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Group Title: Research report
Title: Florida public school teachers' salaries
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00082805/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida public school teachers' salaries
Series Title: Research report
Physical Description: 22 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Dept. of Education. -- Division of Research
Publisher: Division of Research, State of Florida
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1965
Copyright Date: 1965
 Subjects
Subject: Teachers -- Salaries, etc -- Statistics -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statistics   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: prepared by the Division of Research of the Florida State Department of Education.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "September, 1965."
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Bibliographic ID: UF00082805
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 22698852

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
Full Text









FLORIDA

PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS' SALARIES


Research Report 41
Division of Research


. ,' .- ,


Thomas D. Bailey
State Superintendent of Public Instruction
Tallahassee, Florida

September, 1965


Se; j t: ,


if 73f

lf ?j































Research Report-41 presents factors affecting
public school teacher salary schedules in
Florida. This report was prepared by the
Division of Research of the Florida State
Department of Education.

The preparation of these reports is one phase
in the implementation of Florida's plan for
improving statistical services of the State
Department of Education under the provisions
of Title X, National Defense Education Act.














FLORIDA

PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS' SALARIES



The salary schedule is of prime importance to teachers from other states

who are interested in moving to Florida, to college students preparing to

teach, and to teachers already in service in the public schools of the state.

Many requests are received by the State Department of Education for

information regarding salaries in Florida. This Research Report has been

prepared in an effort to bring together in one place pertinent information

regarding teachers' salaries. It is hoped that it will contribute to a

better understanding of teacher salary provisions on the part of both

teachers and interested citizens.

No effort has been made to rank counties or provide county comparisons

for reasons outlined in the text. Rather, this is a general presentation

of factors applicable to salaries and salary schedules.

Statistical tables, salary ranges, certification requirements, and

county salary schedules are available from other sources and are not

presented here. Certification, teacher contracts, leave provisions and

other matters of interest to instructional personnel are considered only

as they apply to salaries. No effort is made to treat these matters in

detail.

Salary provisions for Junior College personnel are not included in

this report since the factors are not the same as for the regular public

school program.









Florida does not have a State salary schedule for either instructional

or non-instructional personnel. Salary schedules are established by the

County Board of Public Instruction (BPI) in each county and vary from county

to county and from year to year within the same county. Each County BPI

includes an official salary schedule each year when its budget is submitted

to the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. Salaries paid individual

teachers must conform with the rates shown in the official salary schedule

adopted by the County BPI. This is one of the items checked by the State

Auditing Department when county audits are made. State Law, Section 236.02(6),

Florida Statutes, establishes certain requirements for salaries which must

be met in order for the county to participate in the Florida Minimum Founda-

tion Program (MFP) Fund:

1. Each member of the instructional staff who holds a continuing con-

tract (CC) must be paid at least $4,000 per school year of ten

calendar months.

2. Annual increments must be provided so that by the time a teacher

reaches continuing contract status with ten years of efficient

teaching service in the public schools of Florida (CC-10), the

minimum annual salary paid must be at least $5,000. Annual incre-

ments beyond ten years are not required by law although counties

may, and about half of them do, provide in their salary schedules

for additional yearly increments beyond ten years. One county has

increments up to twenty-five years of service.

3. Salary schedules adopted by the County BPI must take into consider-

ation the factors of training and service. Additional factors as

incentives for the determination and recognition of superior

teaching and service to the schools may be adopted as a part of










the county salary schedule. Each additional factor which is consid-

ered in determining the salary for a teacher must be included as a

part of the official salary schedule for the county.

The state minimum salaries prescribed in (1) and (2) above may be waived

for a county by the State Board in special hardship cases where a County BPI

can prove to the State Board that the payment of such minimum salaries would

unduly curtail the educational program or endanger the financial structure of

a county in any school year. The burden of proof in such cases is on the

County BPI. Such a waiver cannot be authorized for more than two successive

years. This provision has never been applied.

There is another little used provision of law under which increments and

minimum salary requirements may be withheld from an individual teacher where

the teacher is found unworthy of such increments or minimum salary. Before

yearly increments and required minimum salaries may be withheld, the following

conditions must be met as prescribed in State Board Regulation 130-1.53:

1. Plans and policies for such withholding must be adopted by the County

BPI, spread upon its minutes, and duly publicized. A copy of such

policy must be on file with the State Superintendent of Public

Instruction.

2. The teachers affected must be notified at least four weeks before the

close of school of the year preceding the year in which the withholding

becomes effective.

Salary schedules adopted for instructional personnel in a county must pro-

vide equivalent salaries for teachers with equivalent qualifications in elemen-

tary, junior and senior high schools. Supplements for additional duties or

services may be paid provided such supplements are included as a part of the

official salary schedule. Each teacher must be paid the amount called for in









the official salary schedule of the county. Over-payments and under-payments

must be adjusted to conform with the official salary schedule (State Board

Regulation 130-1.52(3)).

The County BPI is required to furnish each member of the instructional

staff with a written contract which provides for the payment of a definite

salary (Section 236.02(3), Florida Statutes). Personnel employed for twelve

months, such as supervisors, principals, and other special instructional

personnel, must be paid in twelve equal monthly installments. Instructional

personnel employed for less than twelve months must be paid in monthly pay-

ments as nearly equal as possible according to a payment schedule adopted by

the County BPI. The payment schedule and dates of payment vary from county to

county depending on the decision made by the County BPI.

Instructional personnel under a ten-month contract are required to render

a minimum of 196 days of service, including pre-school and post-school planning

periods. This is the minimum number of days required by State Law and can be

extended by action of the County BPI. A number of counties require more than

the minimum 196 days service during the ten-month contractual period. Some

counties require additional days of service for new instructional personnel

as a period of orientation. Saturday and holidays are not counted in the 196

minimum days of service nor is there any provision for paid vacation periods

for ten-month personnel within the minimum of 196 days.

At least 180 days of classroom instruction for pupils is required. These

180 days may not include registration periods for pupils, holidays, or any

other periods of time during which school is closed or dismissed. This require-

ment may be altered during a national or local emergency but the Minimum Foun-

dation Program (MFP) allocation is decreased in proportion to the decrease in

the length of the school term. This is why every effort is made to "make up"


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lost days of school. Saturday may not be used for this purpose.

No minimum length of school day for instructional personnel is prescribed

by State Law. This is established by policies of each County BPI. Florida

State Law does establish a minimum school day for pupils, however. The

minimum is five net hours, not including intermissions, for all grades above

grade three, and not less than four net hours for the first three grades.

The State Board is authorized to make some adjustment in situations such as

double sessions which are necessary on a temporary basis. However, in no

case may the school day for pupils be reduced by more than one hour.

The County BPI may allow paid vacation leave for instructional personnel

employed on a twelve-month basis at the rate of one day of vacation for each

month of service, accumulated up to a maximum of twenty working days. Days

off during the Christmas vacation period, other than legal holidays, are

counted as a part of the vacation leave for twelve-month employees unless

such employees actually are on duty. Professional leave with pay at the rate

of three weeks per year, cumulative for not more than two years, may be

granted to twelve-month personnel. This gives twelve-month personnel an

opportunity to attend a six-weeks summer school term every two years if they

desire. Such leave, however, is optional with the County BPI and is restric-

ted to times when school is not in session. (State Board Regulations 130-1.81).

Instructional personnel who are members of reserve components of the armed

forces may be granted military leave, with pay, to participate voluntarily in

temporary duty, training duty, or short tours at the discretion of the County

BPI. Such leave is granted when school is not in session, except under

unusual circumstances. Military leave for employees who are required to

serve in the armed services for extended periods must begranted. Such leave

may not be counted for allocation of MFP funds or as years of service toward










a continuing contract. Individuals wishing further details on military leave

are referred to State Board Regulation 130-1.83 and Chapter 115, Florida

Statutes.

Teaching contracts place obligations on the teacher as well as on the

County BPI. Any teacher who violates his contract by leaving his position

without first being released from his contract by the County BPI is ineligible

for employment in another Florida county school system for a period of one

year from the date of such violation if the County BPI takes official action

and notifies the State Department of Education of such action.

No person may be employed as a regular or part-time teacher who does not

hold a valid certificate to teach in Florida. The requirements for certifica-

tion to teach in Florida public schools are quite detailed. The sole authority

for issuing teaching certificates is vested in the State Superintendent of

Public Instruction (Section 229.17(16), Florida Statutes). Generally, certif-

icates bear the date of July 1 of the fiscal year in which they are issued and

have the period of validity entered on the face of the certificate. Teaching

certificates issued by other states are not valid in Florida. The types and

ranks of certificates currently being issued are:

RANK TYPE OF CERTIFICATE BASIS FOR ISSUE

I Advanced Post Graduate Doctor's Degree

II Post Graduate and Provisional Master's Degree
Post Graduate

III Graduate, Provisional Four-Year Degree
Graduate, and Temporary

IV Temporary 90 or more semester
hours

V Temporary 60-89 semester hours

VI Temporary Less than 60
semester hours










Applications for temporary certificates must be signed by the county

superintendent in the county in which the applicant is to be employed. No

certificate other than an Interim certificate valid for one year, may be

issued unless the applicant has scored at least 500 on the common examina-

tion of the National Teachers Examination (NTE) or equivalent score on

another comprehensive examination approved by the State Board. Each teacher

is responsible for making arrangements to take the NTE and for seeing that

his examination score is properly filed with the state and county. A new

teacher is allowed one Interim certificate. The rank of the Interim certif-

icate is determined by the applicant's academic degree and other qualifica-

tions and can be in any rank other than V and VI. Upon expiration of the

Interim certificate, the applicant may be issued the highest type certificate

for which he is eligible in the same rank as the Interim certificate if he

has made the minimum score; if not, he may be issued one temporary certifi-

cate in Rank V, valid for one year.

A Standard certificate in Rank III and a Post-Standard certificate in

Rank II may be issued covering specific vocational areas. These Standard

certificates are based on actual work experience and are limited to vocational

subjects. Standard certificates carry the same MFP salary allocations as

other certificates of the same rank and enjoy the same contractual privileges.

Under certain circumstances, Part-Time teaching certificates may be issued

covering general adult and vocational education.

Responsibility for making necessary applications, observing extension

deadlines, presenting proper credentials,.and following through on instruc-

tions in matters pertaining to certification rests with the individual teacher,

not with the county school system or the State Department of Education,

Specific information about certification requirements can be obtained from









the Certification Section, State Department of Education, Tallahassee. In

addition, there is a "County Contact for Certification" person designated in

each county who can answer most questions pertaining to certification.

An understanding of three other terms describing contractual status is

necessary in order to understand Florida's teacher salary program: Annual

Contract (AC), Continuing Contract (CC), and Continuing Contract with ten years

efficient teaching service in Florida public schools (CC-10). These terms will

be discussed briefly.

An annual contract is good for one year and a new contract must be issued

each year. The teacher on an annual contract and the County BPI issuing such

a contract are not obligated beyond the one year covered by the contract. The

County BPI may issue another contract if it wishes to retain the services of

the teacher or may fail to issue another contract thus terminating the services

of the teacher in that county. The first three years of a teacher's employment

are always on an annual contract basis since a minimum of three years probation-

ary service is required before a continuing contract may be issued. The three

years of probationary service may be extended to four years by mutual consent.

This applies to service in any county whether the teacher is a beginner or a

teacher with several years experience in other counties.

Experience outside the state, or outside the county, may be recognized in

salary schedules in different ways from county to county. Salary values in

the MFP for a unit sustained by a beginning annual contract teacher are the

same as for an annual contract teacher with any number of years of experience.

More about this later.

At the close of the mandatory three years (four years by mutual agreement)

probationary service, which service must be performed during a maximum period

of five successive years, one of three steps must be taken by the County BPI.










1. The annual contract may not be re-issued thus ending the teacher's

service to the county. Neither the county nor the teacher has any

further contractual obligation if notification deadlines are observed.

2. The teacher may be continued on annual contract, with his consent,

and the annual contract will be automatically renewed by the county

board. Such renewal will be made at least four weeks before the

close of each school year. This might be termed an "automatically

renewed annual contract." It is used when a teacher shows promise

but does not quite reach the standards desired of a continuing con-

tract teacher. It gives the teacher a further opportunity to develop

and prove himself. In subsequent years the teacher may achieve

continuing contract status or may be relieved of a teaching posi-

tion in the county.

3. The teacher may be issued a continuing contract.

A continuing contract may be issued only after the period of probationary

service. Three years of probationary service are required by State Law and

cannot be waived. The probationary period may be extended to four years when

requested by the County BPI and agreed to in writing by the teacher. A con-

tinuing contract indicates that in the opinion of the county school officials

the individual has proved to be a competent teacher and it is desired that he

continue in teaching service in the county without the necessity for annual

re-appointment. A continuing contract provides a measure of security both to

the teacher and to the county school system. Each person to whom a continuing

contract is issued is entitled to continue in his position, or in a similar

position, without the necessity for annual re-appointment. Thus, continuing

contract status means much more than an increase in salary. Continuing con-

tracts may not be transferred from county to county.









A teacher on continuing contract status may be dismissed or returned to

annual contract status under certain conditions as prescribed in Section 231.

36(3), Florida Statutes. The teacher must be given written notice and is

entitled to a public hearing if requested in writing. Also there are provi-

sions under which action by the County BPI may be appealed to the State Board,

There is another situation under which teachers on continuing contract

may be released by the County BPI without the necessity for formal hearings.

This occurs when schools are consolidated in which case the County BPI is

free to select those teachers that it wishes to retain regardless of contrac-

tual status. There is no provision for appeal under these circumstances since

the decision of the County BPI is final.

Continuing contract with ten years of efficient teaching service in

Florida public schools, strictly speaking, is not a separate contract status

in the county in which the teacher is employed. It means simply that the

teacher has attained continuing contract status and has served successfully

for ten years or more' in the public schools of Florida. It is a salary step

rather than a change in contractual status and is recognized as such in the

allocation of State MFP funds.

Service in schools outside the state is not recognized in achieving CC-10

status although many counties do recognize out-of-state service in varying

degrees in their salary schedule. State MFP salary allocations do not recog-

nize out-of-state service.

Thus the amounts allocated under the MFP to the counties for the payment

of teachers' salaries depend on two factors: (1) Rank of Certificate held

and (2) Contractual Status. These amounts under current law are:


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RANK CONTRACTUAL STATUS ALLOCATION

I AC $5,000
CC 5,400
CC-10 5,800

II AC 4,400
CC 4,800
CC-10 5,200

III AC 3,950
CC 4,350
CC-10 4,750

IV AC 3,000

V AC 2,800

It can be noted from the table above that there are no continuing con-

tract personnel in Rank IV and Rank V since teachers in these ranks do not

hold "Regular" certificates which are required for continuing contract status.

Also Rank VI is not shown since the state does not provide any MFP salary

funds for paying Rank VI personnel. Rank VI personnel may be considered as

paid wholly from local funds and the employment of such personnel usually

results in a reduction in MFP funds allocated to a county for salaries.

It should be repeated and emphasized that the MFP salary values shown

do not constitute a salary schedule the salary schedule is prepared by

each County BPI. These amounts simply constitute a formula for the alloca-

tion of MFP salary funds to the counties. Also, the amounts shown are not

allocated on the basis of the number of teachers employed but are allocated

on the basis of instruction units. Instruction units are earned by pupils

in average daily attendance each prior year and for certain special instruc-

tional programs and services approved in advance which meet specified mini-

mum standards. This is an important difference and one that frequently is

misunderstood. Possibly some actual examples will make this difference

clear.


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Rank and
Contractual
Status

(1)

I AC
CC
CC-10

II AC
CC
CC-10

III AC
CC
CC-10

IV AC

V AC

VI AC


Instructional
Positions

.Number Percent
( 2) (3)


3.08%
21.54

26.15
13.85
21.54

6.15

4.61

3.08
100.00%


EXAMPLE 1

Instruction
Units
Earned

(4)






1.98
13.83

16.78
8.89
13.82

3.95

2.96

1.98
64.19


Value
Per
Unit

(5)

$5,000
5,400
5,800

4,400
4,800
5,200

3,950
4,350
4,750

3,000

2,800

--


MFP Allocation
for Ten-Months
Salaries

(6)
-
-




$ 9,504
71,916

66,281
38,672
65,645

11,850

8,288


$272,156


You will see that the above example is a small county with 65 instruc-

tional personnel employed (positions filled) and 64.19 instruction units

earned. There were no personnel in Rank I so there were no entries for this

rank. Column (2) gives the number of personnel employed (positions) and

Column (3) shows the percentage of these positions filled by instructional

personnel in each Rank and Contractual Status. For example, in Rank III,

CC-10 Status, there were 14 positions. These 14 positions were 21.54 percent

of the total of 65 positions in this county. These percentages are computed

for each classification and entered in Column (3), which adds to 100 percent.

The percentages in Column (3) for each classification are applied to the total

number of instruction units earned and entered in Column (4). Thus, the 14

positions filled by teachers in Rank III, CC-10 were 21.54 percent of the

total and "earned" 13.82 instruction units. The values per unit shown in


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--










Column (5) are applied to the units earned in Column (4) and the resulting

MFP allocation entered in Column (6). You will note that the value of each

classification is applied to the number of instruction units earned, not to

the number of personnel or positions filled.

Florida Statutes require that the number of positions filled must equal

at least 95 percent of the units earned. So with 64.19 units earned, this

county was required to fill at least 61 positions, which it did. Had the

county not employed personnel to support at least 95 percent of the units

earned, its MFP allocation would have been reduced proportionately.

Further examination of Example 1 will reveal one other interesting point.

You will note that two positions were filled in Rank VI, for which the county

received no State MFP funds. These positions did, however, affect the percent-

ages in higher ranks. Had these positions in Rank VI not been filled, the

percentages in higher ranks would have been increased and consequently the

number of units for which salary allocations were made would have been higher.

In this example, had no Rank VI personnel been employed the county would still

have met the 95 percent requirement and would have been allocated $280,791

instead of the $272,156 actually allocated. In other words, the county not

only received $8,635 less in MFP funds because of using these two Rank VI

personnel but in addition had to pay the salaries of these two teachers from

other county funds! It is assumed that personnel with higher certificates

were not available and the County BPI was forced to fill these positions with

what personnel were available.

You will also note, in the case of the two Rank II, CC, personnel that

whereas the value of a unit supported by Rank II, CC, is $4,800, the county

received only $4,752 for each of these positions.


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One other example will be given, this time for a larger county filling

more positions than units earned but still not qualifying for recalculation.

Recalculation funds are allocated to a county only when the percent of pupil

growth exceeds a given minimum. The minimum is four percent in 1965-66, will

be three percent in 1966-67, and will decrease further in subsequent years.


Rank and
Contractual
Status

(1)

I AC
CC
CC-10

II AC
CC
CC-10

III AC
CC
CC-10

IV AC

V AC

VI AC


Instructional
Positions

Number Percent
(2) (3)

2 .48%

2 .48

36 8.61
32 7.66
29 6.94

170 40.67
87 20.81
50 11.96

7 1.67

3 .72


418 100.00%


EXAMPLE 2

Instruction
Units
Earned

(4)

1.76

1.76

31.46
27.99
25.36

148.62
76.04
43.70

6.10

2,63


365.42


Value
Per
Unit

(5)

$5,000
5,400
5,800

4,400
4,800
5,200

3,950
4,350
4,750

3,000

2,800


MFP Allocation
for Ten-Months
Salaries

(6)

$ 8,800
-
10,280

138,424
134,352
131,872

587,049
300,774
207,575

18,300

7,364


$1,574,718


In Example 2 the county earned 365.42 instruction units but filled 418

positions. Look at the Rank I, CC-10, classification where two positions were

filled. Instruction units in Rank I, CC-10, have a value of $5,800 each in

the MFP. However, in this case these two positions accounted for only 1.76

instruction units. Thus, the two positions earned $10,208, or $5,104 each,

instead of $5,800 each.

In every case where the positions filled exceeds the number of instruc-

tion units earned, the MFP allocation for salaries, if computed on a "per


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3--










teacher" basis, will be less than the MFP value for that Rank and Contractual

Status.

There are two other legal requirements that salaries paid instructional

personnel must meet. No individual teacher may be paid less than 90 percent

of the MFP value for his particular Rank and Contractual Status. For example,

the MFP value for Rank II, CC Status is $4,800. Therefore, no individual

teacher in Rank II on Continuing Contract may be paid less than 90 percent of

$4,800, or $4,320 for the regular ten-month contractual period.

All of the MFP funds allocated to a county for personnel in a particular

rank must be paid to the teachers in that rank. Note however, that this is

not broken down by contractual status, only by rank. In Example 2 there are

four teachersin Rank I and the MFP allocation for all positions in Rank I is

$19,080 ($8,800 plus $10,280). Regardless of'the 90 percent minimum, these

four teachers together must receive at least $19,080; the MFP allocation for

this rank. No part of the salary funds allocated for these four teachers in

Rank I may be used to increase salaries of teachers in other ranks.

All MFP salary funds are allocated on an instruction unit basis. When

the Legislature increases the unit value for salaries, by say $300 across the

board, this does not mean $300 for each teacher employed (position filled)

but rather $300 for each instruction unit earned. This is important. It

explains why some counties are unable to "pass on" each raise in full if they

have more teachers than they earn instruction units.

Refer back to Example 2 where there were 418 positions and 365.42 units.

A $300 across the board increase for salaries would give this county $109,626

in MFP funds. But, to provide a $300 increase to each teacher would cost

$125,400, a difference of $15,774 which must be paid locally from other funds.

Actually a $300 per unit increase would have meant only $262 per teacher


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(position) in this example. The terms "teacher" and "position" have been used

.-intechageably but actually a position may be filled by two or more part-time

teachers. "Position" might be defined as an "equivalent full-time teacher,"

Also, when reference is made to Minimum Foundation Program (MFP) salary funds,

it includes both county and state contributions to the MFP.

The annual salary paid some ten-month teachers may be increased as a

result of employment during the beyond ten-months period, or the summer program.

Such employment does not extend beyond two school months, or eight working weeks,

and may be for a shorter period. Ordinarily, teachers on Administrative and

Special Instructional Service (ASIS) units are continued through the summer

although such ASIS units may be filled by academic teachers. Supervisors on

State supervisory units are employed for twelve months. Certain vocational

and adult education units may extend through the summer.

The funds allocated to the counties under the MFP for salaries for the

regular ten-month program may be increased by twenty percent for the summer

program. The actual MFP allocation depends on two things: (1) the classifi-

cation (Rank and Contractual Status) of the teacher working during the summer,

and (2) the period of approved summer employment. A Rank II, AC, position, for

example, carries a MFP value of $4,400 for the ten-month term. If such a posi-

tion were extended for an approved eight-week summer program, twenty percent

of the $4,400, or $880 in additional salary money would be made available; for

an approved four-week summer program, $440 additional would be made available,

and so on.

Counties differ in their policies regarding summer pay. Some counties pay

teachers only the salary funds that they receive under the MFP whereas other

counties continue the same regular rate of pay as for the ten-month term. This

matter is left entirely in the hands of the County BPI.


-16-










The "beyond ten-month," or summer program, actually precedes the regular

ten-month program to which it is attached. The summer program for the summer

of 1965 is a part of the 1965-66 school year. It is not an extension of the

1964-65 school year. Payments for salaries for the 1965 summer program come

out of the budget for fiscal 1965-66. This is important when changes in rank

and contractual status take place during the summer. Usually separate con-

tracts, or separate contractual provisions are made when regular ten-month

personnel are employed for the summer program. This does not apply to person-

nel on twelve-month contracts. There is a difference.

Years of service are important to a teacher in regards to salary. First,

a minimum of three years service is required to move from annual contract

status to continuing contract status. The three years minimum service must

be rendered in the same county during a period of not more than five succes-

sive years and must be continuous except for authorized leave. Second, each

"good year" of service counts toward CC-10 status, which means a higher

salary.

Just what constitutes a "good year" of service? A year of service for a

teacher must include full-time actual service, exclusive of leave and holidays,

for a total of more than half of the number of days required for the normal

contractual period for the position held. This contractual period may not be

less than 196 days. It is longer for twelve-month personnel. Personal leave

and professional leave may not be counted as days of service but actual sick

leave, for which the teacher is paid, may be counted. Religious holidays and

emergency leave granted under policies of a County BPI and charged against

sick leave may not be counted as days of service even though the teacher is

paid for such days. Partial years may not be accumulated. In order to have

a good year for State purposes, the teacher must actually perform services


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more than half of a school year. In other words, a teacher may not combine

the last part of one school year and the first part of the next school year

to establish a good year of service.

The number of days of actual service required to establish a good year

for teachers on a ten-month contract is less than the number required for a

teacher on a twelve-month contract. Summer work for a ten-month contract

teacher may not be added to time during the regular year in order to estab-

lish a good year. For example, a teacher who begins teaching late in the

year, after the school term is more than half over, cannot continue teaching

into the summer in order to get credit for a year of service.

Insofar as the salary schedule of a particular county is concerned differ-

ent requirements may be used for establishing eligibility for annual increments.

A County BPI, for example, may recognize military service, years taught in

private schools, or other service in its salary schedule. It also may recog-

nize incomplete years of service. This does not, however, affect MFP salary

allocations. Any liberalizations of minimum requirements for a year of ser-

vice made under County BPI policies will not increase MFP funds.

Salaries paid emergency or substitute teachers vary from county to county

but the salary scale for such personnel is included in the salary schedule

filed annually by each County BPI with the State Superintendent. The County

BPI may contract with regularly certificated personnel as substitute teachers.

Usually such contracts are "open" in that they are not for a specified number

of days but rather the teacher is simply "on call" when needed. Under this

type contract, service is counted for MFP allocation purposes but the substi-

tute teacher is paid only for the days during which services actually are

rendered. The salary paid such teachers is computed at the same daily rate

that would be paid to full-time teachers with the same qualifications and


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status. This applies only to regularly certificated teachers who are under

contract.

Emergency teachers who are not certificated may not be employed for more

than ten consecutive school days in the same position. The daily rate of com-

pensation for such non-certificated teachers is established in the official

salary schedule of the county. No MFP funds are allocated for salaries of

non-certificated personnel.

Teachers who hold Substitute teaching certificates are not eligible for

contracts but may teach more than ten consecutive days in the same position

if the county board cannot find a regularly certificated teacher. The daily

rate of pay for persons holding a Substitute teacher certificate is set forth

in the county salary schedule but services rendered by such teachers are not

counted for salary allocations under the MFP.

Teaching out of their field of certification by teachers in Rank I and

Rank II can reduce the amount of MFP funds allocated to a county. The

teacher who is providing services outside his area of certification usually

does so at the request of the county superintendent so this is not a factor

in most county salary schedules. Also, if a county is unable to find a

properly certificated teacher for a particular position, the county superin-

tendent may certify this fact to the State Superintendent and this restriction

may be waived for Rank I and Rank II personnel. Such a waiver must be requested

each year and applies only to MFP salary allocations. It does not constitute

a waiver for school accreditation purposes. If a county has teachers in Rank

I and Rank II who are teaching out of their field of certification for more

than half time and if the county does not certify to the State Superintendent

that suitable, properly certificated personnel are not available, the MFP

salary allocation for units sustained by such personnel is computed at the


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unit value for Rank III.

The matter of salary supplements or extra pay for extra curricular duties

or additional assignments is entirely a county matter. No state funds for

extra duties are specifically provided. For example, some counties provide

supplements for athletic coaches, class sponsors, and club sponsors, on the

basis that extra time is required. Such supplements must be made a part of

the salary schedule but the amounts and distribution is a responsibility of

the County BPI.

Some teachers in the adult and vocational education program are regular

teachers who serve on a part-time basis for these programs after regular school

hours. State Board Regulations provide that teachers who hold full-time

teaching positions in regular elementary or secondary schools shall teach no

more than six hours per week in adult education programs. This is to prevent

the teacher from being overloaded to the extent that classroom effectiveness

will suffer. Compensation for part-time teaching usually is computed on an

hourly basis using 900 clock hours of instruction, with a certain minimum

class load, as the equivalent of a full-time position. For example, a posi-

tion filled by a teacher whose Rank and Contractual Status provided for a

salary of $5,400 for a regular ten-month term, might receive $6 (5,400 900)

per hour for part-time teaching. This varies from county to county depending on

individual county policy and salary schedule provisions.

There appears to be a trend developing toward the basing of instructional

salaries partially on factors in addition to training and experience. Among

these emerging factors are such considerations as attendance at summer school,

participation in in-service training, and scores on various teacher examina-

tions. Once the base salary increases to the point where it is attractive to

beginning teachers, this trend toward incentive pay probably will be


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accelerated at the local level. State-wide programs with this goal have not

been successful.

State Law and State Board Regulations do not establish minimum salaries

or rates of pay for non-instructional personnel such as bus drivers, custodi-

ans, clerical workers and day laborers. Rates of pay for such personnel usually

are governed by competitive conditions within each county and the "going rate"

for certain crafts. Non-instructional personnel must, however, be paid

according to a salary schedule which provides for various classifications of

employees of the school board. Salary differentials must be based on objec-

tive factors set forth in the official county salary schedule. If new non-

instructional positions or classifications are established during a school

year for which provision is not made in the original official salary schedule,

amendments to the official salary schedule must be properly adopted by the

County BPI and a copy of such amendments filed with the State Superintendent.

Average salaries paid instructional personnel frequently are used as a

basis for comparing salaries. These averages can be highly misleading. A

county with a low salary schedule but with a large proportion of personnel in

the higher ranks and contractual status may have a higher average salary than

a county with a higher salary schedule but a preponderance of personnel in

annual contract status.

Comparisons of salaries paid in one state with salaries paid in other

states are even more complicated and misleading than comparisons among

counties. Contractual periods differ from state to state; comparisons of

annual salaries for ten-month periods with salaries for nine-month periods

are of little value. Fringe benefits such as sick leave, retirement, sabbat-

ical leave, scholarships, and reimbursed expenses further complicate the

picture. Certification requirements among the states differ and this creates


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a problem in making comparisons. Sometimes it seems impossible "to get from

here to there."

It is evident by now that comparisons of salary schedules are involved and

difficult, if not impossible, from a practical standpoint. Every county's

salary schedule is different in some aspects from every other county. Salary

schedules that appear to be similar may be different when various supplements

are counted and maximums as well as minimums are considered. It is necessary

to examine each salary'schedule in detail before any comparisons can be made

and even then it is difficult to arrive at a definite conclusion. Is a high

beginning salary and a low maximum salary better than a low beginning salary

and a high maximum? Ideally, of course, a high beginning salary and a high

maximum salary is desirable; or as Confucius is reputed to have said, "It is

better to be healthy and wealthy than to be sick and poor."


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