys.
Some of these are listed below:
1. The half-day kindergarten is oxtonded to a :hole day.
2. If th.er. are several kindergartoas, the rural children from
all of tr se groups may be combined in the afternoon with
one teacher. The other kindergarten teachers are then
free for other activities.
3. Oldr children in the school tEk1 turns supervising the
fiv^-y.ar-olde on the *l:;.,'-r..: d and reading or telling
stories to thoTr.
4. 7 .: P. T. A. assu.'-es responsibility, through volunteer
workers, of the afternoonn supervision of fi.vi-year-olds
who travel on buses.
5. Arrlr,:ermuants are made with b'ul driro:n :. return five-year-
olds to their ho:,os immediately Oft.-r i.nq.' dismissal of the
hal'-cidy kirndorg't~t.en. In case ".h~ bu'i 's are delayed children
are given their lun-ch or, schedul:- aPt ;,h-1ol.
6. If the n nbcor of rural cmaildrc.n is small, arrangements are
mad. by tho teacher for them to have lunch at school and then
to play with other fivo-ecar-olds in e nearby home under the
su-:)orvision of a parn,-t (trained an.. certificated) elected
and omi)ployd by the school until the bus leaves. This
practicin presents mr',y c;dnoational problems.
()We no longer feel that the ante-
room is worthwhile. The toilet
rooms should open directly into
the room and should be large
enough so that the teacher can
be in the toilet room with the
pupil when necessary.
PrOVIDI-.G FOR C-ILD E1ALT D AI P-YSICl ULL-B.ITG
The re sensibility of maintaining and promoting ,ood health and ,physical
well-being makes definite demands upon the following areas of the total
kind r garten oro gram:
1. The teacher's work before school begins.
2. T e daily program.
3. Work with parents.
4. Use of community resources.
The kinder-narten works for good health in each of the following areas:
Setting up the Pshy.sical Flant for ood Health and. Physical 1Uel-Beig.
The Dlant nuat be conducive to the good heath and physical well-being
of a-ll who live and york there.
1. The comrrlete kinder ~arten plant--indoors and outdoors--must
be ar-aned. to provide for:
a. easy ancd safe access by the children
b. easy supervision by t.'e teacher
2. T-e indoor area must:
a. be located cn the round floor
b. be a-dequately large
c. La built andi furnished so that it can be kept
d. be wo-ll he,?A.c especiallyy the floor)
e. be w;il ventilated, and neither too dry nor too damp
f. include the, sea-oarte kindergarten bathroom and locker
facilities which should be directly accessible from
indoor and outdoor paiy area
g. be well lighted in every part
(0) Provision for Health and SaIfety
The indoor -olay area should be safe from fire and
accident hazards (with fans, electric outlets and wires,
and poisonous materialss). An isolation room provides
s-Cace here an ill child may be placed alone. A well
stocked medicine chest, inaccessible to children should
3. The outdoor area must:
a. be adequately large and well equipped (not necessarily
b. be enclosed with a fence
c. always be kept in good repair to avoid accidents on
e qui me nt
d. include a shady or covered area
e. be surfaced so that it is comfortable to play on, as dust
free as possible, and quick drying. (A combination of
grassy and -naved areas is the best plan for surfacing,.)
f. provide chall.orging facilities for the in;fny different kinds of
physical activities for which five.-yoar-olds' bodies call:
climbing, jumping, running, skipping, u ng, block-building,
ball playing, throwing, swinging, trapeze artistry, and porha s
g. be used for a large part of the kindergarten program. In tho
Florida cli-mate, there is every reason to spend most of the
morning session outdoors, particularly since it is possible to
take most activities outdoors--painting, modeling, carpentry,
sand box play, doll play, story time, and even music, if there
is a portable victrola.
.ork with Parents
A large part of the teacher's work with parents before the opening of
school is concerned with the health of the kindergarten children. The
guidance she can give the parents in regard to the child's health is of great
1. The teacher assembles the material she will ne n t. :-ive each
mother at the time of her first conference before school openr"
a. the blanks provided by the State B.oard of health for
recording the child's health. history, immunizations, disee::.
experience, and findings of the physician at the time he
makes the child's pre-entrance physical xaMnination.
b. a mimeographed list of immunizations reqair',d before
a mince r 'v ':. statement of school -urocedure when a. child
hs. been exposed to a comnunicable disease, either at
school or away from school.
2. At the first conference the teacher has %'ith the- mother of each
child, or a group of mothers, held before school she
a. gives mothers the State Board of Health* blank to take
along to be filled out by child's doctor when he examines
the child before school entrance.
b. discusses iw:ith the mother the material as!ed for on
c. gives the mother the list of immunizations necessary before
school entrance. These should include:
(1) vaccinat ion against smallpox
(2),immunizat icn against typhoid fever
(3 immunization against diptheria and recent Schick tef.
()- inimmunization against tetanus
() immunization against whoo-ing cough
d. advises mothers of health services made available to chiJ,:rd.
in the community by public health agencies and advised how
to use thom.
e. calls to the mother's attention the fact that any physicia
defects discovered by the doctor should be attended to
immediately if child is to gain maximum benefits from his
*Teachers may secure these blanks from the County Health Unit or directly
from the State Board of Health, Jacksonville, Florida.
f. calls to each mother's attention the advisability of taking
the child to a d--tist before school opens. Any defects in
first teeth need attention right away, and a visit to the
dentist just for a "choc" k -- when no work is necessary
makes a good beginning for the child. The dentist may be
prepared to give any anti-cavity treatment which the mother
will want for her child.
g. gives each mother a statement of school procedure when a
child has been exposed, either in or out of school, to a
communicable disease, and talks this over with the mother.
h. instructs mother also about the necessity for keeping her
child at home when he shows any signs of ill health
(especially "colds"), and give him the best chance to recol-'-
quickly and to protect others in the group from exposure t,.
1. instructs each nothor about the necessity for teaching the
child safe procedure for going to and from school before h:.
3. The teacher checks with each mother by phone or post card bef.):,
the opening diay of school to make sure the required inmuniza-
tions and recomniEndations made by doctor at the child's
examinat ion have been carried out.
Thge Daily Prrnram
A well-balancud kinderit rten program contributes to the health of kind-.
garten children in t-oo ways--by building good habits for care of bodily
needs, and cont-i ib ting to good physical and emotional development--and
negatively--th.ro.-;.h pro ect ~ion agnst disease and accidents.
1. The daily schedule is built around the children's physical
a. a balance between active and quiet periods during the
b. food and wator.
c. toileting (for five-year-olds, at about 17h-hour intervals
e. outdoor air and sunshine.
f. comfort of bodily temperature.
This schedule is adaptable to changes in weather, and a spnc.
schedule for: days when the group must be indoors is arrangeded '
2. Plenty of time is allowed in the schedule for the routine
activities s of
putting wraps on and off
so that child will leaz~r, i: a pleasant and unhurried atmo.sph o,
to accomplish these routines independently and intelligently.
3. T h teacher pl;,ns her schedule so that she can give to these
activities the supervision that is necessary in order for
children to learn to accomplish them independently and
4. IE order to provide nde'uate supervision, to provide adequate
time for each activity, and to avoid crowding and confusing
conditions in the use of facilities, the activities in the
schedule are "dove-tailed" into one another, rather than
having the whole group move from one activity to another all
5. The teacher arranges for a special morning inspection time whor
each child is examined carefully. A nurse should instruct the
teacher in the way to examine the children at this time. In
addition, the teacher is careful to be aware of each child's
health during the complete session.
6. An important part of the teacher's work is to see that all
children learn to use the equipment safely and wisely--that
they n2t ran nor pull wagons too close to swings; that they
thLow balls, not sand nor sticks; that they watch out for oth,:r
to avoid collisions; that thesy laru what to do in case they
are hurt in any way. It goes without saying that the teacher
remains alert to the whole situation, both outdoors and indooL-
every minute of the session.
7. Fivc-j.yenr,-olds can profit a great deal from occasional group
discussions regarding subjects like "How I walk to school
sa -ly,. and "I-C.at is a good breakfast to sat?". The important
point fo: bhe teacher is to observe each child's contribution
to such discussions and to help him accordingly.
8. Kindergarten children -who come to school by bus need to have
arrangements made so that they can get a good noon meal at the
school lunch room and have a nap or rest period in the afterncc
During the School Year
1. In conferences thruhoout the year the teacher discusses with each
mother their mutual observations and their work concerning:
a. child's physical development and his progress in performing
phys ical activity is.
b. child's progress in learning to perform good habits in meeting
his *-'."ical needs of .eating, sleeping, resting, toileting,
washing; dressing, nmatter-of-.fn.ctly and pleasantly and with
independence and intelligence.
c. child.s p-ogress in learning to carry out intelligent safety
practice in his living.
d. progress in helping child adjust to and overcome if possible,
any physical defect or deficiency.
2. The teacher works t th the parent on the carrying out of all
recommendations made by doctors and dentists ab their examinations.
3. When necessary, the teacher helps parents take advantage of free
services to health offered by public health agencies and community-
organi z2it icns.
4. At least one of the group meetings for parents during the year may
be devoted to a talk and discussion on some aspect of good health
for five-year-olds. The public health doctor or a pediatrician
might be called on as the speaker for such a meeting.
5. The teacher suggests, and makes available to parents, books,
pamphlets, and magazine articles, Pwhich will enable them to work
for the child's health.
6. The teacher's letter reports to parents summarize the important
points re;rrding the, child's health and progress in learning to
live healthfully and safely.
Use of Community: Resources
In or near clmest every community there are resources to aid in the
maintenance and improvement cf child. health and physical well-being. The
teacher must inform herself regarding available resources and make appropriate
suggestions for their use by the parents.
1. The :iblic health department will coope-rate in providing:
a. imuni nations
b. ohysicl ol:aminat ions.
c. inf'-~.'Ttijn na to where and ho other help for health
proble-is can oe obtained.
2. The teacher needs to make sure that the public health services
brought to the school are made available to each of the
3. Service organizattions in almost every col lmunity have projects
of providing care for certain physical needs of children
(vision, hearing, dental work, etc.) or any unusual children's
physical problems not covered by tne regular civic club
Care and Maintenance cf the3 Kin.derearten Plant
The complete plantt ;must be kept clean and in good repair in order to
insure a sanitary and safe environment for the children's kindergarten
1. An adequate number of maintenance staff members must be
employed and well a ir-' ised in carrying out their duties.
2. Floors, tables, chairs, cupboards, bathroom fixtures, and
materials children use must be kept clean for constant and
3. Adequate tools .ndl materials must be provided for cleaning
and fixing purposes, and tho'e must be stored in places
inaccessible to children.
l. Maintenance staff ":--membrs ;ist nrnsent evidence of their own
good he alth at regularn intorvs.ls.
5. Thero must be aeans of laundering the to-wels and washcloths
use:d by the children. If rugs are used for resting, these
iniFt be laundered frequently. If cots are used, the sheets
rmust be kept clean.
t'I~T:x FT HOii OOSL~Ih~!O.PWTT FOR 07TElUIM CEIIP H T1, D Ir
Briefly stated, the job of t"ie kindergarten is to offer guidance for each
child's development. One of the most importantt activities of the kindergarten
teacher is the ,iork i-'.ch she does vith the parents of hor pupils. She helns
each of them, along with herself, to achieve ? thorough understanding of the
development of the child and the environment he needs. From the standpoint
of time, alone, the guidance the child receives in his home in the most
important to his welfare, because the large part of childhood is spent at
home with the parents. Since the kindergarten teacher is trained to be a
student of early childhood development, she is able to offer help to the
parents in their common interest of working for theo child's optimum
development. The parents, on the other hand, after long and intimate
acquaintance with the child's behavior and growth, are able to contribute to
the teacher's understanding of the child and his needs.
A partnership is necessary--a toacher-p-.rent working relationship. It is
the teacher's responsibility to establish this relationship with each of the
parents. The success.of such a partnership depends upon:
1. the importance whi ch the teacher places upon it;
2. the techniques 'which she uses in conferences; and
3. hor wvllin, nes to contribute a good shore of tact, good
humor, and thought.
There are many techniques by which the kindergarten teacher develops
this working relationshi-p vith her group of parents:
Initial Conference Bet.e,,n M .ioth ~r- and Tc: r (Bfrre School Opens)
The teacher's primary puronose at this conference is to make it li..z'..,
friendly and interesting. The mother should leave the conference feeling
that she has begun a friendship which will result in a great deal of benefit
to her child.
1. The teacher needs to have everything in readiness for the conference
The appointment must bo carefully made, and the materials which she
is to give each mother must be ready.
2. Besides material concerning the child's health, as outlined in
another section of this Bulletin, it is well for the teacher to havc
ready for the mother to take home a statement of kindergarten
policies: purposes, brief information about the daily program,
hours, expens s, etc. Some Florida kindergartens have prepared
attractive boi c!.cts presenting this information.
3. The teacher need to bec able to devcte her undivided attention to
the conference. (The child should not be present.) Adequate time
should be allowed, but it should not be over-long. A 30 to 40
minute length is usual.
Parent's Observations at School
Mothers (and fathers) are invited and zrged to visit the irindergarten
during school hours to observe the child in his group. Not only does the
teacher make the parents know they are welcome, but she makes arrangements
for observation with each one individually. In some kindergartens, such
parent observations are frequent enough that the children gradually take
rery little notice of the comings and goings of the parents, thus making a
more normal school situation for the parent to observe. A small group of
mothers may observe at one time. The observation may be followed by a group
conference. Such a conference may be the beginning of a parent study group.
A guide for observation may be furnished the parents before the
kindergarten visit. This mimeographed sheet provides a space on which the
parent can record specific points from the observation. These observations
are valuable as the basis for a conference after the visit has been made.
Parents' Partici-o.tion in Tindergarten
Parents hrve skills, talents, and hobbies, that may never come to
light unless the kindergarten teacher calls upon them. A mother or father
may give a "concert" on an instrument, paint a picture while the kindergart.
children watch, or carve or build out of wood. All these make for a rich
kindergarten program and for excellent school-parent relationships. Parent:~
may plan with teacher for trips, excursions, and assist with the trips.
Parents also may collaborate on forms of reports to be used in the kinder-
garten. A discussion of terms used in reports will help to insure parent
Parent Group Meetings
The wise teacher will plan interesting, practical group meetings
with the parents. Outside speakers are sometimes helpful, but almost every
group of parents will enjoy and profit most from meetings where various
parents give short talks and discuss common problems under the direction of
a discussion leader. An informal atmosphere characterizes these meetings.
Night meetings arc recommended in order that fathers may participate.
With some groups of parents, one or two "work meetings" during the yer
may be successful, pleasant, and worthwhile. At such a meeting, the father:
build, paint, and repair kindergarten equipment and materials, while the
mothers sew, fix dolls, and work on the decorations of the kindergarten.
Reading Material for Parents
The kindergarten will profit greatly by providing a bookshelf containing
natorial which parents will want to read--books for parents and children.
Parents may pool money and buy books for home use. There are many sound
and popularly-written books on hone guidance of young children: "It's a
Wise Parent," by Mollie and Russel Smart; "Two to Six," by Rose Alschuler;
and, of course, the Gesell books: "Infant and Child in the Culture of
Today" and "The Child from Five to Ten"--all vTill be read and enjoyed.*
The woments my. r~ .-)s today carry in every issue good articles on various
aspects of child. :-i..'.;-ce, and Parents' Mngazine should surely go to every
kindergarten. Children's story books nay be borro.red by the parents to
read aloud to the children at home.
Because the kindergarten teacher comes first, she sets the stage for
the parents' reli.-iornship -owith school throughout the child's whole school
career. With so many means for making a good beginning in home-school
cooperation, eve y kindergarten teacher should be able to make a good
beginning with every home. This, then, on a long-te.rmn basis, is the
kindergarten teacher's great responsibility and gr,.ot opportunity.
*See bibliography on Cr.eo 45 for complete rIeerences.
USIITG 2 :6.
Information abor;t children is necessary in order to Cevluate grovth
effective ly. Whrn education was concerned mainly with 'he'en:ic prc";res5, the
report card .rwas sufficient to record this progress. Todry rwhatever- influence~
children is a parr; of education and recording and r'epoprting are a. vital part
of the educative process. These rocorrds re built of and by a'i. who are
concerned. The type and number of records r'-ure determined by the iPryose for
which they are to b' used.
Reasons for Reco.ds
Records helo to acquaint tIhe nome and tk.eo school --.ith area- -s. ', he
child's life which may not be easily observ'rd. Records q,lso help to insure
knowledge of individual needs of children -'-Ld families, Thcy may serve as a
check on pupil's growth in behavior habits, ho.lth habits, knowledge,
abilities, and interests; a means of .-e-scarch; a guide tO procedure; special
data to hand to the next teacher, parent, o- sueci.alist to insure a
continuity of development.
Tyuos of Records
2. Eating, sleeping and elimination (for school with all-day progrlo.:.'
Spot records for particular children are helpful and not so
volulrinc- a- a. continuous record kop:t fo-r each child.
3. Any nrccsosary bookkeeping records
Current In'Cdividur_ record ;
1. Health hi:sto:'y--reu.lar report of the physician and reco
follo-?-up tre atment
Height and weight c!'-irts
Reports of illnesses, disease, accidents
2. Contacts with parents
a. Initial interview
1. F_ 3l / background
2. Individual backTround
b. Casual conversations (daily contacts)
c. Scheduled conferences
d. Reports sent to parents
3. Adju.srment, behavior and progress (vith entries from tim<
time' during the year)
L4. :c'L- ilogic'-i tests
Special C-.l: nations
5. Children's .':'od.cts such as conv-ers~ation, drawings, play
6. Teacher's f.i-al r c-ert
This current folder should bo w .eoded out occasionally.
Permanent Cumult;i-e R2ecords
Pottinent forces of value to parents and future teachers (for schools
rith folders for such information to be passed on).
This folder tends to show the growth of the child from year to year.
These folders ae- usually kept in the regular school file.
S.I LI 0APHY
Alochulor, Rose H., Children's Centers, William ,Mrrow and Company,
Toe Yc:r, 1942.
This it a helpful and authorit.atiTv guide for the establishment
and operation of children's centers, including, g plans for a center
and instructions and drawings for building' equipment and play
mate rials. A&nnot.rted bibliography.
Association for Childhood Education, 2Bttor School Homes for
Children, The Association for Childhood : ::ion, Washington,
D. C., 1946.
Presents so-ne considerations which are basic to good schoolhouse
building for any community and for all children.
Davis, -:r- D., Schools for Children Under Six, Superintendent of
Documents, tashin*ton 25, D. C., 1947.
Discusses present trends toward es:teniion of school programs for
children under 6 year, of aee. Reports conicernin.I: educational
facilities for children under 6 and how nursery schools and kinder-
ga:rtons are organized and operated.
rational Association of St.A.te Directors of Elementary Education,
Planning.: for Anerica.'s Children, The elementary Division, Office
of E".:- -ion, *, ~-.,',l Security Ag.ency, .ashington 25, D. C., 1948.
This i-* a report -by Coaimitt-ee io. 3, Pro,,raEs i for Children Below
Six, of the I''atiornl Asnoc'ation of State Directors of Elermentary
Education. It doeas wih olicie. rogardin": the educational. program
of children under. 6 yer/c-.r .. f a.ge
Association for Childhood education "0.n .,.:":.r-,rii, Association
for Childho Vcl t V"i. 'ashin;t on, D. C.
This is a section tif he Kinder-arten Portfolio. It pertains to
the physical setup of.a kindergarten.
Baruch, Dorothy 'W., Parent and Childron Go to School, Scott, For'.'
and Comipny, Chicago, 1939.
Describes i'.i detail w ohat goes on in one pre-school composed of both
nursery and kindr'rgarton groups. It is interpreted in terms of child
development, and -,,.rent nrid teacher growth.
Dixon, C. M .adolir,, 'i_, Tid anid Dee-o, John Day Companny, ei.or York,
.The discovery of the young child in the dimensions of hei:-ht and
width and dep-thl i.rn hi., early vont'.::in, into an unexplored world.
Hansen, Rownm., Some Edac-ational Activities for the Youn;, Child in the
ome, Superlntend.ent :.' Documents, Goverrra:ent printing Office,
Washingh.;ton, D. C.
Sug;,estions are offered for -arents who -r wish help in educating:
their young children at home.
G-esoll, Arnold, and Others, Th_ First Five Years of Life, Harper and
r-:':-. rs, THe., York, 1940.
A technical study of normative development during the first five
years of life.
Parents' yapz-ie. Published by The Parents' Institute, Inc.,
52 Va.nairbilt Ave., New York, 17, New York, $2.50 per year.
The :-t ional Parent-T .r "'.;r. Pubiislhed by The National Congress of
Paro ns and ',;hrs, 600 South Michigan Blvd., Chicago 5,
Illinois. -1.00 per year.
Smart, Mollic and Russel, It's a 1iso Parent, Chas. Scribner Company,
Tew York, 1946.
It is a popularly .written and attractively illustrated book
giving pointers that parents run into every day.
Alschulor, oIsc, et al, Two to Six, W Morrow and Company, New York,
Practical int.crretation of childhood and development.
Runbeck, ::-'-,:rjt Leo, Our Mis, Boo, D. Appleton-Century Company,
ITew York, 1942.
A deli;g;htful story of a five-year-old girl, interpreted by an
adult who lov-e her very much. Miss Boo is not '"overychild" but an
original little girl :wih a glowing personality and unusual verbal
facility acc'ired, no doubt, from association with adults skilled in
language ar s.
Andrews, Ruth and Associates, Ourriculum 'G-uidos for Children from
Two to Six Years of Age, Reynal and Hitchcock, Inc., Iew rYork,
Presents desirable classrooms environment, daily programs, material.
constructive home and school relationships and study of children, bass.
on the general growth needs characteristic of the different age levels.,
Biber, Barbara. Lois Murphy, Louise P. Woodcock and Irma S. Black,
Child Life in School, E. P. Dutton and Company, New York, 1942.
Intensive research study of ten eirht-year-olds with detailed
interpretation of their growth and development.
Garrison, C1 rlotte, et al, Horace Mann Kindergarten for Five-Year-Old
Children, EBueau of i Pblications, Teachers College, Columbia
University, .a.o York, 1937.
Describes o-x '-ic-ces which have proved er.ducationally worthwhile
for five-year-old children. Illustrated with photographs of children
at work in the Horace Mann School hero the kindergarten is an integral
part of the educational program.
Gesell, d,Arnold and Fraormces 1, The Child from Five to Ten,
Harper and ~. other, r iew York, 1946.
A book every kindergarten teacher and parent should have,
Landreth, Catherine, Education of the Young Child, I7iley and Sons,
ITew Y'o., 1342.
A nurs:.r-y school "'manual." It is a very useful book for
kindergarten to achers.
Lane, Robert Hill, The Proressive Elemontary School, Hou ghton
Miffli. Corm.pany, Boston, 1938.
This ocok enables the reader to see the kindergarten in relation
to the entire elementary school. Problems considered are:
philosophy of education, school organization, school environment,
school curriculum, reading readiness, uni.s of work, dramatic play,
building good social habits, home contacts, home reports, and
Sherer, Lorr-.ine, '?Their First Five Yer-rs in Slhool, H. A. Miller
Company, Los Angsrlos, 1939.
This ics a course of study for kin crgyrton and the first two
years of t'-o ole7i-nt-ary school, of Los An-,-les County. The school is
shown as a plann .- educative environment whose chief function is to
supply experience and guidance to each growing child in harmony with
that indivic'ual1. s needs and potentialities. Illustrated with
photographs of children at work.
Washburn, lu-.th 'Wndell, Children Havec Their Rcasons, D. Ap nleton-
Century Cimipany, elow York, 1942.
A wise, human scientific interpretation of children that will
stimulate thiL:kin- about them and contribute to the insight of adults
who would undersitand th.a-. better,
Driscoll, 3-ertrude, How to Study the Behavior of Children, Bureau of
Publications, Teachers College, Columnbia University, New York,
Redl, Fritz, Ie l..in Teachrs Study Their Children, i:;i:i r.n Cooperative
Teachers : ., i-.icn Study, 113 State Office Building, Lansing,
Childhood _' nationon, Journal of the Associ.tion for Childhood Educatio.,
1201 Sixt enth Street, 1. '., :. -- ; on 6, D. C. $3.00 per year.
Child Study acazfie. lPublished by the Child Study Association of
Anaerica, 221 'est 57th Street, :$.-5 York. $1.50 per year.
Sources of Materi.'.s in ->-l y Childhood Education, Wolfare, and
American Association of "University Women
1631 Eye Street, N. W., .Washington, D. C.
Association f-r Childhood Education
1201 Sixteenth Street, II. ';., 17'..,-ington 6, D. C.
Child Study Association cf America
221 West 57th Strot.t, i.-. York
U. S. DepartL "ent of Labor, Constitution Ave. and 14th St., IT. W.
Washinton, D. C.
National Association of NurZ ry E) u.:. ion
W ,est 514 Ecst Hall, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa
National E.s-,reat ion Association
315 F'ourth Avenue, Ne'-r York
U. S. Offi3e of E.,:C.. tion
Fcdera Security Agency, Tempov-rry buildingg M,
Washin.'ton, D. C.
This is crbort: A Study of Person,-li.ty _rowti n a Pre-School Child.
Thin film, fir,-m the Vassar Deopartmert of -ld St1iudy, traces the
development of Lrobert from his arri Til in n-rse:., school at two,
through his fl:.st year in public at. seven. e- ,e Robert dealing
with animo.;: ane people l r~;e and m.ll. We al o.ee how he is
influenced yh his mother a.nd teacher.
Frustration T -t Tochrn.icA:ag.
iHre -' e en atn e:-:.' mentorr blockin crhildrdn at ly and. taking
from them at:-,active tcoy which thn~y hore hd orly a s rt while to
enjoy. In this vy .-re eec horw '-ch child responds to i rusions,
prohibitions, c-'r. tit.io'..L Otc.
This filn, from tCI Vasnar Departmont of Child Study, -ows how
two five-year-ol.:. "boys r...spo.nd to an invitation to break: a '."mfu
of balloons. We see Ma.rvin'sn rigid. morality and Terry't ea;-.-;in,"
Finger Paint in-: Children's Use f ) -.,stc Materi.Lls
This is ". color film (Vassar Department of Child S'idy; wh"c, is
interesting for reason that it sho'rs the process of finer p.inti..-
and some of t:e t roduct; of children and 'oecase it 1: t r
technique for studying; the .ays different children reac to creative
opportunities a.d approach nrci situations.
16 min., sou. !, ap-ro:ir...bely 30 minutes. .os $6.0. .vailabLi
from eT Yo:.1.: 7uri'Tverit7y Fil" Library, 26 Washingtn Place,
Numerous situatlln i. family life and in hool :fe fro the
young~esto o t. adult ar'e ,pictured in very spontaneous :nd natural
relationships. Pha.rronts iill ;:-ini an insighht into the notioinal needs
of their c.il2r,; layme t do nt hvce chldrn f hei own will
understand better a. modern approach to education n in home and in school
and will recognize how important it is to have a good program in our
schools. The film emphasizes the i 'ort ..c o of sound emotional health
if democratic. living is to be realized.
The Teelin- of Eajection.
16 mm., sound, 23 minutes. Available from National Film Board of
Canada, 84 .2s.t Randolph Street, Chicago 1, Illinois.
This is.: the story of Mrararet, who at the age of 12 finds herself
unable to tUke part in normal school activities. At age 23, she has
constant hLadaches which can not be traced to any physical cause. The
film attempts to show the experiences of her childhood which were
connected wi-th her later difficulties. ihe film is of interest to
educators concerned with human relations, "understanding the child,"
teacher education, and the relation of psychiatry to education. One
question concerns the possible recommendation of the film in teacher
education, both for pre-service and in-service training.
Learning T housh Cooperative Planning.
16 mm., 'oaci .: and white, sound. Rental $4.00. Available from
~,r. of ulicaton, Teachers Collee, oluibia University.
This flm hns "beh n prepared t help toache -r -- in-proparation and
teachers-in-sorvice gain a better understand ig of the processes of
cooperative -ola .nin in education. Lymen inter.stod in the edu cation
of citizens for dnrmocracy will also find considor",ble value in this
film. hiluo it wa:s not Cdesiged for use as o.n in-,tructional film with
pupils, the filmN might w.l l prove helpful for leadership training in
the u en~r el m ~n.. ry an.d s.c.ond.ary schools.
Color Slidos a nd i cordi."L"
Lann;uane Arts in Action in Utah Elemcnt&,ry Schools.
Avail.lei fr- m Ta.ti.on.c Council of -. ':--rs of English, 211
West 68th Sti-ret, Chica., 21, Illinois. Charge for express
must beo assured fr loan.
A series of pictures in the classroom shows how children enrich
their langu.goe ex--erir-ncos, build vocabulary, and find new ac.wvenues of
creative expression through the arts.