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 1918-1924














Group Title: Narrative reports of county superintendents, State of Florida
Title: Narrative reports of county superintendents
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 Material Information
Title: Narrative reports of county superintendents
Alternate Title: Research report 74 ; Florida Dept. of Education
Physical Description: 6 v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Education. -- Division of Research
Publisher: Florida Dept. of Education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: October, 1969
Copyright Date: 1962
 Subjects
Subject: Public schools -- History -- Sources -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Sources   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Department of Education.
General Note: Covers the period from 1870 through 1924. No narrative reports published between 1880 and 1892.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00082791
Volume ID: VID00006
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 48541382

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    1918-1924
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Full Text



K


ARCH


REPORT-74


REPORT


BUREAU OF RESEARCH


Narrative Repor
of County
Superintendents


1918 1920 to 1920 1922


OCTOBER 1969


DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
TALLAHASSEE FLORIDA
PLOYD T. CHRISTIAN COMMISSIONER


to 1922 1924


































Research Report 74 is a compilation of County
Superintendents' narrative reports covering
statistical and other school data for the period
1918-1924. (490)









1918 1924


In accordance with custom and the requirements
of your office, we are glad to submit this, our
first biennial report, which is not to be prized
for its literary cleverness nor its volume of
information--just a few plain facts.

L. D. Hathaway, County Superintendent
Hernando County, 1922


Research Report 74 concludes the series of historical reports composed of

extracts from the file of State Superintendents' Biennial Reports in the

Department of Education. This report presents county superintendents'

narrative reports for the period 1918-20 through 1922-24. As County Super-

intendent Hathaway wrote, this report ',is not to be prized for its literary

cleverness nor its vdlume of information--just a few plain facts." Each

narrative report covers a two-year period, therefore there are three

separate reports for each county filing such reports in Research Report 74.

Mr. William N. Sheats was State Superintendent until his death in July, 1922.

Mr. W. S. Cawthon's term began July 24, 1922.


The practice of asking county superintendents to submit a narrative report

was discontinued after the 1922-24 biennium. While subsequent statistical

reports serve the purpose of factual reporting, much of the color and insight

into problems and school personalities of the day is lacking in mere columns

of statistics. Such insight is shown in Okaloosa County Superintendent

W. C. Pryor's words in 1920:


We have met with very poor success in the enforce-
ment of the Compulsory School Law. Last year the
school supervisors and trustees for the different
schools were appointed with the hope that efficient
service would be rendered at a minimum cost. The
effort was a failure because the attendance officers













were afraid of incurring the ill-will of their
neighbors. This year the county sheriff was
induced to accept the work but because of
pathetic letters from patrons as well as a fear
of ill-will of voters, he resigned, and at
present we have no attendance officer. We have
had but one violator of the law arrested and
brought to trial, and the jury turned him loose...


Florida must have been one of the first states to utilize students as bus

drivers, as shown by this excerpt from the 1920 report by Superintendent

C. H. Price of Putnam County:


We have consolidated many rural schools and created
central schools for the several communities, placing
Ford trucks at convenient places to accommodate
those too far from the central school...We select,
for drivers of these trucks, reliable advanced pupils,
allowing them fifty cents per day each for this work.
This bus and the pupils are directly under the author-
ity of the principal...and drivers reported to the
Board are punished by removal.


The life of a county superintendent has never been an easy one, as shown by

these remarks of W. T. Cash, Superintendent of Taylor County in 1922:


I would not have it inferred that all our efforts
at consolidation have been "smooth sailing," quite
the contrary. Opposing minorities have made them-
selves felt at times, and a casual visitor would
have though on a few occasions war was going to
break out; but, in spite of the determination mani-
fested by those opposing consolidation, we are not
going to take any backward steps. If this writer
should ever again meet with political defeat as he
has within the past, he would much rather it was for
doing something than for doing nothing.












ALACHUA COUNTY 1918-1920

Dear Sir:--Complying with your request, I submit the following report for two years beginning July 1, 1918, and
ending July 1, 1920.

Buildings and Repairs.--Since our last report we have erected two rural school buildings for the whites at a
total cost of five thousand dollars, one rural school building for negroes at a cost of fifteen hundred dollars.
One of the buildings for th whites replaced one destroyed by fire, and one for colored replaced one destroyed
by storm. We did very little building and repair work during this period owing to high cost of labor and
material.

Furniture.--On account of the increase in attendance caused by the Compulsory Attendance Law, we were compelled
to buy one carload of pupils' desks in the fall of 1919.

High Schools.--We have ten schools in the county doing high school work. Two are Junior High Schools, four are
Intermediate High Schools, and four are Senior High Schools. The principal of each of these schools holds a
State Certificate except one, and that one holds seven Special Certificates on High School subjects. Five of
our high school principals are University graduates. The majority of our high school teachers hold a college
degree. The high school enrollment has increased approximately forty per cent. during the past two years.

Consolidation and Transportation.--We have discontinued ten rural schools and are transporting the pupils to
Graded and High Schools. We are transporting about seven hundred pupils. We find this to be more expensive
than operating the small schools, but it is much more efficient. It also helps to solve the teacher shortage.

Home Demonstration Agent.--We pay part of the salary of the Home Demonstration Agent who works in connection
with the schools. Our present agent is a good organizer, a successful teacher, and is obtaining visible
results. We believe this money is wisely spent.

Needed Legislation.--There should be some immediate legislation to enable us to meet the growing demands of our
schools. The schools have outgrown the income. The amount derived from the ten mills levy in this county is
ninety-two thousand, two hundred dollars. We have been forced to appropriate one hundred six thousand dollars
for the salary of white teachers alone for the term 1920-21. We had to do this or fail to open many of our
schools. The enrollment in practically all of our schools has increased and the work is growing rapidly and
substantially. This, however, cannot continue without some financial relief. We favor a Constitutional amend-
ment increasing the Special Tax School District maximum levy to ten mills.
Respectfully,
E. R. Simmons
Supt. Public Instruction Alachua County.

BAKER COUNTY

Dear Sir:--Complying with your request for a report of the schools of Baker County, I beg to submit the fol-
lowing:

Buildings and Repairs.--During the last two years three rural school buildings have been erected at a cost of
thirty-six hundred dollars. These buildings are modern in every way, and they mark the growing school spirit
of the communities in which they were erected. Additions have been made to several buildings at a cost of
fifteen hundred dollars.

Many of our school houses were erected about ten or fifteen years ago, and the cost of repairs is beginning to
tell on our finances. Repairs, however, have been made when necessary. About two thousand dollars have been
spent by the districts and the county in repairs during the last two years.

Plans have been made to erect a modern high school building at Macclenny, but the difficulties experienced in
erecting buildings, selling bonds, etc., have delayed this much-needed building.

Special School Tax Districts.--We have eighteen special school tax districts now. Four of these were erected
during the last two years. All of our twenty-one schools are in special school tax districts except two. small
rural schools. All have voted a levy of three mills. Our people are doing all they can to maintain their
schools so far as local help goes. We need an amendment which will permit them to raise the millage. Such an
amendment would permit the people to do for themselves.

Compulsory Attendance Law.--This law has produced good results in this county. An attendance officer was em-
ployed to see that the law was carried out, and we are glad to report that its enforcement has not been so
difficult. The Compulsory Attendance Law has not worked a hardship upon anyone. As our people catch its
spirit of fairness to the children of today we believe it will grow in favor. Our enrollment during the school
year of 1918-19 was 1,217, and the general average was 650. During the school year of 1919-20 the enrollment
was 1,550, and the general average was 1,077. Only the future can tell the actual advance in school work which
will result from the more regular attendance under this law. We hope that the next Legislature will take time
to remedy all the defects of this long-needed law.

Teachers.--We have not been able to secure the services of a sufficient number of trained teachers. Some of
our schools have not run the full time because we could not get teachers. The salaries of teachers have been
steadily increased and we find that it will be necessary to continue to make increases in their salaries if we
expect to make any progress in our schools.

We maintain a summer school of two months for our teachers. This has helped some to overcome the shortage of
teachers.

Finances.--We levied nine mills for the year of 1919-20. But we did not have enough to run our schools and at
the end of the school year the General School Fund was about three thousand dollars in debt. For the year of
1920-21 a levy of ten mills will be made. For seven years our County School Board has made an economical











1918-1920
expenditure of all funds. The increased cost during the last year was due to the increase in enrollment, the
increased cost of materials for repairs and new buildings, and the greater cost of furniture, crayon, etc.
The need for more money to run our schools will be felt during the near future. More money must be raised by
increased assessments or increased millage, or our schools will fall below the average.

The subject of taxation is too great to be discussed here. We believe that we shall have to get a better system
of assessing the value of property. The State Tax Commission did a great work along this line, but politics
seems to have put the Commission to sleep for all time. It is certain that the millage or the assessment will
have to be increased or the schools will suffer.

State Board of Examiners.--This Board has done all in its power to help during the last two years. Its work has
been a most difficult one--trying to protect the school children on one hand and trying to relieve the serious
shortage of teachers on the other. The law creating this Board has many defects that should be remedied. All
that has been said about the grading under the old law can be said about the grading of papers under the present
system. We are experimenting yet. There has been a better system in use in our country for a long time, but
we school people refuse to make use of it.

Books.--The State Adopted Books have been used when we could get them. It has been almost impossible to secure
half enough books to supply our needs.

Course of Study.--The State Course of Study is followed as nearly as possible in all of our schools. We find
this course much better than the old county courses of study.

Yours very truly,
W. R. Simmons,
Co. Supt. Pub. Instruction.

BAY COUNTY

Hon. F. M. Nelson, County Superintendent. (No report received from this county.)

BRADFORD COUNTY

Hon. E. R. Poppell, County Superintendent. (No report received from this county.)

BREVARD COUNTY

Dear Sir:--I beg to submit herewith my report for Brevard County.

New Buildings.--Reinforced concrete building at Melbourne at an approximate cost of $100,000; reinforced con-
crete building at Grant, Fla., at a cost of $2,600; reinforced concrete building at Shiloh, Fla., at a cost of
$2,600, making a total cost of $105,200.

Repairs.--Repairs total only $684. When extensive repairs are needed the Board feels justified in building a
permanent structure.

Special Tax School Districts.--We have five special tax school districts in this county, each of which voted
the full millage for school purposes.

We have three bonded districts in the county, viz.; First Second and Fourth. The First District is bonded
for $100,000; the Second for $50,000, and the Fourth for $75,000. The moneys derived from such source have been
used for the purpose of building, acquiring and equipping high school buildings in the several districts.

Enrollment.--The total school enrollment for 1919 was 1,274, while the average attendance was 914; the total
enrollment under the compulsory law was 1,380 and an average attendance of 1,023; this applies to white schools
exclusively.

Transportation.--The total number of pupils transported last year was 323, and the average cost per capital was
approximately $34 per pupil; our total expenditure for transportation alone was $10,963.93.

Rural Schools.--The rural schools of this county are doing excellent work, and a strong effort is being made to
standardize all of them.
Respectfully submitted,
S. J. Overstreet,
County Superintendent.

BROWARD COUNTY

Hon. C. E. Farrington, County Superintendent. (No report received from this county.)

CALHOUN COUNTY

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I submit herewith my bi-ennial report for the two years ending
June 30, 1920.

New School Buildings.--During the period embraced in this report we have erected new school buildings at the
following places: Carr and Overstreet, and we have another building and two additions under construction.
The school board also appropriated $200 for a negro school building at Mt. Zion.

We have expended $4,259.87 during the past two years for new school buildings, whereas during the previous two
years we did more building at a cost of less than $3,000. The Carr school building alone cost us around $2,700,
but this building is one that any community should feel proud to have located in their midst, for it is a
splendid 3-class room school house, complete, ceiled, painted, a cloak room for each class room, cheek rail
-4-










1918-1920

windows with the lighting arranged so the light will fall from the left and from behind the pupils. With the
exception of one or two minor objections this building was given in by the Rural School Inspector as a modern,
well-equipped school house. We had planned and would have done more building but for the high cost of material
and labor.

School Term.--We run all of our schools six months. Some of the Special Tax Districts extend their term when
their funds will permit.

Expenditures.--During the last two scholastic years we have expended for salaries of teachers the total sum of
$45,79.50. Of this amount $44,214.50 was paid to white teachers, and $1,265 to negro teachers. According to
the above figures our teaching force cost us $13,456.24 more during the last two years than the previous two
years. This is due to an increase in both positions and salaries, but more to an increase in salaries. The
salaries of our teachers have been raised something like 33 1/3 per cent. above that of the previous two years.
The average monthly salaries of our teachers two years ago were: males, $53.30; females, $39.92; negroes, $20.
The average monthly salaries of our teachers for the two years ending June 30, 1920, were: males, $82.44;
females, $53.31; negroes, $25.75.

Aside from the expenditures for salaries of teachers and new buildings, I enumerate some of the other more
important expenditures, viz.. for new furniture $1,873.45; for apparatus, $1,803.86; for repair of buildings,
$571.48; for fuel, $254.32; for transportation, $490.92; for free books, $131.57. Some of the Special Tax
Districts furnish free books.

High Schools.--We have one accredited Junior High School, located at Altha. In connection with this school we
have an Agricultural School, established under the Smith-Hughes Act.

Special Tax School Districts.--We have twenty-two special tax school districts. All the districts levy the
maximum 3 mill tax, which is expended for different purposes, such as lengthening the school term, supplement-
ing the salaries of teachers, supplementing the county appropriation for new buildings, etc. The districts
are practically all out of debt and in very good shape.

Bonded Districts.--We have two bonded districts; District No. 16, Port St. Joe, an account of which I gave in
my last report, and since that time and during the year 1919, Special Tax School District No. 3, Blountstown,
voted a $22,000 bond issue for a new school building. At the time the bonds were voted and issued we thought
we would have a nice new brick building erected before this time, but owing to the high cost of material and
labor the Board concluded that we could not build anything like the building we wanted and needed for the
$22,000, and therefore the bonds have never been advertised for sale; but I think they will be advertised for
sale now in the near future. The School Board is considering the matter of recommending the passage of a
Special Act at the next session of the Legislature whereby the Board can issue and float some time warrants with
which to supplement the bond fund, and in that way raise a sufficient amount of money to build an adequate and
an all around up-to-date school building--such as we want, need and should have.

Libraries.--We have a few schools equipped with splendid libraries, and a few others that have libraries of
more or less importance.

Free Text Books.--I am positively not in favor of free text books. I contend that it is, in a large measure,
a waste of money.

Teachers.--We have had a great deal of trouble during the last two years supplying our schools with teachers,
and have been forced to use a number of teachers not capable of doing efficient work. We have a few schools
that have not had practically any school for the last two years. This complaint, of course, is general regard-
ing the scarcity of teachers, the cause of which it is not necessary to discuss.

School Finances.--Our financial condition is not so bad. We generally always have a little balance to carry
over at the close of the scholastic year. Since, however, a very small percent of the taxes are collected
until the latter half of the scholastic year, and since the majority of our schools open in July, the first
half of the scholastic year, our expenditures run very much in excess of our receipts and, therefore, we have
to borrow several thousand dollars every year to bridge us over until taxes are collected.

We levy the maximum ten mills, but owing to the low valuations the maximum levy does not meet the demands, but
we do the best we can with what we have and try not to let our disbursements exceed our receipts.

Conclusion.--Taking all things into consideration, I think the schools of Calhoun County have made very satis-
factory progress during the past two years, and I predict their continued progress, for the school officials
and the people generally seem more interested in schools than ever before.

Before closing this report I feel desirous and must express my sincere thanks and appreciation to the State
Superintendent, Hon. W. N. Sheats, for the assistance and kind consideration shown me during my administration.
I also want to thank the School Board, the School Trustees and the people of Calhoun County generally for the
loyal support and the cooperation they have given me in my efforts to build up the schools of the county.

Respectfully submitted,
J. Flake Durham,
County Superintendent of Public Inst.

CITRUS COUNTY

Dear Sir:--Complying with your request I beg to submit the following report of Citrus County schools for your
Biennial Report:

The interest of the great masses of the people in public schools is more manifest than ever before in the history
of free education.










1918-1920

Such an awakening was necessary to save the schools from a decadence that would have hampered them for a gener-
ation.

Some of the baneful influences that hung like millstones around our necks and imperiled the very existence of
free public schools, were:

(a) The demoralizing effects of the war, including not only the distractions of the people, even the children,
from the school work to the turmoil of the mobilization and discouraging first reports of the battle, the
suspense of the later conflict, and final exultation in victory; and after two years of stint and saving the
mad orgy of spending and high living that is just now drawing to a close; but the lingering social vices that
war begets.

(b) The high cost of everything, including building material and school equipment that almost precluded every
kind of improvement, and the low salaries of teachers which impoverished the schools with inexperienced and low
standard teachers.

(c) The low assessment of taxes and the limited millage.

But notwithstanding all this Citrus County schools have not only maintained their standard, but in many instances
have increased in efficiency; and salaries of teachers have been raised from year to year as much as our finances
would permit.

High Schools.--Citrus County has one standard Senior High School, to wit: Citrus High School, Inverness, and
two Junior High Schools, Floral City and Crystal River, besides several other schools carrying the ninth grade.
The enrollment of the two Junior High Schools has not been sufficient for them to classify as standard, but
they have sufficient equipment and teaching force to do very excellent work, which they are doing. They are
operated eight months in the year.

Citrus High School.--It has been my aim to have one real High School in the county that meets all the require-
ments of the State Department. This has finally been realized this year in Citrus High School, located at
Inverness. Fran a poorly equipped school of seven teachers, including the principal and one assistant high
school teacher, with a seven months' term, with the twelfth grade repeating eighth grade history, civics and
arithmetic, we have gradually added equipment and teaching force until we have now a separate high school
building, with four teachers in the high school and eight in the grammar school, besides music and expression.
The term of the high school is nine months, and two of the teachers, the principal and his assistant are paid
annual salaries. The high school is fully equipped for teaching domestic science and domestic art and manual
training, four rooms being devoted to these departments. The whole building is furnished with most modern
individual desks, and other up-to-date furniture, including physics and chemistry tables and other laboratory
equipment. A large, well-selected library is for the use of the pupils. Athletics is given a full share of
interest and well organized baseball, basketball and track teams compete with teams from much larger schools.
A number of pupils attend high school from other sections of the county, part of their board being paid by the
county.

Rural Schools.--In building up a real high school at Inverness no less interest has been taken in the rural
schools of the county, and two new buildings have been erected, besides several additions to buildings. Rooms
have been added to three buildings and partitions put in large rooms of others, making room for more teachers.
A modern one-teacher school building was constructed last year at New Hope school, near Istachatta. It has
four rooms, including a study hall, domestic science room, library and teacher's room. The equipment is modern
and everything is according to State standard. There are two acres of high rolling land, beautiful shaded play-
grounds, and sa.nitary toilets. A deep well furnishing the purest water is on the grounds. I could mention
several other real beauty spots with model rural schools upon them. But suffice it to say that of our rural
schools sixty per cent were classified last year as standard by the State Department, and have their certificates
framed and hanging on the walls.

Teachers.--I believe that despite the shortage of properly certificated, experienced teachers our schools are
supplied with the best teaching force, as a whole, that we have ever had. Efficient, courteous, self-sacrificing,
some of them are real jewels, and the others are by no means bad.

Special Districts.--Citrus County is divided into sixteen Special School Districts, no part of the county not
being included in a special district; and every district the past year voted the full constitutional levy of
three mills, despite the fact that in three of the districts no schools are operated. Four years ago Floral
City district voted by a large majority for five mills, which indicates the sentiment of our people toward
schools, and what they would do if not limited. I believe the solution of much of our school problem could be
solved by a constitutional amendment removing the limit on special district millage, and let the people vote
such tax on themselves as they want and need for their local schools.

Bond Districts.--No part of this county had ever been bonded for any purpose till the past year, when Inverness
Bond District was formed and bonds were voted for a new high school building. The vote was 58 for bonds to 5
against. The building has been completed and is now being occupied by the high school.

Free Books.--Our county was the second in the State to furnish free text books. The system has some faults, but
its blessings are so manifest that the custom will never likely be abandoned.

Summer School.--A county normal is maintained at Inverness each year at the close of the regular school term,
and much good has resulted, helping greatly to supply the ever-increasing shortage of teachers.

State Courses of Study.--I take a great deal of pride in the fact that I was one of the prime movers for a
uniform State course of study for all grades, high school as well as grammar grades, and that it was my plan
adopted after much insistence at Gainesville that gave us the present course of study, but I believe now that
it needs some remodeling, not drastic nor destructive, but some helpful changes. I believe a new committee
composed of a few experts in their special lines should be selected to do the remodeling. The old committee
was too large and there was too much chaff with the few grains of wheat.










1918-1920
Board and Superintendent.--I have served as County Superintendent for nearly six years, and speaking from ex-
perience and without any selfish motive or feeling of bitterness, for my term is out and I did not offer for
re-election and was not defeated, I believe that school affairs should be removed as far as possible from
local politics, therefore I make the following observations: The School Board should be composed of three
successful business or professional men, appointed for six years, one every two years from the county at
large, by the Governor. They should elect the County Superintendent, not necessarily a local man, for a term
of four years. He should be a high school graduate with at least two years' normal training and certain teach-
ing experience, having executive and administrative ability, and he should be required to attend a recognized
summer normal for at least four weeks out of each year.

Rural School Inspectors.--I give my unqualified approval of the personnel and work of the present rural school
inspectors. There should be four instead of two, with the State divided into individual districts or spheres.
Their salaries should be $3,000 and traveling expenses. They should be appointed by and under the control of
the State Superintendent, subject to removal by him. They should have the qualifications of County Superin-
tendents and keep abreast of the educational times.

State Superintendent,--The salary of the State Superintendent should be $5,000 and traveling expenses. He
should have sufficient office and clerical help to do all the detail work of the office, and enable him to
devote his entire time to administrative duties and keep constantly in touch with the educational interests
of the State.

In Conclusion.--I would be glad to see legislation enacted in aid of the rural schools, and free textbooks
furnished by the State, and some amendments to the certification law, but too much leaven spoils the loaf,
and I fear that too many things asked of the present Legislature will lessen our chances of securing the most
needful.

My work as County Superintendent has been, on the whole, most pleasant, especially my associations with my
School Boards, They have given me the greatest co-operation in all my work. They have been men of mature
judgment, and were painstaking in their earnestness to do the best at all times for our schools. It was a
pleasure and a blessing to be associated with such men. My teachers have always been loyal and some lasting
friendships have resulted from having worked with them. And in closing this report, I must say to you, Mr.
Sheats, that I have grown fond of the "old man". I respect and honor you for your rugged honesty that often
borders on bluntness, and I shall always treasure your friendship.
Respectfully submitted,
H. J. Dame,
County Superintendent.

CLAY COUNTY

Hon. G. J. North, County Superintendent. (No report received from this county.)

COLUMBIA COUNTY

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request for a biennial report of the conditions and progress of the schools
of Columbia County, I sumbit the following:

New Buildings.--During the last two years we have built only two school buildings, one for each race. They
were wooden structures and not expensive. Several houses have been repaired and painted, but a lack of funds
has prevented further expenditures along this line.

High Schools.--Our high schools, especially Lake City, are well equipped. We have also been fortunate in
securing efficient and faithful teachers. The enrollment and average attendance have increased each year and
the number graduating from the high schools has shown a considerable increase.

The Fort White High School is doing excellent work. This school has had strong faculties and there has been
an excellent spirit of co-operation among the teachers and patrons. We have succeeded in securing an Agricultural
Vocational Department for that school, which feature is adding to its efficiency. We are transporting to this
school more than forty pupils.

The Watertown school is also doing excellent work and has had a force of faithful teachers. The work that has
been done has been very gratifying here.

Rural Schools.--Our rural schools have made some progress during the last two years. It seems almost miraculous
considering the disadvantages under which they have had to labor. Practically every school in the county has
been supplied with teachers and in most cases they have had some experience, and are thoroughly consecrated to
their work. Those without previous teaching experience are used largely in primary work. It is very unfortunate
that we have not enough experienced teachers, especially for the primary grades, as so much depends on the right
kind of a start. I trust that the next session of the Legislature will do something for the rural schools.

Special Tax School Districts.--One special tax school district has been created during the past two years,
making a total of eleven in the county. Two of the districts have a small indebtedness, while all the others
have a very nice balance to their credit.

Finances.--The financial condition of the county is good. At the close of the school year 1916 there was a
net indebtedness of $20,746.47. The close of the school year 1919-20 showed the outstanding indebtedness to be
$8,076.90. A reduction of $12,669.57 in four years.

We are not boasting over this condition, for we fear that this saving may have been at a loss to some children.
If we accomplish what we have planned in the way of improvements for the next six months the new administration
will face an indebtedness equal or greater than it was in January, 1917. If the schools of Columbia County are
to maintain the same progress that other sections are making we will be compelled to have more money.










1918-1920

Consolidation.--We are making some progress along this line. Realizing as I do the advantages of the graded
school over the average one-teacher school, it has been no trouble for me to advocate consolidation. We are
now transporting more than 150 pupils. With one exception the patrons are transporting the children at a cost
to the Board of $5 per month per pupil.

State Board of Examiners.--It has occurred to me that if there was not a great deal of unnecessary work con-
nected with the former method of examining teachers, that it would be impossible for a committee of three to
do all this work Intelligently and in so short a time as is allotted. No doubt the State Examining Board is
doing its very beet.

Rural School Inspectors.--The State Rural School Inspectors, Messrs. Turner and Feagle, have visited my county.
I consider these gentlemen are the right men in the right place. Like the State Board of Examiners, they have
too much ground to cover. I learned a great deal from them--and the schools of the county were benefited by
their visits. My most serious objection to them is, too long between visits.

Conclusion.--In conclusion I wish to say that these four years have been very strenuous ones, yet they have
been most pleasant. It has been an inspiration to me to visit the schools and look into the bright faces of
our boys and girls upon whom will soon depend the future of our State and nation. My association with the
teachers has been most pleasant; I will always have a high regard for them and the work they accomplished.
At the proper time I will shift this great responsibility to my successor. May he accomplish much for the
educational interests of the county and have the co-operation and support of all interested in the work.

Sincerely,
James R. Lites,
County Superintendent.

DADE COUNTY

Hon. R. E. Hall, County Superintendent. (No report received from this county.)

DE SOTO COUNTY

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request I have the honor to submit herewith a brief bi-ennial report for
the years ending June 30, 1920.

New Buildings.--As the period covered by this report is one in which building activities in all lines have made
very little progress on account of high cost of material and labor, we feel gratified at the progress made in
the erection of school buildings. Six new buildings have been erected, two brick and four frame structures;
also one building was torn down and remodeled. Moore Haven erected a modern brick building at a cost of $45,000;
Wauchula constructed a brick annex at a cost of $25,000. Avon Park, on account of the rapid increase of the
school population, was forced to erect a four-room frame building at a cost of $4,000. This was temporary,
as a modern high school building will be erected as soon as conditions become normal. The remaining frame build-
ings are one-room structures adequate to meet the demands of the districts. Three other districts have bonded,
but are waiting for conditions to become normal; Ft. Ogden, for a $20,000 brick structure, Ona and Pine Level
each for a $10,000 building.

Special Tax Districts.--The county is divided into forty-one special tax districts, all the territory being
Incorporated. Eighteen of these have bonded and have erected modern school buildings already, or have them
under course of construction. All building projects are carried on in this manner, thus leaving our funds
intact for current expenses.

Schools.--Seventy-four schools are maintained, sixty-two white and twelve colored. We have consolidated a
number of our schools and transport pupils wherever conditions are favorable. Experience has taught us that
good roads are prerequisite to consolidation.

One district, Punta Gorda, has discontinued two one-teacher schools and transports the pupils to the Punta Gorda
Graded and High School. The cost is about the same as to maintain the schools, and the patrons are highly
pleased with the results, though the schools have only been consolidated one year.

High Schools.--Six Senior Schools are maintained in different sections of the county, also one Intermediate;
two of which are on the Southern Accredited List, and are maintained nine months. The remaining High Schools
are maintained eight months, the remaining schools seven months.

DeSoto being a lerge county, it was found advisable to maintain a number of nine grade schools, where three or
four teachers are employed. In this way we are able to place high school advantages within the reach of most
of the boys and E;irls of the county.

A Teacher-Training Department is maintained in the Arcadia School, an Agricultural School at Wauchula, and
Household Arts and Manual Training teachers are maintained in most of the high schools.

Two Home Demonstration Agents and a Farm Demonstration Agent are doing excellent work throughout the county.
These devote most of their time to the rural schools.

Rural Schools.--The rural school is our greatest problem. Scarcity of teachers and inadequate facilities for
accommodating the teachers are driving our best teachers from the country to the towns. Unless school officials
pay higher salar:Les in the rural schools, and the patrons make provisions for accommodating the teachers, the
children in the rural districts must suffer.

Compulsory School Law.--While there are defects in the present compulsory attendance law, it has been a great
help in increasing the school attendance. We employ a competent attendance officer, pay him an adequate salary
and insist on his enforcing the law. The public is beginning to respond and results are beginning to be
secured.









1918-1920

Scarcity of Teachers.--Trained and experienced teachers are scarce, due to a number of causes, poor pay being
the chief one. We favor at least one State Normal School, centrally located, well equipped and employing a
faculty trained and experienced for the task. We also favor less drastic laws on certificating trained teachers.
While the present law governing examinations is an improvement over the old law, we think it should be amended,
giving us examinations oftener, as our teachers are put to too great expense in following up examinations.

Progress.--On the whole, we are proud of the progress made educationally during the past bi-ennium. The salaries
of teachers have been raised, the attendance of pupils has increased, more boys and girls are attending the
high schools, patrons in the rural districts are awakening to the necessity of making conditions better. The
one great and immediate need is more finances.

Conclusion.--In conclusion, we wish to state that the outlook is bright. The public is beginning to realize
that it pays to educate; that strong manhood and strong womanhood are worth more than orange groves, truck
farms and cattle ranges; that a republic is a good form of government only, if all her subjects are educated
in the broadest manner possible.
Respectfully submitted,
P. G. Shaver,
County Superintendent.

DUVAL COUNTY

Dear Sir:--I have the honor to add the following general observations to the statistical matter that will appear
under that head in your bi-ennial report:

Teachers.--The teacher shortage during the two years covered by this report proved a serious impediment to the
progress of the schools. Due to this scarcity, many ill prepared and untrained teachers were employed, par-
ticularly in the rural schools. The city schools fared better, but here frequent changes, due to sudden with-
drawal--in several instances without notice--(birds of passage were generally the offenders) operated to
weaken the work and seriously affect the morale of the schools. Ethical standards and sense of responsibility
that before governed most of the teachers of America no less than other groups of people making up the citizen-
ship of the country, suffered during the war period "shell-shock" and it will take sometime for the profession
to recover from the effects. Fortunately this charge does not apply to all teachers or to anything approach-
ing a majority. No class of our people made greater sacrifice or applied itself more diligently and faithfully
to its task than did this patriotic band of public servants, and too, at salaries hardly sufficient to provide
the barest necessities of life. All honor to the faithful!

Standards and Salaries.--Since your last bi-ennial report we have raised further the requirements for assign-
ment in the grades of Jacksonville. We now require two years' normal or professional training or the equivalent
beyond the completion of four-year high school course. In the rural schools we have not been able, due to the
more serious shortage of rural teachers, to advance standards in equal proportion. This is regrettable. Every
superintendent knows that it is becoming increasingly difficult to secure any kind of teacher for his rural
schools. Salaries are low, but something besides high salaries will have to be found before the rural school
problem is solved. Nothing short of consolidation and the providing of a home for the teachers will ever give
us the sort of rural school that will be worthy the name and satisfy the class of citizens who should be
induced to remain on the farm. Intelligent people who have children to education will not, if a way can be
found to remedy the situation, remain in a community that is without school advantages.

Salaries have been appreciably increased since my last report. Under present schedule approved by the Board
last spring, grade teachers receive from $90 to $150 per month, term nine months. Principals and high school
teachers also receive a substantial increase, as do teachers of special subjects and supervisors. Rural teachers
were likewise given an increase. Teachers in the one-teacher schools, depending on enrollment, receive from
$80 to $90 per month; principals of two-teacher schools, $125 per month; three-teacher schools, $135; four-
teacher schools, $150; assistants, from $80 to $95 per month, term eight months.

A flat increase in most cases of $15 per month is paid teachers in the colored schools.

The Salary item alone the current school year will amount to $550,000 as against $367,610.67 last year.

Vocational Work and Special Classes.--In my last report (bi-ennium ending June 30, 1918) I mentioned the classes
in our Night School under Smith-Hughes Federal Act. At that time classes had been organized in the following:
blue print reading, carpentry, mechanical drawing, etc. Last year courses in plumbing, sanitation and electricity
were added. Interest in this work is steadily growing and it is to be hoped that the Legislature may increase
the State's appropriation, going a little further than "Match the Federal Dollar policy." The investment is
bringing a good return. The latest addition to our endeavors under the Federal-State Aid plan is the Part-time
school, opened in the fall (October 1). A teacher, specially trained for such work, was placed in charge and
he now has enrolled in his classes as regular students about forty boys and girls who have had to quit school for
one reason or another and who are beyond the pale of the compulsory attendance law. These boys and girls attend
school four hours a week and are excused by their employers for the purpose. Very few, in fact only one,
employer, object to excusing these young people to attend the part-time classes, making no deduction from their
wages. The next Legislature should pass a part-time compulsory attendance law compelling boys and girls from
16 to 18 to attend school at least four hours a week and requiring all employers to excuse them without reduction
in pay. The employer would more than get his money back in the increased efficiency of the employee. A good
investment. Under this head should be mentioned the latest addition at the High School. A machine shop has been
added to the equipment. The shop has been equipped at an expense of over five thousand dollars, the equipment
consisting of lathes, drills, forges, benches, tools, automobiles and parts of different makes. These are
discarded cars and came into possessionof the School Board at a very low figure, a few being donated. Here the
boys study the construction of motors, take them apart and put them together again--valuable practical training.

Canning Club Work.--Home Economics.--Canning Club work, started several years ago, has been widened in scope
and is a fixed policy in Duval County. Better bread, and more scientific, economic housekeeping, is the slogan
of the field agent, Miss Lenoir.










1918-1920

Bonds and New Buildings.--Spring f' 1919 a second bond issue was voted in Jacksonville district. This issue
was for $325,000 and was voted to finish the building program started in 1915 when the district authorized a
million dollars for new buildings and equipment. Advance in the cost of labor and materials due to the World
War made this second issue necessary.

Third Issue Necessary.--Although it was believed that the program of 1915 would provide for many years without
the necessity of enlarging any of the buildings or of erecting others, already practically every building is
filled to capacity and it is now planned to put on a third issue in the spring or late summer for the enlarging
of the crowded buildings (all built on unit plan permitting additions) and for certain units of two Junior
High Schools. The High School enrollment is now approximately one thousand and although an annex was completed
this fall, the building is still too crowded for comfort.

Special Tax Districts.--There are in Duval County four special tax districts, three active, Jacksonville, Baldwin
and Arlington. Baldwin voted bonds for school improvement and is the proud possessor of a $40,000 modern brick
building. Arlington will vote on a twenty thousand dollar issue January 25, and if the election carries will,
with the assistance of the School Board, erect a thirty-five or forty thousand dollar building. This will
mean the consolidation of three small schools--one a one-teacher and two two-teacher schools. All special tax
districts levy the three mill maximum for current expenses.

School Legislation and Finance.--While the ten mill amendment has greatly helped, in fact saved the schools from
certain bankruptcy, most of the counties, due to increased cost of operation growing out of the war, are in a
critical condition financially and unless additional revenue be found the schools in these counties will face
the necessity of having the term shortened and the salaries of the teachers, already inadequate in most cases,
reduced.

There is little hope that the best and most practical remedy will be applied, viz., the raising of valuations.
Each county hesitates for fear of paying more than its share in State taxes. The constitutionality of legis-
lative appropriations is, to say the least, questionable and it is doubtful if the people would again so soon
vote to further increase the county millage. They will, it is believed, vote to amend the constitutional pro-
vision for special tax district, raising the maximum to ten mills, the amount to be determined, as at present,
by a vote of the people.

We shall probably sooner or later have to amend the constitution, raising the one mill State tax provision or
legalize by amendment to the constitution legislative appropriations for rural schools. One thing is certain,
more money will have to be found and the best thought of all our citizens, men and women, should be directed
to the problem. A backward step in education, the American people cannot afford.

Yours truly,
F. A. Hathaway,
County Superintendent.

ESCAMBIA COUNTY

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I beg to submit report for bi-ennium ending June 30, 1920, as follows:

In General.--During the past two years there has been a general awakening on the part of the public to the needs
of our public schools. A favorable sentiment for educational progress prevails throughout the county and
particularly in the city of Pensacola. Several factors have contributed to the development of this sentiment,
chief of which may be mentioned, a large number of intelligent, liberal-minded men and women, a public-spirited
press and an efficient Board of Public Instruction.

New Buildings.--During the past two years new buildings have been erected in the county at a total cost of over
$70,000. In the city two four-room brick units of the California bungalow type have been completed at a cost of
$18,000 each. These are so constructed that additional units may be added as needed.

In the country, new buildings have been erected as follows: Brent and Walnut Hill, four-room brick buildings,
together with principal's office, toilets, cloak rooms, etc. Each of these buildings is so constructed that
additional rooms may be added as required. These buildings each cost about $13,000. Fig City, two-room frame
building, cost $3,600. Myrtlegrove, two-room addition, cost $2,500. Barrineau Park and Sunshine Hill, one-
room frame buildings, cost $1,250 each.

Transportation.--Six motor 'buses with a capacity of thirty pupils each have been purchased at a total cost of
$7,800. Several small, one-teacher schools have been closed and the pupils of same transported to consolidated
schools. As a whole, transportation of pupils in this county has not been entirely satisfactory. Poor roads
is our greatest drawback. Now that this county has voted a bond issue of $2,000,000 for roads, the outlook for
transportation is better. It is probable that we shall largely confine transportation to pupils of high school
grades.

Special Tax Districts.--Several special tax districts have been established during the bi-ennium, making a total
of sixteen and embracing about two-thirds of the area of the entire county. Most of these districts have levied
a three-mill tax and one, the Gonzalez District, has a bond issue of $12,000.

The most recent district to be established includes the city of Pensacola and its environs. I consider this by
far the greatest achievement of the past two years. A three-mill levy was voted and as the bi-ennium ends, an
election is being called to vote upon a $500,000 bond issue with every prospect of its carrying. Out of this
money a new high school building is to be erected at a cost of about $300,000, plans for which are already drawn
and adopted. The public is almost unanimously behind the movement and the future looks inviting.

High Schools.--At present there are four high schools in the county of the senior type, namely, Pensacola High
School, Washington High School (colored), Muscogee High School and the J. M. Tate Agricultural School at Gonzalez.
There are two high schools of the junior type, namely, Ferry Pass and Century.









1918-1920

Compulsory Attendance.--At the time this report is written we have not given the Compulsory Attendance law
sufficient trial to judge of its effect upon enrollment. A number of children have been forced to attend school
who otherwise would not have attended. There has been such a great increase of the school population of the
county and, particularly, Pensacola, owing to war activities, that it has been difficult to house those who
enrolled voluntarily. With this abnormal increase gradually subsiding, we are now in better position to enforce
the compulsory law. A competent attendance officer has been employed for the coming year and it is our aim to
give the law a strict enforcement.

Recommendations.--A county rural school supervisor, 't seems to me, is one of our most pressing needs. I would
recommend that a law be enacted making the employment of such an officer compulsory upon the County Boards of
Public Instruction and at the same time setting forth the qualifications of such officer.

Provision should be made for the validation of certificates issued in other states. This, no doubt, would greatly
relieve the shortage of teachers that now exists in this State.

Confidently believing that we are at the threshold of a period of real progress in Escambia County, I am,

Yours respectfully,
A. S. Edwards,
Superintendent.

FLAGLER COUNTY

Hon. E. Johnson, County Superintendent. (No report received from this county.)

FRANKIJN COUNTY

My Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request for a statement of school affairs of Franklin County for the two
years ending June 30, 1920, I beg to submit the following:

New Schools.--We have established only two new schools since my last report, one for whites and one for negroes.
These are small rural schools and are located in the turpentine districts. The buildings are furnished free of
cost to the Board. The rural school question with us is a difficult problem. The entire county, outside of
Apalachicola and Carrabelle, is taken up by turpentine industries. The stills of the operators are located in
isolated parts of the county, separated by bays and bayous, thus making it impossible to combine any number of
these places so that a school could be established with a guaranteed enrollment.

Repairs.--We have kept our school buildings in good repair. We expended $720.07 the last two years for this
purpose. The negro school population in Apalachicola has increased so rapidly that the present building is
inadequate to accommodate them; we have been using a church building for the past two years for the primary
classes. The trustees of this church have been very generous in giving the use of the building free of charge,
and I must not miss this opportunity to say here that the colored people of Apalachicola are taking much interest
in their school.

Sanitation.--Our buildings and grounds are kept in good sanitary condition. In Apalachicola High School the
janitress devotes her full time to the keeping of the building and grounds. We keep a supply of disinfectants
and floor oils on hand for the schools.

Furniture.--We have expended $545.55 for furniture; the principal part of which was for single desks.

Special School Tax Districts.--We still have the county divided into three special districts. Numbers One and
Two levy three mills; Number Three levies two mills.

Teachers.--We have experienced considerable difficulty in securing competent teachers, greater this year than
any previous year. This statement applies to the county generally. In our rural schools it was impossible to
secure competent teachers. The cause of the difficulty in securing qualified teachers is so well known to every-
one that it is unnecessary to discuss the subject further here. No doubt every county in the State, even in
normal times, has experienced difficulty in securing their required number of qualified teachers, due to the
State-wide shortage of teachers who can meet the required qualifications. While dwelling upon the subject of
the shortage of teachers, I deem it proper to say here that every man connected with the public school work of
the State knows that the shortage of teachers who have sufficient education and professional training to make
their work successful, is alarming and is the most serious question now confronting us. If we would improve on
the situation, and we must or else disaster to our schools is inevitable, we must meet and overcome this serious
problem. But how are we to meet the situation? All of us are agreed that better salaries should be paid, but
this alone will not relieve the condition. We must demand teachers of training with educational and professional
qualifications. While it is a fact that there are hundreds of teachers who are not receiving salaries of equal
measure to their worth, there are many who are receiving more than they are worth. Let us unite in one strong
effort to effect a change in this serious condition, so that in the future every school in the State can be
supplied with competent teachers.

School Funds.--With us the question of school funds is a serious problem each year. We have been in the past,
and are still confronted with a shortage of funds with which to operate our schools. We hope before starting
in for next year to find a way to increase the amount of school revenue, but as we are already levying the ten
mills authorized by law, we know of no other way except to increase the property valuation. We believe the
valuation of the property in this county, especially the lands, is far too low and should be made to bear their
proportion of the taxes.

School Work.--Notwithstanding our difficulties in the way of finances and in securing teachers, the work in
Apalachicola andCarrabelle schools has been very satisfactory. We plan for still better work beginning with
next year. We are convinced that we should make the aim of our high schools be for the preparation of the boys
for life rather than for college. We take this position from the fact that so few high school boys attend
college. Then why not make the primary purpose of the high schools a life-training for them? We propose to
organize a class in Sociology in Apalachicola High School the coming year.
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1918-1920
Athletics.--Much attention is being given to athletics and there are splendid results being obtained in this
work.

Examination of Eyes and Teeth.--This important work has been systematically taken up and carried out for the
past two years in the city schools. It has been impossible to carry this work to the country schools, but we
shall endeavor to do so as soon as conditions are favorable.

Parent-Teachers' Association.--A Parent-Teachers' Association has been organized in Apalachicola. This organiza-
tion has done much for the school here. This year it raised approximately $400 which was appropriated towards
pay on the janitress' salary, the providing of free lunches fur school children, and many other needs. This
year it plans to add many valuable books to the library. And we here record our thanks and appreciation to this
organization for the noble work being done.

Compulsory Attendance Law.--I have always favored such a law. Since its enactment, however, we have been unable
to properly enforce the law on account of not having funds to employ attendance officers who could give their
time to enforce the law fearlessly so that the very best results could be obtained.

Teachers' Examinations.--Frankly speaking, I am not in sympathy with the present system. I think that it is
one of the main causes of the shortage of qualified teachers. It is a financial hardship and an injustice on
teachers to have to go from one county to another to reach these examinations. I do not favor going back to
the old system, but we should find a better system than the present one. Until we can have at least one exam-
ination in each county between the closing and opening of schools, we will experience continued difficulty in
securing legally qualified teachers.

In conclusion I wish to thank you for the prompt and courteous cooperation you have always accorded me.
Yours very truly,
A. A. Core,
Superintendent Public Instruction.

GADSDEN COUNTY

Dear Sir:--Complying with your request, I herewith submit my report for the bi-ennium ending June 30, 1920.

New Buildings.--During the last two-year period we have completed a modern house at Concord which cost, ap-
proximately, $6,000. It would require at least $10,000 to erect this building now; we feel proud of being
able to build before labor and material reached the high prices prevailing at this time. The house contains
three large class rooms on the first floor and principal's office and library. On the second floor there are
three large class rooms, separated by folding doors, which may be thrown back and the entire upper floor converted
into an auditorium. It is furnished throughout with very good furniture.

The Greensboro school has just been repaired and a separate one-room building erected for the Smith-Hughes De-
partment. Five thousand dollars was expended in this work, the money being raised by a bond issue for that
amount.

The Chattahoochee School District has been bonded for $3,000, the money being used for the purchase of additional
buildings and grounds. This gives the district a very good plant which will take care of the school interests
of the community for the next several years to come.

In March, 1918, the Qunicy Special Tax School District carried an election for bonds to the amount of $30,000
with which to erect a modern high school building for the district. In the preparation of plans and specifi-
cations for such building it was found that the amount would not be sufficient, and accordingly another bond
election was carried for $30,000, giving us a total of $60,000 for this purpose. We shall begin work on the
house just as soon as the price of labor and material justify our going forward with the work.

An appropriation has also been made for the erection of a one-room building at Midway, to cost about $2,500.
The contract will be let and work started on this building in a very short time.

High Schools.--In my report two years ago, I stated that the Gadsden County High School is the only Senior
High School in the county and that the school is open to all pupils in the county. I also stated that we were
trying to equip it with everything necessary to make it an ideal school for the county and community. Since
that time, several hundred dollars have been expended in the purchase of books for the library, additional
apparatus purchased for the laboratory, the Domestic Science Department improved and an Athletics teacher
employed to direct this work; all of which gives us reason to believe that it is now one of the best high
schools in Florida. The term remains at nine months as it has been for several years. We purpose to make other
improvements from time to time.

The Junior High School at Havana has grown so rapidly that it became necessary this year to offer the work of
the eleventh grade, making it an Intermediate. There are forty pupils in the high school grades and four of
them in the graduating class. The school is badly crowded and a move is now on foot to bond the district for
additional class rooms and an auditorium. We hope to make these improvements before the school opens next year.

The schools at Concord, Greensboro, Chattahoochee and Gretna are still growing; they are all doing first class
work. The Chattahoochee and Concord schools appear upon the list of Accredited High Schools, but Greensboro and
Gretna are not so recognized for reasons over which I had no control.

Special Tax School Districts.--There are fourteen special tax school districts in the county and eighteen of
the white schools are located in one or the other of such districts. Approximately, thirteen thousand dollars
will be realized from this source the ensuing year; this money will be used largely for incidental expenses
and to supplement salaries of teachers.

This provision in the State Constitution has aided us materially in raising the standard of our district schools,
but in my opinion, the three mill maximum levy should be stricken out so that each district would be authorized










1918-1920

to levy sufficient millage to successfully operate its schools. Many of our people favor an amendment of this
kind and I hope the next Legislature will submit the matter to the electors of the State for their approval.

Bonding Districts.--Of the fourteen special tax school districts in the county, four have voted bonds for improve-
ments. They are as follows: Quincy, Chattahoochee, Greensboro and Concord. This money has been used for build-
ing operations and equipment, leaving the general fund to be used almost wholly for teachers' salaries. Other
districts will vote bonds as soon as the bond market and the price of labor and material reach a normal basis.

County Institutes.--We do not have what is called a county institute, but we do have an organization known as
the Gadsden County Teachers' Association. Meetings are held monthly during the school year for the purpose of
discussing school problems. Our teachers appear interested and it is believed that much good is being accom-
plished by such meetings.

Vocational Education.--The Smith-Hughes School at Greensboro is doing very good work, but now that we are ready
to move in the new building erected for this department we feel that it will do even better work in the future.
There are thirty pupils taking this course and prospects of many more within the next year or two.

The Domestic Science Department of the Gadsden County High School is proving to be one of the most attractive
departments of the school. It is equipped with apparatus of all kinds and is in charge of an experienced and
efficient teacher. The girls are delighted with the courses offered and are doing well with this work.

A teacher has recently been employed to do industrial work in the negro schools of the county, her salary being
paid by the Anna T. Jeans Fund and the Board of Public Instruction. As yet I cannot say how successful this
work will be, but we purpose to give it a fair trial during the present school year.

Home Demonstration and Home Makers Club Work.--This work has been carried on in the county for the past several
years with marked success. Possibly, no other phase of the educational program has made the progress that has
been made in this work. Our agent has been faithful and untiring in her work and has been able to get the
support and cooperation of all our people. The class this year consisted of about seventy-five boys and girls
from the different sections of the county.

The Negro Home Makers Club Agent is making quite a success of the work among the negroes. He has been able
to get the support of the better class of negroes and has a large class doing the work at this time.

Finances.--I am glad to say that the county is not in debt. We have been able by strict economy and sound
business methods to operate our schools on the income for each year. It has never been the policy of the pre-
sent Board of Public Instruction to promise greater salaries than we are able to pay and by doing so we close
each year with nb debts hanging over us. Property values were raised $1,000,000 in the county this year,
which enabled us to raise salaries in all deserving cases and thereby keeping our schools up to the standard.

Respectfully submitted,
C. H. Gray,
Superintendent.

HAMILTON COUNTY

Dear Sir:--Complying with your request for a brief report of the progress of the public schools in this county
for the past two years, I beg to submit the following:

High Schools.--We have a Junior High School at Jennings and one at White Springs. While they are not recognized
as such by the State Board of Education, they are doing splendid work and as all of the requirements have been
met, we expect that the State Board will recognize them this year. We have a Senior High School at Jasper. It
has not yet been recognized by the State Board of Education, but having met all of the requirements, we expect
the State Board to recognize it this year. In this school we have our Teacher-Training Department, which has
turned out several teachers during the past two years.

Rural Schools.--Owing to the unsettled condition of affairs for the past two years, the impossibility to secure
teachers for rural schools and to the fact that we have too many such schools, we have made no progress for the
past two years in these schools.

Consolidation and transportation must come before any further progress will ever be made in the rural schools.
We have not consolidated nor transported our pupils, but all of us realize that it must be done and we are only
waiting for a change of administration to begin.

Rural School Supervisors.--The State Rural School Inspectors are doing a great work. Their inspection of the
classification and gradation of the rural schools could not be done by anyone else. It would be a grave mis-
take for the Legislature to abolish these offices.

Compulsory Attendance Law.--This law meets with some opposition in this county, but it has put several hundred
children in school that were never in school before. It has caused several hundred more that attended school
occasionally to attend regularly. It is a good law and should never be repealed.

In conclusion, permit me to thank you for your kindness and courtesy during the past eight years.
Respectfully submitted,
J. A. Jackson,
County Superintendent, Hamilton Co.

HERNANDO COUNTY

Hon. W. O. Lemasters, County Superintendent. (No report received from this county.)

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1918-1920

HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY

Dear Sir:--Complying with your request, I submit the following brief report of the schools of Hillsborough
County:

Buildings.--Hillsborough County has not erected any new school buildings during the last two years. However,
additions have been made to some of the present buildings. The total amount expended for repairs to buildings
is $14,834,25. It is the p-licy of the Board of Public Instruction to erect four or five additional buildings
next year.

High Schools.--There are two high schools for white children and one high school for negro children. These
high schools are ranked among the best in the South. We have been very fortunate in securing a faculty of
strong teachers for these schools. In this county we have adopted the Six-Three-Three Plan. We are highly
pleased with the results obtained. In the junior high schools are taught all subjects embracing the seventh,
eighth and ninth grades. During the past year the Board has organized four additional junior high schools.
The success of these schools insures the continuance of the adopted plan.

Special Tax Districts.--All of the county is divided into special tax school districts, each levying a special
tax for school purposes. During the last year some of the districts were consolidated and the schools within
those districts were consolidated. I am strongly in favor of consolidation of rural schools. In every instance
where consolidation has been accomplished the work measures up to a higher standard than it does in the one-
teacher schools. Hillsborough now has fifty-seven special tax school districts.

Bonded Districts.--Few laws have been enacted that are more beneficial to the cause of education than the law
permitting districts to issue bonds for building and furnishing school houses. This county has availed itself
of this by voting bonds in nineteen special tax school districts. It is our plan to call for an additional
bond issue of approximately $300,000 to take care of the needs of the county.

Compulsory School Law.--It has not been difficult to enforce the law in the country schools, but in Ybor City
and West Tampa where there are not adequate buildings and where the population is largely foreign, it is some-
what difficult to handle the proposition. However, through the aid of the officers, the attendance in many
of our schools has increased.

Consolidation of Schools.--During the past four years four one-teacher schools have been consolidated into
larger central schools. Transportation is furnished generally by automobiles. Our people are realizing the
many advantages of a consolidated school and other one-teacher schools have asked for consolidation. The Board
will gladly grant the request.

Comparative EfficLency of Rural and Town Schools.--It is a fact that the country schools are not up to the
standard except in cases where schools have been centralized and enough teachers employed to do the work as
thoroughly as is clone in the towns and cities. Then, too, most of the rural schools have only six months.
Especially this if true in the farming districts. In order to bring the country schools up to a higher standard
and to systematize the work with that of the city schools, the Board has employed a rural school supervisor.
I believe this is very helpful, especially to the teacher who has not had special training. I suggest that
this policy be carried out, that counties consolidate all schools where consolidation is possible, and build
Teacherages in the rural districts.

Teacher-Training Department.--Hillsborough County has a Teacher-Training Department which is doing excellent
work in training teachers. A number of teachers who took this training are now employed in this county and in
every instance they are making good. It has helped to solve teacher shortage proposition.

Rural School Inspectors.--The State Rural School Inspectors visit this county each year and their visits are
very helpful.

Boys' and Girls' Corn, Pig, and Canning Clubs.--Under the splendid management of the county agents this work
is kept up to a high standard. Many of the boys and girls are taking advantage of the opportunities and are
learning how to increase the production of farm products and to utilize many things which were going to waste.

Agricultural Department.--Through application the State Board has organized an Agricultural Department at Plant
City. This is the largest inland shipping point in Florida and under the wise direction of the teacher of
agriculture, many boys will become better farmers.
Respectfully yours,
J. E. Knight,
County Superintendent.

HOLMES COUNTY

Dear Sir:--In compliance with the usual custom, I take pleasure in submitting the following report of educational
conditions in Holmes County for the two years ending June 30, 1920.

Buildings.--At the present time we are well supplied with school buildings, both in the towns and rural commu-
nities. Really, we have too many buildings. It has been necessary for us to erect only one during this period;
and, since most of the houses are comparatively new, they have needed very little repairs.

High Schools.--HoLmes County has only one school doing high school work. Our policy has been to concentrate
all our efforts on one school and thus make it a good one. How well we have succeeded in this is shown by the
fact that the Bonifay school, which last year had no recognitich, has been raised to the rank of an Intermediate
High. If we succeed in our plans, it will be classed as a Senior at the next time of standardization.

Special Tax School Districts.--We have forty special tax school districts, all of which, with two exceptions,
have voted a three mill levy. Two of these districts have recently voted bonds to erect suitable buildings.
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1918-1920
Consolidation.--Great efforts have been made during this period to show the people the importance of consolida-
tion and get them to believe in and accept it. It is my conviction that when the Bi-ennial Report for 1922
appears, Holmes County will have a system of uniform township schools.

Our Greatest Needs.--The real task before the educators and legislators of Florida today is to devise some plan
to furnish the schools with more trained teachers. The work in the rural schools is very much below standard
and is getting lower and lower every day. If we expect our boys and girls to be prepared for the demands that
will be made of them, they will have to be furnished with instructors who can look into the future and see the
coming events and shape their pupils to meet them.

Respectfully submitted,
M. R. Robinson,
County Superintendent.

JACKSON COUNTY

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request of recent date, I herewith submit to you the following report from
this county, for the bi-ennium ending June 30, 1920.

New School Buildings.--The following school buildings have been erected during the past two years for the benefit
of white children:

Graceville.--This building contains ten class rooms, a large auditorium, and was erected at a cost of approxi-
mately twenty-five thousand dollars, the district having been bonded for fifteen thousand dollars of this amount
and the county furnishing the balance.

Galilee.--This building contains four class rooms, well lighted and ventilated, being built at a cost of about
two thousand dollars, the county furnishing seven hundred dollars, the district three hundred, and the balance
being raised by public subscription.

Lovewood.--This is a two-room school building, which cost about one thousand dollars; the district furnishing
six hundred dollars, the county one hundred, and the balance being raised by public subscription.

Consolidated.--This building cost approximately five hundred dollars; the county furnishing fifty dollars and
two old buildings, the patrons of the school paying the balance.

Sand Ridge.--There was one room added to this building at a cost of two hundred dollars: the county furnishing
fifty dollars, and the balance being raised by public subscription.

Colored School Buildings.--There has been only one building for the colored children during the time for which
this report is made, which is the Marianna colored school. This building will contain eight class rooms, and
is being constructed of lime rock; is yet incomplete. The county has furnished five hundred dollars, the City
of Marianna five hundred, and the negroes one thousand dollars up to date. It necessitate the expenditure of
approximately five hundred dollars more to complete this building, which I think can easily be obtained by
public subscription from the negroes.

High Schools.--There is only one accredited High School in the county, which is the Jackson County High School
at Marianna. We have several others which are doing high school work; the most noteworthy of these is Graceville
School, which I hope to have on the accredited list within a year or two.

Special Tax School Districts.--At the close of this biennium there were forty-two special tax school districts
in this county, containing forty-three white schools, and ten colored schools. There is approximately twelve
thousand dollars raised in this county from special tax school district funds.

Bonded School Districts.--On June 30, 1920, there were six bonded districts, aggregating fifty-six thousand
dollars; however, the bonds on only two had been sold at that date. By bonding the school districts, the people
have been able to secure better school buildings than they otherwise could have done, which has aided very
materially in building up school interests and enthusiasm among the people.

Compulsory School law.--We have made an honest effort towards the execution of this law, but have met with many
difficulties. The enactment of this law found us wholly unprepared, as nearly every school building in the
county was taxed almost to its capacity, and upon the enforcement of the law, every building was crowded, and
in some instances we were unable to accommodate the pupils with buildings and equipment.

Another great difficulty which we met was, we did not have a sufficient number of qualified teachers to meet
the demands, and upon the enforcement of the law we were forced in almost every school to add another teacher,
and in so doing we found it impossible to secure a sufficient number of teachers to fill the schools, so several
of the schools of the county could not open at all for lack of teachers, which made the average attendance for
the entire county not show a decided increase over previous years. If we could have secured teachers to operate
all the schools of the county, and have had buildings and equipment to have accommodated the pupils, the average
attendance of the entire county would have shown a very marked gain, probably 25 per cent over former years.

Consolidation of Schools.--We have no experience along this line, as we have no consolidated schools and no
pupils transported. I will admit that we need consolidation very badly in this county, but it cannot be brought
about within a short time.

Comparative Efficiency.--During the past two years the rural schools have been the greater sufferers from lack
of qualified teachers, as there are not enough qualified teachers for all the schools, naturally the best quali-
fied teachers heretofore employed in the rural schools sought employment in the town schools where they would
have better facilities and improved conditions to work under. In my opinion, about the only suggestion for
improvement of the rural schools that can be made is consolidation, better facilities, specially trained teachers
and better salaries.

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1918-1920


School Finances.--The financial condition of this county is not so good. However, we are in better condition
than a good many counties in the State. We have an outstanding indebtedness of nearly twenty thousand dollars
against the general school fund, on which we have to pay 8 per cent interest. We have never failed to pay any
obligation promptly, which places us in a position to borrow all money necessary for current expenses.

School Libraries.--Most of the schools of the county have good libraries, containing from 125 to 300 volumes
each.

Free Text Books.--I was at one time very much opposed to a system of free text books, but since I have become
more familiar with the work, I am thoroughly convinced that a system of free text books is very necessary in
order that the best results might be obtained. The enactment of the Compulsory School Law should have had with
it a law providing for free text books to all the children of the schools. In many instances in my county, I
have found that, upon the enforcement of the compulsory school law, parents refused to buy the needed text
books; and where these conditions were found, the teachers were handicapped in their classification and gradation.
The child not only got nothing out of the school, but was a hindrance to the others' I, therefore, hope that we
may be able to secure the passage of such a bill by the next Legislature.

Vocational Work.--We have two Smith-Hughes schools in this county, one at Mt. Tabor for the negroes, and one at
Marianna for the whites. In the school at Marianna, we have the Home Economics Department. This department
has met with much favorable comment from the people of the town, and I feel that much good has been obtained
through it.

We have an Agricultural School for the negroes at Mt. Tabor, which has done much towards improving living con-
ditions and bringing about a better spirit of citizenship among the negroes. They have also learned, through
the school, to become greater producers, and to conserve what they produced.

Respectfully submitted,
C. W. Lockey,
County Superintendent, Jackson County.

JEFFERSON COUNTY

Dear Supt. Sheats:--I am glad to comply with your request for a report from this county for the two years ending
June 30, 1920.

New Buildings.--We have erected two new buildings, one at Drifton costing $384.89, the other known as Taylor
school at a cost of $182.13. The patrons contributed the labor and the Board paid for the material, hence the
expense was reduced to a minimum. Other buildings erected on this plan for the same period cost $121.57.

Repairs of Buildings.--We have spent $1,277.48 on repairs during the last two years.

High Schools.--We have one Senior High School located in Monticello. This school is on the accredited list of
high schools. The Aucilla school is a Junior High and employs five teachers, all of whom, I might add, are
doing splendid work.

Teachers.--Although many teachers have sought other occupations during the past few years, we have had all of
our schools supplied. It is with great difficulty that we find enough colored teachers to supply the colored
schools, due to the fact they fail to qualify in the teachers' examinations.

Special Tax School Districts.--There are nine special tax school districts in the county, all of which levy
three mills. There are eleven white and eleven negro schools located in these districts. In fact, practically
all of the schools of the county are located in sub-districts.

The total receipts raised by the special tax districts for the past two years amounted to $13,307.22. This money
is used to supplement teachers' salaries and take care of the incidental expenses of the schools in the districts.
There was a cash balance to the credit of the sub-districts June 30, 1920, amounting to $2,854.36. None of the
districts are bonded. The general school fund had a balance of $8,331.73 on hand on the same date.

Compulsory School Law.--The Compulsory School Law has proved unsatisfactory in this county. The attendance is
not much better than it was before.

Consolidation of Schools.--A number of schools were consolidated before I was elected superintendent. The cost
of transportation varies from year to year. The amount expended during the last two years was $6,646.55.
There were 413 pupils transported during this time.

I have been trying to solve the transportation problem and I am of the opinion that the per diem system is the
best.

Club Activities.--We have canning and corn clubs organized in the county by our efficient Home Demonstration
Agent. A few weeks ago Miss Posey Taylor, our Demonstration Agent, held an exhibit in Monticello which was a
credit to the county.

Conclusion.--I would like to say more, for I am interested in every branch of education, but time is limited,
so I will close. Wishing for Florida a continuous and rapid growth along educational lines, I remain,

Yours truly,
S. H. Taylor
County Superintendent.

LAFAYETTE COUNTY

Dear Sir: I beg leave to hand you herewith an account of my official stewardship for the two years just past.









1918-1920

New Buildings.--Under the pressure of financial conditions and the high cost of all materials going into the
construction of school buildings, we have done no building for this period until since July 1 of the present
year. Since that time we have constructed two rural school buildings, one at Townsend at a cost of $5,750, and
one at Airline at a cost of $10,400. We have under process of building an annex to the LaFayette County High
School, the cost of which will approximate $25,000. The two rural schools will be equipped with the Hart heat-
ing system throughout, and one will also have sanitary toilets in the building. The County High School will be
equipped with steam heat and electric lights, telephone and all modern school appliances.

High Schools.--We do not attempt high school work anywhere except in the LaFayette County High School, located
at the county site. This building when completed will afford ample floor space and as all our high school
teachers are properly and legally certificated, it is our purpose to reach Senior High classification this year,
also to get rating with the S. E. A. Our laboratory has been extensively improved, for individual and class
effort, and our library also has undergone a great improvement; and they will, when the building is finished,
occupy different quarters.

Special Tax Districts.--We have an aggregate of twenty-one special tax districts, all of them out of debt,
except one. None of them are bonded or have ever been, and almost without a single exception the schools in
the special districts are better schools and better equipped than where there is no extra tax voted.

Compulsory School Law.--Of all the things which have been done for the schools of Florida, this is the one real
forward step; and while I am not much given to hero worship I believe that every member of the Legislature
supporting this measure or in any way contributing to its passage is entitled to the highest recognition. In
spite of the fact that the population in this county is five hundred less than it was ten years ago, our school
attendance has increased about 50 per cent. under this law above what it was under the old system.

Consolidation of Schools.--"Where ignorance is bliss it is folly to be wise," and until the Compulsory Attendance
Law was enacted it was almost impossible to accomplish anything along this line, but since such an actuality,
if the Florida Legislature will make state aid possible I can see no reason why consolidation could not be made
very profitable, both economically and educationally here. In many instances our buildings are inadequate under
the increased attendance occasioned from the Compulsory Law and when the building begins it should be done in
a way to have fewer and better schools, thereby making it possible to have better teachers and better equipment.

Sanitation.--I would welcome an act making it obligatory that the toilets in every school in Florida be made
absolutely and sanitarily perfect, and I do not believe there is but one way to accomplish this result, and
that is to require them to be placed in the school building.

County Institutes.--One of my first official acts was to organize a County Institute which has continued to
function throughout my quadrennium, and, I believe, with profit to the pupils and the teachers. However, I
believe that the hardest thing to accomplish is to make the weak teacher understand that he is weak, and that
this is a means of self help. The teachers who could afford to miss the institute are always willing and anxious
to take advantage of each opportunity to do and get good. I also believe that with the institute properly ad-
ministered it is one of the chief agencies to spread the gospel of education.

Summer Schools.--The Summer School is nothing more nor less than the County Institute on a larger scale and an
extended session, and like the Institute it is difficult to make the weak teacher understand that it is necessary
for her to have new capital on which to teach. I would like to see the State offer free board and tuition to
every Florida teacher who avails herself of this privilege, provided she will take upon herself a solemn obliga-
tion to teach for the next ensuing year. Under the meagre salaries paid teachers they can hardly afford to
attend Summer School, and I believe they are rendering service while attending school just as truly as while
teaching.

Vocational Education.--We are attempting in a small way to put Vocational Training in the LaFayette County High
School, and we hope in another year to add to the equipment.

Club Work.--We are doing nothing along this line now. Have tried to do so, but the seed mostly fell on stony
ground; however, some folks have winter vegetables as a result of the work who never had any before.

School Libraries.--We have just added school libraries in several of our better schools, and without a single
exception the teachers and pupils have been much gratified as a result of our work.

State Board of Examiners.--I believe that the "Flying Squadron" would solve many of our teacher-problems if it
had followed out the idea which gave it birth. But I do not think that it allows the Board the proper amount
of time for research work, to require it to romp from one end of the State to the other four times each month,
and then the salary is too meager, as long as they have this to do. Most teachers are too provincial anyway,
and if the State Board would have its general offices in the capital of our great State and hold regular weekly
examinations there, I believe that it would have a tendency to eliminate the weak and inefficient teacher, and
would at least impart to the profession a dignity which is sadly lacking under the present regime.

Rural School Inspectors.--I believe that where we have two we ought to have four, and that the work should be
so systematized that the term would not be a misnomer. The State is too large for two men to inspect all the
rural schools in it.

Free Text Books.--When the rich man came to Jesus, he was told, "One thing lackest thou yet," and the same can
be truthfully said of Florida's school system, and that thing which is lacking is free text books. I have been
scrupulously opposed to free text books, but I have become convinced that it is almost impossible to perfect the
operation of the Compulsory Attendance Law without free books.

Now as a summary of the foregoing, I desire to say that our solons in their wisdom have seen fit to appropriate
money for hog cholera serum, Pasteur serum, tick eradication, and citrus canker, but as our boys and girls are
of little consequence in our State's development, they have to wait until all these things are provided for.
Now I believe the time is ripe for the Legislature to provide medical inspection for the school children of
our State, and then to make conditions livable and lovable too. Establish a free lunch in every consolidated
-17-











1918-1920

school in the State of Florida, and inaugurate Domestic Science in the school in a practical way, and then we
can paraphrase the old negro's text, "The sun do move," by saying, "Florida's schools begin to move."

Yours very truly,
J. Homer Kelly,
County Superintendent.

LAKE COUNTY

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request I submit a brief report of the schools of Lake County.

Buildings.--Lake County has now about finished its work of giving to the children in the county first class,
well-equipped school buildings. Within the last two years Goveland and Eustis have completed two handsome
buildings; Eustis building costing about $60,000. Mt. Dora has voted $25,000 for school buildings in that town.
The building for negro children in Leesburg was destroyed by fire, but efforts are now being made to have a
much better one take its place soon.

High Schools.--Lake County expects to report the following high schools in 1920-21: Leesburg Senior High, Eus-
tis Senior High, Umatilla Senior High, Intermediate last year, Montverde Senior High, Clermont-Minneola Junior
High, Groveland Junior High, Intermediate next report, Mt. Dora Junior High when new building is completed.
These schools will be Standard High Schools in classes named.

Teachers.--For the last two years we have had no little trouble in securing well trained teachers for our schools,
especially the rural schools.

Special Tax School Districts.--Lake County has 34 special tax school districts. With few exceptions the maximum
of three mills is levied. District funds are used to supplement teachers' salaries, extend length of school
term, pay incidental expenses, etc. A law permitting a maximum of six mills would be much better.

Bonded Districts.--The following districts have bonded for school buildings: Leesburg, $45,000; Eustis, $40,000;
Tavares, $15,000; Umatilla, $14,000; Groveland, $13,000; Clermont-Minneola, $10,000; Sorrento, $2,500; Bay Lake,
$2,000; Grand Island, $2,000, and Fruitland Park, $2,000.

Compulsory School Law.--The Compulsory School Law has not been a failure, but is not perfect. Some slight amend-
ments will make it more effective.

Consolidation of Schools.--Every effort has been made by the Board of Public Instruction to consolidate schools
and the good effects are now being realized. It is very hard to secure well trained teachers for rural schools
and when it can not be done transportation is the only remedy.

Miscellaneous.--Iake County Teachers' Meetings: The teachers of the county meet at least monthly in teachers'
meeting, and we find much good results.

We have no training department in any of the high schools.

We favor State Course of Study as well as High School Inspectors and Rural School Inspectors.

Nearly all schools have libraries.

Much trouble is experienced in securing books, as the publishers fail to have proper arrangements whereby books
may be purchased by pupils.

Conclusion.--In conclusion, we are glad to state that our finances are in fine condition, last report showing,
a nice balance with which to start our new school year.

Respectfully submitted,
Wm. T. Kennedy,
County Superintendent.

LEE COUNTY

Hon. J. W. Sherrill, County Superintendent. (No report received from this county.)

LEON COUNTY

Dear Sir:--In accordance with your request, I submit the following brief report:

Owing to the fact that all revenue received has been needed to pay teachers, repair the buildings and defray
other necessary expenses of school administration, there has been almost no building done. One building for
the negroes was erected at Chaires, costing $1,200, and furnished with patent desks. An addition of three
rooms and Domestic Science Department have been built on to Lincoln school for negroes at a cost of $2,000.

The Leon High School is the only high school in the county on the accredited list. This school is equipped
with library and good laboratory. A modern Domestic Science Department under the direction of the Smith-
Hughes Vocational Board is maintained, an important feature of which is the lunch room, enabling the children
to get warm lunch at a surprisingly low cost. The teaching force is above the average for a school of this
size, all of the teachers holding degrees from colleges and all properly certificated.

During the past year we have added one special tax district to the one already in operation. From the Talla-
hassee District about $7,000 is derived and $600 from the Miccosukee District. There are many other schools in
the county that should avail themselves of the opportunity and vote in a sub-district, but the people are not
yet awakened to the necessity of imposing an additional tax upon themselves.

-18-










1918-1920

Last year the Compulsory School Law had a very wholesome effect upon the attendance, increasing the average
about 25 per cent. But toward the close of the year the County Judge, B. F. Willis, decided the law unconsti-
tutional, thus rendering it inoperative this year, so far as this county is concerned.

We have attempted in several localities to consolidate schools, but have met with many obstacles, chief oP
which is the dislike of patrons to send their children more than a mile or two from home. Another difficulty
is the lack of funds to secure proper transportation. Still, I believe the only salvation for the rural school
is consolidation, and it is bound to come as soon as the revenue is sufficiently increased to maintain the
school and pay transportation. However, some of the patrons near the Miccosukee and Tallahassee Districts are
sufficiently interested in better schools to pay their own expenses in getting their children to these schools.

There is no question but that the town schools are more efficient than the rural schools. This is due to the
fact that it is becoming more and more difficult to get the best teachers to agree to assume the responsibilities
of carrying on the work from the primer through the eighth grade. And, too, the salaries are generally smaller
in the rural districts, although, by every law of right and justice, they should be higher.

During the past four years we have been obliged to increase salaries from seventy-five to one hundred per cent.
and still have not been able to keep some of our best teachers. Because of this big percentage increase in
salaries and the comparatively small increase in revenue we have gone slightly beyond our resources, and it
seems now that we shall have an indebtedness of nearly $20,000 at the end of this fiscal year.

The above is very brief, but under present conditions, I think that it covers the ground sufficiently well.

Respectfully submitted,
F. S. Hartsfield,
County Superintendent, Leon County.

LEVY COUNTY

Hon. W. F. Osteen, County Superintendent. (No report received from this county.)

LIBERTY COUNTY

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request of November 22, I herewith submit the following for your bi-ennial
report, for the two years ending June 30, 1920.

Buildings.--We have erected one new building at Bristol with four well lighted recitation rooms downstairs,
and an auditorium upstairs. This is a wood building, but I consider it a great addition to the Bristol school,
as it was lacking very much for room, and considering the time it was built, it was built very reasonable,
costing only $7,493.83, leaving the auditorium and two rooms downstairs partly unceiled, but sufficient to be
used. We have the auditorium comfortably seated with opera chairs, sufficient to seat about 450. The recitation
rooms are also furnished with single patent desks. All the rooms in both the old and the new buildings are
being used except one of the very poorly lighted and ventilated rooms of the old building, which should have
been condemned long ago.

We have also built an addition to the Lake Mystic school, and have added one teacher, making it a three-teacher
school, and also have it well furnished.

We have repaired and repainted the school houses at Hosford, Telogia, Rock Bluff, and the old building at Bristol,
at a total cost of $2,652.35. We have done no building at all for the colored people during my term of office.

High Schools.--We have no accredited High Schools, but some very good work is being done in the two Junior High
School grades both at Bristol and Hosford. It is the sense of the Board and people to develop the school at
Bristol into a County High School just as early as possible, as it has plenty of rooms now for this purpose.

Special Tax Districts.--We have only three special tax districts: Hosford, Telogia and Bristol. Hosford
District has three schools; the five-teacher school at Hosford, and two one-teacher schools. Telogia District
has one school which is located at Telogia. Bristol District has two schools, the eight-teacher school at
Bristol, and a three-teacher school at Lake Mystic. Bristol District was established last year after several
attempts had been made. Hosford saw fit last year to lower the millage to only one mill levy, but Bristol and
Telogia both have a three mill levy, bringing in last year for the three districts, $873.50, which is paid out
for teacher salaries, except at Bristol; they have issued time warrants against their district to assist in
erecting the new building.

Bonded Districts.--We have no bonds.

Compulsory School Law.--I have done my best to enforce the attendance of all pupils, trying at all times to be
fair and impartial and trying not to work a hardship on any one. I have experienced some opposition to the
Compulsory Attendance Law, but it has had a very remarkable influence on the attendance of pupils. Pupils
entered school at the age of 15 and 16 who had never been to school before. I can report an increase of about
42 per cent above last year's attendance.

Consolidation of Schools.--We have consolidated two communities, putting three schools together, and consoli-
dating two in one in the northern part of the county at Rock Bluff. This has proven very satisfactory, as we
got much better results, but especially at Summatra, at much greater cost, on account of the bad condition of
the roads. For this reason we placed them back as before till the roads can be improved. This, I think,
should be an incentive to build better roads, and then it will be a great thing for the work of consolidation.
I find a splendid sentiment in favor of consolidation thus far, and the people are much pleased with the plan.

School Libraries.--There were only two very poorly equipped libraries in the county when I came into office;
one at Bristol and one at Hosford. We have placed a small, well selected library in all the schools with one
or two exceptions. The teachers are reporting very satisfactory results from them, and the people are generally
well pleased.











1918-1920
State Board of Examiners.--I am well pleased with the change of examinations, and can cheerfully give them my
endorsement. I think they are practical, reasonable and logical.

Rural School Inspection.--I am much interested in Rural School Inspection, as I think it is doing a great work
for the State. However, I am sorry to say that I have only had the Inspectors in my schools twice during my
four years in office, but I enjoyed their visits very much, and regret that I could not have had them more.

Respectfully submitted,
R. E. Turner,
Superintendent.

MADISON COUNTY

Hon. G. W. Tedder, County Superintendent. (No report received from this county.)

MANATEE COUNTY

Hon. B. D. Gullett, County Superintendent. (No report received from this county.)

MARION COUNTY

Hon. W. D. Carn, County Superintendent. (No report received from this county.)

MONROE COUNTY

Hon. Virgil S. Lowe, County Superintendent. (No report received from this county.)

NASSAU COUNTY

Hon. L. L. Owens, County Superintendent. (No report received from this county.)

OKALOOSA COUNTY

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your recent request for a general statement of the present conditions of the
schools in Okaloosa County and the progress made in the last two years, I beg to submit the following report:

New Buildings.-Within the past two years we have erected six new school houses for white pupils and two for
colored pupils at a total cost to the School Board of $1,917; but this amount represents approximately one-half
the total cost of the buildings, as the patrons in each community where a house was built have borne all the
expenses for building and construction. We have recently lost one new brick school building in Crestview, which
was erected three years ago at a cost of $8,500. But the citizens of Crestview have voted for the issuance of
bonds which has enabled them to let a contract for a new brick building to cost $16,500, and work on the new
building is now in progress. In the new and enterprising town of Valparaiso we now have under course of con-
struction a handsome school building which will cost when completed $40,000. This building will be equipped
with electric lights, sanitary connections and all conveniences that a modern up-to-date school building requires.
We have spentfor repairs to buildings in the past two years $792.

High Schools.--We have no high school of recognized standing in the county. Though we have three schools, one
at Laurel Hill with seven teachers, one at Baker with seven teachers, and one at Crestview with four teachers,
that do ninth, tenth and eleventh grade work, but because of a lack of laboratories and shortness of terms,
they have not been standardized yet.

Special Tax Districts.--We have eleven special tax school districts in the county, three of which have been
created this year. District No. 1 affects one school, District No. 2 affects two schools, District No. 3
affects one, District No. 4 affects two, District No. 5 affects three, District No. 6 affects five, District No.
7 affects one, D:strict No. 8 affects two, District No. 9 affects two, District No. 10 affects two, District
No. 15 affects two. All of these districts except two have regularly voted three mills and all the districts
produce annually $4,820.

Bonding Districts.--We have three bonding districts that are bonded in the aggregate for $35,500. With this
money we have built two brick school houses, one at Baker and one at Laurel Hill, each containing eight large
class rooms and a large auditorium, and we have $15,500 of the money which we are applying on the construction
of a good brick building at Crestview.

Compulsory School Law.--We have met with very poor success in the enforcement of the Compulsory School Law.
Last year the school supervisors and trustees for the different schools were appointed with the hope that
efficient service would be rendered at a minimum cost. The effort was a failure because the attendance officers
were afraid of incurring the ill-will of their neighbors. This year the county sheriff was induced to accept
the work, but because of pathetic letters from patrons as well as fear of ill-will of voters, he resigned, and
at present we have no attendance officer. We have had but one violator of the law arrested and brought to trial,
and the jury turned him loose. Still the law has done good in some cases, and has resulted in an increase of
seven per cent.

School Libraries.--We have placed in every white school in the county a good library. Libraries in the one-
teacher schools contain 123 volumes each, and in the two or more teacher schools 225 volumes. All our schools
are provided with charts on reading, agriculture and physiology.

Equipment.--All white schools of the county are well supplied with blackboard, desks and roller maps. Twenty-
five of our schools are supplied with teachers' desks and large globes and all schools are provided with good
heating appliances.

Teacher Shortage.--Our greatest trouble aside from a lack of finances has been a shortage of teachers, but we
11ll get all our schools taught this year. We have fifty-four schools in the county and they are all either











1918-1920

running or have been taught out at this time (November 30), except eight remotely situated one-teacher schools
that pay a salary of $50 per month, and I am sure I will get teachers for these before the year is out, but
several of my teachers hold only temporary certificates at this time.

Respectfully submitted,
W. C. Pryor,
County Superintendent.

OKEECHOBEE COUNTY

Dear Sir: I am herewith enclosing a report of Okeechobee County schools covering the past two years. I have
tried to be brief but have covered the important points.

During the past two years Okeechobee County has constructed one concrete building and three frame buildings,
one of which is for the Okeechobee colored school. All of these buildings, except the one for colored school,
have been equipped throughout with the best equipment we could get. In addition to the new buildings, we have
equipped every school in the county, except Okeechobee High School, with chemical toilets which are absolutely
sanitary in every particular. In my opinion this is one of the most progressive steps the county has taken
since its creation. We have also made some repairs on Okeechobee High School as will be shown in the High
School Report.

Okeechobee High School is the only high school in the county, the other schools teaching only to the eighth grade.
All pupils above the eighth grade are allowed assistance in transportation to the high school as soon as them
complete the rural schools. Salaries in the High School have been raised as follows: Principal, $125 per month
to $250 per month at present; assistants, $65.to $120, and the grade teachers in same school from $60 to $100
per month. We have also added five teachers, making thirteen, four of whom are in the High School department.
Owing to some little irregularity we have never qualified as an accredited High School, but this year our High
School Inspector assisted us at the beginning of the term to start out on the accredited basis and we hope to
continue as such. We have made all necessary appropriations, including the purchase of all equipment, to main-
tain a fully accredited Senior High School. This school is principally taken care of by the general school
fund. It is in a special school tax district and practically all of the funds derived from the district are
spent in this school in paying transportation, incidentals, etc.

There are three special school tax districts in the county and all of the schools of the county are affected
by them, with the exception of three, which are in a part of a sub-district that was formerly in Palm Beach
County.

Last year we had an attendance officer for each school. This year we have one appointed for the entire county
and pay her $1,000 per year. I think this a better plan. We have had but very little trouble in the execution
of this law, but I think it should be amended in several respects.

Two of our special tax districts have placed a very good school library in each of the schools within their
districts at a cost of practically $2,000 and have been adding to it annually.

I would like to recommend some form of law whereby the School Board could avoid paying such a large amount of
school funds for interest when they have to borrow, and at the same time get a better rate than that allowed
by depositories when they have money to lend.

Respectfully,
R. E. Hamrick,
Superintendent Okeechobee County.

ORANGE COUNTY

Dear Sir: Im compliance with your circular, in re biennial report ending June 30, 1920, beg to submit the
following:

Buildings.--Apopka finished new high school building, paying balance cost of $9,000; new modern desks and equip-
ment, $2,150. This is an up-to-date Junior High School building.

Tildenville Senior High School and Grammar School at Winter Garden at cost of $34,150 for building and $2,085
for furnishing; the old building thoroughly renovated and light properly arranged. This district could not bond
for over $30,000, but the community came to the rescue and raised the balance necessary to complete the schools.

Orlando voted bonds for new building to cost approximately $100,000, modern in every respect and to be ready
for 1920-21 term.

Ocoee erected new modern building for colored school at cost of $1,500, the colored people contributing part.

The other buildings of the county as a whole have been kept in good condition and repair.

High Schools.--Apopka: Lunch room installed where hot lunches are served daily. High school teachers' salaries
have been increased $200 for the term; $75 addition to library has also been added.

Orlando: One teacher added to staff, full time. Every pupil is required to be a member of debating society
and to take part in same. Instruction in public speaking has been provided for; salaries of all teachers and
principal increased; school term lengthened to eight and one-half months; instruction in physical education
provided for.












1918-1920

Tildenville High Fchool: $300 expended for playground equipment; $300 for library; $350 for laboratory; $500
for domestic science; $300 for hot lunch equipment and $40 for flags.

Winter Park: $900 expended for equipping hot lunch room; $900 for laboratory, apparatus and motion picture
machine. All teachers' salaries increased $20 per month; manual training and music also added.

Excellent work is being done in all of the above mentioned schools.

Special Tax Districts.--The county is divided into nineteen special tax school districts, all but one levying
three mills for school purposes. Thirty white schools, with enrollment of three thousand pupils, and twelve
colored schools, with enrollment of twelve hundred and fifty pupils, all supervised by trustees of said districts.
A spirit of hearty cooperation exists between trustees and the County Board. Twelve of these districts are bonded
in sums ranging from $1,000 to $93,500; these amounts having been used exclusively for buildings and equipment
of the most modern type. We have now on hand in the sinking funds to take care of the above mentioned bonds,
$43,560.

Compulsory Attendance Law.--We have an attendance officer who has a car and devotes all time to the county work.
Our object is to enforce the law in all cases. We feel that this is the first time the child has come in direct
contact with any law. Therefore, if we are to have law-abiding citizens, it must be administered in such a way
as to make all laws respected. We find several defects in the law. It would seem wise to have this come up for
discussion at the next County Superintendents' meeting and plans for amendment adopted.

A juvenile court, which will aid in the enforcement of the law, has been established in this county. Plans have
been made for a county parental home school, which we hope will be ready for use during the winter of 1920 and
which will make it possible to more easily enforce the law, as there is a feeling against sending offenders to
the State Reform School who are charged only with truancy.

Consolidation of Schools.--Where possible, all of our schools have been consolidated. We are now transporting
over three hundred pupils at a total cost of about $8,000. This seems to be too expensive and some method should
be worked out to reduce the cost.

Comparative Efficiency of Rural and Town Schools.--We consider our rural schools second to none in the State.
All of the houses are in excellent condition, painted on the outside, and ceiled, plastered or dressed lumber
finish on the inside. In all cases we have good wells of water. We had an efficient supervisor of the rural
schools in Miss Flora Brown, and the conditions that they are in today show that supervision pays in the country
as well as in the city. Owing to the resignation of Miss Brown, at the June meeting the School Board appointed
a new supervisor, Miss Amelia Kendall. It seemed to the Board that it was a needless duplication of effort to
have a county attendance officer and supervisor, so they have united the two offices, thus making both more
effective.

We are making an effort to establish all schools squarely on the State Course of Study and are discouraging all
promotions unless the required work has been fully completed.

We have been able to employ a full corps of teachers who in the majority of cases fulfill the Orange County
standard. Would it not be possible, when the courses are planned for the next summer school, to give more
attention to the rural teacher's problems? Courses in agriculture should be reinforced by the study of pedagogy,
sociology and rural economics. A new pedagogy for the State examinations should deal more with the rural pro-
blems than the one now in use.

When pupils have been transported from the rural to the city schools during the past two terms, we have noted
with particular satisfaction that they invariably have kept up to the grades. This proves beyond doubt the
efficiency of our rural schools. Of course, the town schools have the advantage in special teachers, lunch
rooms, supervised play, etc., but the rural schools with a longer daily session and a carefully selected teacher
succeed in making up the deficiency by assisting in community activities.

School Sanitation.--The child welfare work began in Orange County in February, 1919, with Mrs. Ora D. Layton, a
trained worker, in charge. Dr. Grace Whitford, at that time the efficient head of the Bureau of Child Welfare
of the State Board of Health, spent several weeks here supervising the work and the Bureau supplemented the salary
of Mrs. Layton and aided and fostered the work in every way. Although the school term was short during the re-
maining months, practically every white child in the county received a thorough physical examination. During
the summer, Mrs. layton further prepared herself in the Department of Educational Hygiene at Cornell University
and during the school year beginning September 1, 1919, great advancement was made. Nine of our more progressive
schools bought scales and the children were weighed every month and a record kept of the physical condition of
each. Hot noon lunches were served in three rural consolidated schools, and in two of the Orlando city schools.
First aid kits were placed in fifteen schools and instruction in their use given to inexperienced teachers. Edu-
cational material on all sanitary and health questions was distributed in every community and home visits were
made where the school examination pointed to a condition needing investigation and medical assistance given
where necessary.

In connection with the County Y. M. C. A. director, Mr. E. A. Mileham, a play program was developed in nearly
every school and simple play apparatus was placed in the school yards of many communities, while teachers were
urged and assisted in giving regular physical exercises each day.

The great benefit derived by the children has been observed by all in close touch with the work. Improved eye
condition, improved teeth, better school surroundings and happier children are the most marked results. A
close supervision is kept of all sanitary conditions. No member of the County Supervising Workers visits a school
without making note of all the surroundings. The toilets are, with a very few exceptions, built according to
the State plan, while lime and other disinfectants are freely used. Dirt and disorder are not tolerated and
teachers and pupils are held responsible for the health conditions of the school. Many of our rural schools are











1918-1920

screened and provided with individual drinking cups, wash basins and towels. All of the larger schools have
sanitary drinking fountains and hands are washed in running water and dried on paper towels supplied by the School
Board.

During the year each school was scored on its health and sanitary condition and the results published at the mid-
winter fair.

When the budget was made for the year 1920-21 appropriations were made for the salary of a colored nurse and
Mrs. K. B. Taylor, R. N., was secured for the year.

The State Tuberculosis Association was active in assisting the work, a field nurse making visits and giving aid
to our sufferers. The Association furnished literature and educational propaganda for the Health Crusade, which
was tried out in several schools and found good. Mr. R. H. Hixson, Executive Secretary, made a tour of the county
showing the moving pictures in ten different schools.

The spirit of cooperation has been strongly manifested in every department of the county. The teachers have recog-
nized the benefits of the work and given their best efforts to its furtherance. The medical profession have
assisted in every way, giving their help, without thought of pay. The Orange General Hospital has been freely
used by the needy children and has been of invaluable service. The city officials and the County Commissioners
have never failed to respond when calls have been made for their financial aid or moral support. All the officers
of law and order have willingly cooperated in cases where the moral conditions of children could be lifted.

Miscellaneou.--We believe in the uniform text book law, but some way should be provided for free text books and
school supplies.

Our County Teachers' Association meets once a month, where splendid programs have been provided, proving bene-
ficial to all concerned. Most of our teachers attend summer school. Our aim is to establish vocational educa-
tion as soon as funds will permit.

We have heartily cooperated with our County Agricultural Agent and Canning Club Supervisor in establishing corn,
pig and canning clubs.

Perfect harmony prevails in our County School Board and we have also had the hearty cooperation of the State
School Department in all of our activities.

We have endeavored to carry out the State Course of Study. We also approve of the State Board of Examiners,
who we believe are rendering efficient services.

Would suggest that two rural school inspectors and one high school inspector be added to the present force, as
that would be a wonderful aid to county superintendents who are not able to have a county supervisor, since
numerous office duties prevent him from giving the supervision necessary for the best interest of the schools.

Our impression from daily contact with the citizens and patrons of the various schools leads us to believe that
we should have laws enacted that will furnish more funds for school purposes, as without sufficient funds our
public school interests are bound to suffer.

We urge upon every county superintendent the necessity for organizing parent-teachers' associations and other
community societies to promote closer relation between the home and school.

With thanks to every one concerned for the aid and assistance rendered in carrying on our educational work, I
am still striving for the best schools.

Yours very truly,
A. B. Johnson,
County Superintendent.

OSCEOIA COUNTY

Dear Sir:--Complying with your request for a report on the schools of this county for the past two years, I beg
to submit the following

New Buildings and Repairs.--Prior to the present biennium, we had completed quite an extensive building program.
Therefore, we have done but little along that line within the past two years.. We have erected three one-room
buildings for negroes at a total cost of $1,918.70, which was paid for out of the general school fund. At
another place where we had put up a new brick building for whites, we tore down the old house and used the
material for building a cottage for the teachers. This cost about $600, which was borne by the district funds.
About $1,400 has been spent out of the general school fund for repairs on buildings for whites. With the ex-
ception of a new high school building needed at Kissimmee, we are well supplied with school houses. In fact
since we have been transporting several rural schools, we have five or six one-room buildings not in use.

High Schools.--The Osceola County High School at Kissimmee is the only school that meets the State requirements
for a Senior High School. It enrolled last year 742 pupils in all grades, about 125 being in the high school
department. This school is accredited by both the State and the Southern Association of Colleges.

At St. Cloud we have a four-year Intermediate High School that enrolled last year 341 pupils, about thirty being
in the high school department. This school employs twelve teachers, three of whom give all of their time to
high school work. It has a well-equipped laboratory, a well-selected library and a department of domestic
science and domestic art. This school is doing good work and we hope to bring it up to the standard of a Senior
High School.












1918-1920

Special Tax Districts.--This county has five special tax districts that have a total income ot' over two thouc;ii.l
dollars per year. When the ten-mill amendment went into effect, some of the districts reduced their Iillare,
but we expect them to restore a three-mill tax at their next elections. We have no bonded districts.

Compulsory Attendance Law.--On account of the influence that raged in this section last year, I feel that this
law did not have a fair trial as many of the children were compelled to remain out of school for several weeks.
I believe under normal conditions, and with proper administration, this law will prove to be a great factor in
our educational system. While the law may not be perfect in every respect, I am sure that it has done much
good in this county, especially in some of the rura' districts. One school, in particular, showed an increase
in average attendance over the previous year of nearly one hundred per cent. We employ a county attendance
officer at a salary of $100 per month who gives all of his time to the duties of the office during the twelve
months of the year.

Consolidation and Transportation.--During the past year we transported five schools, two to Kissimmee and three
to St. Cloud. We began this on account of a shortage of teachers for rural schools, but it proved so satis-
factory, that we expect to increase the number next year., We find the best plan is to contract with someone to
furnish trucks and drivers, rather than for the county to go to the expense of buying trucks and hiring drivers.
We do not undertake to transport individual pupils, but schools as a whole, using the funds appropriated for
teachers' salaries to pay the expense of transportation. The county agrees to furnish transportation for eight
months and the district and patrons for one month, thus giving the children the advantage of graded and high
schools for a term of nine months. Under this arrangement nearly eighty per cent. of the children in the
county get nine months of schooling during the year.

Rural Schools.--ThLs is one of the most perplexing problems a county superintendent has to deal with. The one-
teacher rural school is not efficient and we all know it even if we do not admit it. When we come to the final
analysis we find that everything centers on the teacher. To be a successful rural school teacher, a person
must be an expert in her line, a person of vision with a missionary spirit that can touch the life of the com-
munity. We do not find many teachers with all of these qualifications, and when we do fine one she is not
likely to be teaching in a one-teacher rural school. The only solution is in consolidation and transportation.
When this is done the one-teacher school will disappear, and better teachers can be had and better salaries
paid for better work done.

State Course of Stud.--I find that the teachers are generally pleased with the State Course of Study. Since
the rural school term has been extended to eight months, the pupils are able to follow the course during the
year.

Rural School Inspectors.--I believe the number of rural school inspectors should be increased to one for each
congressional district, so that more schools could be visited and inspected during the year. I believe the
work done along this line has been a great help in arousing the interest of the people in educational matters.

School Finances.--Last year we levied nine mills for the county fund, but on account of having to pay salaries
during the influence epidemic, we closed the year owing a small amount. All of the districts are out of debt
with balances to their credit. We expect to levy the full ten mills next year. I believe the law should be
changed so that it would be possible to collect the taxes before the school term closes. As it now stands, the
bulk of the funds are not available until after the first of April, thereby forcing school boards to borrow
money to maintain the schools and to pay out thousands of dollars for interest.

Conclusion.--If we have not made progress during the past two years, I hope at least we have held our own.
With the shortage of teachers and the demoralized condition of the country generally it is a wonder that we
have been able to accomplish anything. As it is, we have reduced the number of schools, increased salaries,
and extended the terms of high schools to nine months and the rural schools to eight.

Yours very truly,
C. E. Yowell,
County Superintendent.

PALM BEACH COUNTY

Dear Mr. Sheats:--I take great pleasure in transmitting herewith the bi-ennial report of Palm Beach County
schools due at the close of the school year, June 30, 1920.

During this period two superintendents were in charge of the schools of this county, Mr. Jackson B. McDonald
from July 1, 1918 to December 6, 1918, and the writer from December 6, 1918, to the close of the period.

The Board of Public Instruction of Palm Beach County and the Superintendent take a great deal of pride in their
ability to make a report at this time along financial lines, stating that at the close of this period we have
complied with the law in every respect and are entirely out of debt as far as the budget of the school year is
concerned. Owing to the high cost of teachers' salaries and school supplies and the low rate of taxation com-
pelled by the Constitution of Florida, we feel that it is quite difficult to maintain a high standard of pro-
gressive schools without running greatly into debt. We believe that we have maintained good schools in this
county. On the thirtieth of June 23 owed $5,000 on our budget. We had, in the general school fund, on the
same date, more money than enough to pay this obligation. Owing to the absence of the Superintendent at the
close of the period the note was not paid until the first week in July, so that we can truthfully say that we
were completely out of debt at the time the period closed.

Finances.--The progress made in our schools may be estimated from the fact that during the school year ending
June 30, 1918, we had expended less than $114,000 in this county for school purposes, while the corresponding
year of 1920 found our expenditures in excess of $134,000, which is a very good percentage of increase. This
was possible owing to the increase in assessed value and the increase of three mills in the general fund tax.











1918-1920
One fact to consider in this connection is the item of teachers' salaries. For the year 1918 our total was
$47,403, while in 1920 the total was nearly $68,000. This shows that the increased expenditures went almost
entirely where the money would do the most good.

Enrollment.--The enrollment in our white schools increased from two thousand in 1918 to two thousand four hun-
dred and ninety-eight in 1920, which is an increase of almost 25 per cent. If it had not been for the fact
that during the same period an increase of three mills was permitted in the general school fund our county
would have had a very hard time, indeed, to provide for the care of the large enrollment.

Transportation.--In my bi-ennial report I made the statement that our Board intended to curtail expenditures
along transportation lines. In so doing the reduction in expenditures does not show a less efficient or less
extensive system of transportation, but shows greater economy in operation. During the year 1918 transportation
cost this county more than $11,000, while in the year 1920 only a little over $5,300 -- less than half -- was
spent for the same item, and more pupils were served. This reduction was brought about largely because favor-
able contracts with private transportation companies proved to be cheaper than public operation of conveyances.

Rural Schools.--During this bi-ennium seven rural schools have been constructed, namely: Prosperity Farms,
costing a little over $786; Connersville, $717; Canal Point, $707; Ritta, $1,727; South Bay, $1,477; Hillsboro
Canal, $1,838, the last three being two-room structures. The comparatively low price of construction does not
reveal the value of the buildings because in each case the patrons of the schools furnished the labor of
erecting the buildings at no cost to the Board which, of course, would make the actual value of the buildings
something like twice the figures stated above. In addition to the above named frame buildings, a concrete
block with stucco finish, two-room building with all modern equipment has been erected at Boca Ratone at a cost
of a little more than $10,400. We consider this one of the best appearing and most commodious rural school
buildings in the State.

Bond Issues.--Special Tax School Districts No. 1, No. 4 and No. 8 have issued bonds during this period, but at
this writing, owing to the dullness of the bond market, the two first mentioned issues have not been sold. The
issue of No. 8 was for $12,000, and was sold advantageously. Most of the proceeds were used in the erection of
the Boca Ratone school. The issue for No. 1 for $125,000 and No. 4 for $40,000 are to be used in erecting ward
buildings and purchasing furniture in West Palm Beach and the erection of a small high school in Lake Worth.

Social Service Worker.--During this bi-ennium a social service worker has been employed by the Board, whose
duties took her to every school in the county. She rendered many and various services, perhaps the most useful
of which was the looking after nutrition cases, whereby under-nourished children were brought to standard size.
She rendered considerable service in co-operation with the State Board of Health in examining the children of
the county to determine whether they had any of the various diseases of childhood. This work had the support
and co-operation of all the physicians and dentists in the county who were asked to assist, and practically all
the services they rendered were given gratis to children who could not afford to pay. The health of the school
children of Palm Beach County has been well looked after. During the latter part of the year 1920 the Red
Cross Chapter of the county furnished a dentist who did a great deal of work over the county at no cost to the
children.

Canning Club.--During the year 1919 the Board paid $500 toward the salary of the County Home Demonstration
Agent. During the year she rendered considerable service to the children in the rural schools as a Canning
Club teacher. During the year 1920 lack of funds prevented the Board from helping out on her salary, but she
continued to render a great deal of service to the schools as the employee of the County Commissioners.

Lunch Rooms.--In all schools in the county which have more than seventy-five pupils lunch rooms have been pro-
vided at which the children may procure one or more hot dishes for lunch every day at a nominal cost. The
only school lunch room that is self-sustaining is the one at West Palm Beach, where several hundred pupils are
accommodated daily. This lunch room operated in a highly successful manner and closed the year with almost
$150 in the bank, after having bought all the new utensils and cooking equipment needed. The lunch rooms in
the smaller towns, owing to the small amount of patronage, are receiving outside help, which has been generously
donated by Women's Clubs and other organizations and individuals interested in the welfare of the children of
the county.

Vocational Work.--During this bi-ennium vocational work in the way of agriculture was taught by a Smith-Hughes
teacher at Pahokee. A similar line of work was instituted for colored children under the same authority and
paid for by the State and Government in the colored school at Delray and has proved very successful and useful.
During the school year of 1920 vocational classes in commercial lines in the afternoons and in industrial lines
in the evenings were instituted in West Palm Beach. These classes were free to all comers and the instructors
were paid by the Smith-Hughes fund. They proved popular in every respect and it is thought they will be con-
tinued in the future.

General Improvements.--During this period a great many improvements have been made wherever the need existed
and the funds warranted, in all portions of the county. Some of the most permanent improvements are the
beautifying of the school grounds in Lake Worth and the installation of natural slate backboards in Stuart,
Jupiter, West Palm Beach, Lake Worth, Boynton, Delray and Boca Ratone. The purchase of school supplies of all
kinds necessary to the successful operation of the schools has been liberal, yet not extravagant, by our Board.
We believe that the general appearance of our buildings and the sanitary arrangements and the qualifications of
our teachers will compare very favorably with the schools of any county in the South.

Needed Legislation.--A great deal of legislation for the benefit of the public schools of Florida is needed.
Some of the greatest needs might be enumerated as follows: The removal of the three-mill limit of taxation on
special tax school districts. Since the taxpayers vote the amount of taxes they are willing to pay for educa-
tion in their district, the writer sees no reason why any limit should be placed on this method of taxation.
The ten-mill county limit and the one-mill State limit are sufficient and fair enough, providing the district
millage can be unlimited. The nature and method of reporting required of the County Superintendent should be
simplified. The matter of keeping the funds of the schools in the banks of the county and in several different


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1918-1920
accounts in the banks is a source of a great deal of needless extra work. A financial system should be devised
whereby funds can be kept in one bank or not to exceed two accounts. This would, of course, necessitate a
superintendent or office help who knew something about bookkeeping.

Another law that would work entirely to the benefit of the schools would be the placing of educational and business
qualifications on the candidates for the office of superintendent of schools. Another point that perhaps might
be fruitful of good results would be a more satisfactory remuneration in a financial way for school board members.
It is difficult in many cases to secure men on the School Board who are able to earn from $10 per day and more,
who are willing to take their time for the $4 pay :hey receive. Our county school systems are spending a great
deal of money and it is not fair to the school children to intrust the expenditure of $100,000, or in some cases
over half a million, in the hands of inexperienced business men who are willing to work for $4 a day.

Respectfully submitted,
W. E. Keen,
Superintendent.

PASCO COUNTY

Hon. J. W. Sanders, County Superintendent. (No report received from this county.)

PINELIAS COUNTY

Hon. Dixie M. Collins, County Superintendent. (No report received from this county.)

POLK COUNTY

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I am herewith making my second bi-ennial report for Polk County. I
want to thank you for the many courtesies shown me since I have been in office. I also desire to congratulate
Florida and the great system of public schools of the State that you will remain at the head for another four
years.

In most particulars, my report made two years ago would fit the conditions now with few changes and I could
hardly improve on the observations and recommendations made at that time.

Buildings.--We have erected only two buildings the past two years, owing to the fact that an extensive building
campaign was carried on several years ago when materials and labor were cheaper than at present. We have 18
large modern brick buildings, all containing auditoriums with seating capacity varying from 250 to 1,500. How-
ever, owing to the continued growth of Polk County and the enforcement of the Compulsory Attendance Law, we will
have to have more buildings. New buildings are already contemplated for Crooked Lake, Lakeland, Winter Haven,
Mulberry, Ft. Meade, and other places; work to start on them from one to six months from this date. All our
buildings contain large airy class rooms and special care has been taken as to light and ventilation. Not all
the rural school buildings are modern, but are in good condition generally. Only a few of the negro schools
are provided w.th suitable buildings or desks. Most of them are using churches, halls or any know of make-
shift not at all suitable for teaching purposes. If, under the Compulsory Law, they are forced to attend
school, suitable buildings and equipment should be provided.

High Schools.--.We have five standard Senior High Schools, located at Bartow, Winter Haven, Lakeland, Fort Meade,
and Mulberry, and three Junior High Schools, located at Lake Wales, Frostproof and Haines City. All these
schools are equipped with complete laboratories and excellent libraries, especially the Bartow school, the
Carnegie Library being located less than 25 yards from the campus.

Special Tax School Districts.--Nearly the entire area of Polk County is embraced in special tax school districts.
There are 55 of such districts in the county and of the 92 schools (71 white and 21 colored), 83 are embraced
in districts. The total revenue for all districts combined for 1920 will amount to $96,784.37 as shown by the
tax books.

Bonded School Districts.--We have 16 bonded districts in the county with a total of 24 issues, amounting to
$329,500, practically all of which was expended for new sites, new buildings and equipment. Seven of these
issues have been purchased by the Board with sinking funds of other districts. I consider the law authorizing
County School boardss to invest sinking funds in bonds of other districts a good one. No less than 6 additional
issues are contemplated for the very near future for new buildings and sites as mentioned under the heading
"Buildings." Just recently a petition was filed with the Board for an election in the Winter Haven District
for $20,000 bonds with which to purchase a site.

Compulsory Attendance Law.--We employ one Attendance Officer for the entire county, who also has charge of the
Mothers' Pension Law and.the taking of the school census. I believe it is much more satisfactory to have one
good officer and pay him a salary sufficient to do the work as it should be done. We find a few people opposed
to compulsory education, but is generally those that need it most. The great war taught us a great deal. More
exemptions front serving in the war were made on account of ignorance than all other causes combined. The Com-
pulsory School Law is a good one and should be rigidly enforced, and we are enforcing it in Polk County. Our
county is making a wonderful growth and our increase would naturally be large, but to the Compulsory Law a large
percentage of the increase is due. The increase in attendance the past two years has been about 35 per cent.
The year ending July, 1918, our enrollment was 7,503 and at the close of the present term it will be nearly
12,000.

Consolidation of Schools.--It has always been the policy of the present School Board to consolidate as many
schools as possible, all agreeing that it means longer terms and better schools. I believe the most feasible
way in which to consolidate schools of a district is to build the school at one end of the district and carry
the pupils to it. This means the employment of less vehicles. We have consolidated ten schools in the past two
years. For transportation, we allow $3 per month per scholar from the general fund and the various districts
supplement this amount for $1 to $3 per month.











1918-1920

Rural Schools.--Our rural schools will compare favorably with any in the State, many of them far above. Rural
School Inspector R. L. Turner recently spent several days in this county and he says the school at Brewster is
the best in the State. A dozen or more will be classed as standard schools this year. The standardization of
the high schools has accomplished notable results and it should be extended until every rural school measures
up to the standard. I have found from experience that a visit from the Rural School Inspector not only helps the
Superintendent, but the teachers and pupils as well. There should be at least four inspectors employed, which
would mean more and longer visits to the counties.

Teachers' Salaries.--Our Board has realized that teachers' salaries have been too small. During the past two
years the salaries have been increased about 40%, which I believe is a record for the State. Excellent salaries
have attracted the very best teachers to the county and we now have one of the best corps of teachers in the
history of the county. Below will be found a table showing the salaries we are now paying teachers:

High Schools (Nine months term).

Principals........................*......... $250 to f325 per month.
Faculty H. S. Dept. ........................ $120 to $150 per month.
Faculty Grammar Dept. ...................... $100 to $120 per month.

Rural Schools (Six to nine months term).

Principals ................................. $ 95 to $200 per month.
Assistants and one teacher schools from $75 to $125 per month.

Colored Schools (Six and seven months terms).

Principals ....................... ......... $ 65 to $110 per month.
Assistants and one teacher schools ......... $ 55 to $70 per month.

Conclusion.--As this will probably be the last report I will ever make as Superintendent, it is with mingled
feelings that I retire from the work. I predict a very bright future for the schools of this county and State
and will do all in my power to assist in the work as a private citizen.
Sincerely yours,
John A. Moore,
Superintendent.

PUTNAM COUNTY

Dear Sir:--Availing myself of the opportunity offered by you, I take pleasure in submitting the following general
report touching some of the educational achievements made in Putnam County since my last bi-ennial report, June 30,
1918.

Teachers.--During the bi-ennium ending June 30, 1920, we have experienced great difficulty in securing a sufficient
number of competent teachers with proper certificates. We have consolidated many rural schools and created central
schools for the several communities, placing Ford trucks at convenient places to accommodate those too far from
the Central school. By this means teachers were offered an incentive over the "out of the way," one teacher
school. This of course is not as cheap for the county but is worth a great deal more to the pupils. We select,
for drivers of these trucks, reliable advanced pupils, allowing them fifty cents per day each for this work.
This bus and the pupils are directly under the authority of the principal of the school at all times. Pupils
reported to the principal by the driver are punished, and drivers reported to the Board by the principal, are
punished by removal.

Salaries.--The minimum salary paid in the High School is $145 per month, and the maximum salary, according to
training and experience. It was almost impossible to fill all our High School positions this year with qualified
teachers. We are unable to pay good teachers what they are worth, but have increased salaries to try to give
them a living wage, until at present our salary budget nearly covers our entire share of the county taxes, the
Board levying the ten mills allowed.

The following scale has been adopted by the Board and all teachers are paid accordingly.

Minimum salaries for white teachers as follows:

Second grade Certificates, per month ....... $ 75.00
First grade Certificates, per month ........ 80.00
First grade Life Certificates, per month ... 85.00
Primary Certificates, per month ............ 85.00
Primary Life Certificates, per month ....... 90.00
State Graduate Certificates, per month ..... 95.00
State Certificates, per month .............. 100.00
State Life Certificates, per month ......... 110.00

Added to as follows:

Experience: 1st year's, $3.00 per month.
2nd year's, $2.00 per month.
Next ten years, $1.00 per month for each year.

Training: $5.00 per month for attendance in Summer School preceding summer, and $1.00 per
month for each preceding that.


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1918-1920
Degrees: Bachelor's degree, $5 to $10 per month, according to work and school.
Masters, $25 to $50 as above.

Special Certificates, $1.00 per month more for each subject covered.

Principalships, $10 for one assistant, and $5 for each additional assistant.

New Buildings.--We have completed the $125,000 building for Palatka, but have not erected any other buildings
during this bi-ennium on account of cost of building material and labor, as well as the scarcity of general
funds, and condition of the bond markets.

Transportation.--We allow fifteen cents per day for pupils living three miles frame the school, and not trans-
ported in a county bus. Another year this allowance will be made to pupils under twelve years of age only. We
also allow six cents per mile one way for High School pupils living over three miles from the High School,
until this amount reaches $1.00 per day, which is the maximum allowance. The High Schools are financed from
the general fund, thus with the transportation allowed, every pupil of the county above the eighth grade, is
given equal rights to attend, and as near as possible the same advantages of a High School. Our High School
attendance has increased from 60 as reported two years ago, to 120 this year.

Rural Supervision.--Miss S. H. Bard is the authorized County Rural School Supervisor. For the past two years
we have given a great deal of attention to this phase of the work in this county. Inexperienced teachers find
ready assistance from Miss Bard, who has, herself, had several years of successful experience in teaching and
classifying rural schools. Miss Bard has charge of the County Uniform examinations in the 7th and 8th grades
of the entire county and at the close of each school, grades every pupil in these grades. She also makes it
her business to see that the Course of Study is followed.

Attendance.--We were glad of an opportunity, and have made an effort, to comply with the Compulsory Attendance
Law of 1919, and have found, with but few exceptions, a remedy for patrons who have heretofore insisted on keep-
ing their children out of school. Our average attendance has been increased about fifteen per cent. Miss S. H.
Bard is also Attendance Officer for this county and has had to prosecute several cases. In every instance the
offenders have been fined, or sent to reform school.
Respectfully submitted,
C. H. Price,
Superintendent Public Instruction,
Putnam County.

ST. JOHNS COUNTY

Hon. D. D. Corbett, County Superintendent. (No report received from this county.)

SAINT LUCIE COUNTY

Dear Sir:--I herewith submit a brief report of the schools of Saint Lucie County.

New Buildings:--During the past two years we have erected two new buildings: the one at Vero at a cost of forty-
one thousand dollars, well located in a convenient section of the city, on an eight-acre tract of land, giving
ample room for play grounds and such additions as will be needed to the present building or additional buildings.
The sub-tax district bonded to the amount of twenty-five thousand dollars, which sum was deemed sufficient at
the time of bonding (four years ago); but Government restrictions in building, followed by advances in cost of
construction, made it necessary to add to this amount the sum of sixteen thousand dollars from the general fund.
This, a brick building, eight class rooms and auditorium, is well arranged and modern in every respect.

The second is a three-room rural school building, well fitted to fillall the requirements of the community,
both buildings supplied with running artesian water and septic tanks.

Drinking Water.--The Board in this county is making special efforts to get away from the surface well and thus
supply the school children with pure drinking water. We have six of our rural schools supplied with flowing
artesian wells located on the school property and these with other schools where water is piped from adjoining
wells give to about 80% of the school children as near pure water as it is possible to supply in this section.

Consolidated Schools.--The Saint Lucie County Board has continued its policy of consolidation. Have vacated or
closed six rural schools during the past two years and avoided building two more. Have consolidated several at
a slight saving in cost, but the only feature worth consideration is the increase in interest and efficiency of
the schools. Contrary to the arguments most often advanced by the opponents of consolidation, it stimulates the
interest in school affairs and decidedly benefits the community in every way. Rarely do we find an individual
who would go back to the old way, and never a community as a whole.

Special Tax Districts.--We have twelve tax districts in the county, all territory in the county included. Not
a single district has voted less than the maximum millage in the past eight years. The money is to extend the
term and in such ways as seems best to the trustees and the county board. Two of these districts have bonded
for $25,000 each and a third for twelve thousand. Other bonds will be voted on in the near future.

High Schools.--The number of students in the high schools is showing a good healthy growth both in numbers
enrolled and number in graduating classes. In the Saint Lucie County high school we have added a Domestic
Science and Art department; have it well equipped with all needed furniture, sewing machines, etc. It is already
popular and a pride of the school.

Teachers.--We have with one exception, a short summer term, been able to supply our schools with teachers. It
has been necessary to postpone opening dates several times, which was no serious inconvenience. We have also
maintained our former standard of qualifications for teachers but have not made the advance here that we should,











1918-1920

neither were we compelled to use more than an ordinary number of beginners. We did find it necessary to persuade
teachers who had left the profession several years before to return, and in all cases were most fortunate in
getting good results. Lack of experience is the one large drawback in the teaching force. Too many people,
seemingly children, try to, or do use the school room for a stepping stone or waiting place until they find
their life's work. We have raised the salaries to the limit of our ability at present, but do not seem able to
retain teachers in the school room, or what is more important still, have them prepare before entering the
profession. It is in this we hope to see the greatest advance in the near future.

Very truly yours,
E. E. Smith,
County Superintendent.

SANTA ROSA COUNTY

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I herewith beg to submit to you the following report of the conditions
of the schools of Santa Rosa County. As you well know, I have been filling out an unexpired term, and have only
been in office a little more than five months, and am therefore not fully conversant with the conditions of the
schools prior to that time only through the office records.

High Schools--We have three schools in Santa Rosa County doing high school work; viz., Milton school, with an
enrollment of 550 pupils, of which 120 are doing high school work. Jay, with an enrollment of 210 pupils, of
whom 10 are doing work above the eighth grade; and Munson; with an enrollment of 101, four of whom are in the
high school department.

The Milton High School measures up to all the requirements of the State Board and is therefore an accredited
Senior High School. There are four teachers in the High School Department and all doing excellent work.

We have an excellent library in all the schools that are doing high school work in the county. It is our aim
to make Milton High School the one Senior County High School and have three other Junior High Schools located at
Jay, Munson and Allenton.

Teachers.--We have an excellent body of teachers in Santa Rosa County, who are all doing very good work. I am
highly pleased with the work of the majority of our teachers, yet there are some who are inefficient and, of
course, are not able to do the best work.

We have had great difficulty in securing teachers for all our schools, but by using a few with temporary certi-
ficates we have been able to supply the schools for whites and most of the negro schools.

Special Tax School Districts.--There are ten special tax school districts in Santa Rosa County at the present
time, and three more that are being formed will be shown in the next report. There are twelve white schools
receiving the benefit of the three extra mills of these districts. Every special tax district in our county
carries the maximum levy and I believe would be glad to increase the maximum to ten mills instead of the present
millage.

Teachers' Institutes.--For the last two years there have been no teachers' associations of any kind in our
county, although we are planning to have a Teachers' Institute about the first of September, 1921. It is our
intention to secure for this Institute some of the leading educators of the State to address our teachers on
different subjects pertaining to their work in the school room.

Bonding Districts.--We have had but two districts in Santa Rosa County to vote bonds, viz., Milton Special Tax
District No. 1 has a bond issue of $20,000, with which $20,000 from the general school fund was placed and used
for the purpose of building the Milton County High and Graded School building, a structure that ranks among the
best in West Florida. Special Tax School Districts Nos. 4 and 10 have consolidated and voted a bond issue of
$8,000. These bonds have not been sold yet, but we expect to sell them at an early date, the returns to be used
for the erection of an eight-room building within the boundaries of the district.

Compulsory Attendance Law.--We have found the Compulsory Attendance Law to be a great aid in increasing the
attendance of our schools, although we have yet not been able to carry it out according to our best wishes.

At the beginning of this scholastic year our county was divided into three districts, the same as the School
Board Districts, and the Board member from each district appointed an attendance officer to take care of the
schools in his district. This plan has worked very well, but I believe there is yet a better means of carrying
out the law than we have yet put into effect. It is our plan to appropriate enough money another year to have
one county officer to take care of the entire county and to work in connection with the County Superintendent.

Summer Schools.--A summer school for teachers and prospective teachers was held at Jay for six weeks during the
months of last May and June, and I feel sure that it was instrumental in helping supply our schools with teachers
during this scholastic year.

We intend holding another summer school at Jay this coming spring and expect a very large attendance, as we are
going to supplement the teachers' salaries who attend either the State or county summer school, five dollars
per month.

Comparative Efficiency of Rural and Town Schools.--We have tried to keep the rural schools graded and up to the
standard, giving to the country pupils the same rights, privileges and advantages that the pupils of the towns
enjoy, and make it possible for a boy or girl to obtain a good common school education living at home on the
farm.

The old school buildings of the country have in most places oeen torn down and replaced by modern, up-to-date
buildings, equipped with patent single desks, charts, maps and globes and in most schools have been placed
excellent libraries. With all these advantages the country child is able to make in most cases the same advance-
ment in school work as the child in the town.


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1918-1920


It is our plan to encourage every district to bond and build their own buildings, leaving the entire general
fund of the county for the salaries of the teachers and the lengthening of the school term.

It is my pleasure to work for the educational interests of the State and county and help raise our standards to
rank among the highest.

Respectfully submitted,
R. B.Hobbs,
County Superintendent.

SEMINOLE COUNTY

Dear Sir:--I hand ycu herewith the bi-ennial report of Seminole County schools for the two years ending June 30,
1920.

Teachers.--Seminol- County has been very fortunate in securing the services of well-prepared teachers for most
schools, in spite of the deplorably inadequate salaries paid. Especially is this true of the white schools, and
the colored "ity scl- ls. The rural colored schools, however, have had to be supplied in many instances with
teachers far below the standard to which we aspire. There is little inducement for teachers to spend time and
money preparing for such a poorly paid profession. There are employed in this county at present seventy-seven
teachers, forty-seven white and thirty colored, taking care of an enrollment of two thousand, three hundred pupils.

White Schools.--The largest school of the county is the Sanford High School, with an enrollment of something
over nine hundred pupils. Prof. Claude S. Ogilvie, an A. B. graduate of the University of Florida, is now serv-
ing his second year as principal of the Sanford school. He has the hearty support and co-operation of practically
every patron of the school. Naturally, this school is doing excellent work, and stands high among similar insti-
tutions in the State. Last year there was added to the academic courses a course in commercial studies. Seven
new typewriters were purchased and installed, and are in constant use. This is becoming one of the most popular
courses in the school, and is preparing many of the boys and girls to take positions as stenographers and typists
during the summer months, thus earning money to help them continue their education in colleges.

The school at Oviedo, while too small to be on the accredited State list, is doing full four-year high school
work, and its graduates have no difficulty in gaining admission to the standard colleges of this and other states.
Mrs. Anita K. Crawford, graduate of Bessie Tift College, Forsyth, Georgia, is principal of the Oviedo school, and
is assisted by her sister, Miss Nell King, and by Mrs. J. N. Thompson.

Prof. M. E. Dooley has been re-appointed as principal of the Geneva school,and his school is one of the best
rural schools in the State. Two years of high school work is being done in this school.

Prof. J. Tilden Jacobs is serving his third year as principal of the Lake Monroe school, and is making a wonder-
ful success of the work. A fifteen thousand dollar school building has been erected since Prof. Jacobs began
his work there, and the citizens of the town are heartily interested in the cause of education, due very much
to the untiring efforts of the principal. Lake Monroe school is always among the winners of first prizes at
the Mid-Winter Exposition at Orlando. The money received as prizes for last year's exhibits has been utilized
in establishing a school library.

The Longwood school is progressing under the guiding hand of Prof. J. M. Chaffer, formerly principal of the
Geneva school, and a teacher of many years of service in the public schools of Florida. Two years of high
school work is being done at Longwood.

Mrs. Estelle Tribble and daughter, Mary Tribble, served the Chuluota school for two years and built up the school
in many respects. Enthusiasm was the keynote during the principalship of Mrs. Tribble. After the resignation
of Mrs. Tribble, Prof. W. L. Sieg and wife were appointed as teachers of the school, and are making excellent
progress. This school is also doing some high school work. Altamonte Springs, Lake Mary, Paola and Osceola
schools, all one-teacher schools, have exceptionally good teachers, and are making progress.

Colored Schools.--Hopper Academy, at Sanford, the only colored High School in the county, is under the direction
of Principal J. N. Crooms, who has been with the school for fifteen years, and continues to keep the work up to
a high standard. Orange Academy, at Oviedo, with Prof. S. E. Monroe as principal, is doing excellent work.
The majority of the other eleven colored schools of the county have fairly good teachers, and their enrollments
are continually increasing.

Special Tax Districts.--There are six special tax school districts in Seminole County, all levying, with one
exception, the maximum millage allowed under the Florida laws. The annual receipts for the six districts amount
to $11,450, which is expended for janitors, repairs, incidentals, and to supplement the teachers' salaries.
Every school in the county, with the exception of one colored school, is within a special tax school district.

Bonding Districts.--Sanford Special Tax District No. 1, and Lake Monroe Special Tax District No. 6, are the only
bonded school districts of the county. Sanford is bonded for $100,000, and Lake Monroe for $15,000. The pro-
ceeds of all bonds having been expended for the acquisition, improvement, and erection of school buildings, and
furnishing of same. A balance of $9,768 still remains in District No. 1, to be used in erecting a new colored
school building within the district, and for the improvement of the other buildings in the Sanford school district.

Transportation.--Something over three hundred pupils per day are being transported to the larger schools of the
county, at a cost of about four dollars per month per pupil. This has become a serious problem in our finances,
and it is possible that some of this transportation will of necessity be eliminated in another year. While the
Board recognizes the superiority of the larger schools over smaller rural schools, still unless other sources
of revenue can be devised, some rural schools must be re-established in the near future.

Finances.--During the bi-ennium closing June 30, 1920, Seminole County has expended in the operation of its
schools, exclusive of bond funds, the sum of $111,833.26. Of this amount $73,037.20 was paid for salaries of












1918-1920
teachers, and $12,928.65 for transportation of pupils. The several banks of the county at present hold notes
against the School Board in the sum of $8,000. This indebtedness, however, will be greatly reduced after the
collection of taxes for the year 1920.

Conclusion.--There is perfect harmony existing among the several Boards of Trustees, the Board of Public In-
struction and the County Superintendent. All realize the seriousness of the educational problem in the county,
and the difficulty of maintaining a high standard in the schools with the inadequate revenues at hand, and are
working carefully, prayerfully and hopefully for the advancement of the cause of education in Seminole County,
for the preparation of our children to be useful anJ. worthy citizens of our State and nation.

Respectfully submitted,
T. W. Lawton,
County Superintendent.

SUMMER COUNTY

Hon. G. H. Tompkins, County Superintendent. (No report received from this county.)

SUWANNEE COUNTY

Hon. J. W. O'Hara, County Superintendent. (No report received from this county.)

TAYLOR COUNTY

Hon. F. S. Jackson, County Superintendent. (No report received from this county.)

VOLUSIA COUNTY

Dear Sir:--Complying with your request of November 22, I beg to submit the following report on the educational
activities in Volusia County during the last bi-ennium.

New Buildings.--Due to conditions caused by the World War our building program was almost a standstill for a
period of eighteen months. When the Government ban was finally raised on the marketing of building securities,
prices on building materials were found to be almost prohibitive; consequently the question of providing
adequate buildings for our constantly increasing population became a puzzle to county school officials. The
following new buildings have been erected during the last two years:

1 room addition to Oak Hill Grammar School ..................... $ 671
9 room consolidated Senior Rural High School, Barberville ...... 18,274
6 room Grammar School building, Osteen ......................... 10,000
10 room fire-proof Grammar School building, Ormond .............. 40,000
10 room Primary School building, DeLand ......................... 30,000

(Note: The last two on the list are at this time incomplete. It is expected, however,
that both will be ready for occupancy during the early part of 1921.)

In the construction of new buildings every law of hygiene has been carefully observed, buildings designed to
meet the.latest improved lighting and ventilation regulations, inside color scheme, and fire protection, sanitary
requirements, etc. In each case plans and specifications were submitted to the State Board of Architects for
approval.

Repairs.--When our building program was started several years ago, the scheme contemplated a gradual decrease
in the annual cost of repairs by the erection of buildings as would require small expenditures for this item.
On the other hand, it is readily understood that with as many rural frame buildings we have to keep up, the
item of repairs is by no means small. During the time for which this report is made every building in the county
in a regularly organized school district has been thoroughly repaired and painted, at a cost of $12,125 for
white schools, and $1,173 for colored schools. All buildings have been painted a uniform color, and a majority
given an approved inside color scheme.

Furniture and Equipment.--Every regular school in the county is now amply equipped with patent furniture, teachers'
desks and chairs, maps, globes, charts, dictionaries, and with few exceptions, graded libraries. All High Schools
of course, are provided with ample High School libraries, and with Science laboratories.

Special Tax School District.--At present there are 27 regular, and 2 temporary white schools, and 13 regular
and 8 temporary colored schools, making a total of 50 schools now being operated in Volusia County. There are
22 special tax school districts, one less than shown by my last report, decrease due to consolidation of two
districts. These 22 districts include 22 out of 29 white schools, and 13 out of 21 colored schools. The total
taxable property within the 22 districts, according to the present basis of assessment, is $12,477,000, assessed
at 3 mills, returns in district taxes $37,431.

Interest and Sinking Fund.--Our seven bonded districts have an aggregate sum of $61,165.28 on deposit for the
retirement of bonds at maturity; three-fourths of which amount is drawing 4 per cent interest, while one-fourth
yields 2 per cent interest. Two of the seven bonded districts have an aggregate of $30,782.03, derived from
sale of bonds for building purposes; buildings for which these funds were raised being incomplete on December 1,
1920. The annual income from the five mill bond tax in seven bonded districts amounts to $34,137.

High Schools.--We feel proud of the fact that 100 per cent of our High Schools, numbering five Senior and one
Junior, were placed on the State's list of Accredited High Schools during the 1919-20 school term; and four of
our Senior High Schools claim places on the Southern Association list of Accredited High Schools. Each and
every school referred to herein will attempt to hold its recognized place during the current year.












1918-1920

Our Senior High Schools are located at DeLand, Daytona, New Smyrna, Daytona Beach, and Barberville. With the
exception of the last named, all of these schools are fireproof, or semi-fireproof buildings erected during the
last few years at an aggregate cost of $255,000. A total of thirty-eight teachers doing High School work ex-
clusively are employed in these five schools, at a cost of $5,1165 per school month for salaries alone, or an
average salary of $144 per month. In addition to regular High School subjects these schools offer work in the
Modern Languages, Domestic Science and Art, Manual Training and Iron Wfok, Mechanical Drawing, Blue Printing
and Blue Print Reading, Designing, etc., Public School Music, and Instrumental Music.

Three of the High Schools mentioned above, viz., DeLand, Daytona and New Smyrna, not only provide facilities
for the town population, but great numbers of country boys and girls as well, who reach these schools by means
of free transportation provided by the County School Board. We believe that we are succeeding in our effort
to impress upon the minds of our young men and young women the need for a finished education. We believe that
a larger percentage of our students are finishing High School, and that the number entering college each year
increases over the .number of the year before.

Consolidated Rural Elenior High School.--One of the High Schools mentioned in the above paragraph is one of the
prize schools of the county, in that it is a fully accredited High School, situated 16 miles out in the country.
This school is provided with a modern frame building of 9 rooms; building equipped with electric lights, running
water afforded by a plant owned by the school, sanitary toilets, science laboratory, library, teachers' rest-
room, principal's office, etc. This plant owns ten acres of splendid land suited for agricultural purposes.
It is our scheme to develop at this point an Agricultural Training School within the near future. Five teachers
are employed, three High School, and two Grammar School. The total enrollment at present is less than 100, in
proportion of 60 in High School, and 4o in the grades. The academic pupils attending this school are trans-
ported from Seville, 14 miles; Pierson, 6 miles; Clifton, 14 miles; Volusia and Astor, 7 miles; and Emporia, 4
miles; while of course, both High School and Grammar School pupils of Barberville, at which point the school is
located, attend this school. The School Board owns and operates three school buses of twenty to twenty-five
passenger capacity, in connection with this plant. The morning assembly hour occurs at 9 o'clock, thus giving
pupils of the distant places ample time to arrive. The pupils enrolled in this school are all country boys
and girls, and but for the opportunity here afforded they would never have entered High School. In the formation
of the plans for this plant, and in the execution of the same, the writer and the County School Board met with
much opposition, more on account of the contention over the location of the school than anything else. However,
the plan was successfully put through, and the school is a real pride and a pleasure to all who have an interest
in rural education. Prof. T. J. McBeath is now serving his second term as principal. While he doubtless has
many faults, as do all school men, yet we appreciate in him the vision he has for the rural community, and his
native ability to do things which it seems no other principal in similar circumstances has ever accomplished
in that section. In passing through, drop in and visit Central High School at Barberville, and look into the
eyes of sixty of the most earnest, responsive country boys and girls you ever met.
The grounds, building, equipment, buses, etc. were provided by the School Board at a total cost of $18,274.
Being unable to spare this amount out of the general school fund at one time, a special measure was passed
through the 1919 Legislature authorizing the Board to issue 6 per cent interest bearing warrants maturing
$5,000 per annum beginning July 1, 1920, to cover the cost of this building, and other needed rural school
improvements, together with the liquidation of a certain amount of floating indebtedness against three of
our city school districts. At the present time, the school buses serving this school travel over the very
worst kind of sand and mud roads, but seldom fail to arrive on time. Work is now going on in the construction
of a $400,000 hard-surfaced highway between DeLand and Seville, thence to Palatka. This school being situated
right on this highway, we prophesy that in the course of five years the: size of the school plant at this point
will necessarily be doubled.
Consolidation and Transportation.--Consolidation and transportation is the only effective means of raising the
standards of rural schools. Even city schools are rendered more effective by means of transportation of pupils
from nearby country communities and villages. During the period for which this report is made, several con-
solidations have taken place. At present Volusia County is operating fifteen school transportation buses,
serving twenty-five schools, and transporting three hundred children at an annual cost of $12,000. While this
cost may seem large with the number transported, yet it represents at least eighteen schools, which have in the
past been abolished, and which would be in operation were it not for transportation, and at a cost of from
$1,000 to $1,800 each per annum, not including the cost of buildings, repairs, insurance, furniture, fuel, and
other necessary running expenses, whereas the pupils from these' communities are placed in the various depart-
ments of the city and consolidated schools with the employment of.a very few additional teachers.

The best method of effecting consolidation, according to my experience, is the presentation of the facts to
the people concerned, showing the advantages offered by the city or consolidated district school over the one-
teacher rural school. It can be shown that these increased advantages may be provided for practically the
same, and in many instances for less money than would be necessarily expended for the operating of small one-
teacher rural schools capable of doing anything like acceptable work. As our program of state highways is
completed, the school system of Florida will naturally grow more efficient and effective through this means
of improvement. lard roads will greatly reduce the cost of transportation, as will also be reduced the hard-
ship upon those being transported at present over unimproved roads; hence consolidation in the future will be
more easily effected than in the past. This county at present transports many grammar school children 14
miles, and some high school children 20 miles. At first this seemed a hardship upon both parents and pupils,
yet at the present time those concerned would not for anything go back to the old plan of country schools.

Methods of Transportation.--This county transports both by buses owned and operated by the County School Board
and by contracts let upon a competitive basis. Both methods are good, but to the mind of the writer, where the
county owns the conveyance there is less trouble and friction. On the other hand, the contract method seems
to be a little less expensive. Buses owned by the county are of one-ton capacity, provided with extension
body, fully equipped to provide every comfort that could possibly be expected with the present conditions of
our country roads. These comforts cannot always be secured in letting contracts on a competitive basis.

Compulsory Attendance.--Volusia County has made every possible effort to carry into effect the State Compulsory
Attendance Law. An attendance officer is employed for ten months at a cost of $1,750, he paying his own office
and traveling expenses. During the past two years, many hundreds of truancy cases have been handled by this











1918-1920

this officer, but due to certain defects the purposes for which the law was enacted are virtually killed. For
instance: a pupil may be absent on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday of one week, and while the
Attendance officer may know of the pupil's absence, yet he can do nothing until the principal's report is
received on Friday of that week. The pupil has been out one day more during the week than the law allows for
the entire month. Upon receipt of the principal's report, if a lawful reason is not given for the absence, the
attendance officer must file written notice with the parent of the truant requiring him to file with the attend-
ance officer a written lawful reason for the pupil's absence. For this exchange of letters at least four days
are necessary, making nine days the pupil has been out. At the end of the four days, the attendance officer
receives reply without satisfactory evidence of lawful absence; he then proceeds with the prosecution, requiring
from two days to two months, depending upon the movement of the courts, and then when the case has been tried,
our experience has been that the fines of the majority of the violators are suspended on payment of cost; while
the fines upon the remaining few average about $1.50. For illustration: a parent needs, or thinks he needs,
his boy to work. He keeps him out of school for the time mentioned above, say ten days; he is fined $1.50, and
cost amounts to $5.00; a total fine of $6.50. Had the boy been in school, this man would have paid $30 at
least to have the work done, that the boy did during the ten days. Another defect: the Compulsory Law provides
that a truant may upon certain conditions be committed to the State Industrial School for the remainder of the
school term. Such a truant is committed, we will say, for six months; the Superintendent of the State Industrial
School, we are informed, refuses to accept such a commitment for less than two years' time, and as a result the
truant is turned loose with a feeling of utter disregard for law. Summing it all up, in my mind the Compulsory
law is all right to talk about, it is good for those who go to school anyway, and is but little hindrance for
those who wish to stay out of school. The writer sincerely hopes that this law will be amended, and thus be made
effective, or be repealed entirely.

Teachers' Salaries and Attendance.--There has been so much agitation over the question of teachers' salaries I
hesitate to mention the subject in this report. Suffice it to say, however, that we have at present 200 teachers
employed in the permanent schools of the county, and the raise in salaries for the current year will average
33%. The total amount to be paid to teachers during the current year will amount to something like $140,000,
and even with this, the best the county could possibly do, salaries are inadequate. It occurs to the writer
that Florida must take some step, immediately, to provide adequate salaries for our teachers. The tax income
in the average county in Florida is at present insufficient to afford living salaries, hence if our schools are
to grow in standards and efficiency, funds must be made available for the payment of our teachers, otherwise
those who are prepared to successfully teach school will be forced out of the profession in order to make a
living. The Smith-Towner bill offers one solution; the writer therefore suggests that all friends of education
lend their influence to the passage of this measure.

During the school term, 1919-20, 38 states and 5 nations were represented through the enrollment in the schools
of Volusia County. It is of course known to be a fact that the East Coast counties of Florida accommodate
more tourist children than any other section of the State. Facilities in Volusia County are offered to our
Northern visitors without cost to them, tuition fees being waived. While I am not using space and time to give
you a list of comparative figures of the present and past enrollment, will state that it is estimated that the
total enrollment of 1920-21 will exceed the enrollment of 1919-20 by 1,000 pupils, although there has been no
decided increase in the number of teachers employed for the current year.

School Sanitation.--We are giving much attention to school sanitation. During the last year, every country
and village school in the county, except six, were given places on the State list of Accredited Rural Schools,
in which plan sanitation is particularly stressed. There are but few schools now in use in the county, which
do not conform to the latest approved plans of architecture and design, with especial attention given to heat,
light, ventilation, etc. The exceptions mentioned are temporary schools. With few exceptions, all schools are
equipped with chemical sanitary toilet systems, which are working very satisfactorily. Much stress is placed
upon the care and neatness of the school room, and the school plant as a whole. The child makes the school
his home for much of the time during eight months of the year. Unless its general plan and construction, and
the manner in which it is kept, used and operated, provides the necessary inspirational training for the forma-
tion of the ideals essential to good citizenship, the school as a public institution will then fail to fill its
mission. The time is far past when the school's only mission is to teach the basal text-books, but this public
institution is taking on new life, and new responsibilities; viz., that of directing the pupil in every regard
in the way in which he or she should go when mature age has been reached. The school environment should
represent the future characteristics of the children we are training for future citizenship.

Teachers' Institutes.--Two years ago two Volusia County Teachers' Associations were formed in this county,
composed of teachers employed in schools on and near the east coast, the other is the West Side Section, the
membership of which is composed of teachers employed in schools of the west side of the county and nearby
points. Each of these sections hold bi-monthly meetings, alternating the months in order that members of one
section may attend meetings of the other. Once each school year the two sections are supposed to hold joint
meetings for two or three days. In these meetings, the programs are of a general nature during the morning
session, but the afternoon is given over entirely to departmental, or sectional meetings in which practical
school room work is done, and lectures and talks given on methods, plans, school management, play-ground
supervision, general school organization, discipline, etc. The meetings are always held on Saturday, and all
teachers required to attend unless excused. Justice to our teachers, however, demands a statement that very
nearly 100 per cent attend with enthusiasm and interest. It is therefore needless to say that a great deal is
being accomplished through these conventions.

Teachers' Professional Circulating Library.--In my office we have what is known as our Professional Circulating
Library, made up of about 200 of the latest and best books on Methods, etc. Upon application any book is mailed
to a teacher, who may keep it for six weeks. When returned, if it has been read and a statement to that effect
has been entered on the leaflet attached for the purpose, the teacher is given credit for that amount of profess-
ional reading. When any teacher has read five professional books within two school years, she is given a
Professional Reading Certificate by the Board of Public Instruction. Many teachers, of course, take advantage
of this opportunity, while many do not. Those who do not read professional books and current literature are
generally those who need such study the most; they will naturally eliminate themselves from the profession in
due course of time.












1918-1920

Converting Jails into School Plants; County School Administration Building.--Elsewhere in this report you will
notice a picture and a floor-plan of our School Administration Building located on the corner of Rich Avenue
and Florida Street. This beautiful little building was at one time Volusia County's jail. Were I to tell you
that our people have grown to be so good that a jail is no longer necessary, I would not expect you to believe
me. I must therefore be content to give you the facts in the case. Several years ago a new and modern jail
was built, leaving the old one unused, except for a store house for rubbish and worthless, worn-out machinery.
Upon the suggestion of those particularly interested in education, the Board of County Commissioners in 1918
made an appropriation for tie remodeling of this old eye-sore, which was in a few short months turned into a
modern office building, which is an ornament to the town. The county school officials were given the privilege
of arranging the floor plan. The building was completed in 1919, at a cost of something like $10,000. The
grounds and building could not be duplicated today for three times that amount.

It will be noted front the floor plan that the building is given over entirely to those employed in the educa-
tional work in the county. The County Superintendent and School Board and School Board employees occupy three
rooms, with the use of a large store room additional, while the County Farm Agent occupies two rooms with a
store room additional. As stated above, the building is modern in every respect, equipped with steam heat,
electric lights, running water, etc. This departure from the usual way in Florida of crowding the County
Superintendent into any old space which is large enough to afford room for a table and a desk, has attracted
much attention throughout the country, and we have been called upon to furnish cuts and to tell the story
through several of the leading educational journals, including the Schooi Board Journal, the Progressive Teacher,
and others. Of course we have reason to feel proud of this building, and the growth in public sentiment for
education which it represents. Much credit is due the members of the Board of County Commissioners serving at
that time, for their interest and vision of the educational developments of the county. Those composing the
Board of Commissioners at that time were: Hon. C. O. Codrington, DeLand; Hon. E. M. Carpenter, Orange City;
Hon. John A. Riley, Ormond; Hon. W. E. Swoope, New Smyrna; and Hon. R. J. Bishop, Bishopville.

Uniform Text Books.--The purposes and intent of the Uniform Text Book Law are good, and the law would be very
helpful if the prescribed books were placed on sale where our pupils could purchase them. Any number of our
schools have never been fully supplied with the adopted books since the last change was made, and while this
matter has been repeatedly brought to the attention of the State Depository by both the State and County Super-
intendent, in each instance a very convincing promise was made that the needed books were then in transit, or
would be delivered soon, yet in the face of these promises, dozens and dozens of children are without the proper
books and cannot buy them at any of the local depositories. The County Superintendent has therefore about given
up hope. If the State Text-book Commission would start proceedings for the forfeiture of the bond of some of
the publishers and furnishers of the adopted texts, the writer believes the condition herein mentioned would
Immediately be remedied without further trouble.

State Board of Examiners--I can speak only in terms of praise of the general result and effect of the creation
of the State Board of Examiners and the work which this Board has been doing. The general plan is in the right
direction. I sometimes think, however, that during the present critical times when teachers are so very scarce,
Section 17 might be interpreted a little more liberally.

State School Inspectors.--If the work done by the State High School and State Rural School Inspectors in other
counties has been as helpful and productive of good as resulted from the various visits made by these officials
to Volusia County, the entire State is, I am sure, happy over the work of these departments. I cannot speak
too highly of the general good being accomplished by both the High School and Rural School Inspectors.

New Laws Recommended.--(1) The Compulsory School Attendance Law should be so amended as to enable county officials
to enforce the same with the desired and needed result.

(2) The number of Rural School Inspectors should be increased, and one of these inspectors assigned to each
Congressional District in the State. The salaries of both High School and Rural School Inspectors should be
not less than $3,000 per annum, plus traveling expenses.

(3) The proper steps should be taken tending toward large appropriations by the Legislature to provide adequate
salaries for teachers.

(4) The proper and necessary legislation should be passed to enable the State Department of Education to cooper-
ate with the Smith-Towner bill in the event of its passage by Congress.

General Statement.--So much has taken place in the educational work in this county during the last two years,
it would be unfair and unwise to attempt to touch upon all the features which are important. We therefore must
be content to close by stating that Volusia has been on the job during the interim, and through our schools we
stand ready to prove the progress and development which we have the honor to claim. The only kick we have, is
that we need more money, and the more we get, it seems, the more we need, for indeed it is true that the build-
ing of a large and effective school system is an endless chain.

Respectfully submitted,
C. R. M. Sheppard,
County Superintendent.

WAKULLA COUNTY

My Dear Sir:--In compliance with your recent request for a brief summary of progress of the schools and educational
activities of Wakulla County for the past two years, I take pleasure in submitting the following:

uildings.--During the past two years we have built only one school house for white pupils and at a cost of
$401.50. The school buildings are adequate for the present needs with one or two exceptions. These buildings
have been delayed on account of inadequate finances to build modern and up-to-date buildings. The school
buildings are kept in a good state of repair and are made as attractive as possible.

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1918-1920

High Schools.--We have no standard high schools in the county, but have several which are doing such work. The
Sopchoppy school could very easily qualify as a standard Junior High School and upon the completion of the
necessary building and a little additional equipment it would rank high as one of the best small schools in the
State. An attempt to establish a High School at Crawfordville last year was not a success, owing to the fact
that the attendance and support would not justify its maintenance.

Special Tax School Districts.--There has been one new special tax district added to our number during the past
two years, making a total of seven such districts. Practically the entire county is embraced in these districts
and with one exception the maximum millage is assessed. The district funds are in the very best of shape, each
district being out of debt. Without the aid of these districts the efficiency of the schools of the county
would be greatly impaired.

School Finances.--Although teachers' salaries have been considerably increased and the school buildings kept in
a good state of repair and equipped with good furniture, we have succeeded in staying out of debt. At the close
of the school year 1919-20 we had a substantial balance on hand and all debts paid. It has been the policy of
the Board and Superintendent to operate within their means.

The Board has been assessing the maximum millage for school purposes for several years past and it seems to
meet the approval of the taxpayers to provide the funds for educational purposes.

Compulsory School Attendance Law.--I have been a firm believer in the necessity of a State-wide Compulsory
School Attendance Law for many years, and the passage of such a law at the last session of the Legislature
has already been a great blessing to the educational interests of the State. While the law may not be perfect,
its framers and those who championed its cause deserve great credit for their untiring efforts to give the
State a law which would mean opportunities to thousands of children whose education was being sadly neglected.
Although the law is not popular with a good many people, it has come to stay and with a few amendments, which
I will not attempt to suggest, will no doubt make it more popular and more generally observed.

Wakulla County has already received great benefits from the passage of this law. The enrollment increased
from 1,127 in 1919 to 1,524 in 1920 and the average attendance from 721 to 1,108 during the same period.

The enforcement of the law has been left to three attendance officers (one for each School Board District) who
were paid a combined salary of $825. This method proved very satisfactory and resulted in the general enforce-
ment of the law with a minimum of expense and trouble.

Consolidation and Transportation.--Consolidation is not practical at this time in this county on account of
poor roads and the fact that the country districts are very sparsely settled. The Board has tried to discourage
the establishment of more schools, when it was possible for the children to reach some other school where they
could possibly receive better instruction. Transportation is allowed to all children living over three miles
from a school.

Teacher Shortage.--There has been a shortage of teachers for several years in this county, but we have succeeded
in having all of the schools taught out on time. The time has come when a teacher with a certificate is in
demand, whether they have the qualifications that we so much desire or not. There must be some relief some-
where if our schools are to be taught by teachers who are fully competent and who can do the work that we should
demand.

General Interest.--Our people as a rule are interested in the cause of education and are doing everything in
their power with the limited means at hand to improve the schools of the county. We have been fortunate in
having an experienced and agreeable School Board -- one that was in full sympathy with the cause of education
and willing at all times to do all in their power for the general good. Our school trustees and supervisors
are as a rule interested in educational affairs and are trying to do their duty. With this co-operation on
the part of school officials and the general demand for better school conditions, no doubt the future has in
store much which will redound to the educational interest and prosperity of the county and State.

Yours very truly,
C. K. Alien,
County Superintendent of Public
Instruction.

WALTON COUNTY

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I submit the following brief report of conditions of the schools in
Walton County for the two years ending December 31, 1920.

New Buildings.--During the last two years there have been six new frame buildings constructed in the rural
districts, five for white children and one for colored children. These buildings are well constructed, particular
attention having been paid to light and ventilation. The expense to date has been two thousand eight hundred
twelve dollars and twenty-five cents. This only covers about fifty per cent of the actual cost of these build-
ings. Through the cooperation of the public-spirited people of the communities the cost of transportation of
material and the construction of the buildings has been practically nothing. Repairs to buildings have amounted
to one thousand nine hundred eleven dollars and sixty cents.

High Schools.--We have one Senior High School which is on the State Accredited List. The enrollment shows a
steady and natural increase. The present enrollment is five hundred and fourteen. This we consider very
remarkable, taking into consideration the fact that we have two sectarian schools located in the town, offering
practically the same work that we offer in the high school. In the schools in the town, including the colored
school, we have about one thousand pupils in attendance. We employ eighteen teachers in the high school,
including instructors in Home Economics and Music.

Special Tax Districts.--We have at present twenty-five special tax districts, which effect thirty-one schools,
more than fifty percent of all schools in the county. Receipts last year were seven thousand, two hundred forty-
nine dollars and ninety-six cents. All districts are in good shape financially.
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1918-1920

Bonded Districts.--We have two bonded districts located in the county, Bonded District No. 1, DeFtnja~I Sr-pwr.s,
proceeds of which were used for the erection of a modern school building, and improvement of the grounds. Bonded
District No. 2, Santa Rosa, proceeds of which were used in the construction of a modern frame building.

Compulsory School Attendance Law.--We have made an honest effort to enforce the Compulsory School Attendance
Law. First we employed a local man for every school district in the county. The objection to this wa: that w-
found it a very hard matter to get an attendance officer who would report his neighbors even though they had
violated the provisions contained in that act. Next we tried one officer for the entire county and found that
on account of the size of the county, some sections being very sparsely populated and people constantly moving
from one place to another, he did not meet with very much success in his work. At the present we are using a
local man in the different school districts. The law has had a good effect and with some amendments to it in
its present form, I think it will serve the purpose for which it was intended.

Consolidation of Schools.--Consolidation of schools has been unsuccessful in most places that we have tried.
On account of the great distance the people live apart in the different communities and the lack of good roads,
we have been unable to contract for the transportation of pupils at a reasonable cost. We find it cheaper to
employ a teacher in the district than to transport. The entire County Board heartily endorses consolidation,
but it is absolutely essential that we have first good roads, second consolidation of special tax school
districts into larger ones, and an educational campaign among the people affected.

Comparative Conditions of Rural and Town Schools.--The rural schools compare most favorably in efficiency with
the city schools where equal advantages exist. Their efficiency is equal to the city schools, but they do not
have equal opportunities. I find from personal observation that there are fewer failures of pupils doing high
school work from the rural schools in the County High School than there are from pupils who have been continuously
in the town schools. I find that the average age of the pupils from the rural schools is about two or three
years greater. This is due no doubt to the unequal opportunities that the rural child has for preparing for the
high school work.

Considerable progress is being made in school sanitation in the rural districts.

Club Work.--A great deal of good has been accomplished through the organizedeffort of boys' and girls' canning
and pig clubs. The encouragement given to these young folks by the County Demonstration Agent has resulted in
a greater production of food stuff and a marked increase in the number of registered hogs within the county.
Judging by the increased interest manifested by the farmer as well as by the youngsters in modern scientific
farming, the money expended for this work has been well spent.

New Laws Recommended.--I favor removing the three mill limit from special tax school districts, leaving the
district free for the trustees to make an estimate for the amount of money necessary for their work, and a
school assessment made accordingly, without regard to the number of mills. Second, that special tax school
districts be re-established every four years instead of every two as at the present.
Yours respectfully,
J. J. Kennedy,
County Superintendent.

WASHINGTON COUNTY

Dear Sir:--I have the honor to submit my report for the two years ending June 30, 1920. Owing to the press of
time, I have been compelled to make this report very brief.

New School Buildin;s.--During the past two years we have erected two three-room buildings, at a cost of approxi-
mately $1,200 each; three two-room buildings, at a cost of approximately $1,000 each, and one one-room building,
at a cost of approximately $750. All of these buildings are supplied with cloak rooms, painted and lighted
on the unitary light system. We have at this time (July, 1920) under construction two two-room buildings, on.-
three-room building, and one one-room building, which, when completed, will cost approximately $1,000 each.
The cost of these buildings is paid from the general school funds. We hope to complete the building project
in this county within the next year, and have all the schools supplied with modern buildings.

Repairs to Buildings.--We have done quite a bit of repair work on the best of our large buildings, by making
them larger, rearranging lights, and other general repair work. We have repaired some of the colored schools
by adding other rooms to the buildings. We have spent for repairs to both white and colored schools, about
$2,000.

Special Tax School Districts.--We have in the past two years created five special tax school districts, making
a total of twenty-five such districts in the county. In most of these special tax school districts were located
two or more schools which have all been combined into one school to the district.

High Schools.--This county maintains one accredited Senior High School, which is located at Chipley, our largest
town, and has an enrollment of 600 pupils, of which 70 are in the High School Department. The faculty of our
High School is composed of some of the best teachers in the State.

Bonding Districts.--We have two special tax school districts that have voted bonds. Special Tax School District
No. 1 voted an issue of $35,000 to be used for the purpose of refunding an earlier issue of bonds which was
used for the purpose of enlarging the school building at Chipley. Special Tax School District No. 2, Vernon,
voted an issue of $8,000 for the purpose of building a new school building. We have not erected the building
yet, but expect to before another school year begins.

Compulsory Attendance Law.--I think that the Compulsory School Attendance Law was one of the best laws ever
enacted by the State Legislature. We employ one attendance officer who has supervision over the entire county,
and fortunate for us, we succeeded in securing a man who had had quite a bit of experience in school work, and
is wide awake along educational lines and consequently we have had very little trouble in enforcing the law.










1918-1920
Before the Compulsory Attendance Law went into effect, we had quite a lot of trouble in keeping up the attendance
for the full term of school; since then, however, the attendance is good for the entire term of school, averag-
ing from 86 to 90 per cent of the enrollment.

Consolidation of Schools.--We have consolidated quite a number of schools by combining two or more schools into
a special tax school district. In this way we have eliminated five one-teacher schools and established two-
teacher schools instead, thus reducing the number of schools in the county five. We are transporting the pupils
of a one-teacher school to the Chipley High School with good results. We have transported them for two terms
and I feel that it is a success in every respect. -t cost about $100 per month to transport the school, which
had an enrollment of about fifty pupils. We expect to try the transportation system out in other schools next
year.

State Course of Study.--I have studied the State Course of Study very carefully and heartily endorse it. I
find that it is especially helpful to the young, inexperienced teacher, and gives lots of real good suggestions
in School Sanitation, Vocational Education and many others.

State Rural School Inspectors.--We had with us this year State Rural School Inspector, Hon. R. L. Turner, who
spent two days with us and visited five schools. I find that the work he did in the wpy of assisting the
teachers in their classification and suggestions along other lines was quite helpful. As to myself personally,
those two days I spent with Mr. Turner were very pleasant days, and he did and said a number of things that
have helped me very materially in my school work.

School Libraries.--We have in a number of our larger rural schools good libraries of about three hundred volumes
each which are being used to good advantage. These libraries were bought by the district on yearly payments.

School Boards.--Our county has been very fortunate in securing the services of three good men as Board members.
These men are all good business men and are very much interested in the cause of education. Two of these were
re-elected for another term.

Schools.--We reported for the year 1919-20 40 white schools and 13 colored schools, with an enrollment of 2,604
white pupils and 917 colored pupils; a total enrollment of 3,521 pupils. Of the 40 white schools, we have
one Senior High School employing 17 teachers; one school employing five teachers; two schools employing four
teachers each; three schools employing three teachers each; eight schools employing two teachers each; the rest
are one-teacher schools. We expect, however, to combine some of these in the near future.

Very respectfully submitted,
James J. Hightower,
County Superintendent.









1920-1922

ALACHUA COUNTY

No report filed.

BAKER COUNTY

Dear Sir:--Complying with your request for a report of the schools of Baker County, I beg to submit the following
for the two years beginning July 1, 1920, and ending June 30, 1922.

Buildings and Repaire.--The Macclenny school building and one of our best two-room rural buildings were destroyed
by fire in June, 1921. These buildings were only partly insured. Our loss on these buildings and the furni-
ture in them was not less than five thousand dollars.

We erected at once p new building to replace the one destroyed by fire. The people of Macclenny voted a bond
issue of twenty thousand dollars for the purpose of erecting a modern high school building at Macclenny. These
bonds have been sold, and the work on a new building will begin at an early date. When completed this building
will cost about twenty-five thousand dollars.

Two other rural school buildings have been erected at a cost of two thousand dollars. One of these is a one-room
building erected on a new school site. The other is a modern two-room building erected to replace an old
structure which the progressive community had outgrown.

Repairs have been made when necessary. Many of our better buildings have been repainted. We have spent
about one thousand dollars a year for repairs during the last two years.

Furniture.--We have spent about four thousand dollars for furniture during the last two years. Many of our old
cast-iron double desks are past repairing, and we are buying steel single desks to replace them. A new supply
of blackboards, erasers, etc. have been placed in most of our schools. Most of our larger schools have libraries,
maps, charts and other aids to make school work better.

Special Tax School Districts.--We have eighteen special tax school districts. Only two of our schools are out-
side of these districts. Practically all of our districts are spending the district funds for libraries and
free books, for better teachers, and for other things that will help their schools. All districts have a three
mill levy except one.

Teachers.--We have been able to secure teachers for all of our schools. More than half of our teachers live in
Baker County. Each year we maintain a training school of eight weeks for our teachers. Many of our teachers
attend the summer schools at Gainesville, Tallahassee, and Madison. We find, as a general condition, that our
home teachers give better satisfaction and get better results than do those we get from other counties.

Board of Examiners.--The present system of examining applicants for teachers' certificates is as great a failure
as the old system. Neither of these methods was ever practical or sensible. Of all the people who have studied
our school problems for a score or more of years, are there not enough practical and resourceful people to bring
forward a better system? We have no fight against the individuals who have heretofore or now compose this Board.
They have done and are doing as well as any one could do under such a system. It certainly seems to us that the
graduates of standard high schools should do better in these examinations than the seventh and eighth grade pupils.

Finances.-We began in July, 1920, with a net indebtedness of four thousand dollars. On account of loss by fire,
poor collection of taxes, and the purchase of much needed furniture, etc., we owed nearly ten thousand dollars
in July, 1921. We issued ten thousand dollars worth of time warrants under Chapters 8548 and 8549, Laws of
Florida, Acts of 1921. These time warrants bear 7% interest, payable semi-annually. They were sold locally at
par.

In July, 1922, our depository balance was about two thousand dollars. This leaves a net indebtedness of eight
thousand dollars. When all back taxes are collected, we can easily take care of all we owe.

The financial condition of our special tax school districts, with one exception, is good. All except one show a
net balance in the depository.

The Board has made as wise an expenditure of all funds as was possible under past and present conditions. We
have carefully accounted for all funds for school purposes. This careful expenditure has been our policy for
the past ten years.

Course of Study.--Our schools are following the State Course of Study as closely as possible. Our schools have
been greatly improved by such a course of study. Such a course of study had long been needed, and we hope that
improvements will be made on it from time to time until it will become an outline in detail for all teachers.

Ten Mill Amendment.--This amendment, if adopted, will go a long way toward solving our financial troubles. The
crying need for several years has been for more money for schools. As we see it, this amendment is purely
democratic. It will allow the taxpayers of any special tax school district to tax themselves to provide better
schools. The adoption of the amendment will make it possible for schools to raise money without "passing around
the hat." Its adoption will mark the dawn of an era of greater schools for Florida.
Respectfully submitted,
W. R. Simmons,
Co. Supt. Pub. Ins. Baker County.

BAY COUNTY

Dear Sir:--Complying with your request for a report of the schools of Bay County for two years beginning July 1,
1920, and ending June 30, 1922, I submit the following:

Buildings and Repairs.--Since our last report we lost one rural school building by fire. This one has been

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1920-1922
rebuilt and two other rural school buildings for white children have been erected. Nearly all the other school
buildings have been put in good repair.

Furniture.--On account of the increase in attendance, we have bought considerable new furniture. This has been
distributed where it was most needed.

High Schools.--We have four schools in the county doing high school work. Two are Junior High Schools, and two
Senior High Schools. The teachers employed in these schools are all properly certificated. The high school
enrollment has increased over 100 per cent during the past two years.

Consolidation and Transportation.--We have discontinued six rural schools and are transporting the pupils to
other schools. We find this expensive, but more effective. It also helps to solve the problem of teacher
shortage.

Special Tax Districts.--At present we have thirteen Special Tax Districts. In these we operate eighteen schools.
All of our High Schools are located in Special Tax Districts.

Bonded Districts.--We have two bonded districts, Panama City and Millville.

Compulsory Attendance Law.--This law has been fairly successful. The present law has too many excuses in it. It
needs amending very badly.

Finances.--We levy ten mills for general school purposes and each Special Tax District levies three mills. We
find that this is insufficient, and trust that proposed constitutional amendment raising the limit to ten mills
in Special Tax Districts will be adopted. This will in a measure supply our needs for more money.

Books.-We are following very closely the adopted course of study and are using only State adopted books. As a
whole we find both are satisfactory.

Yours very truly,
C. C. Hathis,
County Superintendent Public Instruction.

BRADFORD COUNTY

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I have the honor to submit a brief biennial report of the preceding
two years ending June 30, 1922.

Buildings.--We have erected no new buildings in the past two years, but have made a one-room addition to two of
our rural school buildings at a cost of about $300.00.

We are very well supplied with comfortable school buildings throughout the county.

Special Tax Districts.--This county has eighteen special tax districts, which cover all but sixteen sections of
land, and we hope to get that into a sub. next year.

Only two of our districts (Starke and Lawtey) have bonded and they have excellent brick buildings.

High Schools.-We have only one accredited high school (Starke), and it was only accredited last year as an
intermediate, on the ground that we had only three teachers in the high school department, but under the late
regulations we will get Senior "B" rating this term.

We are maintaining Junior "B" schools at Hampton, Lawtey and Brooker.

Schools.--We have twenty-five schools in this county and have done nothing toward consolidating, mostly on account
of our financial condition, as we figure the cost of maintaining the schools as we do is cheaper than transporta-
tion. However, we realize the children would be cared for much better under consolidation. But where is the
money?

Rural Schools.--We are getting a great interest manifested in the rural school districts and they are coming to
the front. On entering office in 1921, I found a lack of interest here. So I began to formulate plans to get
them to thinking of the work, and this year every one is bragging on their schools; and from this I am getting
excellent averages without an attendance officer.

Compulsory School Law.--So far it has been shown that we do not need much enforcement of this law, as interest
is a greater force than law, and last year we did not have to call on more than half a dozen on account of their
negligence in school.

This law seems to be very defective and should be remodeled so that it works to the very point.

I think also that this department should be run by the State. The State Superintendent could have another clerk
in his office to receive reports from the county attendance officers and direct this part of the work. If this
was done and a special examination was given to prove the fitness of the attendance officer, and this examination
made on the same plans as the teachers, so that a person could be sent from one county to another, would probably
cut out favortism that might be shown where a person is selected to look after his own county; and this would
occur more in a small county like ours than it would in some of the larger ones.

Finances.--On entering upon the duties of Superintendent January 1, 1921, I found the county $98,000.00 in debt,
but by the close of that school year we reduced this amount to $81,000.00. We closed every school we had on
February 18th and then found that we would be something like $18,000.00 short on that one term of school.

We had to reduce salaries of teachers, very much to our dislike, about 30 per cent, but have been able to get a
good corps of teachers for the past two years.










1920-1922

We paid, last scholastic year, $4,000.00 on the old indebtedness and are planning to pay about $3,000.00 this
year. This amount was above any debts incurred during that year, as we clear all current debts as we go.

County Division.--Since the last report our county was divided to form Union County. This county took half of
the schools, both white and negro. It assumed 44.2 per cent of indebtedness as of October 1, 1921, which amounted
to $35,551.05, and left us something over $46,000.00

State Board of Examiners.--l do not believe in this Board as it is at present. A board of examiners for each
congressional district and county superintendents holding the examinations prepared by the State Superintendent,
and these to be held twice a year (June and August), would be my idea of a better way.

Conclusion.--In conclusion, we wish to say that the outlook in this county is bright, especially when we consider
all conditions. While we do not have as long a term as we would like, the people are taking an interest and we
hope to help considerably in getting the amendment for raising the millage of districts passed and then we will
get more money and a longer term.

Respectfully submitted,
H. B. Wiggins,
County Superintendent.

BREVARD COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--I beg to submit herewith my report for this, Brevard County.

New Buildings.--We have erected no new buildings for white children since my last report, but have under construc-
tion at this time a nice commodious colored school building at Cocoa, contract price being $6,712.00.

New Bond Districts.--The Third Special Tax School District of this county has voted $40,000.00 for the construc-
tion of a modern school plant to be established at Eau Gallie, Fla. The bonds have not yet been sold.

Enrollment.--Our enrollment for the past fiscal year was 1,469 for whites, with an average attendance of 931;
for colored the enrollment was 608, with an average attendance of 472. With our system of handling delinquents,
the compulsory law is not working very well. Our county is so long and so many parts of it are so inaccessible,
that one attendance officer would be unable to care for the needs of the several schools. So we are forced to
employ local people for this work, which is not satisfactory.

Transportation.--Total number of pupils transported was 322, at a total cost of $11,565.64; this is an expensive
item, but we feel warranted in continuing, in as much as the pupils transported are well cared for and are pupils
of our very best schools.

Consolidation.--We have two or three districts that could easily be made consolidated rural districts in which
splendid consolidated rural schools could be maintained, but selfish interests keep this improvement down.

We have a number of rural schools on the accredited list and hope to add more this year.

We are still handicapped in our finances, but hope the amendment to the Constitution of Florida will give the
needed relief.

Respectfully submitted,
S. J. Overstreet,
County Superintendent.

BROWARD COUNTY.

No Report filed.

CALHOUN COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I herewith submit my biennial report:

New Buildings and Repairs.--During the past eighteen months we have erected three new school buildings; also
the Blountstown High School will be completed before this report goes to press.

The Bountstown school building is a brick structure of twelve rooms and auditorium, costing $29,400.00. This
building is quite an imposing edifice and a credit to the patrons of the Blountstown district, who bonded the
district to build the house.

We have another High School building at Altha, a twelve teacher school, comfortable at present, as we have spent
$300.00 in repairs.

There are three or four other good three-teacher schools in the county.

Schools.-There were thirty-six white schools and fourteen negro schools taught last year and making a better
attendance than the year or years before. Most of our school buildings are in fair condition and pretty well
furnished.

Special Tax School Districts.--There are twenty-three Special Tax School Districts in the county. In fact, the
whole county is in special tax districts, and all districts except one levy the full three mill tax, which is
quite an item in helping out our general fund in supplementing the teachers' pay and in securing other items needed.

The special districts always have funds to their credit. At present there is between $6,000.00 and $7,000.00 to
the credit of this fund. I will be well pleased if we can carry the ten mill amendment for the special school
districts.











1920-1922
Finances.--Our finances are not in so good a condition as we would wish. We are owing $14,000.00 besides the
bonded indebtedness on four of our special districts. We have about $2,500.00 to our credit in depository,
but will have to borrow some more to pay teachers until taxes are paid.

Compulsory Law.--The Compulsory Law is doing some good, but I think it could be amended in having the attendance
officer to prosecute without waiting for action of the School Board to recommend. Formerly we had an attendance
officer in each district, but this year we have employed the sheriff as attendance officer for the county, and
find it is quite an improvement toward getting better attendance.

Rural School Inspectors.--I feel that our rural school inspectors are doing a great deal of good in the different
counties. I for one am pleased to have them visit us, but would be better pleased to have them visit us more
regularly or as often as they possibly can. It is a great help to our rural teachers who have little experience
in teaching and to the pupils too, in that they take more interest in their school work when they find out others
are interested in their work.

Teachers.-We have plenty of teachers this year, but a great many are holding third grades and with no experience.
I am afraid our work will not be so good without very close supervision.

I would favor a law to issue only one third grade certificate to the same party, otherwise some will never advance
beyond that.

Vocational Teaching.--We have in connection with the Altha High School a Vocational Training School under the
supervision of Mr. A. E. Arthur, who is doing good work with the boys in setting our trees, grafting and budding,
and also raising vegetables, etc.

Mr. Arthur gets his salary from the Smith-Hughes Fund, supplemented by the county. I consider our county is
making fairly good progress considering the backset in scarcity of teachers in war time and the low grade teachers
during the past two years.

The majority of our people are very much interested in education and want the best; but our financial condition,
owing to the low assessment, is our great stumbling block.

Conclusion.--The School Board and I were really sorry to lose our good friend, Hon W. N. Sheats, who has done
so much for education in Florida. I served under him during his first twelve years in office and he was always
my good friend and advisor, but I am pleased to have another good and efficient man take his place and earnestly
hope he will fill the office as long and faithfully as his predecessor.

Respectfully submitted,
P. F. Fisher,
County Supt. Public Inst.,
Calhoun County, Florida.

CHARLOTTE COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I herewith submit a brief biennial report for the years ending
June 30, 1922.

Financial Condition.-Charlotte County is one of the five counties created by the legislative enactment from the
confines of DeSoto County. The bill for creating these five counties was passed at the 1921 session of the
Legislature. Upon the organization of the Board of Public Instruction of Charlotte County, it was learned that
this Board had inherited an indebtedness of over eighty-five hundred dollars, as its proportionate share of the
indebtedness of the original DeSoto County. The Legislature had happily authorized these new counties to issue
coupon serial warrants, which Charlotte County did, and paid the indebtedness. These warrants are due, two
thousand dollars per year, until paid. All of our schools last term ran eight months, and it is the intention
of the Board to do the same this year. The county is now in a sound financial condition.

High Schools.--One Senior High School is maintained at Punta Gorda and is on the State accredited list. One
Junior High School is maintained at Charlotte Harbor, and while it is not recognized by the State as a Junior
High School, yet it is doing Junior High School work.

Repairs of Buildings.-Additions have been added to the Punta Cords school building at a cost of fifty-one
hundred dollars, and one country school has been equipped with furniture to the amount of ninety-five dollars.

Consolidation of Schools.--Pupils are transported to the Punta Gorda school for seven miles along the hard road
running north and south. It is costing the county thirty dollars per pupil to transport them for a term of eight
months.

Special Tax Districts.--The entire county is divided into five special tax districts. Two districts are bonded.

Compulsory Attendance.--The attendance of the county reaches a high percentage. The compulsory law is being
enforced as nearly as it is practicable. Each principal of a graded or high school and each teacher of a one-
teacher school, is given charge of the supervision of the attendance in that locality, and the investigation
and prosecution is done through the Superintendent's office. The county being small, this is found to work very
satisfactorily.

Recommendations.--I would recommend an educational qualification for County Superintendents, and also for the
State Superintendent. A County Superintendent should be required to hold the same grade of certificate and other
credentials as the law requires a principal to hold who teaches a senior high school in the county or any other
grade of school. The law should also give the County Superintendent the sole power to appoint teachers, subject
to the approval of the Board of Public Instruction. As the County Superintendent has to work with the teachers
and is held responsible for the work they do, he surely ought to have the privilege of selecting the material
with which to do the work; provided the law makes it mandatory that he be qualified educationally.
Respectfully submitted,
W. E. Bell,
County Superintendent, Charlotte County.

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1920-1922

CITRUS COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request for a biennial report of school conditions in Citrus County, I beg
to submit the following report ending the thirtieth of June, 1922:

Buildings.--During this period, very little building was accomplished, as the cost of labor and materials was
so very high, also the outstanding indebtedness was too much to undertake the construction of new buildings.
However, we were compelled to construct a few out-buildings. Some of our rural schools were in great need of
repairs, but we could spend only $3,352,65 for this purpose. We have only two brick buildings, both located at
Inverness, and the others are of wooden construction. We hope to have at least two more brick buildings within
the next year.

High Schools.--As our county is a small one, we are able to maintain only one Senior High School fully equipped
to carry the two courses of four years high school instruction. Domestic science is carried in two-year courses.
Many of the pupils are greatly interested in them. This school has four high school assistants, besides the
principal, all properly certificated and giving full time to high school instruction. We have two other Junior
High Schools carrying work of ten grades, namely, Crystal River and Floral City. These are housed in wooden
buildings. Their equipment is not so good as they need; but I hope to see both well equipped in the near future.
They have some of the best qualified teachers in our county, some having the highest grade of certificate,
together with successful experience.

Rural Schools.--Our rural schools are so located that consolidation is impractical since our roads are not what
they should be. Good roads are very essential to successful transportation upon which consolidated schools must
depend. Out of fourteen rural schools, eight are one-teacher schools. Some of these can be consolidated when
good roads become available. Five out of the eight one-teacher schools are located in sub-school districts,
which makes the teachers' salaries range from eighty to one hundred fifteen dollars per month for term of seven
and eight months, and helps to supply these with good equipment. On coming into this office, I was fortunate in
getting the Board to agree to give all white assistant teachers and teachers in one-teacher schools with the
same qualifications the same monthly salary out of the general fund. The districts containing those five schools
supplement their teachers' monthly salary more than any of the other districts. Such one-teacher schools located
so that consolidation is impractical should have their teachers well paid, as there is so much more work involved.
This is in compliance with the law, and is nothing but just and right. A rural pupil deserves just as nearly
equal rights as the town pupil. Since the districts have the right to vote as high as ten mills, I feel quite
sure all our rural schools will have at least seven months' term just as soon as the people can vote the required
millage.

Sub-Districts.--All the land of Citrus County is located within sub-school districts, fourteen in number.

After realizing a few of said districts were very small, I used my influence to get some of them consolidated.
As a result, three were consolidated in May of 1921. Just a little later, four more were given the opportunity
to consolidate, but unfortunately five votes cast against consolidation in the smallest district caused the whole
proposition to be lost. That section of the law should allow all contiguous districts voting in favor to become
consolidated. Realizing the benefits of sub-school districts, our people have had all of the county in districts
for a number of years. The people of these districts have been voting the full levy of three mills for the last
six years with the exception of two voting two mills in 1916.

Bonded Districts.--In July of 1920, the Inverness district, number three, was bonded for twenty thousand dollars
for purpose of constructing a new high school building to be located at Inverness. This building was constructed
the latter part of the year of 1920 during the first six months of this report, covered by Superintendent H. J.
Dame. The purpose cf those districts becoming consolidated was that they could bond for an amount sufficient to
build a new school building, but on account of high cost of labor and materials, they have not bonded up to this
date. However, we hope two or three of them will bond for a new building and equipment within this year.

Finances.--On January 1, 1921, I found after quite a lot of work that only ten thousand dollars worth of the
Inverness bonds were, sold to the Citizens Bank and the Board had to borrow by giving notes amounting to eleven
thousand dollars to contractor, as he was compelled to realize on credit of the last ten thousand dollars of
unsold bonds. As the bond market was very low, bonds could not be sold very easily. These notes drew interest
which had to be paid by the general fund. It was the eighth of August before I was able to sell the last ten
thousand dollars worth of bonds. Considering the drain on the general fund, there were notes amounting to
thirteen thousand dollars given on the general fund in addition to contracts amounting to nearly twenty thousand
dollars more than the appropriations made by the former Board for the first year of this report. These condi-
tions caused the County School Board to fall nearly twenty-four thousand dollars behind. Contrary to my advice,
the Board concluded that we were compelled to see those contracts completed even under these severe conditions.

Compulsory Attendance Law.--Under these financial strains the Board considered it almost impossible to provide
an attendance officer, and requested the Trustees to report cases of absence. Considering the terms of said
law, the Trustees, as they were not appointed attendance officers, could not enforce this law. This past school
year, the Board did the same thing again. I wish this law was amended so it could be more easily enforced. The
average attendance of the county has increased to some extent even with poor attempts to enforce the law.

Home Economics.--The first year of this report the school board could not care for this county wide work, but
used influence sufficient to get the County Commissioners to provide for the work out of the agricultural fund.
The last year of this report the Board was again financially unable to provide for the work and was unable to
get the County Commissioners to make provision due to some political conditions in county.

Rural School Inspectors.--The rural schools of this State are not receiving the supervision needed. They are
considered by many the "red headed orphans" in our great Florida school system. If school children are even
supposed to be on an equal footing, why give professors and city superintendents from two to four thousand
dollars each per year to supervise the very best town teachers and schools, and let the rural pupils go lacking?
Sixty-two per cent of pupils are in rural sections, which give us at least eighty per cent of our very best
citizens. Really if the people do not want rural school inspectors, why not make office help mandatory by boards
through a law?










1920-1922

Conclusion.--During these financial crises of this whole report period we have learned many lessons, especially
that one known as economy, worth a great deal to officers, so long as it does not become injurious. Considering
these perilous times I am, indeed, very grateful to my Board fortheir co-operation in maintaining the ever
increasing interest in our county school system.

I certainly feel very grateful to our deceased State Superintendent, Honorable W. N. Sheets, and feel that we
shall always be indebted to him for the progress made in our Florida school system during his entire service.
Considering the wide experience in our Florida schools, our present State Superintendent, I am quite sure,
will make even greater progress. under these more favorable conditions. I certainly appreciate this highly
treasured opportunity of having a part in this great educational work, next to that of Christianity.

Respectfully submitted,
Jesse Montague,
County Superintendent.

CLAY COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I submit the following report of the schools of Clay County for the
past two years.

Schools.--When the new Board of Public Instruction and I came into office in January, 1921, we found very few
white and almost no negro schools in operation. I immediately began to look out for teachers for these schools;
the result was, that almost all of our children received from three to six months' schooling. In 1920 there
were enrolled in this county 1,006 white children and 340 negro children.

In July, 1922, showed an enrollment for the years of 1921 and 1922, 1,223 whites and 459 negroes. An increase
of 336, almost twenty-five per cent. We ran all of our schools the full term last year.

Repairs.--I found a great many of our buildings in bad repair and badly dilapidated. We spent during the year
of 1921 for repairs $692.66, and up to the present writing of this year $275.72.

New Buildings.--We have built two four-room frame wooden rural school buildings at a cost of approximately $3,800.
These buildings are two stories high, 24 x 45, good brick foundations, covered with metal shingles and equipped
with fire escapes. We have also built a High School brick building two stories high in Green Cove Springs,
containing study hall, class rooms, laboratory and library upstairs; auditorium downstairs, with a seating
capacity of about 400. This building is modern, with toilets, drinking fountain and electric lights in building.
It is not quite complete at this writing, but we hope to have it finished soon. It will cost about $17,500
when completed. We also have in mind two other school buildings at a cost of about $2,000 as soon as our
finances will permit.

High Schools.--We have one accredited Senior High School in our county and some accredited rural schools. When
I became County Superintendent we did not have an accredited school in the county. I succeeded last year in
placing those above on the accredited list. In 1920 we have twenty-nine students in the High School, with two
teachers. This year we have seventy-one in the High School, with four teachers. We put on a vocational teacher
last year, but obtained very poor results. We are trying it again this year with a new teacher and hope to do
better.

Special Tax Districts.--We have our county divided into six special tax districts. In one of these districts we
have sixteen white and three negro schools. The amount of money obtained from these districts is about $6,500
a year. It has helped to increase teachers' salaries and lengthen the terms of schools.

Compulsory Attendance Law.--This law has increased the attendance in this county to a great extent. We have had
no great amount of trouble in enforcing this law. The most trouble we have had is to get an Attendance Officer
who will do his duty and be impartial; we had poor results last year; hope to do better this year.

Consolidation.--Our roads are not sufficient to make a success at consolidation as yet.

Transportation.--We transport where we have to or where it is cheaper to transport than to establish schools.
We transported 132 pupils last year. We find it very expensive.

Teachers' Salaries and Certificates.--We increased our teachers' salaries in order to secure better trained and
better qualified teachers. We based our salaries on certificates last year as follows: First grade certificates,
$90.00 per month. Second grade certificates, $75.00 per month. Third grade certificates, $60.00 per month. The
reason why we did this was to induce our teachers to attend school and improve themselves, thereby giving us
better qualified teachers and themselves higher salaries. In 1920 the highest salary paid in this county was
$140.00 a month; the lowest salary paid to a white teacher was $50.00 a month. In 1921-22 the highest salary
paid is $225.00 a month. The lowest salary paid to a white teacher is $60.00 a month.

Teachers' Association.--We organized a Teachers' Association for Clay County last year which proved very beneficial.

In Conclusion.--The Board of Public Instruction has worked untiringly with me to promote the educational interest
of our county. And I feel safe in saying that, barring a shortage of money, which has us handicapped at present,
which we hope soon to overcome, our schools are in better condition than they have been for several years. I
want to express my appreciation to Hon. W. N. Sheats up until the time of his death, and also to Hon. W. S.
Cawthon since he has been in office, for the many courtesies shown me during my two years' administration.

Very truly yours,
P. L. Tippins,
Supt. Pub. Ins. Clay County.

COLUMBIA COUNTY.

No report filed










1920-1922

DADE COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--I beg to submit herewith my biennial report for Dade County.

New Buildings.--The following new buildings and additions have been erected during the summer of 1922: Dade
County Agricultural High School; size of building more than doubled, at a cost of over $30,000. Agricultural
Agent's cottage erected on the campus at a cost of $2,000. Miami High School additions doubling the former
capacity of high school, approximate cost $100,000; erection of additions to Orange Glade and Allapattah
schools; completion of Buena Vista, Highland Park, Johnson, Riverside, Southside and new Colored Industrial
Schools at a cost of about $60,000; the erection of a new High School at Coconut Grove at a cost of !25,000;
erection of a new High School at Homestead at a cost of $20,000; and the purchase of the Miami Beach Public
School for approximately $70,000.

Minor repairs were mdde to other buildings throughout the county. Every school building for white children in
Dade County is of concrete or tile construction with stucco finish, usually tinted cream or buff. Many of
them have red tile roofs; four are one-story structures built around open courts. We have no one-teacher
schools in the county, with the exception of the school on Elliott's Key.

High Schools.--We have five Senior High Schools in this county. There are no other schools attempting to do
high school work. All high school pupils living more than two and one-half or three miles distance from one
of these five schools are given free transportation. All of our high schools are well equipped with apparatus
and an adequate number of teachers. Practically all of the teachers of high schools hold bachelor degrees
of some standard college or university. The Dade County Agricultural High School at Lemon City has the Smith-
Hughes aid for agriculture and home economics.

The Miami High School now has a faculty of forty-three instructors and nearly one thousand students. The
recent additions gave this school a very handsome appearance and provide ample room for all its departments.
This school has a well equipped Manual Training Shop; Domestic Science and Home Economics; Commercial Depart-
ment; an excellent Library; well equipped Science Laboratories; History Charts, Maps, etc. There is also
conducted in the basement a modern, well equipped school Cafeteria and School Text Book Store. The school
faces one of Miami's most beautiful city parks, which affords recreation grounds for the high school students.

Special Tax Districts.--Dade County has nine Special Tax Districts. There is no territory in Dade County which
is not districted. Every district has been voting the three-mill tax every biennium and will probably vote the
full ten-mill limit under the recently adopted Constitutional Amendment.

Bonded Districts.--Every district in Dade County has bonded itself for the erection and equipment of substantial
concrete or tile, stucco finish buildings. The total amount of district bonds now outstanding amounts to
approximately $1,200,000. No general fund money has been used in several years for the construction of build-
ings, all of this fund being expended on the maintenance of the schools.

Compulsory Attendance Law.--Dade County employs a Compulsory Attendance Officer who gives part time to this
work and part time as Probation Officer in the Juvenile Court. Little difficulty is experienced in enforcing the
compulsory law in this county. By keeping constant vigilance, few children attempt to stay out of school. Close
co-operation with the Juvenile Court has had a very wholesome effect on school attendance.

Consolidation of Schools.--All of Dade County's white schools are consolidated. There are now being transported
an average of four hundred pupils each month, at a total cost of twenty-four hundred dollars per month, an
average cost per pupil of six dollars per month.

Dade County has a fine system of hard-surfaced, oiled roads, which form a net work over the entire county.
Every school is on a highway, and while the cost of transportation is rather high, there is no particular difficulty
in operation.

Effects of Rapid Increase in Population.--The last Federal Census gave Miami an increase in population of 441
per cent for the last ten years, which is the highest of any city in any State. The increase in population in
the other school districts outside of Miami has also been remarkably large, the average for the county being
larger than that of any county in any other State. This rapid growth has caused an enormous burden on the
school fund, and consequently in an effort to provide good, up-to-date schools for its children, Dade County's
school debt has grown in the last twelve years, in addition to the district bonded indebtedness, to approximately
$1,000,000. During the past two years, on account of financial reasons, many of our graded schools have been
operated on what is known here as the "double session" plan; that is, each teacher takes a group of thirty
pupils three hours in the morning and another group of thirty pupils three hours in the afternoon in the same
room.

Despite the many new buildings recently erected, Dade County has about fifty class rooms less than would be re-
quired to properly house its school children on the usual single session plan; but even if the rooms were available
the school revenue in this county is not sufficient to employ the additional teachers which would be required to
return to the single session plan. It is hoped, however, that with the adoption of the recent ten-mill amend-
ment to the Constitution, sufficient funds will be voted and levied next year to employ a sufficient number of
teachers and also provide for the erection of the required number of classrooms to house the pupils under the
single session plan.

Owing to the mild climate in this county, open-air structures could be built on the campus of each school to take
care of the overflow pupils. This would provide for a relatively large number of rooms at a minimum outlay of
funds.

Finances.--In January, 1921, the entire former Board of Public Instruction, together with the Superintendent,
were replaced with an entirely new Board and Superintendent. The new officials found that there were no funds
with which to carry on the schools, and the school funds so deeply in debt that no more money could be borrowed.
The current taxes were not sufficient to complete the school year. In March, 1921, every Special Tax District
called a bond election and voted its limit for the purpose of paying off the general fund debt and maintaining











1920-1922


the schools. A decision of the Supreme Court invalidated these bonds, and therefore they could not be sold.
In order to complete the school year, the general public was called upon for a school loan, and $60,000 was
raised in this manner to complete the schools. In the summer of 1921 an attempt was made to sell time warrants
under the 1921 time warrant law to refund the debt on the general fund. This attempt failed in this county
because of an alleged flaw in said law. Dade County then asked the Governor to call a special session of the
Legislature to pass a time warrant law which would relieve the situation here, which he declined to do.
Negotiations were then entered into to sell a valuable piece of school property, known as the Central School,
and use the proceeds of this sale for the liquidation of all past due indebtedness. In the summer of 1922 the
Board of Public Instruction and the Board of County Commissioners arranged a deal whereby the Commissioners
purchased from the School Board the Central School property for the sum of $680,000, calling an election for the
issuance of county bonds "for the erection of a Court House and Jail." The proceeds from these bonds were to be
given to the School Board for the Central School property, the Central School to be converted into a new Court
House and Jail. This election was declared by the Circuit Court to be invalid and the election was recalled in
September, it carrying this time by a much larger majority than before.

These bonds have been validated and the School Board is now, after two years of struggle, about to get on a
sound financial basis. At this writing, however, the sale of these bonds has not been consummated.

School Millage Amendment to the State Constitution.--So eager were the people of Dade County to have the Consti-
tutional Amendment carry that a very intensive campaign was put on by the school officials, teachers and children
Parent-Teacher Associations and all civic clubs throughout the county. Manual Training Shops and Domestic
Science Departments made and painted banners; students made four-minute speeches in all churches and theatres;
sample ballots and especially prepared literature were distributed, an automobile school parade was put on in
every school community on election day. All schools were closed for the day and all forces were thoroughly
organized to get out every qualified voter to the polls. As a result, Dade County's vote stood about 4,560 to
192. Dade County's majority was more than one-fifth of the majority given by the State, and the opposition here
was practically negligible.

Teachers' Institutes.--For many years it has been the custom to hold a Teachers' Institute on Friday after
Thanksgiving Day. This year in lieu of this, there will be held a Tri-County Institute for the teachers of
Palm Beach, Broward and Dade Counties in Ft. Lauderdale for three days, January 3, 4, and 5. These three counties
have organized themselves into the Royal Palm Education Association, which is chartered as a member of the
National Education Association. The Superintendents of these three counties have been meeting regularly once
each month for the past two years, members of the County Boards frequently meeting with them. It is this Associa-
tion that is fostering the tri-county institute work. Many other benefits are also accruing from this co-operation
in these counties.

Teacher-Training Schools or Teacher Summer Schools.--Owing to our geographical location, it seems proper that such
schools should be established and maintained on the Lower East Coast. It is hoped that a good strong school
can be opened in this section next year.

New Laws.--So many of our school laws are lacking in clearness and common sense that a rewriting of many of
them would be a great relief to school officials. This is especially true of those laws relating to the proce-
dure in issuing Special Tax School Bonds, trustee elections, and salaries of school officials.
Respectfully submitted,
Chas. M. Fisher,
County Superintendent.

DESOTO COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I submit herewith my biennial report for the years ending June 30,
1922.

New Buildings.--During the past two years we had to discontinue our building activity on account of the high
prices of labor and material. We are just resuming the work at the present time. We have let the contract for
a ten-room brick grammar school building in Arcadia, and hope to move into same by the first of the year. The
building, when complete, will cost approximately $30,000.00. We also have under construction a consolidated
brick school building at Ft. Ogden. This building will have eight rooms and will cost $20,000.00.

We have under consideration the erection of a $10,000.00 consolidated school at Pine Level. When these shall
have been completed, our building project will have been finished for the present.

Rural Schools.--We have only four one-teacher schools in the county. We hope to consolidate them with some of
our larger schools, thus eliminating the one-teacher school. We find that the children in the one-teacher
schools are not getting a square deal and the teacher can make very poor progress. The remaining rural schools
are doing excellent work.

High Schools.--Since the division of DeSoto County into five counties, we have discontinued all of the high
schools except the DeSoto County High School, located at Arcadia. High school pupils are being transported from
all parts of the county, the greatest distance being some twelve miles. By so doing, we are able to give every
boy and girl in the county a good high school education.

Compulsory Attendance.--Good results are being obtained through the Compulsory Attendance Law. We employ an
attendance officer, who keeps in close touch with the teachers and patrons. We seldom have to prosecute.

Progress.--While we have had to eliminate some of our school activities on account of scarcity of funds, we are
glad to state that we have neither cut the salaries of teachers nor the length of term. We maintain seven months
in all of the schools except the De Soto County High School, which is maintained nine months. We are not
heavily in debt, as it has been the policy of the present administration to stay as nearly as possible within
our means. However, we are sorely in need of more funds. Unless the Constitutional Amendment give us relief, we
shall be compelled to cut terms or reduce salaries, possibly both.











1920-1922

Conclusion.--In conclusion, we wish to state that the public is taking greater interest in education. Parents
are co-operating, especially the women of our county. Parent-Teachers' Associations, Mothers' Clubs and Child
Welfare Activities, all point to better things educationally.

Respectfully submitted,
P. G. Shaver,
County Supt., Public Instruction.

DIXIE COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--Complying with your request, I submit the following report for one year beginning July 1, 1921, and
ending July 1, 1922.

Finances.--This being a new county which went into effect July 1, 1921, we found ourselves with no funds for
schools, buildings, or incidentals. We succeeded in borrowing money to run the schools from five to six months.
At the beginning of the next year, July 1, 1922, we had paid back the money borrowed and had over $7,000. We
have made no improvements, but have plans for an addition to the school at Cross City.

Compulsory Attendance.--I favored such a law long before it was enacted. It has been the means of putting many
children in school, but under the present law it is hard to have a full attendance yet. I recommend that the
attendance officer have more power in determining whether or not a child should be in school.

Special Tax School Districts.-We have seven special tax school districts which take in the entire county. This
money will be used largely to supplement salaries of teachers, for free books, and incidental expenses.

Teachers' Examinations.--Frankly, I am not a sympathizer with the present system. We have no examinations in
this county, making It a hardship on the teachers to go to another county to be examined. I favor a State Grad-
ing Committee at Tallahassee and for them to prepare the examinations under the supervision of the State Superin-
tendent, to be sent to the County Superintendents when requested.

Respectfully,
W. R. Fletcher,
Superintendent.

DUVAL COUNTY.

No report filed.

ESCAMBIA COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--Complying with your request, I take pleasure in submitting the following brief report of Escambia
County for the biennium ending June 30, 1922.

General.--The public schools of this county have experienced a healthy growth and, looking back over the past
two years, many evidences of progress may be noted. Decidedly our greatest gain has been the interest and
cooperation of the public in the past two years of financial stress. This I consider a real asset and one which
has been woefully lacking in the past.

Pensacola.--The five hundred thousand dollar bond issue mentioned in my last report as a probability for the
city of Pensacola became a pleasing reality. This enabled us to complete a building program for the city which
had been the dream of friends of public education for many years.

The primary grades are now comfortably housed in substantial frame and brick buildings. Teaching in these grades
is directed by a competent Primary Supervisor and, I dare say, the work done in these grades is second to none
in Florida.

The three grammar schools of the city are housed in excellent brick and concrete buildings. One of these, the
P. K. Yonge School, an imposing brick structure on North Palafox Street, was completed last year out of funds
realized from the s.le of bonds referred to above.

Lastly, our building; program is crowned with Pensacola High School, an elegant structure of pressed brick and
terra cotta. This building, it is generally admitted, is surpassed by none in the State and few in the South.
About three hundred thousand dollars was expended on this building and equipment. The equipment is modern and
ample in every particular. A commodious gymnasium is provided, which was equipped by the Rotary Club of this
city at a cost of twelve hundred dollars. A splendid, well-lighted and conveniently located library is an
attractive and valuable feature of the building. An auditorium with a seating capacity of twelve hundred, clinics,
teachers' and students' rest rooms, steel lockers for students, a large, well-equipped cafeteria and one of the
most complete Home Economics departments in the State, are some of the outstanding features of the building.

The character of the work done by pupils under the new school surroundings has greatly improved. The enrollment
has almost doubled, and the co-operation and loyalty of the public is admirable. With a little more liberal
provision of funds for teachers' salaries and operating expenses, our High School would be almost ideal.

Since the opening of the new Pensacola High School building, on January 1, 1922, with the availability of several
rooms for evening work, a greatly increased public interest has been noted in the trade extension courses offered
by the State Board of Industrial Education. From a single instructor, teaching one class in Mechanical Drawing
and Mathematics, the personnel of the various courses has increased, in less than a year, to a corps of six
instructors, conducting nine classes. The number of men in the mechanical trades who are availing themselves
of this opportunity to better themselves is, at present, 149. The courses, as given at present, comprise two
classes in Elementary Mathematics, two classes in Mechanical Drawing and advanced Mathematics, one in Mill
Detailing and Mathematics, one in Blue-print Reading, one in Sheet Metal Drafting, one in Elementary Electricity
and Mathematics, and one in Electrical Ignition Practice. The instructors are all men of many years' practical
experience in the sJbjects they are teaching, and the students are men of all ages from the industrial and

-46-











1920-1922

government shops and yards of Pensacola and vicinity. An even greater expansion in this work is anticipated
when the results of the present effort become more widely known.

Rural Schools.--But little money has been expended on buildings during the last biennium. However, the
country schools are fairly well housed, as considerable building in rural districts was reported two years ago.
Much progress has been made in the way of standardizing and unifying rural school work. By employing an Attend-
ance Officer who is competent to do some supervising, incidentally, we have been able to improve conditions
without added expense.

The James M. Tate Agricultural School continues to grow in popularity and usefulness. I believe it is destined
to become a real center of rural education in the county. Like most of our schools, the work is hampered and
restricted by lack of funds, but eventually, it is hoped such provision of funds may be made as to enable this
school to accommodate and serve its ever-increasing enrollment.

Legislation.--Out of an experience of ten years as County Superintendent of Schools, I am thoroughly convinced
that the County Board of Public Instruction should be composed of five members instead of three. With only three
members it is an easy matter for any two members to "get together" and run things to their own liking. With
five members this would be less likely. Then, too, both the salaries of the members of the Board of Public
Instruction and the Superintendent should be set or stipulated by statutory law and not left to the County Boards
of Public Instruction.

The urgent need of an effective tax law is felt in this as well as other counties of the State. People who are
working for the upbuilding and betterment of our public schools are discouraged by the fact that so large a
percentage of property does not bear its just share of the burden. Surely there is some remedy for this.

Respectfully submitted,
A. S. Edwards.

FLACLER COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--Complying with your request for a report of schools of Flagler County, I respectfully submit the
following:

Buildings and Repairs.-Two new additions have been made at a cost of eleven hundred and fifty dollars. All
school buildings have been painted and are in good condition.

Finances.--We have been levying ten mills on the general fund and three on special tax districts, which gives us
ample funds to maintain our schools for an eight months' term.

Special Tax School Districts.--We have three special tax school districts, which have been of great assistance
to us in lengthening the school terms and in paying better salaries. All of the districts are out of debt and
are in good shape.

Transportation.--We are transporting about one hundred and fifty pupils and find it less expensive and much more
satisfactory than to maintain small one-teacher schools for these children.

Miscellaneous.--The compulsory school law is very helpful towards securing better attendance in this county. The
school enrollment is four hundred twenty-three. We are having no trouble in securing competent teachers and we
are gratified at results that are being obtained.

Yours very truly,
D. B. Brown,
County Superintendent.

FRANKLIN COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I herewith submit to you the following brief report of the conditions
of the schools of Franklin County for the two years ending June 30, 1922.

New Buildings.--Since my last report we have erected one rural school building. This is a one-room building,
located on the new graded public road which runs from the county line separating Franklin and Liberty counties,
to East Point. It is furnished with new single desks and good blackboard. The entire cost of building and
furnishings was paid from the district fund. We have added one story to the colored school building in Apalachi-
cola at a cost of $1,400.00, and put in desks and seats to the amount of $205.50. This building now has eight
classrooms and auditorium. The colored people contributed $200.00 toward this work.

Expenditures.--During the last two years we have expended for salaries of teachers the sum of $34,591.62. Of
this amount, white teachers received $28,316.25. A substantial increase in salaries of teachers has been made
during the two years.

Aside from the expenditures already mentioned, I enumerate some other important expenditures, viz: For repairs
of buildings, $1,487.11; for furniture, exclusive of the amount of $205.50, already mentioned, $557.02; for fuel,
$686.83; for janitors, $1,498.19. We have also made additions to apparatus and libraries.

Enrollment.--The total enrollment for 1920-1921 of whites was 536. Of this number 309 were enrolled in Chapman
High School, 186 in the Carrabelle High School, and 41 in two small rural schools. For 1921-1922 the enrollment
in Chapman High School was 324, Carrabelle High School 185, and 37 in the two country schools. The average
enrollment of the two colored schools for the two years was 402.

Teachers.--We have been very fortunate in securing good teachers for our city schools the past two years. The
work throughout these schools has been very satisfactory. I believe that for these two years we have had the most
experienced and efficient teachers, as a whole, that we have ever had; and we are proud of the progress made in
these schools.











1920-1922

Finances.--Finances with us are still a problem that we have not been able to solve. I said in my last report
that we hoped to find a way to materially increase the school funds. We did get an increase in valuations on
1921 roll, which looked encouraging on the budget, and we thought we would run our schools and be able to pay
off the outstanding indebtedness, which was, October 1, 1921, $3,440; but, generally speaking, the taxpayers
objected to the high taxation, as it was termed, and, therefore, the amount of taxes was not collected that we
reasonably expected. The result was that we found ourselves, October 1, 1922, just where we were October 1, 1921.
However, we feel that our financial condition is not so bad, after all. Especially so when we compare this
small indebtedness with that of 1916, which was about $10,000.00.

Athletics.-The principals of our city schools give splendid training in athletics, and good results are obtained
along these lines.

Parent-Teacher Association.--Since my last report this organization of Apalachicola has increased its membership
and has done much toward the school here. I regret that I do not have a full report at hand of its operations
for the last two years to record in this report. But these loyal and wide-awake parents and teachers have
aided the school in many ways.

Special Tax Districts.-Our county is divided into three special school tax districts, two levying three mills
and one two mills. In two of these districts the funds derived are used principally for supplementing salaries
of teachers.

Compulsory Attendance Law.--We have not yet been able to try out the enforcement of this law on account of not
having the funds to work with. I believe that if every county in the State had sufficient funds to employ
capable attendance officers that this law could be made effective, and in a few years illiteracy among the
young people would be wiped out.

Teachers' Examinaticns.--I wish to go on record again as not favoring the present system of examination. I
believe that the Board of Examiners do all within their power to discharge their duties, but they have more than
it is possible for them to do. There are several strong points of argument which could be brought against this
system, but I shall not attempt to take them up now, except the one which seems to me to be the most important
of all and that is the hardship and expense to which teachers are subjected in having to go long distances to
attend the examinations. It is an injustice to them to have to go from county to county to stand one of these
examinations. Then, too, so many times there are no conveniences for holding the examinations at many places
where they are held, Often the teachers are overcrowded in small rooms, where there are no conveniences whatever.

In Conclusion.--I desire to thank you for the courtesy and co-operation given me during the time you have been
in office; and I wiih for you a long and successful career as State Superintendent of Public Instruction.

Respectfully submitted,
A. A. Core,
Superintendent.

GADSDEN COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--Complying with your request, I beg to submit herewith my report for the biennium ending June 30, 1922.

New Buildings.--During the two-year period we have built four school houses, as follows:

High school building at Quincy, at a cost of......................................$70,000
High school building at Havana, at a cost of....................................... 20,000
Two-room rural building for old Mt. Pleasant school.............................. 2,000
One-room building for the Midway school ........................................... 2,000

The high school building for Quincy was completed this summer and is now being used for the grammar grades and
the Senior High School. On the first floor there are five large classrooms for the grades and two for the
Domestic Science Department, besides the principal's office, toilets and cloak rooms. The second floor has
seven High School rooms, the Study Hall and Library. Three of these were arranged for Science, which consists
of the physics and chemistry laboratories and the lecture room. The auditorium is located on the east side of
the building and will seat about seven hundred persons. It is equipped with a moving picture booth, etc. We
consider the house modern and up-to-date in every respect, and believe we have the best and cheapest building in
the State for the money expended. The money used for its construction was raised by means of bonds against the
district, the total amount issued being $75,000. The Gadsden County High School is a member of the Association
of Secondary Schools and Colleges, and our pupils have no trouble in entering other schools upon graduation here.

We are looking forward to the adoption of the Six-Three-Three Plan in a few years, if it is found practicable and
workable in a small school such as ours. Departmental instruction is now being given in the seventh, eighth and
ninth grades, and we are satisfied so far with the results obtained. Our principal is very much interested in
the new plan and is anxious to give it a trial as soon as it can be worked out.

The new building at Havana has recently been finished, which consists of four High School rooms and a large audi-
torium, besides cloak and toilet rooms. This is a modern school house in every particular and was planned by a
good school architect, as was the Quincy building. It is a recognized Junior High School at present, but has
grown so rapidly in recent years, we have had to add the work of the eleventh and twelfth grades. We hope to
have it classified as a Senior "B" High School the ensuing year.

The two-room house at Old Mt. Pleasant was completed last spring and contains cloak and library room and a room
for the Home Demonstration Agent. We have but one teacher in the school at this time, but will furnish another
when it is necessary to do the work properly.

The Midway building was finished about one year ago and has cloak and storage rooms, etc. It now has thirty pupils,
but it will probably be necessary to add another room in a few years. Both the Old Mt. Pleasant and Midway
buildings were planned by architects and we shall very likely duplicate these in the construction of other one
and two-room buildings.










1920-1922
Repairs.--Recently another room was built on the Greensboro house, which cost $2,000, the money for this pur-
pose being donated by the patrons of the school. It now has nine teachers and two hundred sixty-five pupils
on roll. The eleventh and twelfth grades are being taught this year, and we hope to have it classified as a
Senior "B" High School. Several other buildings in the county have been repaired during the two years, a
large amount being used for this purpose every year.

Special Tax School Districts --The county is divided into fifteen Special Tax School Districts, nearly all of
the territory being in one or the other of such districts. A number of these have issued bonds for new build-
ings and furniture, leaving all our general funds for repairs and operating expenses. Other districts will
issue bonds for new buildings when r,eeded.

Consolidated Schools.--There are a few large central schools in the county where instruction is given up to and
including the eighth grade, but we still have about fifteen one and two-teacher schools that should be consolidated,
if we had roads over which trucks could be operated at little expense, at all times of the year. The lack of
good roads is the greatest handicap to consolidation and good schools to be found in the county. It is hoped
that a bond issue for $1,000,000 will be carried in the county in the near future, or some other means devised,
whereby good roads may be had, so that we may consolidate and improve the country schools to the extent that
these children may have as good opportunity as those who live in the small towns. Inadequate houses in the
rural districts, poorly prepared teachers, short term schools, etc., are the things that we must remedy, if the
country child is to get a square deal in matters pertaining to education.

County Teachers' Association.-The Gadsden County Teachers' Association has been in existence for several years.
Meetings are held monthly throughout the school year for the discussion of school problems and we are satisfied
with the results so far accomplished. All teachers are required to become members of the Association and to do
their part toward making these meetings a success. An important feature of the Association is the Annual Fair
and Track Meet. This is held at Quincy on Washington's Birthday, February 22, of each year. The morning pro-
gram consists of contests in Spelling, Writing, Reading, Arithmetic, Story Telling, Music, etc. The afternoon is
given over to Athletics. Two cups are used as prizes, the school making the greatest number of literary points
being given one cup, and the Athletic cup going to the school making the greatest number of points in outdoor
sports. It has been so arranged that a small school has the same chance of winning one of the cups as the larger
school, and quite a number of the smaller schools take an active part in the several contests. We believe that
the Fair and Track Meet has created interest and enthusiasm in school matters that could not have been obtained
in any other way, and we purpose to keep it up indefinitely, or until we find that it is not serving the purpose
intended.

Vocational Education.--The Domestic Science Department in the Gadsden County High School is still doing good work.
It is in charge of a good teacher, and a larger number of the girls are taking this course each year. Two rooms
are used for it, one for sewing and the other for cooking. Both are well furnished, the furniture having been
purchased by the School Committee of the Woman's Club without any expense to the Board of Public Instruction.
The salary of the teacher is paid by the Board.

We have also provided a Manual Training teacher for the ensuing year to work along this line with the boys. The
equipment for this department was furnished by one of our modest, but generous, public-spirited citizens at a
cost of several hundred dollars; he is also paying one-half the salary of the teacher for the first year to get
the work started. The boys appear interested and we believe that this will prove to be a very attractive part
of the High School Course.

The Smith-Hughes Class in the Greensboro High School is still in a flourishing condition. About forty pupils are
taking the course, and we shall probably have more from year to year. A good teacher is in charge and is
doing his best to make a success of it.

Home Demonstration work has been carried on in the county for the past five or six years. The Agent now has
more than one hundred girls and boys enrolled, besides a large number of grown people, who are doing work under
her direction. The people are well pleased with the progress thus far made, and we expect even larger results
in the next few years to come.

Negro Schools.--There are four thousand pupils enrolled in the forty-five negro schools of the county, most of
which are one-teacher schools. We have only about twenty teachers, it being necessary for each one to teach two
or three schools during the year. It has been difficult to get teachers here for the past four or five years,
since many of them cannot make certificates under the present system of examining and certificating teachers.
The Board of Examiners does not seem to appreciate the situation, and the fact that these teachers are very
much needed to carry on the public schools for negroes. We hope the next Legislature will pass a law that will
enable us to get teachers for all our schools, especially one that will relieve the negro situation.

The Dunbar School at Quincy is the only negro school that is attempting to do any High School work. We are now
making some repairs to the building and grounds and hope to have it classified as a Junior High School the ensu-
ing year.

Finances.--I stated in my report of two years ago that our county was not in debt, it being the policy of the
Board to use only the income for each year. We still have no old debts, and have never had to issue warrants
to take up any of our obligations. We borrow each year the amount authorized by the law, but are careful to
pay these notes before borrowing on the income for the succeeding year. While our income has not increased in
keeping with a growing system such as ours, yet we have managed to stay out of debt by a small reduction in
salaries the present year. It is hoped that some way will be provided for raising our revenue, and unless this
is done, I am afraid that our schools will necessarily suffer, as they have not done in the past. There are
those of us who believe that certain property is not now being assessed, but in order to get such property on
the tax books, it is necessary for the Legislature to pass a law requiring all persons under penalty to give
in all their property. Let us hope that the next Legislature will pass a law of this kind. In the meantime,
we shall continue to do as we have done in the past, operate our schools on the income for each year, being
careful not to exceed our authority under the law in this regard.

Respectfully submitted,
C. H. Gray,
Superintendent.










1920-1922

GLADES COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request for a biennial report of the conditions of the schools of Glades
County, I beg to submit the following:

Glades County was created in 1921 and has only functioned for one year. This report will be short, as it will
not cover the schools as they operated under De Soto County.

New Buildings.--One of the great demands of the School Board was new buildings. As we had little funds to
operate on, we have erected only one new building in a rural district. Our plans are to erect five buildings in
the next school year.

Transportation.-Transportation is one of the big problems in our county. It is the only way to get the best
results, as the people are sparsely settled. We believe that by centralizing our schools we will be able to
get the best teachers and the most efficient work at the least expense.

Compulsory Attendance Law.-In our minds this is the greatest law ever passed to help educate the class that
most needs education. We have had little trouble in getting co-operation with the majority in our county. The
law has many defects that we trust will be remedied by the next Legislature. The age limit should be eighteen,
or through high school. We find that several promising boys and girls stop school as soon as they reach the
age limit or complete the eighth grade.

Special Tax Districts.--The county is divided into six special tax districts, all the territory being incorporated.
Two of these were bonded under DeSoto County and one has a modern brick building. We are in hopes of operating
and giving all that sa necessary to the children of the county without bonding any more of the districts at the
present time.

Teachers.--We have had no trouble in getting good teachers, as we have paid good salaries. We expect to increase
all the teachers' salaries as much as the finances will permit. They are a class of people that should be paid
twelve months in the year instead of seven or eight, as we now pay them. We need more school money if we expect
to make Florida schools what every educator wants them to be.

Conclusion.--The future is very bright for better education. The public is beginning to realize that educated
boys and girls are worth more than rich muck land and thousands of cattle upon the ranges. Our republic can
only reach as high as it is educated.

Respectfully submitted,
N. S. Hayes,
County Superintendent.

HAMILTON COUNTY.

No report filed.

HARDEE COUNTY.

No report filed.

HERNANDO COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--In accordance with custom and the requirements of your office, we are glad to submit this, our first
biennial report, which is not to be prized for its literary cleverness nor its volume of information--just a few
plain facts.

New Buildings.--As it appears that Hon. W. O. Lemasters, whom we succeeded in office, did not report for 1919-20,
we will report on the building operations for the period, as the work is worthy of note. During 1919-20 two
magnificent two-story brick buildings were constructed--Hernando High School and Spring Lake Junior High. The
first was built at i cost, including grounds, building and furnishings, of $65,000. It has eleven recitation
rooms, library and book rooms, auditorium, and basement. The Spring Lake Junior High has four splendid well
equipped recitation rooms, auditorium, book and library space, all at a cost of a little more than $10,000.
(These buildings were only made possible by bonding the districts.)

Aside from the two brick buildings, there have been erected only two school buildings since the last report was
made from this county. The latter two buildings are one-teacher schools, frame, inexpensive but modern in design.

There is great need of remodeling practically all of our rural schools or building anew, for they are nearly all
of the fifty-year-ago type. Want of funds is the only element that is holding us from a remodeling and building
program that would give us adequate housing.

High Schools.--We have two schools doing high school work--Hernando High School and Spring Lake Junior High. In
the first of these work is done through the twelfth grade, with four teachers devoting full time to the high
school subjects. We are using as a basis the State Adopted Course of Study, and insist on such thorough
work that our graduates may be creditable representatives of the State's public school system. The S.L.J.H. is
doing work through the tenth grade and maintaining the same degree of excellence as the H.H.S.

Consolidation.--Consolidation is leaven in the work, the slow acting kind, the kind that will surely bring
things around if the centuries will but hold out. We look upon consolidation as being the only solution to the
attainment of the very best in rural school life, but the slowness of its coming makes one shudder for the present
and the near future. The school at Spring Lake is the only consolidation we have in the county--result: a
modern brick building, a faculty of four trained teachers, in place of the old rickety frame building and a
faculty of two teachers.











1920-1922

Districts and Bonding Districts.-While the whole county is districted--ten districts in all--and each district
levying the constitutional maximum of three mills for school purposes, there are only two bonding districts--
Brooksville and Spring Lake. Brooksville District has voted three issues of bonds aggregating $55,000, and
Spring Lake District one issue of $10,000. The money derived from the sale of bonds has been used in the
purchase of grounds, the construction and equipment of buildings.

Finance and Salaries.--Our present financial status is not rosy, to the contrary--a little palid, notwithstand-
ing we have been fortunate in coming into possession of enough funds to carry on our schools the usual eight
months with very few exceptions, no school under six months. It is true, that for the present year, we have
had to reduce salaries about ten per cent.

Rural Schools.-llernando is typically a country county, hence the banner importance of a wide vision for rural
education. Before going into the task of making up this part of our report, we gave considerable study to the
reports of other superintendents on the subject. Summing up from the reports studied, our official experience,
coupled with our own early rural school training, we are thoroughly convinced that gratifying progress has been
made in the rural schools of Florida in the last forty years, in the matter of buildings, efficiency of teachers
and general interest on the part of parents. Still there is complaint-just complaint-that the rural schools
are not supplied with teachers possessing training and ability equal to the teachers of the town and city schools.
The people of the country want, for their children, educational opportunities equal to those enjoyed by town
people; they are entitled to their wants and can have more than an equal show through consolidation. If these
rights and opportunities that are waiting for consummation are not exploited, who's at fault?

Yours truly,
L. D. Hathaway,
County Superintendent.

HIGHLANDS COUNTY.

No report filed.

HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I submit herewith my biennial report for the two years ending
June 30, 1922.

New Buildings.--During the past biennium there have been erected several large, modern school buildings. Three
of these are in Tampa, and cost approximately one hundred eighty thousand dollars. In addition to these modern
school plants, several additions have been made to other buildings within the city thereby giving to the students
sufficient room for class work. Several of the other special tax districts have voted bonds; and new buildings
have been built. The past two years the building activities have been very gratifying in this county--a total
of three hundred eighty-three thousand dollars has been expended for this purpose.

These new buildings and additions have been supplied with modern equipment at a cost of $31,563.00. In addi-
tion to the foregoing improvements the Board has nearly $100,000.00, which has been voted in other districts
and will be used for building and furnishing other modern plants.

It is our plan during the ensuing year to erect a new high school building in Tampa at a cost of approximately
$350,000.00.

Teachers' Salaries.-The Board of Public Instruction has adopted a salary schedule which has given general sat-
isfaction. Of course, we know the salaries are not high enough, but under the present financial strain it is
the best we could do.

Special Tax Districts.--The entire county is divided into fifty-four special tax school districts, levying the
maximum millage. The total income from these districts during the past biennium was approximately $200,000.00.
This sum is not adequate for school purposes within most of the districts, and we are gratified that the people
of this county voted nine to one in favor of the ten mill amendment. I am confident that great improvement will
be made in all of our schools during the next biennium.

Bonded Special Tax Districts.--Many of the special tax districts have issued bonds for building and furnishing
school buildings. At this time there are twenty bonded districts. In some of these districts additional bonds
have been voted to take care of the needs of the schools, for example, Tampa has voted $500,000.00 during the
past two years. With this amount of money we have erected sufficient buildings to take care of all of the
students in the city for the present time.

Plant City has recently voted $60,000.00 of bonds for new buildings, and there are several other districts
which have voted from ten to twenty thousand dollars of bonds for use of the public free schools.

Plant City Agricultural High School.--Smith-Hughes Vocational Agriculture was introduced into the Plant City
High School in September, 1920. The enrollment for that year was twenty-two. A two-acre demonstration plot
was rented by the county and planted and cultivated by the students. In this plot eighty varieties of vegetables
were successfully grown. In February, the plot was bought with an adjoining eight acres by the City of Plant
City for the use of the Agricultural Department.

An additional teacher was employed to assist in the Agricultural Department in 1921-1922. Classes in agriculture
were organized and taught by these two teachers in eight schools outside of Plant City in the afternoon and
in Plant City in the forenoon. The total enrollment for all classes was 240.

A short course in fertilizers was given for adult farmers in September, 1921, with an attendance of forty-eight.

The enrollment of the vocational agriculture classes in Plant City this term is seventy-two. Of this number,
fifty-seven live on farms, and forty-seven outside of the Plant City school district. The average age is seven-
teen.
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1920-1922

We are equipped with tools for all farm construction or repair work, including forge work, sheet metal, leather,
concrete, plumbing, etc.

Our laboratory is completely equipped with all apparatus needed in teaching Plant Production, Animal Husbandry,
Horticulture, Farm Management, and Rural Engineering.

High Schools.--There are two senior high schools in this county, one located in Tampa, with a present enrollment
of 867 students. The other at Plant City, with an enrollment of 226.

In the past two years the attendance in the high school at Tampa has greatly increased. The enrollment in 1920
was 615. The increased attendance has so badly crowded our present building that we have turned our gymnasium
into a class room for temporary relief. However, we now are looking hopefully to the new building which will
probably be erected during the ensuing year.

In spite of the congestion, we have been able to restore, courses in Chemistry and Physics which were dropped
during the war because of the impossibility of securing teachers. We have organized a glee club, an orchestra,
a boys' quartette, and a scientific society, all of which are doing serious work and adding much to the value
of the school life.

We are fortunate in having some of the best teachers in the South in these institutions. Both of these schools
are on the accredited list, and are operated for a term of nine months.

The Teacher-Training Department is maintained in the Hillsborough High School at Tampa.

Progress.--We are very highly pleased with the progress made educationally during the past biennium. The salaries
of teachers have been raised each year since 1919, the average salary being $108.00.
Yours very truly,
J. E. Knight,
Superintendent Public Instruction,
Hillsborough County, Florida.

HOLMES COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--Complying with your request for a special report of the schools of Holmes County for the biennium closing
June 30, 1922, I submit the following:

We are practically a rural people and realize the great disadvantages to which they are subjected, both from a
financial viewpoint and the lack of competent teachers.

New Buildings.--We have built only two new buildings during the last two years. A frame building, at a cost of
$350, and the other, a modern brick building, at a cost of $10,000. This building has six recitation rooms and
an auditorium with a seating capacity for five hundred. This building was erected from the sale of district
bonds, voted by the citizens of Special Tax District Number Seven, Ponce De Leon District. All honor to them
for the progressive spirit manifested in this educational movement.

Repairs.--There has been only a small amount spent on repairs during the past two years. Three hundred dollars
from the general fund and four hundred dollars from the district funds covered these expenditures.

High School.--There is only one high school in the county, and that is located at Bonifay. The building is
made of brick and is of modern construction and arrangement. It is equipped with modern appliances,, well
heated and ventilated. The building cost $18,000 and is equal to many costing twice that amount. We have
been very fortunate in securing a force of competent teachers for this school, and it has been made a good
showing, steady growth and progress.

The Ponce De Leon and Noma schools are striving to qualify as Junior High Schools. They have my best wishes
in this matter, and I wish them success.

Rural Schools.--The rural school is the mecca of all our woes. Let me suggest that we, as superintendents,
teachers and parents, cease our lamentations and thank God that the situation is as good as it is. With an
abiding faith in Him who doeth all things well, go after better things in the future.

School Population.--There are 4,600 children in Holmes county of school age. A good number of these are not
receiving instruction; but the majority are being given the best advantages possible under the circumstances.
While there have been many disappointments, we have made some material progress. Practically all the schools
have been taught the full term and in most cases have had competent and experienced teachers.

Schools.--We have sixty-two white schools in the county. Twenty-seven of this number are one-teacher schools
and the remainder have from two to five teachers each. The number of one-teacher schools will be materially
reduced in the near future (in my opinion), as the spirit of consolidation is gaining considerable headway.

Districts.--The whole of Holmes County is embraced in the forty-one Special Tax School Districts. Only two
of these districts are bonded, Bonifay and Ponce De Leon. Most of the districts are in good shape financially.

Finances.--The financial condition of the county is in fairly good shape. We manage to pay our teachers
promptly and pay salaries ranging from $45.00 to $150.00 per month. The last Legislature authorized the
issuance of time funding warrants to the amount of $54,000. Since then this amount has been reduced to $52,000.
Our present resources are wholly inadequate to take care of the real needs of our schools. Since the adoption
of the school amendment, the situation will be greatly relieved in the near future.

Attendance.--The Compulsory Attendance Law has not been rigidly enforced, yet the attendance has been increased
and much good accomplished by its enactment.
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1920-1922
Teachers.--There is a shortage of qualified teachers, especially in the rural schools. This, I am sure, is
deplored by all; but, unless we had more inducements to offer in the way of better salaries and longer terms,
this condition will confront us for some time.

Vocational education is receiving some attention in the Bonifay High School. We hope that this work will con-
tinue to grow and be what its founders intended that it should be.

There seems to be more harmony existing throughout the county among the several boards of trustees, the board
of public instruction, the teachers and the county superintendent than ever before. All realize their responsi-
bility and are working hard for the cause of education and to the end that our children may be equipped for the
battle of life and the making of useful citizens.

Respectfully submitted,
T. J. McDade,
County Superintendent.

JACKSON COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request I herewith submit to you my biennial report for the biennium ending
June 30, 1922.

New White School Buildings.--During the past two years there have been erected two school buildings for white
children, one at Campbellton, which is a five-room school building, equipped with all modern conveniences,
including steam heat. This building was built, including heating and plumbing, for the sum of $16,000. The
Malone school building contains seven class rooms and an auditorium with a seating capacity of 500, and was also
built at a cost of $16,000. In the case of the Campbellton school building, the district was bonded to finance
it. With Malone, $10,000 was secured from bonds, $5,000 from insurance from the old building, which was burned,
and $1,000 from the county.

New Colored School Buildings.--The colored school building at Marianna which was begun several years ago was
completed during this biennium, and is a very creditable building.

High Schools.--There were two accredited High Schools in the county for the year of 1921-22. One Senior, the
Jackson County High School, at Marianna, and one Intermediate at Graceville. We have several others in the county
that are doing high school work, the most noteworthy being that of Malone, which we hope to place on the accredited
list as an Intermediate for the ensuing year.

Special Tax School Districts.--At the close of this biennium there were fifty-eight special tax school districts,
containing sixty white schools and twelve colored schools. There is approximately $16,000 raised in this county
from this source.

Bonded School Districts.--On June 30, 1922, there were eight bonded school districts, aggregating $76,000. Had
it not been for this privilege, several of these schools would have been compelled to use almost anything for a
school building.

Consolidation of Schools.--At the close of this period we have nothing to report on along this line. However,
sentiment has already begun to crystallize in favor of consolidation, and I hope that during the ensuing years
there will be something good to report.

School Finances.--On June 30, 1922, more taxes were in arrears than have been heretofore on this date for many
years; which caused us to fall behind in meeting our obligations. The outstanding indebtedness of the county
(gross) is now $35,000.

School Libraries.--Most of the schools of the county have very good libraries, containing from 100 to 300 volumes.

Free Text-Book System.--I am very much in favor of a free text-book system, by State appropriation, as I believe
it to be one more step toward making an ideal school system. Again, no compulsory school attendance law can be
perfected without a free text-book system.

Vocational Work.--We have three Vocational Schools in the county. At Marianna we have the Home Economics Depart-
ment, at Graceville we have the Vocational Agriculture Department for the white school. Then we have a Vocation-
al Agriculture School for the negroes, at Mt. Tabor. All of these schools seem to meet with much favorable
comment, and I feel that much good has been accomplished through them.

Respectfully submitted,
C. W. Lockey,
County Superintendent of Public Instruction
Jackson County, Florida.


JEFFERSON COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--I take pleasure in submitting to you a brief summary of the progress of the schools and of school
activities in Jefferson County for the past two years ending June 30, 1922.

New Buildings.--During the past two years we have erected the following buildings from the general and the sub-
district funds:

Three-room building at Lamont (scoring 98 per cent by Rural Inspector's grading) costing..............$ 2,500.00
One-room building at Enterprise...................................................................... 600.00
Two-room addition Aucilla Junior High School.......................................................... 2,000.00
Two-story brick building at Wacissa is now under construction and will be completed for part of
this term .......................................................................................... 10,000.00

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1920-1922

The last named school district will be able to pay for this building within five years and at the same time
maintain an eight months' school. In this way we can build without bonding.

Repairs.--We have spent about $1,500.00 in repairing several of the schools of the county.

Furniture and Equipment.--Two years ago the schools were greatly handicapped for the want of both items. The
summer of 1921 we purchased desks, blackboard, and teachers' desk to partly meet the needs of the schools, but
now with the increase in attendance we are in need of more furniture and equipment.

Special Tax School Districts.-Several of our districts have been enlarged by taking in new territory; and, at
present, with nine such districts and only a small part of the county outside a special school district, the
talk is to consolidate several of the districts.

We have no bonded districts at present. Only three are in debt, and when this year's taxes are paid they will
pay most of the indebtedness.

High Schools.--We only try to maintain one Senior High School, which is now on the accredited list of this State,
and our aim now is to get on the Southern accredited list. Three other schools in the county are striving to
get on the Junior High School list.

Standard Elementary Schools.--The school year 1921-22 found us with the following schools on the list: Waukeenah,
Lamont, and Aucilla. These are the first Elementary Schools in Jefferson County to make the requirements. Others
are working hard to be placed on the list for the coming year.

Consolidation and Transportation.-These two are the only effective means of making better schools, and giving to
all the girls and boys an equal opportunity. During the past two years (by having a School Board that was in
accord with the best advantages possible) we have succeeded in consolidating eight one-teacher schools and are
now transporting them to larger schools. In doing this work we are using ten trucks and transporting about 240
children, thus increasing the attendance.

We contract with a man to furnish and drive a truck for the school term and in this way we own no trucks at all.
The past two years the cost of all transportation was about ten thousand dollars.

Compulsory Attendance Law.--The past two years, on account of the lack of funds, we have not employed an attendance
officer; but for the coming year the Board will employ the Sheriff to act as Attendance Officer.

Teachers' Institute.--This county formed a County Teachers' Association in the spring of 1921, and plans were
completed to hold meetings each month in different communities and at the school buildings. All the attendance
at these meetings is good. The Woman's Club assisted in entertaining the teachers when they met in Monticello.

Uniform Text Book Law.--We believe in this law all teachers are required to carry out the state course of study,
but can't something be done so that our schools can get the books before the schools are half out? It is a
hardship on teachers and pupils to suffer in the way we do for the need of books.

Negroes.-The colored schools are being neglected. First, for the want of funds, second, for qualified teachers,
third for lack of interest of all concerned. We increased the average attendance in this county about 700 the
past year by running more of our negro schools. The Negro Farm Agent and Home Makers' Club Agent have aided
greatly in the work among the colored people. During the coming year we plan to build two negro schools by the
aid of the Rosenwald funds.

State Board of Examiners.--I want to see a change and stop that great expense of traveling from one section to
another. Why not a Central Examining Board and questionsmailed out, examinations held and papers returned to
the headquarters?

In Conclusion.--In the beginning, may I state that I am considered one of the "Baby Superintendents of the State,"
but I believe in having all reports and information requested to go out on time.

My work for the past eighteen months has been, on the whole, very pleasant. I have had the best School Board in
the State. Two of the members had served before, and the new member was a teacher, making a combination that
worked for the best Interest of the State. The teachers have been as loyal as any set of teachers could be, and
the Trustees of the respective districts have aided greatly in building up the educational interests of the county.
I only trust that the coming two years will be even more beneficial to all the girls and boys and that soon our
county will be foremost in the educational ranks of this State.

Respectfully submitted,
W. M. Scruggs,
County Superintendent.

LAFAYETTE COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--I am submitting a brief general report as follows:

Since the division of Lafayette County by the Legislature of 1921, and the creation of Dixie County, our schools
have been reduced in number to twenty-nine white and two negro schools. However, the Board of Public Instruction
has established two white schools and discontinued two which leaves the number as mentioned above.

The Board owns practically every building in the county in which it operates a school. The present administration
has not erected any buildings, but has made one annex. All school buildings are in comparatively good condition
except that some need repainting. All are well equipped with patent desks and apparatus, libraries, charts, maps,
and globes.

School Term.-On account of financial conditions, the Board has been forced to cut the term of school to three
months, except where such are located in districts which collect sufficient sub-school funds to continue their
operation.

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1920-1922

High Schools.--We have one high school known as the Lafayette County High School. We carry all the high school
grades, thereby making it a Senior High School, but not accredited. This school was operated eight months last
year, high school department, and the grades were operated four months from public funds, and four months by
private subscription. We have an enrollment of two hundred pupils.

Financial Situation.-The financial situation is our handicap at present, but we hope to relieve this situation
in the near future by issuing and selling interest bearing coupon warrants for the purpose of liquidating the
outstanding indebtedness incurred by former boards.

Compulsory Attendance.-The Board did not make any effort in enforcing the Compulsory Attendance Law this year.
They declared that it was better to provide schools for those who would attend than to spend money in forcing
those who did not appreciate an education. However, our attendance has been very good, I believe as good as
when the law was enforced.

Special Tax Districts.--We have at present fifteen Special Tax Districts in the county, and expect to hold an
election in the near future to see whether or not there shall be another established. All these districts have
a levy of three mills, and I believe if the proposed amendment to be voted on in the general election providing
that districts can vote a levy of ten mills is carried, all these districts will immediately take advantage of
that law.

Resolution.--Notwithstanding the school year had ended before the death of Hon. William N. Sheats, the Board of
Public Instruction wishes to add the following Resolution to the general report of the County Superintendent:

RESOLUTION

Whereas, Hon. W. N. Sheets, who had served the State of Florida as a faithful educator, and as head of the
Educational Department of the State, and,

Whereas, the Great Creator, who willeth things for good, had made the body and endowed it with the beautiful
character of our departed friend, William N. Sheats, and made his more beautiful soul, inflicted no evil upon
him when he transferred his spirit into its sphere of higher service; and

Whereas, Hon. W. N. Sheats was prepared for a more noble purpose than he was serving, and he had served with
great usefulness among his fellow men, and set a shining example to the younger generation of our State by his
works, that of being a faithful student, a scholar, a man of practical ideas, a patriot, a vigorous servant
and loyal citizen, and he was one of the pioneer educators of the State, to him as he was the head of the Depart-
ment of the Educational System, we owe our thanks for its accomplishment. Therefore, be it

Resolved, by the Board of Education of Lafayette County, assembled on this the 6th day of November, That this
Resolution be spread upon the minutes of the proceedings of this Board as a "memorial" to our deceased friend
and servant, lion. W. N. Sheats, and that a copy of same be sent with the general report of the County Superin-
tendent to the State Superintendent, Hon. W. S. Cawthon.

Signed: J. J. Wood, Chairman.
W. A. Bell, Member.
J. E. Dampler, Member.
John W. Morgan,
County Superintendent.

Conclusion.--I will say that all the schools of the County moved along with little friction, but on account of
the short term which we were forced to have under the prevailing conditions were not satisfactory with the
Board; however, we are looking forward with patience, and hoping to eliminate some of our obstacles that are
financial problems.

I thank you for the privilege of submitting this report.
Very respectfully,
John W. Morgan,
County Superintendent.

LAKE COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--In accordance with your request of the 5th inst., I beg to submit herewith biennial report for
1920-22 of school conditions in Lake County, as follows:

Buildings.--During 1920-22 the Eustis high and graded school building has been completed at a cost of $75,000.00.
The building is modern and complete in every respect. In addition to the amount expended for the building pro-
per the sum of $10,000.00 has been spent on playgrounds and equipment.

Mount Dora has, during the two-year period, completed two of a unit system of five buildings at a cost of
$37,000.00, including equipment and furniture, the other three buildings in the unit to be erected as needed.
These buildings are furnished throughout with the best movable, adjustable chair desks. The school also has
a well equipped kindergarten.

A wing has been added to the Groveland School at a cost of $4,000.00, this amount having been donated by Mr. J.
Ray Arnold, a trustee and patron of the school.

Approximately seven years ago Lake County completed a program of building at a total cost of $100,000.00. It
was thought at that time that these buildings would be adequate for a much longer period than seven years.
However, at the present time, a program of building is being carried out which calls for the completion of
eight new buildings by January 1, 1923, at an approximate cost of $150,000.00, practically doubling the capacity
of our schools in order to take care of the increase in attendance. Two of these buildings are for the use of
the negroes, located, one at Eustis, costing $20,000.00, and the other at Leesburg, costing $13,000.00. Assis-
tance in the erection of these two buildings is being obtained from the Rosenwald Fund; and it is the intention











1920-1922

of the Board to convert these two schools into county training schools for the negro. New buildings under
construction to be completed by January 1st, are as follows: Lecsburg High School, cost $38,000.00; Umatilla
High School, cost $35,000.00; Groveland High School, cost $16,500.00; Mascotte Graded School, cost $13,000.00;
Howey Rural School, cost $7,500.00; Okahumpka Rural School, cost $4,000.00. School buildings other than those
mentioned above and completed during the two-year period are as follows: Withlacoochie Rural School, cost
$2,000.00; Seneca Rural School, cost $1,250.00; Tavares Colored Graded School, cost $1,500.00 (the erection of
this building was also aided by the Rosenwald Fund); Groveland Colored School, cost $3,000.00. All of the above
mentioned buildings except those costing $3,000.00 or less are of hollow tile with stucco finish or brick
construction.

High Schools.--There are five schools in Lake County doing senior high school work, namely, Leesburg, Eustis,
Umatilla, Groveland and Clermont. Leesburg is on both the State and Southern accredited list. Eustis and
Umatilla are on the State accredited list. The last two schools hope to make the Southern list this year.
Groveland and Clermont are small high schools but have ample faculty, equipment, etc., and are doing splendid
work. All of the above named schools, excepting Clermont, are carrying two courses.

Rural Schools.--We believe that our rural schools are improving and we are endeavoring to bring them up to the
standard, a number of them at the present time being on the list of standard schools. The rural school buildings
with one or two exceptions are in good repair, most of them new, well equipped and manned with a good grade of
teachers. The superintendent is giving special attention to rural schools.

Special Tax School Districts.--The county is divided into twenty-nine special tax school districts, with every
school in the county located in one of these districts. All districts are levying as much millage as the law
will allow and their needs require for the support of their schools. We find, however, that the larger districts,
after levying the three mills, do not have enough money to meet their needs, and the proposed amendment under
which districts may levy as high as ten mills would be of great help to these districts. The total levy for all
special tax school districts last year amounted to $26,622.05. We have seventeen bonded districts with a bonded
indebtedness of $227,250.00 and sufficient millage levy to pay interest and provide a sinking fund for payment
of same. There was in the sinking funds of the various bonded districts June 30, 1922, a total of $51,620.47,
all of which, with the exception of a few small balances, is invested in good six and eight per cent securities.

Transportation.--Lake County schools are being consolidated as rapidly as is practicable. At present we are
transporting approximately three hundred pupils, at a cost of $10,000.00 per annum. The county does not own
its own school buses,, but requires the contractor, where the number of pupils transported is greater than can be
comfortably carried in a touring car, to furnish adequate busses with tops, side curtains, and padded seats.
This method is followed, as the board finds it less expensive than any other.

Sanitation.--Most of our schools are well lighted, and due attention is being given to ventilation and sani-
tation. All schools, with one or two exceptions, are equipped with modern running water, chemical toilets or
with toilets approved by the State Board of Health.

Compulsory Attendance Law.--The writer has no serious fault to find with this law, and Lake County is endeavoring
to enforce same. However, he believes that the reins should be tightened, as the people become more accustomed
to the law.

Improvement of Teachers.--It is the policy of the Board of Public Instruction of this county to hold two
county wide teachers' institutes each year; one in the early fall and the other in the spring. We hope to make
these institutes interesting and helpful to our teachers with programs selected partly by the teachers themselves
and based on problems which grow out of their daily teaching experience. We are also encouraging our teachers
to unite with the Florida Educational Association, to read periodicals suitable to their profession, and to
attend summer school.

Uniform Text-Books and Course of Study.--We are observing the law with reference to these matters because we
believe in it. We regret that we have experienced considerable difficulty in getting books promptly. Something
should be done to induce local concerns to handle school books, as it is difficult to find anyone who is willing
to handle same for the low commission offered for this service. It is also a regrettable fact that local agents
experience difficulty in getting books promptly from the depository at Jacksonville in time to supply the children
at the opening of our schools.

State Board of Examiners.--We consider this plan an improvement over the old one. However, we believe that,
if the Board were permanently located at Tallahassee and would make up questions, sending them out sealed to
the County Superintendents, allowing each Superintendent to hold examinations in his county to suit the convenience
of his teachers, the Board of Examiners to grade the papers upon their being returned to them, and make their
report to the State Superintendent for the issuance of certificates, it would be a much more satisfactory and
much less expensive plan than that now followed.

General.--The population of Lake County is growing so rapidly that increased demands are made each year for build-
ings, teachers, equipment, etc. It is imperative that another year bring forth more funds if these increasing
demands are to be met. Our hope lies in the ten mill amendment which, if passed, will mean much to our growing
school system. We have a splendid corps of teachers for our schools; it is a great pleasure to be among them
and to see them work. We are doing our very best to give Lake County boys and girls the best that our limited
means will allow in the way of well qualified teachers, modern buildings, and adequate equipment.

Respectfully submitted,
D. H. Moore,
County Superintendent.

LEON COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--In reply to your request for a report from this county for the past two years, I have the honor to
offer the following:


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1920-1922

Building.--The building situation in this county is the same that it was two years ago. While there is greatly
needed a high school building for Tallahassee and several small buildings in the rural districts for negroes,
we have not yet been able to get the districts in position to vote bonds and there is no money in the other
funds with which to do any building.

High Schools.--We are not very strong in high schools so far as numbers are concerned, but we pride ourselves
on the Leon High, the only high school in the county. For several years it has been doing exceptionally good work
and has won recognition over the state both in way if athletics and scholarship. There are three other schools
that do some high school work, but are not eligible for accreditation. They are Woodville, Miccosukee and
Chaires.

Districts.--In the matter of sub-districts we have tried to subdivide the county with the idea of consolidation.
We undertook the task of getting the county as a whole divided into five districts, so arranged that each of
the districts would eventually have only one school within its bounds. This was attempted by enlarging the two
districts already created and establishing three more. We were successful in making the enlargements and also
made one new district, but we failed in the establishment of the other two. However, we hope at an early date
to get the people sufficiently interested to carry out the idea as originally planned. The entire sum derived
from the districts amounts to about $14,000 per annum.

Transportation.--The trustees of Miccosukee District have purchased a truck with which to transport about
thirty children to the Miccosukee school. So far the arrangement is very satisfactory and economical. One of the
largest boys in the school is employed to drive and care for the truck; and the munificent sum of five dollars
per month is allowed him. We hope by another term to be able to get the Chaires District into one consolidated
school. Already one school is being transported; and the other two in the district could be transported by one
truck, provided it is possible to convince the people of the advantages of the consolidated over the one-teacher
school.

Salaries.--Teachers' salaries in this county have not been lowered; and we are hoping that it will not be neces-
sary to do so, for, although we have increased them considerably during the last four years, we do not feel that
they are in excess of what they should be. Our minimum salary for white teachers this year is sixty dollars
per month for a term of six months. However, most of our white children have the privilege of attending eight
months, while the negro schools outside the city are operated only four months.

Finances.--About one year ago we refunded our accumulated indebtedness against the general fund of the county,
amounting to about twenty thousand dollars, and last year we operated the schools on what revenue was available
and did not go further in debt. Likewise this year we are running within the limits of our revenue. While
keeping well within the limits of our revenue, we are not making much progress in paying off the indebtedness
as this could not be done without reducing salaries and thereby handicapping us in the efficiency of our work.
Consequently, we deemed it wise to pay the same salaries and await the aid from the ten mill amendment for sub-
districts, and then allow the people to have a voice as to whether they wished a lowering of the standard of
our schools.

Instead of reducing the salary of teachers, I am in favor of making it more and at the same time raising the
standard of the qualifications of teachers so that no certificates would be issued to any one with less than a
two-year high school course or its equivalent.

Respectfully submitted,
F. S. Hartfield,
County Superintendent Leon County.

LEVY COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I herewith submit the following report of the public schools of
Levy County, for the two years ending June 30, 1922.

Buildings.--We now have under course of construction two school buildings. One at Williston, at a cost of
$11,000. This building is for the primary grades alone. We already have the building at that nlace to take
care of the higher grades. The other new building is at Ellzey, and will cost, when finished, about $7,500.
In each instance the districts were bonded to raise the money for these buildings.

In addition to the above we have built four or five new buildings here and there, at a cost of $1,200 each. These
are one-room buildings and are painted.

High Schools.-At present there are four High Schools in the county. Williston is classed as an Intermediate
High School, and the other three are doing very effective Junior High School work. Two of them, no doubt, will
be on the accredited list this year.

Special Tax Districts.--At present there are twenty-six Special Tax School Districts, and six of these are bonded
for new buildings. Nearly all of the territory of this county is in a sub-district and the prospect of the
ten-mill amendment carrying is going to help our schools considerably.

Finances.--With us, this is a serious problem. We are having quite a time trying to operate our schools six and
eight months respectively. In some three or four schools, last year, the patrons contributed enough to run our
schools an extra month.

Respectfully submitted,
T. W. Price,
County Superintendent.

LIBERTY COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request for a statement of school affairs of Liberty County for the two years
ending June 30, 1922, I beg to submit the following:










1920-1922

New Buildings.--We have done very little building the past two years, only built one room to the Lake Mystic
school house, and one to the Telogia, at a cost of $494.36 for the two. Neither was ceiled, but both were
well equipped.

Repairs.--Inasmuch as all the school buildings of the county are practically new, it was necessary to make but
few repairs.

Furniture.--All school buildings in the county are well supplied with single patent desks, hyloplate blackboards
and other apparatus.

Finances.--Our finances are somewhat behind, which forces us to run our schools only four months from the general
fund, but the Special Districts get a little longer term.

High Schools.--We have no standard high school in the county, on account of a deficiency of funds, but in the
Bristol and Hosford schools we have Junior High School work done.

Rural Schools.--We were successful last year in getting all of our rural schools taught with the exception of
one or two; and this year we contemplate getting them all taught.

Teachers.--Owing to the scarcity of funds, and only giving four months' terms, we. were very fortunate in securing
as good teachers as we did.

Compulsory Attendance Law.-We enforce the law in this county, and find that the enrollment is much better, and
we do it with but little difficulty, and at reasonable cost to the Board.

Special Tax School Districts.--We only have three Special Tax School Districts in the county, and only raised
from them the last two years $2,040.29. Within these districts, there are five schools, and with only this
amount, the terms cannot be extended much. However, next year the millage will be ten instead of three.

Books.--The State Adopted Books have been used almost entirely in this county, and we experience but little
trouble in getting them.

Course of Study.-The State Course of Study is followed as nearly as possible in all of our schools. We find
this course to be very satisfactory, but we have failed to get as many copies as are needed in our schools.

Conclusion.-I would like to say more, but under present conditions, I think that it covers the ground sufficiently
well.

Respectfully submitted,
J. E. Roberts,
County Superintendent.

MADISON COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--Complying with your request, I submit the following report from Madison County:

Buildings.--The school buildings in this county, as a whole, are in good condition. There are some minor repairs
needed on the one-teacher schools, but this is being delayed in some instances in the hopes of getting sufficient
sentiment in the community to favor consolidation. The prospects look very encouraging for this work in parts
of the county. At the present there are twenty-six one-teacher schools in the county, twelve two-teacher
schools, two three-teacher schools, one four-teacher school, two five-teacher schools and one thirteen-teacher
school.

Furniture.-All schools (white) are equipped with patent desks and recitation seats, and desk and chair for
the teacher in most cases.

High Schools.--There are two Junior High Schools in the county, although neither has attained the accredited
list. We have one Senior High School, and it is on the accredited list.

Rural Schools.--The rural schools are nearly all in a progressive stage,and more and more interest is being
manifested by patrons in rural sections for better school houses, more efficient teachers and longer terms. All
of the two-teacher schools are located in progressive rural communities. The one-teacher schools, as a rule,
are found in less progressive sections of the county.

Special Tax Districts.-The county has sixteen Special Tax Districts, and in most cases it was brought about by
consolidating two or three one-room schools into one central school for the district. All the districts vote
three mills except two, and some will vote as high as five mills since the ratification of the ten mill amend-
ment.

Sanitation.--The problem of maintaining sanitary toilets is a very serious one in this county. It is not a
difficult problem to keep sanitary toilets for the girls, but it seems most impossible to keep the boys' toilets
sanitary.

Libraries.--The interest has grown very rapidly in the county for the installment of libraries in the schools.
Many of the Special Tax Districts have used considerable money in that way.

Teachers.--Madison County has in the main a reasonably strong corps of teachers. This statement has been made
by the Rural School Inspectors as well as by myself. Twenty-eight per cent of the teachers in the county are
men. This is considerably above the average for the United States.

Contract Breaking.--The custom that has seemingly grown very popular with some teachers to quit their schools
and go to higher paying positions, or for very frivolous excuses, has caused some trouble in Madison County. I
have fallen upon the plan of revoking or suspending all certificates of teachers guilty of quitting their schools
without being properly relieved. It has proven to be a splendid remedy for the trouble.

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1920-1922

Certification.--A teacher so poorly trained as to he able to make only a third grade certificate is not quali-
fled to go out and inspire pupils to a high standard of education. Such persons are usually boys and girls
who are too young to have charge of a school room, and it is recommended that the issuing of a teacher's certi-
ficate lower than a second grade be discontinued and no extension on a certificate lower than a first grade
should be given for attendance at a Summer School. A second grade certificate should be raised and not extended.

Compulsory Attendance Law.--The compulsory attendance law is a good one if it is enforced. It has been a problem
to a get a suitable person to carry out the spirit and letter of the law in this county, though the efforts
made have proven the value of the law. The county has tried four different men for the position and paid from
$75 to $150 per month for their services, hut the law was not enforced as it should have been by any of them.
The School Board appointed me as Attendance Officer without compensation, and I made an effort to get results.
The County Judge advised that it would be legal for the County Superintendent to serve in this capacity before
the appointment was made, and the first case that came to trial before this judge was thrown out by the judge
ruling that the County Superintendent could not legally hold the position. I had been serving about two months
and was getting results. My plan was not to run around and beg parents to send to school, but when the report
from the teacher showed that children had been absent without proper cause, I mailed a Notice of Non-Attendance
to the parent, and if the child was not returned to school I swore out a warrant and sent the Sheriff. Only
five arrests were made, but it had a wholesome effect on the whole county. If the law was amended so as to
definitely state that the County Superintendent is eligible to serve notices and prosecute persons violating
the law, it seems that it would have a better effect on delinquents.

Free Text-Books.--The practice of furnishing free textbooks is a bad one in my judgment. It encourages waste and
extravagance of public funds. The children do not take pride in keeping hooks purchased by public funds as
neat and clean as they do when the parents have to buy them. The parents see then that the children take better
care of their books. Books that are passed from one child to another in the different grades are apt to spread
disease germs. I am unalterably opposed to the practice.

Negro Schools.--There are forty-one negro schools in Madison County. One new house has been erected in the last
two years. In a number of instances the schools are conducted in a negro church in the community. The negro
schools are at a great disadvantage on account of the shortage of negro teachers, which in part is due to the
present system of examination and the attitude of the examiners towards colored applicants. The Board of
Examiners refused to examine colored applicants in Madison at the last examination held here because they did
not want to be bothered with them at that time. I have only six negro teachers in the county and forty-one
schools.

Finances.--The matter of financing the schools is a serious problem in this county, although possibly not so
serious as in some other counties. There is no way of remedying the situation unless property is assessed at
its full valuation as the law requires. There should be an amendment to the tax laws requiring every person to
"give in" his property every year under oath, and if he should fail to do so double his taxes for the previous
year. The tax law should cause the tax books to close December 31st of each year or pay the legal rate of
interest, 8 per cent, from that date until paid. Both these plans are proving very satisfactory in Georgia.
Under the present system of collection the School Boards have to borrow money and pay out interest for it that
should be going to operate the schools.

Conclusion.--The educational spirit is gradually increasing and with the return of many of the old experienced
teachers to the profession who had left to follow commercial trades the prospect looks encouraging for the future.

Respectfully submitted,
T. C. Simms,
County Superintendent.

MANATEE COUNTY.

No report filed.

MARION COUNTY.

No report filed.

MONROE COUNTY.

No report filed.

NASSAU COUNTY.

No report filed.

OKALOOSA COUNTY.

No report filed.

OKEECIIOBEE COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--Complying with your request, I beg to submit the following report of Okeechobee County schools for
your biennial report:

The interest of the great masses of the people in public schools is more manifest than ever before in the history
of free education. Our people realize that an education is absolutely necessary for an intelligent citizenship,
and we are making every effort to get the best qualified teachers for this great work.

Okeechobee County High School.--It has been my aim to have one real High School in the county that meets all the
requirements of the State Department. This year we will have a Senior High School, Class "B." We have a nice
brick building furnished with most modern individual desks, and other up-to-date furniture, including physics
and chemistry tables and other laboratory equipment. Twelve teachers are employed in this school. A well
selected library is for the use of the pupils. Athletics is given a full share of interest, and well organized










1920-1922

baseball, basket ball and track teams compete with teams from much larger schools. A number of pupils attend
high school from other sections of the county.

Rural Schools.--All of our rural school buildings are well equipped with furniture and other apparatus for
doing first-class work in every respect. Most of them have good libraries, and the term this year will be
seven months.

Teachers.--I believe that our schools are supplied with the best teaching force, as a whole, that we have ever
had. Efficient, courteous, self-sacrificing, and I believe that all of them have a real love for the work.

Special Districts.-Okeechobee County is divided into three Special School Districts. All of the districts,
with the exception of one, voted three mills.

Bond Districts.--In the Spring of 1915 a bond issue was voted in the Okeechobee district. This issue was for
$40,000.00 and was voted for the purpose of erecting an up-to-date high school building.

Finance.--We are now assessing the full limit--ten mills. However, we are compelled to borrow money at the
beginning of the school year to operate our schools. We are living within our income, and our finances are
in a healthy condition.

Needed Legislation.--I believe the law creating the State Board of Examiners should be abolished. Instead we
should have a Central Grading Committee composed of not less than three members, located at Tallahassee, for
the purpose of grading all examination papers. The questions should be made out by the State Superintendent
and forwarded to the County Superintendents, and they should hold examinations at least twice a year for the
convenience of all teachers.

My work as County Superintendent has been, on the whole, most pleasant, especially my associations with my
School Board. They have given me the greatest co-operation in all my work. They have been men of mature judg-
ment, and were painstaking in their earnestness to do the best at all times for our schools. It has been a
pleasure and a blessing to be associated with such men.

Respectfully submitted,
W. R. Terrell,
County Superintendent.

ORANGE COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--Complying with your letter requesting our biennial report, beg to submit the following:

Buildings.--Orlando during the past two (2) years has built a new brick school on DeLaney street, at a cost of
$170,000.00 for building and fixtures. A new brick building for colored pupils costing $38,000.00 has been
erected. This is a ten (10) room building and will be equipped for manual training and domestic science. The
auditorium will seat about six hundred.

Bonds have been voted at the following places for improvements, buildings, etc.:

Orlando--New high school, at a cost of $260,000.00
Winter Park-Addition to the present building, cost $25,000.00
Ocoee--New brick building at a cost of $40,000.00. The Ocoee district having outgrown its old wooden building,
it was decided to make the new one modern in every particular. This school has its own water plant, obtaining
water from an artesian well.
Fairview has voted $5,000.00 for a new building, and also at Union School, Ft. Christmas, a primary department
room, costing $1,100.00, has been added.

All the other buildings in the county have been improved and made up-to-date, new out-door toilets having been
built according to State Board of Health specifications.

HIGH SCHOOLS

Orlando.--Teachers are employed for twelve (12) months, seven months being paid by County Board and five by
Special Tax Districts, making a very material increase in salaries. Term length eight and one-half to nine
months. Thirty-one out of thirty-three senior high school graduates in Orlando entered higher institutions
of learning.

Apopka.--One teacher added. Salaries increased $5.00 to $10.00 per month.

Oakland-Winter Garden.-One teacher added. Salaries increased $25.00 to $50.00 per month. This school has the
distinction of having more college graduates in its faculty than any other school in the County.

Winter Park.-An increase of five teachers in faculty. Principal's salary increased from $180.00 to $250.00
per month. Increase in salaries of teachers, $20.00 to $35.00 per month. Expect to make this an accredited
senior high school. Enrollment increased from two hundred and eighty-three (283) to three hundred and twenty-
three (323).

Ocoee.--Principal's salary increased from $150.00 to $175.00 and teachers' salaries increased $15.00 per month.
One teacher added to faculty. School to be built up to accredited junior high.

A very marked improvement shown in all of above schools.

Special Tax Districts.--In 1920 we had thirty (30) white schools with an enrollment of three thousand (3,000).
This year at close of term four thousand one hundred and one (4,101). Increase due largely to growth in popu-
lation and partly to enforcement of attendance law. Our twelve (12) colored schools are holding up in attendance.
Ten of the districts now bonded, have always met interest and bonds when due and have on hand in sinking funds
$49,000.00. The same hearty spirit of co-operation prevails in all educational departments of the County, and
other improvements are contemplated.

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1920-1922

Compulsory Attendance.--We are trying, and not without a marked degree of success, to make the law effective.
There are some parts of the law which are too lenient to aid in its enforcement, and which should be taken
up at our next Superintendents' meeting, and recommendations and resolutions adopted for legislative enactment.

Orange County has a Juvenile Court functioning to the extent that we are aided considerably in putting the law
in effect.

Consolidation of Schools.--This has been continued, and while more expensive, the results obtained more than
justify the increased expenditure.

Comparative Efficiency of Rural and City Schools.--All schools of Orange County are running to the full capacity
and maintaining a high standard of efficiency. All school houses are in splendid condition inside and out and
well equipped for school work, except the Ocoee School, which is crowded almost beyond toleration. However, a
new school building is under construction, which will make ample provision when completed.

It is the policy of the County School Board at all times to standardize the schools and make uniform the curricu-
lum based squarely upon the Course of Study. All promotions are discouraged when the required amount of work
has not been completed. This enables us to keep pupils properly graded throughout the county, so that children
will not be handicapped when going from one school to another.

There are a few instances in one-teacher schools where the work is so heavy that the primary grades are not
given quite so much attention. However, this is largely overcome by the fact that the rural sessions are
longer and the teacher becomes a more vital factor in community activities.

Sanitation as Reported by Mrs. Layton.--There has been a steady growth of the Social Service Department of Orange
County since its inauguration in February, 1919, under the direction of Mrs. Ora D. Layton, a trained social
worker.

The first addition to the department was Mrs. K. B. Taylor, R.N., who undertook the work in the colored schools.
During the year 1920-21 every colored child in the county received a thorough physical examination. Home visits
were made when necessary, and where the parents were financially unable to have defects corrected, the physicians
did the work gratis. The colored ward of the Orange General Hospital received the operative cases and others
were cared for in their own homes under medical supervision.

In the fall of 1920, the first county tuberculosis clinic was held, and appreciating the excellent work done by
Nurse Taylor, the Florida Public Health Association placed her in charge of the tuberculosis work among her
people. The amount of good resulting fromthis plan cannot be estimated.

During 1920-21 the colored work was broadened in the schools to include instruction in first aid, home sanitation,
infant care, sex hygiene and nutrition. First aid kits were placed in all the schools, the teachers and older
pupils being instructed in their use. All this work has resulted in a marked improvement in the sanitation of
the schools and homes and in personal hygiene.

Appreciating the need of a full time nurse to take charge of the tuberculosis work in Orange County, and to
further the prevention work among the school children, friends of the cause made it possible for Mrs. Layton to
spend all of her time for two months with the 1920 Christmas Seal sale. The results of this sale made it
possible for the Florida Public Health Association to place Miss Maud Yothers, R.N., in the county. She devotes
a large portion of her time to the county schools besides taking charge of the tuberculosis situation. Every
school child has a thorough physical examination each year, the children are weighed each month, records are
kept, notices of all defects are sent to parents and home visits are made to assist in making corrections. First
aid kits are furnished by each school district.

Assisted by Mrs. Nellie Taylor, Home Demonstration Agent, nutrition classes have been conducted in six of the
county schools and mothers directed how to prepare the proper food for the little ones.

During the winter of 1920-21, the Orlando city schools were threatened with an epidemic of scarlet fever. The
trustees realized that the only safe way was to have a nurse constantly on guard to prevent the spread of the
disease. Miss Inez Mileham, a graduate nurse of wide experience was placed temporarily in charge of the situation.
The results were so gratifying that she has been retained permanently and is carrying out one of the finest
health programs to be found anywhere in the United States.

In February, 1921, Capt. W. H. Gillette of the Bureau of venereal Diseases of the United States Public Health
Service spent three weeks in the county, lecturing and showing the films to approximately three thousand men,
women, girls and boys, black and white, in separate audiences. The use of picture houses was freely given, and
a great amount of good resulted from this publicity campaign against the greatest enemy that our civilization
faces.

When the State Board of Health, assisted by the Florida Federation of Womens' Clubs, obtained the services of two
units of the United States Public Health Service, Mrs. Layton made a special effort to have one unit sent to
Orange County. This request was granted readily because of the nature and scope of the work that had been done
previously, and because of the thorough organization already existing in Orange County. The new elements which
the unit introduced into the school inspection were a microscopic examination for intestinal parasites, and the
health score for each school child. During the stay of the unit a pre-school clinic was maintained through the
assistance of the local women's organizations. These clubs also furnished clerical assistance and transportation
throughout the county. The local nurses worked with the unit, and the Social Service Department copied the final
records from the government cards to the school cards, which showed the records of the three previous examinations.

Each month free tuberculosis clinicsare maintained by a committee of physicians from the County Medical Society.
The doctors are interested and a great deal of good has resulted from the discovery of early cases, especially
among school children.

In March, 1922, the first free dental clinic was held. This clinic was fostered by the County Dental Association,
and is for children only. Each dentist gives half a day to the work, and about seventy-five children are served










1920-1922

each month of the school year. The interest aroused by these clinics led to the appointment by the County of
a nurse, Mrs. Freda Fields, whose special work is oral hygiene, but she also assists the other nurses in
general public welfare.

In October, 1921, a movement was started to establish a day nursery in Orlando, This enterprise has proved
successful and was fostered by the Social Service Department of the County until the Kiwanis Club adopted the
institution as their special charity, endowing it with a fine home and otherwise putting it on a permanent
basis.

For 1922-23 Mr. E. J. Mileham, a trained, experienced health worker, has been appointed head of the physical
department of the Orlando schools, and the co-operation of the principals, of the school nurse, of the County
Social Service Department has inaugurated a health program which it is hoped will lead to the placing of a
permanent course of study of health and sanitation in the schools of Orange County.

With Mr. D. A. Cheney as judge, and Mr. M. L. Alsteter as Probation Officer, close co-operation has always
existed between the Juvenile Coutt and the Social Service Department of the County. During the year 1921-22
a total of thirty-three (33) sustained charges of delinquency were acted upon by the court, and sixteen (16)
dependent children, after being made wards of the Court, were provided with suitable homes. In addition to
the above mentioned cases of delinquency and dependency acted upon by said Court, the Probation Officer has
rendered the following services:

Notices mailed at request of the County Attendance Officer, because of non-attendance at school..........106

The County Attendance Officer reports these notices as being very effective.

Cases of alleged abuse of children investigated .......................................................... 4

Charges found untrue in one case; parents warned in three cases.

Charges of delinquency investigated...................................................................... 17

Warning of delinquents considered sufficient.

The force of workers now consists of Mrs. Ora D. Layton, A. B., Supervisor Social Service; Miss Maud Yothers,
R.N., representing the Florida Public Health Association and doing public health work throughout the county;
Mrs. Freda Fields, graduate dentist, oral hygiene specialist, working in all County schools; Mrs. K. B. Taylor,
R.N., County colored public health nurse; Miss Inez Mileham, R.N., City school nurse, devoting full time to
Orlando's five schools; Mr. E. J. Mileham, physical director for Orlando City Schools.

Harmony is the keynote of all the work in Orange County. No energy is wasted in dissension, and each passing
year shows progress in the welfare work, and a brighter chance for the health and happiness of the coming
generation.

Miscellaneous.--Certain changes should be made in Constitution of the State, in addition to the proposed one
for special tax districts, increasing the amount to be voted on, from three to ten mills. For instance, some
districts have more pupils than their school houses will care for but the valuation is too low to permit of
bonding for enough to erect suitable buildings. Our attorneys suggest a law that will permit freeholders to
vote for enough to pay interest and create a sinking fund if the patrons so desire, regardless of number of
mills. In other words-leave it to the voters to say what they want. Expect to discuss this at the meeting of
County Board Members and County Superintendents when called by you, together with certain changes in the
attendance law.

Teachers' Certificates.--Our present law is too complicated and should be changed and also discussed at next
meeting.

Annual and Semi-Annual Reports to State Superintendent and Comptroller.--The two reports to Comptroller should
either be abolished or accounts reclassified so that when added together they should correlate with the Annual
Report to the State Superintendent.

Course of Study.--Cur present one is good but can be improved and should have added to it Hygiene. I recommend
something like the course of study in hygiene, as adopted and published in Ohio by the State Department of
Public Education.

County Teachers' Association.--Since last report, we organized a County unit of the National Educational Associa-
tion and sent one delegate with expenses paid to Des Moines. Next year we plan a 100 per cent membership in
Florida Educational Association and expect to secure all members we can for the National Education Association.

We are working on a four meetings a year plan instead of monthly, with an all day program, believing better
results can be obtained thereby.

Rural School Inspectors.--I still believe we should have more high and rural school inspectors, particularly in
counties that have no assistant to the County Superintendent.

Thanking the State Superintendent's office for its co-operation with us and all others for their aid and assist-
ance in carrying forward the work of educating our boys and girls, I pledge my continued efforts for progress.

Yours very truly,
A. B. Johnson,
County Superintendent Public Instruction.











1920-1922

OSCEOLA COUNTY.

No report filed.

PALM BEACH COUNTY.

Dear Sir:-It gives me pleasure to comply with your request for a report of the schools of Palm Beach County for
the two years ending June 30, 1922.

Extent of Territory.--Palm Beach County stands close to the head of the list in extent of acreage. The two
counties larger than Palm Beach County are less extensively settled, Palm Beach County being settled along its
entire coast line of sixty-five miles and back from the coast for a number of miles varying from ten to twenty-
five and also around the shore of Lake Okeechobee, forty or fifty miles from the coast where there are many
communities. On this account it is very difficult to keep in touch with the needs of all these distant points
at one central location and also give an adequate amount of time to particular places when attempting to cover
this entire territory. The rapid development in this county is, however, making all places more accessible; and,
with the building of roads connecting the Everglades, it will be less difficult in the future to secure teachers
for this section.

Buildings.--During the last two years there have been many school houses built. A large high school building at
Lake Worth, a very handsome structure of hollow tile, stucco finish, with an auditorium seating 1,500 people; a
ward school of eight rooms in the North borough, West Palm Beach, built of Kelsey City white sand limestone brick,
which presents a very handsome appearance; one-room building of the same material at Canal Point, attractively
located on the shore of Lake Okeechobee, the first brick building to be erected in the Everglades; a small two-
room building, hollow tile and stucco, at Palm Beach; a'one-room unit of a four-room concrete block stucco build-
ing at South Palm Beach; a wooden two-story two-room building at Chosen, and a one-room frame building at Inlet
Grove. This was a rather extensive building program, but it does not begin to take care of the county's needs.
The high school at West Palm Beach, though considerably enlarged, is now filled to overflowing. Consequently a
new high school building is soon to be built. Many repairs have been made throughout the county, keeping the
buildings in good condition and adding to their attractiveness.

High Schools.-There are three senior high schools in Palm Beach County. Two of them being on the accredited
list, the third high school having too few teachers to go on the accredited list at present. The Lake Worth
high school, which had only two years of high school work two years ago, last year added the third year course
and prepared for adding the fourth-year course with the coming school year, when they would meet in their
handsome new building and try to qualify as an accredited senior high school. The enrollment in the Lake Worth
schools has increased nearly 100 per cent in the last two years.

There are several of the two, three and four-teacher schools that are giving a small amount of high school instruc-
tion.

Bond Issues.--There are eight special tax school districts, six of which have for some time been bonded. Two
issues carried over from the previous biennium were sold late in the year of 1921, and the money expended on
buildings noted in the paragraph above. The surplus in the Interest and Sinking Fund of District No. 1 has
since allowed of a bond issue of $200,000, which was validated in May, 1922. In one of the unbonded districts
a bond issue for $60,000 was successfully validated and sold before the close of this fiscal year. This provides
for a new high school building at Stuart and a new two-room tile unit at Salerno.

Teachers' Salaries.--The salaries of nearly all the teachers have been raised. Through the efforts of the
Chamber of Commerce, and attempt was made to bond for this purpose and the salaries raised on the supposition
of the success of the bond issue, which unfortunately was declared invalid; but the school board maintained the
raise in the salaries. The increase in the number of teachers throughout the county has with the increase of
salaries increased the salary expenditure in the budget to a considerable extent. In some counties it has been
necessary to cut the length of the school term, but in Palm Beach County we have had no cuts in our eight months'
term in the grammar school, nine months in the high school and from six to eight in the colored schools.

Teachers' Examinations.--Every effort has been made to have the teachers properly certificated. As this is more
or less of a difficult problem, it has been the policy to assist the teachers in getting to the point where the
examining board were giving the examination by taking the teachers there personally and, if possible, bringing
them back. A cordial relation has been established between the teachers and officials of Palm Beach County and
the examining board.

State Supervisors.--State supervisors are always welcome guests because of the inspiration always received from
them on their occasional visits.

Delray Vocational School.--One of the best schools of its kind is the Delray Vocational School for colored.
Professor C. C. Walker served as principal until October, 1921. There was a lapse of three months and then
Professor S. D. Spady was secured and the school still maintains its high standard, making a satisfactory showing
when inspected by officials which distribute funds which contribute to its support, namely, the Smith-Hughes
Fund, the Slater Fund, and the General Education Board Fund.

Transportation.--We have a great deal of transportation, and it is very expensive and considerable of a problem.
Our expense always exceeds the budget; and, nevertheless, we do not begin to meet the requirements and appeals
of the people.

Vocational Classes.--Vocational classes have been carried on as heretofore, an afternoon class for commercial
subjects and evening classes for industrial work. The expense of these is reimbursed by the Smith-Hughes Fund
and the classes are quite successful. The Board offers as many opportunities for such classes as the community
desires.

Compulsory Attendance.--An efficient attendance officer has been working in the most thickly populated com-
munity and the results show in the raise of the percentage of attendance each year. Attendance officers in other










1920-1922

communities are appointed but receive no remuneration, as very little seems to be required of them; but it is
a question whether it would not be better to appoint a county attendance officer. The tourist element inter-
feres with the successful operation of the compulsory education laws.

Social Service Work.--There was a lapse of one year in the social service work owing to the resignation of the
social service worker of the previous year, but in September, 1921, a new worker was appointed who had a great
deal of training and was a graduate nurse. The good of her work was felt from the very start and figures show
a marked improvement in the weight and health of the school children throughout the county. Milk lunches have
been introduced in many schools. This idea has received the hearty support and co-operation of the Woman's
Club in many communities. The weight of our pupils is put on the report cards by the teachers. The health of
the child is looked after each month, physical examinations made and followed up by many corrections, often
brought about by the generous assistance of the doctors in the communities. Many cases of hookworm have been
cured. The State Board of Health has also made surveys of the county. The Red Cross supports a dentist for
the school children and it is noticeable when examining the children of Palm Beach County that their teeth are
in very good condition.

The work of the Home Demonstration Agent has been very successful, effective and co-operative. The School Board
shares the expense of this department with the County Commissioners.

New Departments.--Two new departments are to be established in the coming year: that of rural school inspector,
very much needed, because of the reason presented in the first paragraph of this report, namely, the extent of
territory; also, a teacher training department has been organized for the high school.

County Institutes.--County institutes have been held each year and a Spring meeting in addition to the Fall
meeting has taken place in Lake Worth. Being held on Saturday, there is a program in the morning, the after-
noon being given over to the entertainment furnished by the faculty of the Lake Worth schools. This helped to
establish a more friendly feeling among the teachers of the different schools. In 1921 a joint institute was
held between Palm Beach and Broward counties. At this institute a number of inspirational lectures were given.
This movement to combine the counties of the lower east coast resulted in January, 1922, in establishing an
organization known as the Royal Palm Educational Association, which comprises all educational officials in Dade,
Broward and Palm Beach counties. This organization affiliated with the NEA.

Conclusion.-Although this is a sketchy summary of things done in two years, it is but the beginning of things
hoped for.

Respectfully submitted,
Agnes Ballard,
Superintendent.

PASCO COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--

New Buildings and Repairs.-During the last two years we have spent only $1,485.27 for new buildings.

One-room addition to Oak Hill school cost $547.10, which was paid from the Special Tax District funds. Two
other small buildings were erected in rural districts where transportation could not well be effected.

The old building of an abandoned school was used in the construction of one of these, thus lessening the cost
to the School Board.

Bonds to the amount of $50,000.00 have been voted for the erection and equipping of a High School at New Port
Richey. This building is to be completed by the opening of the next school year.

The repairs to buildings are made principally from the district funds and amount to about $2,000.00 per year.

Furniture and Equipment.--Owing to the increase in attendance, we have had to place orders for 175 new desks.
Many of our schools are yet wanting in equipment, due to lack of school funds.

Special Tax Districts.--There are at present twenty-nine special districts in the county. In fact, the entire
county is included in these special tax districts. All, except one, are voting the limit for school purposes,
and add every year about $15,000.00 to our school fund.

Three districts of the county have bonded and erected modern brick buildings--Trilby, Elfers and Richland.

Transportation and Consolidation.--Where transportation can be effected, we have discontinued the district
school and consolidated with the town schools.

We are now transporting twelve schools of the county. While this is more expensive than the one-teacher school,
the results in way of educational attainments give us a good balance. Five of these schools are transported to
Dade City, and out of an enrollment of 398 pupils, 124 are doing high school work.

Compulsory Law.--This county employs an attendance officer, who acts also as clerk to the superintendent, thus
"killing two birds with one stone."

We find that the best way to enforce this law is to build up enthusiasm to where the law is no longer needed.
This is being done here, and the duties of the attendance officer have been lessened to a marked degree.

The law is a good one and has been the means of many children having the benefits of school, when otherwise they
would have been deprived thereof.

Our average attendance for the last year, with an enrollment of twenty-three children (white) less than the year
before, was more than 14 per cent greater. This, of course, is partly due to the compulsory law. Enough has
heretofore been sa:Ld of the defects of this law, and it needs no further comment here.










1920-1922
Schools.-We have four schools of the county doing high school work; one is a senior high, one is an intermedi-
ate, and two are doing junior work. The thirty-five white schools of the county employ sixty-four teachers.
Eight colored schools employ twelve teachers.

Salaries of Teachers.-Owing to financial embarrassment, we had to cut the salaries of some of our principals,
as did other places. In fact, they were not paid in proportion to other teachers, but the grade teachers are
paid the same "war-time salaries." We are making a strong fight to eliminate all third grade certificates, as
well as the temporary.

In reckoning the salary, we consider the ability of the teacher to teach, the grade of his certificate, and the
enrollment of his school. Everything else being equal, we do not feel that a teacher with ten or fifteen pupils
should receive the salary of one who has thirty; nor do we feel that the inexperienced teacher with the same
grade of certificate should receive the same as the one who is old in the work and making good. Salaries for
white teachers run from $65.00 to $200.00. Colored teachers from $40.00 to $70.00.

Home Economics.--Through our Home Demonstration Agent, Mrs. Harriet Ticknor, canning clubs, together with all
other work of the department, have been established throughout the county. The people realize that this is a
very important work, and we have no difficulty whatever in securing good clubs in every community. The result
is, more scientific housekeeping, economic living, and more wholesome food, which is one of the necessities of
life.

Teachers' Institutes.--We have organized a Teachers' Institute which meets every month during the school term.
These meetings are alternated between the east and west end of the county, owing to the distance between the two
and the difficulty in transportation. The teachers seem to be very much interested in this work, and the good
results can clearly be seen.

School Board.-This county has been very fortunate in securing good men for members of the School Board. They
are all good business men who are wide awake to the educational interest of the county, and the welfare of the
schools in general. After serving here for six years, one of our members declined to be a candidate to succeed
himself. The other two were re-elected.

Teachers' Examinations.--I feel the law relative to teachers' examinations should be changed; not that I find
fault with the present Board of Examiners, but that they are overburdened and can not facilitate the work as
should be done. This way of teachers having to wait a month before he can get a hearing, is enough in itself to
kill the law, or bring about some modifications thereof. It also works a hardship on the Superintendent, who is
anxious to know what his teachers have acquired.

We hope the next Legislature will make some needed changes in the examination law.

Finances.--The real crying need of the schools is some other source from which to derive funds for their mainte-
nance.

The ten-mill amendment, if passed, will give relief only to the districts that vote the increase. The question is:
How many will vote it? That remains to be seen, but I fear many districts will not take advantage of it.

If we had an indirect tax, for instance, on gasoline for good schools, as for good roads, the problem would be
solved.

Conclusion.--Like many other counties of the State, we have had to put on drives throughout the county to raise
funds for the maintenance of the schools, but we are pleased to state that the people have been loyal to the
schools, and the drives have met with success. We are now organizing committees to push for the ten-mill amend-
ment and expect to "put it over the top."

The school spirit continues to grow, and as it spreads, we are looking for better work in Pasco County.

Respectfully submitted,
E. B. O'Berry,
County Superintendent.

PINELLAS COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I submit the following biennial report of the schools of Pinellas
County to June 30, 1922:

Buildings.--Pinellas County is fortunate in having good substantial school buildings. Of the twenty schools in
the county there are only four which are constructed of wood, these being one-teacher schools. Of the total of
thirty-two structures (white schools) of the county there are (exclusive of the above mentioned) three wards or
overflow rooms for temporary purposes to bridge over the period of high cost of materials and construction. All
the territory in the county is embraced in fourteen Special Tax School Districts. The more highly populated
districts are already bonded to the limit for costly buildings, and it is now a question how these districts will
be able to provide accommodation for the increasing enrollment.

The spirit of consolidation and centralization of schools has never been dominant in this county. Handsome
school buildings have too often been erected as a development scheme for the sale of property, even in sparsely
populated territory.

Transportation.--Instead of bonding for the erection of one-teacher school buildings as a development or educa-
tional scheme, a district would do much better by bonding for "Speed Wagons" for the transportation of its pupils
to a centralized school employing teachers at the ratio of one teacher to the grade instead of eight grades to
the teachers. Instead of letting bids for transportation to the lowest bidder, which plan almost invariably
gives the least satisfactory service, the district should own first-class 'busses, should select through its
trustees and county superintendent a responsible driver, who may be a pupil or a teacher boarding at the end of
the 'bus line. Such a person will agree to operate the 'bus at a very low and reasonable pay.

-65-











1920-1922

Such a scheme has been adopted for experiment in one of our districts and is meeting with great success. A set-
tled, business-like eighteen-year old girl drives the big, commodious 'bus at one dollar per day, and is transport-
ing the pupils which were formerly served by two 'busses costing a total of $200 per month, whereas the total
cost of the transportation now employed and much more satisfactory is $40 per month, including up-keep.

Teachers' Institutes.--In addition to a County Institute, which meets semi-annually, our county has been divided,
into three institute districts, the teachers of each district meeting each month on Friday afternoon at a local
high school, whose principal is in charge of the meeting, and whose grades, from Primary through High School,
inclusive, are in session for one or more periods after assembling of teachers. This gives teachers an opportunity
for needed and helpful observation. After this period comes a program of the reading-circle and discussions, etc.

Furniture.--Our schools are all furnished with modern single patented desks. On account of the effective enforce-
ment of the attendance law, and on account of growth of population, our county has found it necessary to purchase
1,000 additional desks for the last two sessions of school.

Respectfully,
R. S. Blanton,
County Superintendent.

POLK COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request for a report of the schools of Polk County for the past two years, I
beg to advise that I am unable to give a full report for the two years, as my tenure in office was begun in
January, 1921, which embraces a part of the school year begun by the former administration. I tried to carry
out the plans and contracts during the remainder of that term, as nearly as possible, although in some instances
we found it necessary to make some changes.

The people of the State are familiar with the conditions regarding the financial affairs of this office when I
assumed charge of it. They are also familiar with the changes and results. During the first nine months of this
period I gave practically all of my time to the auditing and revising of the books. A complete change in office
force was made, together with a change in the keeping of the records and accounting. We now have a complete
record, not only of the finances, that is, receipts and expenditures, but an individual record of each school in
the county.

Finances.--The progress made in the schools during this period is not so noticeable from a standpoint of increased
expenditures over the previous years, but in the general condition and work in the schools. The School Board has
made a study of the schools and the finances from a business standpoint, and tried to give better results for the
amount expended. One of our greatest difficulties in financing the schools is in the collection of taxes, that
is the bulk of the funds are not available until after April first, which forces us to borrow money to maintain
the schools for the first half of the term (four months), thereby paying thousands of dollars annually for interest.
This is quite an item of expense, as the salaries of the teachers alone for the school year 1921 was $262,377.33.

Enrollment.--The enrollment of the schools increases from ten to fifteen per cent each year, particularly along
the Ridge section :n the eastern part of the county. If it had not been that during this period of increase in
enrollment, an increase of three mills was permitted to the general school fund, this county would have been
financially embarrassed; and, if the increase in the maintenance of the schools can not be taken care of by the
proposed amendment to be ratified in the November election, I am wondering what will be the situation under the
present constitutional limitation. Polk County is wide awake to the situation and will, I believe, be almost
unanimous in carrying the amendment, which will insure the high standard of efficiency which we are trying to
keep in the public schools of this county.

Buildings and Equipment.--Since the last report from this county we have completed and equipped, with modern
furniture and apparatus, the following schools. Crooked Lake, Haskell, Lakeland, Davenport and Winter Haven, at
a cost of approximately $200,000. During the same period of time a great deal has been expended on the rural
schools. A number of them have been consolidated and buildings provided for the better accommodation of the
children in these districts. Sanitary conditions, seating, and lighting have been given particular attention.

Rural Schools.--During the present school year it has been my purpose to try to raise the rural schools to the
highest degree of efficiency possible; and, with the means available and this in view, I have employed experienced
teachers with special training to direct the work. A great effort is being made by the teachers to have the
schools on the accredited list of rural schools under the requirements as adopted by the State Board; and, from
my observations, I believe that at least seventy-five per cent of the rural schools of Polk County can easily be
placed on the accredited list.

Teachers' Association.--The Polk County Teachers' Association was organized last year, and meetings are held at
least four times during the school year. These meetings are well attended and the Board allows the teachers to
count this day as taught; or, if they do not attend, the day's pay is deducted. These meetings have proven a
great success in every respect, and the teachers express their appreciation of the helpful instruction they
receive at such times.

There is perfect harmony among the several Boards of Trustees, the County School Board and the County Superintendent.
We realize the seriousness of the educational situation of the State and are trying to meet the demands from a
financial standpoint with inadequate revenue by working carefully and hopefully for the advancement of the
public schools of the county.

In this connection I desire to express my thanks in behalf of the School Board and teachers of this county for
the hearty co-ope-ation of the State Department, particularly the State Superintendent, also the State schools,
as they have always been ready and willing to assist us in an able manner whenever called upon.

Respectfully submitted,
C. A. Parker,
County Superintendent.











1920-1922

PUTNAM COUNTY.

Dear Mr. Cawthon:--Complying with your request for a general report on the schools of this County for the past
two years, I beg to submit the following:

County Board.--Since the accomplishments and progress of the schools of a county are due largely to the co-opera-
tion of the County Board with the County Superintendent, I take Pleasure in stating that I have had a most
excellent Board for the past two years. I take this opportunity of getting the names of my members in this report.
Member C. W. Loveland, of District 1, Chairman J. H. Haughton of District 2, and member R. W. Varnes of District
3. They have willingly listened to constructive criticism but have been very conservative in discussing school
affairs with patrons outside regular meetings of the Board. They have at all times consulted the office relative
to disputes or controversies before making promises. They have supported, in a constructive way, rather than
hindered, as many Boards are inclined to do, the program for progress.

Special Tax Districts and Trustees.--We now have twenty-two special tax districts in the county. Wherever possible,
during the past two years, these have been enlarged, and at present the entire county is included in Special Tax
Districts. These districts all levy a special tax of three mills, except Hollister, Florahome and Francis.

The aggregate income of all the districts has been increased from $20,100, in 1920, to $28,000 in 1922. Some of
this increase is due to the increase in values, but largely to the added territory incorporated. With only one
exception, the trustees of every district co-operated with this office in maintaining high standards. In general
the trustees have aided materially in holding the best grammar schools to a term of eight months. At present
only one district has a bonded debt. This amounts to $130,000. Six districts have an aggregate indebtedness of
$15,000 in time warrants.

Buildings and Equipment.--New equipment for the Mellon Grammar School has been placed in the building throughout
at a cost of $19,000. Twelve thousand dollars of this expense was borne by the general school fund inasmuch as
the building. is used to accommodate the county high school. A temporary building has been constructed at Crescent
City, at a cost of $7,000, to accommodate both high and grammar schools. This building is to be replaced by a
permanent building at a cost of about $60,000 as soon as bonds can be voted and disposed of. Two new rural
schools have been erected, at a cost of $6,500, to accommodate an increased enrollment.

Three other buildings have been enlarged at a cost of $2,000, making a total cost for new buildings in two years
$15,500. During the past two years we have bought and installed in the rural schools of the county, new desks,
new blackboards, globes, dictionaries, maps, curtains, and libraries, to the amount of $13,000.00. It was, of
course, a bad time to buy equipment, with need for all the money we could get for teachers' salaries, but condi-
tions seemed to get worse instead of better each year, and with many schools using double home-made desks, and
having no libraries, maps, globes or shades, purchase of this equipment could no longer be put off.

Accredited Schools.-Putnam High School is accredited by the Southern Association. We had eight secondary schools
accredited by the State last term and others were eligible but could not be inspected by the State Inspector.
The coming term we hope to have Crescent City accredited by the State as Senior High School Class B, also an
additional number of rural schools.

Attendance.--High school attendance of the county continues to grow under our system of High School transportation
installed in 1918 and reported in the 1920 biennial. High school enrollment of the two High Schools of the
county has grown from 87 in 1916, of which number 8 were from the rural districts of the county, to 224 in 1921,
of which number 48 were from the rural districts of the county. Offering High School advantages to all pupils
of the county as a stimulus, the attendance in the eighth grade of all the white schools of the county has
increased from 96 in 1916 to 139 in 1921. All other grammar grades increased from 1,407 in 1916, to 1,615 in
1921, attributing the increase in these grades to natural growth and the compulsory attendance law, as many of
the pupils seeking a certificate from the eighth grade were above the compulsory attendance law. This advanced age
in the eighth grade being due to the fact that prior to 1918 none of the rural schools of the county were systemati-
cally graded or the work of these teachers supervised.

The enrollment of the white schools of the county in 1916 was 1,590, as against 1,978 for 1921, due to growth of
the county. The average attendance in 1916, 1,221, as against 1,620 for 1921, due to attendance law. In the
attendance at the two County High Schools twenty-three different grammar schools of the county are represented
as result of high school transportation. In 1916 only four county schools were represented in high school.

Consolidation and Transportation.--With the aid of good roads we have added one more 'bus which conveys two one-
teacher schools to the Crescent City consolidated school. This makes in all four schools merged into the Crescent
City school, which covers the available territory for this school. During the biennium we have also added one
more 'bus and one more one-teacher school to Palatka. We have also consolidated two other one-teacher schools
with larger schools.

Teachers and Salaries.--The salaries of the teachers in the county under our system as reported 1920 has enabled
us to hold our best teachers. It has also supplied the places of incompetent ones with competent ones. There is
no question that the efficiency of both teachers and schools of the county is about 100 per cent higher than it
was five years ago, while at the same time salaries in 1920 were 72 per cent higher than they were in 1916.
Unfortunately we were compelled to make a general reduction of 25 per cent in our scale of salaries for the school
year beginning July 1, 1922, in order to stay within our income. If we can pay the price, we can demand efficiency,
but, with limited income and low salaries, we likewise have to lower or limit our requirements.

Supervision.--We have been able to retain the supervisors in the city schools. In addition to this during the
biennium we have laid a great deal of stress on rural supervision. Miss S. H. Bard, who is also attendance
officer, gives a large part of her time to this branch of the work. We have a regular form on which every
teacher in the county files her daily program in this office the first month of school. These programs are
studied and compared. Then we get out to the schools, using this program as a guide, to those needing most
immediate attention. An hour's visit by the Superintendent to a school needing help is practically useless.
He might possibly be able to spend the day in a few schools, but must of necessity limit his supervision for
executive duties. The County Supervisor is just as necessary as a City Supervisor, and the rural schools are










1920-1922


just as much entitled to supervision as the city schools. The past two summers the Board has released Miss
Bard from duty so that she might attend the summer school. The county has gained thereby in efficiency in
supervision many times the cost.

Plans for Next Biennium.--During last session of the Legislature we got a special act for the county allowing
the issuance of one hundred and fifteen thousand dollars in time-interest-bearing warrants, for the erection
of a County High School building at Palatka and $25,000 of the above amount to go toward erecting a County
High School building at Crescent City. This act carried a referendum clause. The warrants have been voted
already by the county and we plan to begin getting these warrants validated and sold as soon as possible and
to begin work. The District of Crescent City plans to vote a bond issue of $40,000 to erect a Grammar School
building at Crescent City, in conjunction with the county appropriation for High School. We also plan a large
consolidated Grammar School on the Southern Railway as soon as the highway through this section is complete,
combining four, possibly five, one-teacher schools and onetwo-teacher school. We do not consolidate for
economy, but for efficiency.

Respectfully submitted,
C. H. Price,
County Superintendent.

ST. JOHNS COUNTY.

No report filed.

SAINT LUCIE COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--Complying with your request, I herewith submit this report of the educational work in Saint Lucie
County for the past two years.

New Buildings.--We have constructed one new building in one of the growing rural sections of the county at a
cost of five thousand dollars. Bonds were voted by the special tax district and a substantial and beautiful
building erected, well adapted for school and other community activities. An artesian well furnishes pure
drinking water.

We have also completed a five-room addition to the Vero building, giving us a thirteen-room building in this
growing center. Honds were also voted for this improvement.

Consolidation.--We are continuing our policy of consolidation as fast as feasible. Have closed two rural schools
this year. We have only a few schools remaining which are so located as to make transportation possible. We
are fortunate in having a system of good oil roads, making it possible to concentrate our pupils at several
points. We now have almost three-fourths of our white children in two schools, Fort Pierce and Vero. This
system is almost universally successful. Any opposition to the plan soon disappears.

Hot Lunches.--At three schools all pupils who care to take advantage of them are served with lunches. Several
hot dishes being available at each meal. At Fort Pierce, the only one run before the present season, the
sales amounted to about five thousand dollars last year. Children whose parents are too poor to pay for
lunches, are served free of cost, and much good is done in this way. All these lunch counters are run by a
committee of ladies without any expense to the school board, and on a non-profit plan. Each dish or item is
sold at the uniform price of five cents, which sum pays for the cost of the food and serving. These committees
accept any outside financial help tendered, which funds are applied to the charitable feature. These cafeterias
when properly managed are a real benefit to the school.

Finance.--For a lack of funds we were compelled to close the commercial department in the Fort Pierce High
School; also the kindergarten in this same school was closed for the same reason. With these two exceptions,
we have been able to run our schools for a full term, which is on an eight months' basis. The Senior High
School at Fort Pierce alone having a nine months' term, several small rural schools only seven months.

We have not been able to make additions to libraries, equipment and other features necessary to make the advance-
ment or progress needed to keep pace with other developments around us. Many brighter days in this respect are
in store for Saint Lucie in the near future.

Vocational Work.--By the aid of Smith-Hughes funds we are able to have two classes in part time general continua-
tion work, twenty-three pupils enrolled at present time. We have been very fortunate in having an efficient
teacher available, so that this work has been especially valuable to the young people of the community. The
school board has loaned them the equipment from the commercial department of the high school here. Cost is only
a few dollars per pupil for books and room rent, which necessarily must be located in the business section of
the city, as all students are employed; this being a requisite to the admission to the class.

Teachers and Salaries.--Teachers' salaries have been raised only in individual cases, and only in the principal-
ships in the Fort: Pierce and Vero schools to any appreciable extent. None have been lowered. We have had a
full supply of teachers available at all times, and we have a better balanced body of teachers of a higher
average of efficiency than ever before., but we are still employing too many untrained teachers. Principal
trouble is the lack of funds to hold the trained or capable ones in the county, or often in the profession. We
need funds, and, as soon as available, some training should be made a prerequisite to the obtaining of a teacher's
certificate.

General Statement.--The interest in the school affairs in the county is in a good and healthy condition. All
sections of the county are awake and interested in school work. I am positive that many of the special tax
districts are not only willing but anxious to provide more funds as soon as the constitutional obstacles are
removed. Longer terms, better equipment and many more advantages will be provided for the youth of their communi-
ties.
Very truly yours,
E. E. Smith,
Superintendent Public Instruction
Saint Lucie County.











1920-1922
SANTA ROSA COUNTY.

No report filed.

SARASOTA COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--Complying with your request, I beg to submit the following report for the time since Sarasota was
created to July 1, 1922.

Buildings and Repairs.--Since the creation of Sarasota County, we have erected one new building in District
No. 10 at Englewood, recovered our County High School at Sarasota, and floored three rooms in the basement
for recitation rooms, equipped a cottage for domestic science and art, built a pavilion with kitchenette
for lunches for the pupils, and repaired the primary building at Sarasota.

Furniture.--We have had to increase number of seats in most of our schools, and, in doing this, have had a
care to make all seats uniform.

High School.--We have one school in the county doing high school work--the County High School at Sarasota.
Four of the five high school teachers are college graduates and the fifth holds a Life State Certificate.

Transportation.--The Board has adopted no policy for transportation; but three of the rural districts trans-
port their high school pupils to County High School from a distance of twenty miles, and several of the
other districts transport high school pupils at the expense of the district.

We hope to consolidate some of our schools in the southern part of the county and establish a first-class
Junior High School.

Our county is just a little more than a year old, and I feel that we are making fine progress.

The whole county is divided into ten Special Tax School Districts, and all but one voted the full three mills
and will vote the ten mills when the opportunity arises.

We are hampered by debt and interest, but are expecting relief when we can have the districts use ten mills
and leave the general fund to apply to our debt.

All of our schools are crowded, and we are inaugurating a building plan to take care of the increase in
attendance.

Yours very truly,
T. W. Yarbrough,
Superintendent Sarasota County.

SEMINOLE COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--I hand you herewith the biennial report of Seminole County schools for the two-year period ending
June 30, 1922.

Attendance.--The attendance of pupils in the public schools of this county has increased more rapidly during
this period than during any two years in the history of the county. This is due partly to the compulsory
school attendance law, but far more to the rapid growth of the population of the county. While we are doing
our beet to enforce the attendance law, this must, of necessity, be done rather ineffectually, as our finances
are too limited to permit of our engaging the services of a paid attendance officer. What is being done is
through the co-operation of the teachers and trustees with the County Superintendent. There are, however,
very few children of school age not in fairly regular attendance upon our schools, as the sentiment of the
public Is very strongly in favor of compulsory school attendance. During this period our school enrollment
has increased from 2,600 to 3,200, or almost twenty-five per cent.

Buildings.--The large increase in enrollment has necessitated the erection of new buildings wherever possible.
The Oviedo school district has issued bonds in the sum of twenty thousand dollars and a beautiful brick school
building has just been completed, and will be occupied for the first time during the session of 1922-23. This
building has four class rooms on the ground floor and a large auditorium on the second floor. The enrollment
of this school, which is doing full four years high school work, is approximately one hundred. Doubtless,
within the next few years, additions will have to be made on this building, as the population of Oviedo is
rapidly increasing, through immigration of citizens of other states, who are becoming interested in the pro-
ductive farm lands in this section.

The Sanford school district has also issued bonds during the past year and a ten-room brick primary school
building is being erected. This building will be ready for use soon after the holidays and is badly needed.
At present many of the primary classes are very much crowded, and in some cases a number of the pupils are
attending school only until mid-day, while others take their places in the afternoon. The high school build-
ing is no longer of sufficient size to accommodate the large enrollment in the higher grades, and a three-
room addition is being constructed to take care of this situation. When both of the above mentioned improve-
ments and additions are completed, the congestion will be wholly relieved for at least the next two or three
years. Both the Geneva and the Longwood school districts are planning to issue bonds during the coming year
in order to erect new buildings adequate for their school needs. Chuluota, also, is feeling the necessity of
a new and larger building, and will probably get in line with the rest of the county and issue bonds for this
purpose. When this is done, every district in the county will have bonded itself for school buildings and
improvements, and we shall have a system second to few in the State.

Teachers.--Although our revenue for general school purposes is very inadequate to provide attractive salaries,
nevertheless, we have been fortunate in securing one of the best corps of teachers in the State. Our teachers
understand our financial condition and are loyal to their county and their work; and the graduates of our
schools are taking their stand with the graduates of the largest schools in the wealthiest counties.











1920-1922


Finances.--The banks of Seminole County stand ready all the time to do their share toward making our schools a
success, and have never failed to respond to calls for assistance. When the recent time-warrant law became
effective, Seminole County was in debt to the banks of Sanford and Oviedo in the sum of sixteen thousand dollars.
Time-warrants were issued, bearing interest at the rate of six per cent per annum, and these banks purchased the
warrants at face value, and are holding them at present, when they could lend their money on just as good security
at eitht or ten per cent. Not one of our time-warrants was sold outside our own county, and the school patrons
of Seminole County are proud of the patriotic spirit manifested by her local bands. During the past two years
we have expended for schools proper, a total of $134,310.75, of which amount $96,097.50 was for teachers' salaries,
and $21,853.00 for transportation of pupils to the several schools, the remainder being spent for repairs, janitors,
fuel, books and sundry incidentals.

Conclusion.--A fine spirit of co-operation exists among the several boards of trustees and the county school board,
as well as throughout: the patrons and friends of the schools of the entire county, and the work of education is
taking the highest place in the minds and hearts of the people of this section, which spirit is certain to result
in the continued advancement and improvement of our schools.

Respectfully submitted,
T. W. Lawton,
County Superintendent.

SUMTER COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--I am sending you herewith my biennial report for the two years ending June 30, 1922.

Buildings and Repairs.--Within the last two years we have built five new school houses for whites and one for negroes,
at a total expenditure of $43,000.00. A new, modern school building was placed at Center Hill at a cost of
$24,000.00; the building which was destroyed by fire at Wildwood has been replaced for $15,000.00; and three
rural school buildings and one school for negroes have been built for $4,000.00. For repairs during the past two
years we have spent $1,557.00. Our repair bill has nut been so heavy, due largely to the fact that we have been
building all we could.

High Schools.--For a long time the county has been trying to maintain six High Schools in the county, with the
result that we are not able financially to properly equip and pay high school teachers of a sufficient number to
accredit all these schools; now there is a progressive move throughout the county to place an accredited high
school in either end of the county, and we expect to see this move carried into effect in another year. This will
place upwards of 100 pupils in either high school.

Special Tax Districts.--We have fifteen special tax districts in the county, with a total of twenty-eight white
schools to maintain; our school money derived from the three mill tax school fund amounts to $9,460.00; our people
are willing to pay a larger district tax, and to me it seems to be the only present relief for school finances.
While the relief may not be permanent, it will be a great factor of relief for the present strained condition of
so many of our schools.

Bonded Districts.--There are five bonded districts in the county with outstanding bonds totaling $24,000.00; all
of these bonds have been levied to build new school houses, without which aid it is next to impossible to erect
new buildings. Bonds have aided wonderfully the school conditions in this county; schools can easily be maintained
by the county provided there is not such a drain on the general school fund to build new school houses, and in this
way bonds have answered the question.

Compulsory Attendance Law.--We have always appointed an attendance officer and have seen that he was on the job;
the result has been that each year the burden becomes lighter, and people have come to believe that it is proper
thing to do. It is a safe estimate to say that our school attendance has increased from 25 to 33 per cent since
the enactment and the enforcement of this law. My experience has been that it is generally the same people in each
locality who give the attendance officer trouble every year; and I think we shall experience very little trouble
with the next generation in regard to this matter.

Comparative Efficiency of Rural and Town Schools.--We are trying to help the rural schools by giving each school a
six months' county term, and most of them are able to extend the length of term through the aid of district funds.
We have several rural schools which run for eight months in the year. I think the rural schools are not up to
standard, largely because in most cases there are entirely too many grades for one teacher to handle; pupils are too
few to justify more teachers. Very few counties have enough money to build up-to-date rural schools, and proper
equipment is lacking.

Finances.--The question uppermost with every school board is that of finance. The school system of Florida will
never do big things until we have a different system of revenue for our schools. Our pupils have doubled within
the last ten years, and yet we have very little more money with which to handle the situation; I find that most
people in this county do not take kindly to high taxes, yet they are perfectly willing that our school tax be
doubled. If there is any one thing our people are interested in, it is our schools; we have money enough to run
the schools of this county, but while this is being done we lack equipment and other things so vital to the school
life. More than this, we need big men at the head of our county affairs; men of vision and men who are willing
to sacrifice for the public good. The legislation that is needed for our schools is that which will give us
speedy relief from a monetary standpoint.

Yours very truly,
W. T. Eddins,
Superintendent Sumter County Schools.

SUWANNEE COUNTY.

No report filed.

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1920-1922

TAYLOR COUNTY.

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I beg to submit the following report of our educational work in
Taylor County for the past two years. We have, doubtless, left undone much that we should have done; and,
in a number of cases, may have done what we ought not to have done. Yet in spite of being human and subject
to error, I believe that real progress has been made.

New Buildings.--We have spent during the past two years approximately $12,000.00 for new buildings, additions and
repairs. Three new buildings were erected, in each case as a result of consolidation of two or more schools;
additions have been made to four school buildings and more or less extensive repairs at a number of places. A
few words as to the new buildings.

The school building at Carbur is a result of the consolidation of three schools. The Board secured a real bargain
in this building. It is a two-story structure with six classrooms, each 24 feet by 30 feet, and an auditorium with a
seating capacity of four hundred. This was built at a total cost of $5,000.00. In spite of errors in its plan-
ing and some faults in its construction, I am proud of it.

The Oakland school house was built as a result of the consolidation of two schools. It has three good sized class-
rooms and cost $1,485.00. It is situated in a community that is bound to grow, and it will serve this community
well.

The school building at Covington resulted from the consolidation of two schools. This building is a great mistake,
It is not only of poor construction but is located in the wrong place, and as long as it remains there will pre-
vent some worth-while consolidation in the special tax school district in which it is located. Fortunately, its
cost was less than $500.00; but it isn't worth that.

High Schools.--Last term we had only one accredited senior high school, viz: The Taylor County High School at
Perry and this was the first time in its history that it was accredited. The Carbur High School will this year,
I think, get accreditation as a junior high school. One year of high school work is being done at Fenholloway.

The Taylor County High School at Perry now has an enrollment of more than one hundred in the high school proper.
There are few better laboratories or libraries in any school in Florida, and these are to be found only in the
larger cities. Prof. Chas. M. Jones and a competent corps of assistants are doing fine work in this school, in
which we all take great pride. Both classical and scientific courses are maintained.

The Carbur school, under the principalship of Prof. J. Homer Kelly, ex-superintendent of Lafayette County, is
growing by leaps and bounds. I really believe that this is one of the very best country high schools in the State.

Special Tax School District.--When my term of office began there were twenty-three special tax school districts
in Taylor County. By consolidation we have cut them down to twenty-one. There is very little sub-district in-
debtedness, and this is mainly at Perry, where the number of pupils is increasing at a much greater rate than the
assessed value of the taxable property. We have a condition in this county that doubtless obtains in others, viz:
the inequitable formation of so many special tax school districts. Several districts where the residents them-
selves pay nearly no school taxes (the taxes being paid by the timber-holding corporations) can run their
schools practically the year around. In several others where the number of pupils is much greater and the resi-
dents themselves pay a good part of the taxes, little can be added to the county term because of the small amount
of special tax school district taxes. We have no bonding districts.

Compulsory Attendance Law.--At no time since it went into effect has the compulsory attendance law had proper
enforcement in Taylor County. Six months prior to my coming into office the old Board left off all efforts to
enforce this law by discontinuing the position of attendance officer. It was nearly six months after my term
began before I could induce the new Board to appoint one. Many think a great mistake was done when they came to
make the appointment, but even at that there was an immediate increase in school attendance. In July of this year
the Board again discontinued the attendance officer, and again we went along until the Board met again in October
without making any attempt to enforce the compulsory law. In October, however, a very fine young man was
appointed, and I am not only hoping that this very necessary law will be better enforced than ever before, but that
our sheriff and county judge will give the attendance officer an effective measure of co-operation.

Consolidation of Schools.--As a result of consolidation we have got rid of six very poor, ineffective schools, and
in every case the consolidated schools have greatly increased the quality of the work. I am especially proud
of the consolidated school at Carbur, and to you, Mr. State Superintendent, is due a goodly share of the credit
for its establishment. The total enrollment of the three schools, which were consolidated to form Carbur, was
in the last year of their existence one hundred nineteen. The average attendance for the same period was eighty-
two. Last year, the first year of consolidation, there was an enrollment of over two-hundred and an average
attendance of one hundred fifty-five. This year the school will make a still better showing.

At Oakland, Covington and Fenholloway, the other places where we have consolidated schools, there has been a
great gain in the results obtained.

I would not have it inferred that all our efforts at consolidation have been "smooth sailing," quite the contrary.
Opposing minorities have made themselves felt at times, and a casual visitor would have thought on a few occasions
that war was going to break out; but, in spite of the determination manifested by those opposing consolidation, we
are not going to take any backward steps. If this writer should ever again meet with political defeat as he has
within the past, he would much rather it was for doing something than for doing nothing.

Comparative Efficiency of Rural and Town Schools.--At Perry is the only school we have that can be classed as a
town school. The consolidated school at Carbur, having five teachers below the high school, approximately very nearly
the work of a good town school. In these two schools much better work is done than in the other schools of the
county. It is, in the first place, easier to get good teachers, and in the second place, even good teachers,
who have to teach from three to eight grades, are heavily handicapped. More than half our country schools are
one-teacher schools and in many cases we have to take the best we can get. The boys and girls in these country
schoolshave less than half a chance and they certainly deserve better. I am sorry to say that all too often their
parents are in the way of their getting better things. In allbut about a dozen of the schools consolidation would










1920-1922

at least double their chances, but there is so much opposition that we will, in too many cases, have to wait.
How I wish I could do all I wish for these country boys and girls who have no chance to get anything approaching
a real education.

Other Matters.--The State Board of Examiners is giving us too many teachers who are impossible from the stand-
point of scholarship, and something must be done to stop this thing, because the children of the state are the
chief sufferers.

The Teacher-Training Course for high schools needs revision, in my judgment. At present I fear that few of
those departments that are in operation are merely "cramming" schools, helping boys and girls with little scholar-
ship to obtain certificates.

Our County Demonstration Agent and our Home Demonstration Agent are always ready to co-operate with us in the good work
they are doing, and I am striving to make the co-operation mutual. I hope to get a Smith-Hughes school for our
county next year.

Wishing you continued success in your work as leader of the educational forces of Florida, I am,

Yours very truly,
W. T. Cash,
County Superintendent.

UNION COUNTY.,

No report filed.

VOLUSIA COUNTY.

No report filed.

WAKULLA COUNTY.

No report filed.

WALTON COUNTY.

No report filed.

WASHINGTON COUNTY.

No report filed.











1922-1924
ALACHUA COUNTY

No report filed.

BAKER COUNTY

No report filed.

BAY COUNTY

No report filed.

BRADFORD COUNTY

No report filed.

BREVARD COUNTY

No report filed.

BROWARD COUNTY

No report filed.

CALHOUN COUNTY

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I herewith submit a brief biennial report for the year ending
June 30, 1924.

New Buildings and Repairs.--The Wewahitchka Junior High School building is now under contract for construction.
This building will be constructed of brick at a cost of $16,000 and will be quite an imposing edifice and a
credit to the patrons of the Wewahitchks district, who bonded the district to build the house. The brick are
already on the site and the building will be under the contractor in a few days and ready for use the latter
part of this term.

All of our school buildings are in a fair condition, equipped with patent desks and all modern equipment required
for the advancement of the work.

Schools.--The Calhoun County High School located at Blountstown is now in line for accreditation with Prof.
Emmett S. Walden as Principal and a corps of five teachers who hold degrees from standard colleges. All of
these are properly certificated. A Department of Home Economics has been added to meet the requirements of
the law going into effect in 1924. Physical Education is also taught daily in compliance of the law. A
Teacher Training Department has been added and good work is anticipated with the large enrollment in that de-
partment. This school is now enjoying the best term in the history of the school. The laboratory is fully
equipped for all sciences and the library has more than eight hundred volumes. The Blountatown district now
employs 14 teachers and the student body supports three special teachers in the departments of music, expression
and art.

The Altha Vocational High School is doing good work. Prof. Sutherland is Principal and the Smith-Hughes Voca-
tional Teacher, Mr. Guy Cox, is doing a lasting good. The Altha district employs 14 teachers. Plans are under
way to construct high school building there.

We have another junior high school at Port Saint Joe that is in line for accreditation. We hope to do some
real good work there in the future.

There are three or four other good three or four teacher schools in the county.

Consolidation.--Port Saint Joe is consolidated with one school, Blountstown is consolidated with three schools
and plans are made for several consolidated rural schools.

There are at present four bonded districts in the county.

Examination Laws.--The people of Calhoun County as a whole and the teachers especiallyare well pleased with the
new examination laws. They are so far ahead of the "Flying Squadron" that there is no comparison.

Special Tax School Districts.--The whole county is in special tax districts. Most of the districts levy a high
mill tax. Some levy the maximum of ten mills.

Finance.--We are meeting all financial obligations and paying the teachers salaries when due. We have to borrow
some until the taxes come in. But as a whole, our financial standing is good.

Compulsory Law.--The Compulsory Law is not doing much good in the County. It has done some good but the people
have come to regard it, as many other laws, too lax with too many evasion clauses.

Attendance.--The attendance of the county as a unit has been exceedingly good. Port Saint Joe, Blountstown and
Altha districts are especially good in attendance. The average attendance will be in keeping the compulsory
law with the whole.

Teachers.--We have plenty of teachers this year, but a great _any are holding second and third grade certificates.

Progress.--Our county has made rapid progress in the last two years in education. The majority of our people
are very much interested in education and want the best; but our financial condition is some drawback.

-73-











1922-1924

Conclusion.--The School Board and Trustees have worked in perfect harmony in the county for the advancement
of the schools. We feel that much and lasting good has been accomplished. But as the several districts in-
crease their mill tax to the maximum more improvements can be made. We feel that our worthy State Superintendent
has been a friend and advisor during the past two years and has filled the office as efficiently as any man could
have under the conditions. We wish for him a long period of service to Florida.

Respectfully submitted,
P. F. Fisher
County Superintendent

CHARLOTTE COUNTY

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I herewith submit the following biennial report of schools of
Charlotte County.

Buildings.--Owing to the fact that Charlotte County is only three years old, we have not entered on an extensive
building program, The advocates of good roads have bonded and put forth every effort to carry bond issues to
secure the roads, and it was not thought wise to promote a bond issue for schools, until the roads were assured
or completed. As the roads are an assured fact, we are now looking forward to bonding for better buildings. In
the last two years additions have been made to the Punts Gorda High School building, costing over three thousand
dollars. The building is still inadequate and a new one is badly needed.

High Schools.--One Senior High School is maintained at Punts Gords and a Junior High School at Charlotte Harbor.

Compulsory Attendance.--A fairly good attendance throughout the county by using diplomacy and the attendance
law. Permit me to say, there are a number of defects in the present law, which should be remedied. In my
opinion, there should be a stiffer penalty and the attendance officer should be vested with the powers of arrest.
As it stands now, the attendance officer has no power whatever or authority to arrest a person guilty of
violating this law, and to secure its enforcement he must necessarily make an affidavit, swear out a warrant for
the offender and give it to the sheriff for execution. If the offender lives in the rural districts, several
miles from the court house, a bond will be required to guarantee the cost of court. There are so many loopholes
in the law, that it is almost impossible to convict, if the offender fights the case. In case of no conviction,
it entails a burden on the county to pay costs. If he is convicted the penalty is only five dollars, which may
be remitted for the first offense. I find that the attendance law works admirably, in cities and towns, where
the city appoints a truant officer to work in co-operation with the county attendance officer.

Consolidation of Schools.--We are transporting pupils and consolidating schools, wherever it is feasible. All
high school pupils above the tenth grade are transported to the Punts Gorda High School. The average cost per
pupil for the term, is about forty dollars each. It is the policy of the present Board to further extend the
system of transportation, as good roads are developed.

Number of Board Members.--In my opinion, the Legislature should change the present law concerning the number of
Board members. It seems to me that there should be five members, who should receive their nomination in the
Primary from the county at large. The County Superintendent should be an ex-officio member of the School Board,
with an equal vote on all questions. All teachers should be nominated by the County Superintendent and employed
by the Board of Public Instruction. A superintendent should not be held responsible for inefficient service of
incompetent teachers, unless he is authorized by law to employ efficient teachers, whom he knows will give satis-
factory service.

Respectfully submitted,
W. E. Bell
County Superintendent

CITRUS COUNTY

No report filed.

CLAY COUNTY

Deer Mr. Cawthon:--In compliance with your request of recent date, I am writing you a short sketch of the
school affairs of Clay County.

Financially we sire not in good condition. We have lost much money by non-payment of taxes. Thousands of acres
of our lands in the county have returned to the State and we have lost the taxes on them. This puts us in bad
shape from a monetary standpoint.

We have not been able to meet our obligations on our buildings and we did not pay back all that we borrowed
last year. We still owe $1800.00 on last year's debts. We are issuing Certificates of Indebtedness to our
teachers and they are borrowing from the bank. We take up those certificates as fast as we get the money.

All of our white schools are running and several of our colored. Taking everything in consideration, we have
as good schools as we have ever had in the county. Our teachers are loyal to the school officials, and doing
their best.

We have consolidated wherever it could possibly be done, and I believe it is our only salvation, to keep our
schools running. We are transporting eight small country schools to Green Cove Springs, two to Central School,
one to Middleburg, and all that we can to Doctor's Inlet. Our attendance is better than usual this year. The
people seem to realize that getting their children in a consolidated school is the right thing to do. Of course
some of them object to it, but we finally persuade them.

We have not built any new houses this year, and have sold some of our old ones, where we have consolidated with
other schools. We will get only two of our rural schools on the State Accredited list this year, on account of
not being able to run them long enough. Our salaries range from $50.00 to $200.00 per month, according to the
grade of the teacher and the school.










1.922-1924

We have no bonded indebtedness, and if we could have collected the taxes due us, we'd have met every obligation
we had and would have had some money left to begin our schools on.

Our Board of Public Instruction and I have used every effort in our power to keep the schools running and have
given the children every possible advantage. With kind regards to you, I am

Yours very truly,
P.L. Tippins
County Superintendent

COLLIER COUNTY

No report filed.

COLUMBIA COUNTY

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request I take pleasure in submitting the following brief report of Columbia
County for the biennium ending June 30th, 1924.

Buildings.--During the past two years we have built only one new building and that was for the negroes at
Kings Welcome at a cost of about $3,500.00. We received aid from the Rosenwald Fund in the construction of this
building, which we appreciate very much and wish to express our thanks to Hon. J. H. Brinson for the co-opera-
tion given. We hope to make this a Teacher Training School in the near future.

Repairs to Buildings.--I wish to go back of the present biennium and state that on entering office Jan. 1st,
1921, I found practically all of the schools of the county in a dilapidated state, and during the past three
years we have spent something over $10,000 in repairing buildings and in adding rooms to buildings.

High Schools.--We have one Senior "A" High School in the county located at Lake City, known as the Columbia
High School. This school is located on the south side of West Duval street, on a five acre plot of land with
many beautiful pine and oak trees for shade. In this school we have twenty-four teachers, and carry the full
twelve grades. In addition we maintain Home Economic and Commercial Courses. This school is also on the South-
ern Accredited list, and the graduates are admitted to all Southern Colleges without examination.

The Fort White School is a Senior "B" High School which is doing excellent work in all of the twelve grades.
The Home Economics, and the Agricultural departments under the able management of Prof. R. M. Martin, are doing
splendid work.

Compulsory Attendance Law.--We believe the present compulsory law a farce and should be amended or new one
enacted that would be more effective. We believe that the law should be carried into effect, but since the
County Commissioners have not made any appropriation as required, the School Board can not enforce the law.

Consolidation of Schools.--There has been considerable consolidation of schools in this county. We know by
experience that consolidated schools give better school facilities and at very little additional expense. The
Fort White Senior High School mentioned above is made up principally of rural schools transported to it. This
school has made such an enviable record that several counties have made inquiries and have asked for detailed
reports as to how the school was established. We have now under construction the Mason Consolidated School at
the cost of over $8,000.00 and when completed it will be a modern rural consolidated school. All the schools
in Mason voting precinct No. 8 were consolidated to make this school. We hope to maintain ten grades in this
school.

The Lulu Graded School has also increased its number and attendance by the consolidation of one other school
and is doing excellent work. It lacked only a few points of being on the accredited list last year. The
Watertown School is the best graded school in the county and it was accredited by the Rural School Inspector.
This school has two other schools transported to it. The Bay Creek School is a three teacher school, made by
the consolidation of three schools, and the Consolidated School, a two teacher school, made by the consolidation
of two schools. Both of these schools are doing good work. The Columbia Graded School is also a consolidated
school, with three teachers. This school would have been on the accredited list had it not been doing high
school work.

Transportation.--During the scholastic year 1922 and 1923, there were 343 pupils transported to the several
consolidated schools at a cost of $4861.65 for the average term of 120 days. The cost per pupil a month being
about $2.40 and during the scholastic year 1923 and 1924 there were 425 pupils transported to consolidated or
high schools, at a cost of $6691.00 for an average term of 123 days. The cost per pupil a month being about $2.00.

The School Debt.--We owe nearly seventy-five thousand dollars in notes and interest bearing warrants, not time
warrants under the present tax laws. We can see no way of liquidating the same as the demands made are greater
than the amount of money we receive from all sources. We are in hopes that the next Legislature will enact
laws that will give immediate relief, a three-cent tax on gasoline or a sur-tax on luxuries. We are of the
opinion that the State could aid by lending the State School Fund to the several counties, that are in debt,
at a low rate of interest. We see no reason why this fund could not be loaned the counties of the State, for
four per cent, as other States are getting the use of our money at as low a rate as three percent. We have
been fortunate in borrowing money at six per cent, but if we could get it at three or four per cent it would
be a great saving. We see no reason why the State could not levy a two mill tax or provide for the high schools
of the State and let the counties take care of the primary and grammar grades.

Boards of Education.--We are well pleased with the method of electing members of the Board of Public Instruction.
We think that three members are sufficient. We are satisfied with our present Board, as they are men of ex-
perience, and are doing all that they can to give to the youths of the county the best school facilities pos-
sible with the limited means at their command.










1922-1924


State and County Superintendents,--We believe that all school officials should be elected by ballot and should
be educated men with experience in school work. We believe that the people are the best judges and that it
would be class legislation for the Legislature to enact any law regarding qualifications of any officials. The
salary of the County Superintendent should be equal to that of any other officer of the county, but a question-
naire sent out from the State Superintendent answered by other officials reveals the fact that the County
Superintendent of Schools receives less than any of them.

Scholarships.--We believe the intent of this law was to award a scholarship each year, one for a boy to the
University and one for a girl to the Florida State College for Women. We believe this to be class legislation
when it puts in the words "High School Graduates."- We believe in equal rights to all and special favors to none
when it comes to spending the people's money. Why not let the examination be open to any boy or girl of the
County? Do not debar them on educational qualifications.

Teachers' Certification Law.--We are of the opinion that this law grants too many types of certificates. We
think that five certificates would be adequate. The words "may be exempt" should be "shall be exempt" when
certain certificates are filed as part of the examination. The standard may be all right for high schools and
colleges, but it is entirely too high for the rural schools, and the masses, i.e. the common people. The
teacher is required to make a higher average for a Teacher's Certificate than a physician has to make to ob-
tain a license to practice medicine. The license once obtained by a doctor is good for life while the teacher
is required to take every year or so no matter if she is continuously engaged in her profession.

State Normal Schools.--We hope that the next Legislature will enact a law and provide funds for the establish-
ment and maintenance of at the very least number three State Normal Schools, for the whites, and one for the
negroes. This would relieve the shortage of teachers, and give us trained teachers.

We wish to thank the State Superintendent and his entire staff for the many courtesies shown and the aid given
in helping us to maintain the schools of our county--giving them a higher standing than in the past.

Respectfully,
J. W. Burns
County Superintendent

DADE COUNTY

Dear Sir:--I beg to submit herewith my biennial report for Dade County.

New Buildings.--We have erected in Dade County the following new buildings since my report of two years ago:
The Ada Merritt Junior High School was built in the summer of 1923 at a cost of $165,000.00. This is a three-
story fire-proof structure appropriately arranged for this semi-tropical climate. It has a beautiful setting
on a half block of land, covered with several species of trees indigenous to south Florida. An open air
auditorium has been constructed in the rear of this building. The enormous trees furnish shade and the slope
of the ground gives it an amphi-theatre effect. One of these trees is a Live Oak estimated to be at least one
hundred years old. Its trunk is over five feet in diameter and its branches have a total spread of ninety-
seven feet. Open balconies on each floor continuing the full distance around the inside of the U serve as
balconies for this open air auditorium. This school was named in honor of Miss Ada Merritt who was a pioneer
teacher in Dade County and a woman of noble character and eminent ability.

In the summer of 1924, we built our second Junior High School in the northern section of Miami. This school
has been named the Robt. E. Lee Junior High School. The building is almost an exact duplicate of the Ada
Merritt Junior High School except in the roof design. Each building contains thirty-three rooms, each room
being designed according to the latest approved ideas of class room construction. Both buildings are pronounced
by competent judges to be splendid pieces of architecture.

A ten room building has just been completed at Little River and another building the same size on Northwest
Fifth Street in Miami. A fifteen room second-story addition has also just been completed on our Northside School.
A five room addition is nearing completion on the Miami Beach School. A new six room second-story building was
erected at Hialeah, another in Coral Gables and still another Coconut Grove. At Homestead a new Senior High
School building. Smaller additions were made at Perrine and Larkins. We now have under way the building of a
new ten room building in Santa Clara Park in the northwest section of Miami, and a new twenty room structure
in the heart of the colored section of Miami. A new six room colored school at Coconut Grove and a two room
colored building at Larkins.

All these buildings are of concrete and tile construction with stucco finish, tinted either cream, buff, or
Spanish finish.

Enrollment.--The enrollment in the schools of Dade County has a record of increasing approximately 257 each year
over the preceding year. This year we are having the greatest increase in our history. At the close of the
second month this fall our enrollment had increased over 30% as compared with the same period last fall. The
assessed valuation of the real and personal property in Dade County is not keeping pace with the increase in
school attendance. This is making it more and more difficult to provide sufficient teachers for the pupils en-
rolled. Last year in spite of the increase in school maintenance millage voted in each district, we were com-
pelled to place our lower grades--first, second and third on a double shift plan. Each teacher teaching one
shift of thirty children the forenoon and another shift in the afternoon. This year we were forced to put
the first four grades on the double shift plan.

Heretofore, the School Board in Dade County has not charged a tuition to "tourist" or "non-resident" pupils.
This idea is very unpopular both with the tourist and with the local business interests. However, the popula-
tion here is growing with such rapid strides that the School Board recently decided to charge all new-comers
until they had lived within the county six months. No attempt is being made to define the terms "tourist" and
"non-resident." Ownership of property will not be accepted as an exemption from this charge. The "six months
residence in Dade County" is to be the only deciding factor. This plan is to go into effect at the beginning
of the next school month. From this source, we expect to derive enough funds to take care of the excessive
increase in enrollment.










1922-1924


Financial Standing.--In my report two years ago under head of "Finances," I described the method by which Dade
County School Board was to regain its financial credit. Since that report was made, the sale of the Central
School property in Miami to the Board of County Commissioners was completed. From the proceeds of this sale
we paid a half million dollars on the old general fund debt (all that part of the debt which was then past due)
and with the balance the Ada Merritt Junior High School building was erected. With a strictly adhered to policy
of the present school officials to create no new deficit regardless of the pressing demands for increased expendi-
tures for school maintenance and school improvement, the School Board of this county now enjoys the reputation
of being solidly on its feet and its credit has once more been restored, not only with all the local finance
institutions but throughout the money markets of the North and East. For the past three years we have borrowed
from the local banks month by month for our operating expenses, pledging in payment of these loans the current
school taxes as they were paid in November to the following June. This year we were able to borrow in New York
City for this purpose on "Tax Anticipation Notes," issued for nine months, at the rate of 5% per anum. This
restored credit is a source of great satisfaction and consolation to the writer of this report.

Election Results.-After the smoke of the Primary on June 3rd last had cleared away, the present school officials
had lost only one member from the Board. There was no opposition at all to any of the Democratic nominees in
the General Election in this county. There will, therefore, be no change of policy for the next two years, at
least, in the Board. With the passage of the Amendment at the General Election allowing special tax school
districts to vote a larger proportion of school improvement bonds, we intend to put on next summer a rather
extensive building campaign. Our aim is to erect a sufficient number of buildings of a permanent character to
properly house, without over-crowding, our rapidly increasing population. During the past four years we have not
built a single auditorium and we are even short fully fifty class rooms of having enough to accommodate the
pupils we now have if many of them were not now on the double shift plan. We must also buy more school sites
to take care of the needs of the future years. We are also in need of more class room equipment. The passage
of this Amendment has solved our building problem. The next big step that must be taken is either another
Constitutional Amendment or a strict enforcement of the assessment law so as to provide sufficient funds for
the operating expenses.

Teacher Training School.--This year we employed a special teacher training instructor and established a Teach-
er Training School. This was established to give normal training to young teachers just beginning their profes-
sional career. We admit only high school graduates to this school. These student teachers are employed in the
elementary schools in Miami and teach in the double shift classes. The training class is divided so that one
group is teaching while the other group is attending the training class. These groups interchange at noon.
The training school is located in the Miami High School building, which, being centrally located, makes it
possible for the student teachers to go to and from their work during the noon period. We pay these student
teachers a small salary for their half day of teaching. It is estimated that the salary of two student teachers,
plus their share of the teacher trainer's salary, is still somewhat less than the average salary of our regular
class room teachers. This arrangement permits high school graduates, who are not able to go away from home to
a Normal School or College and yet who desire to become teachers, to live at home, get their training and also
enough salary to relieve them from being an expense to their parents. This plan is working admirably and the
student teachers are getting excellent training while in service. What is better still, the children are being
protected from the poor teaching so often done by beginning teachers.

Night School,--The summer of 1923, we arranged to establish a Vocational Night School in Miami. Many courses
were offered other than those for which reimbursement can be obtained from the Smith-Hughes Fund. For these
courses, a small fee is charged sufficient to cover the cost of instruction. Mr. J. I. Sowers, former Director
of Vocational Education in Vincennes, Indiana, was employed to direct the work here. Last year over thirty
courses were offered and we had an enrollment exceeding seven hundred adult pupils. Children are not admitted
to these classes. The work has been so popular that this winter we are offering forty distinct courses and our
attendance is very satisfactory.

Teachers' Institute.--The Tri-County Institute for the teachers of Palm Beach, Broward and Dade Counties held
in Ft. Lauderdale winter before last was such a signal success that these three counties have continued pooling
their interests in this respect each year since. The Institute met in Miami last year, September 17th to 20th,
and this year it met in West Palm Beach, September 22nd to 25th. These Institutes are held during the first
week of the school year and full attendance therefore is assured. The County Boards appropriate' the funds
necessary to pay the expenses of the Institute in addition to paying the salaries of the teachers for the days
they attend. Our Institute faculty is invariably made up of the strongest men and women available both within
and outside the State. On two occasions our State Superintendent, Hon. W. S. Cawthon was a member of our faculty.
Dr. and Mrs. Joseph Roemer have been with us all three years. Among the prominent educational workers of
National reputation serving on our Institute faculty are such men and women as Miss Charl 0. Williams, Ex-
President of the N.E.A. and now Field Secretary for the N.E.A.; Dr. Chas. A. Wagner, Author of "Common Sense
School Supervision;" Miss Lucy Gage, Instructor in Primary Methods, Peabody College; Miss Florence M. Hale,
State Supervisor of Rural Schools of the State of Maine; Dr. Chas. A. McMurray, Professor of Elementary
Education, Peabody College; Miss Gail Harrison, Instructor in Columbia University, New York; Dr. Willard W. Beaty,
Specialist in Individual Instruction and Assistant Superintendent of Schools, Winnetka, Ill.; Dr. W. F. Melton
of Emory University; Mrs. Lottie M. Scneider, Special Teacher of Reading.

These Institutes are planned and conducted by the three County Superintendents, who are the President, Vice-
President and Secretary, respectively, of the "Royal Palm Education Association."

All white teachers employed in these counties are automatically members of the Royal Palm Education Association.
Teachers pay no dues since the expenses of the Institutes are borne by the County Boards. The effect of these
Institutes and of this association of the teachers and school officials of the three counties has been a very
decided rise in the professional spirit and attitude on the Lower East Coast. I could not attempt to evaluate
the benefits that have already been derived from this association. We confidently expect to continue this
practice and can most heartily recommend the plan to any other group of counties in this State which have local
problems and interests in common. County Boards can make no wiser investment of a few hundred dollars and three
or four days time out of the school year than to finance and provide for a Teachers' Institute formed by the
uniting of three or four adjoining Counties.
Very truly yours,
Chas. M. Fisher,
County Superintendent.










1922-1924


DESOTO COUNTY

Dear Sir:--In compliance (sic) with your request, I herewith submit my biennial report for the years ending
June 30th, 1924. This report covers the administration of my predecessor, Hon. P. G. Shaver, who is now
Supervising principal of the Arcadia City Schools. I am not so intimately acquainted with the details of our
educational progress as Mr. Shaver would be, though I am in a position to view the situation from the side-lines.

New Buildings.--During the past two years we have completed two modern brick school buildings. The Memorial
Grammar School of ten rooms was built on the east side of Arscdia (sic) at a cost of $35,000. At the request
of the American Legion, this building was dedicated as a memorial to the men of DeSoto County who made the
Supreme Sacrifice during the World war.

The American Legion has recently planted forty-seven Australian pines around the grounds as living monuments to
our heroes.

Another handsome building of eight class rooms and an auditorium has been finished at Ft. Ogden. This project
had been hanging fire for several years due to war time prices and a great deal of credit is due to the people
of that community for they now have a building any town may well be proud of.

The people of Pine Level have recently finished a handsome four room Consolidated School at a cost of $10,000.
This building was erected on a new site about three miles from the old school, near the railroad station. Its
present location serves the district far more conveniently than the former one. The completion of this project
brought to an end all contemplated construction for the time being. With the exception of two one-teacher schools,
and one two-teacher school, we have modern school structures for every district in the County. As we hope to be
able to transport. one of our one-teacher schools to Arcadia, we have discouraged a building program for this
locality.

The people of Brownsville are being urged to consider the construction of a new building and I must say that
their building ili all that kept them from having a 100% rural school.

Rural Schools.--We have only four one-teacher schools in the county. One of these schools is necessary because
of local geographical conditions, but as soon as the present comprehensive road program is completed we hope
to either consolidate or transport these schools, so that the lop-sided one-teacher schools will forever be
gone from DeSoto County. All of our other rural schools are doing excellent work under a loyal and efficient
teaching personnel.

High Schools.-All of our high school activities are concentrated in the DeSoto County High School in Arcadia.
Our county is so small now that we find it much more economical and efficient to transport all high school pupils
to one large institution. Due to the road conditions we have not been able to establish bus routes in every
part of the county, but we are making it possible for every boy and girl to get to high school.

Compulsory Attendance.--The good results of the Compulsory Attendance law are evident on every hand. Attendance
is maintained in every school in the county thus making us keep on the jump to furnish room and equipment. We
have seldom found it necessary to prosecute. Our attendance officer has been vigilant and in close contact with
both patrons and teachers.

Progress.--While we have not been able to do all the things demanded of us, due to the lack of funds, we have
not cut teachers' salaries nor the length of term. We maintain seven months in all the schools, eight months
in the larger ones, while the High School is operated nine months. While we are able to reduce the indebtedness
of the general fund to some extent, we have not let our schools lack. It has been the policy of the administra-
tion to stay within its limits. I expect to ask every district in the county to provide more funds for school
purposes at the biennial elections next year.

Conclusion.-We wish to state that there is a wholesome and healthy interest being shown in educational work.
Parents are co-operating exceptionally well and such civic organizations as the Woman's Club, Parent-Teachers'
Association, Mother's Clubs, and the Kiwanis Club are keeping in close contact with us. Physical education
and school athletics are both showing good results by the community interest we are able to arouse. Due to
good coaching, inter-scholastic foot ball, and basket ball, we are maintaining a valuable esprit-de-corps in
our student bodies.

Respectfully submitted,
C. H. Smith,
County Superintendent.

DIXIE COUNTY

No report filed.

DUVAL COUNTY

No report filed.

ESCAMBIA COUNTY

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I submit my report for the biennium ending June 30, 1924. During
the past two years very few new buildings have been erected in this county. This is due to the fact that
during the biennium just preceding this a rather extensive building program was completed. At present a four-
room addition to a three-room brick building at Molino is under construction. Funds for the erection of this
building were raised by district bond issue in the amount of $6,000,000. Accommodations will thus be provided
for a consolidated school at that place. Four one-room schools are being closed and the pupils are being
transported to the Molino school. The present enrollment at this school is 216 pupils. All grades from one
to ten, both inclusive, are being taught in this school. The one-room school seems to be doomed in this county
except in isolated communities.

-78-









1922-1924
One of the most difficult problems in this county is to make proper provision for the scattered rural high
school population. Careful study of the situation is being made with a view to establishing and developing
about six junior high schools, three of which would also be senior high schools.

There is at present a scarcity of teachers for rural schools. We have been forced to resort to the Temporary
Certificate in many instances in order to provide our short-term schools with teachers. With a view to improving
this condition, we have this year inaugurated this year a teacher-training department in the James M. Tate
Agricultural School. It is confidently believed that this will eventually solve the problem of untrained,
unqualified teachers in our r'ral schools.

We are seriously hampered financially. At present we are carrying a rather heavy indebtedness, an accumulation
of years. Property valuation in this county has been practically at a stand still for a number of years as
a result of imperfect laws pertaining to the listing of property or making true and full returns to the county
assessor. Then, too, the payment of taxes seems to be on the decrease. Again, an imperfect law pertaining to
the sale of property for taxes seems to be to blame.

Most of our special tax districts, of which we have twenty-two, have come to the rescue by increasing the
district tax levy, many of them having voted the full ten mills. It is my opinion, however, that no material
progress can be made in the development of our school system until more ample provision is made for financing
same. Federal aid and increased State aid would seem to be the only sources to which we may look for succor.
I believe the one absolute essential, the teacher's salary for eight or nine months, should be provided by
Federal, State and county funds. Local funds could then be applied to buildings, grounds, equipment and other
improvements. The present system places too much burden upon the local community or district.

The adoption of teachers' salary scales, one for the city of Pensacola and one for the rural schools, has proved
to be a fortunate move. This has placed teachers upon a definite basis and offers some encouragement to
teachers to remain in the profession and to merit increases by attendance upon summer schools and striving for
better certificates.

We are confidently hoping that the Legislature of 1925 will enact some legislation on taxation. If practically
one hundred per cent of taxes could be collected instead of seventy to eighty per cent conditions would be better.

Public sentiment in this county is favorable to educational progress. The civic organizations, the press and
the people generally may always be relied upon to back any progressive move along educational lines.

Very respectfully,
Wm. Tyler,
County Superintendent.

FLAGLER COUNTY

My dear Mr. Superintendent:--I am sending report of Flagler schools as requested.

Building.-We have erected two new buildings during the year, one high school building at Bunnell and a four-
teacher building at Flagler Beach. The two buildings cost $85,000.00. The school at Bunnell is furnished
with everything that can be used to advantage, and the four-teacher school is just being furnished.

Consolidation--Three years ago Flagler County had sixteen schools--all one-teacher schools, excepting Bunnell school.
We now have only five white schools and two colored. All of our school buildings are in good repair and well
furnished.


Transportation.--We transport about one hundred and fifty pupils and find it less expensive and much more
efficient.

Special Tax School District.--There are three Special Districts in Flagler County, all in good financial condition,
and perfectly able to carry their share of expense for at least two months of school and all incidentals,
which saves the general fund which we try to favor all the time.

Rural Schools.--Only one one-teacher school in the county and it so far out of transportation distance that it
will be impossible to change it. We have been fortunate in getting a teacher whose work has been very satis-
factory to the Board and patrons.

In conclusion allow me to congratulate you on your election, and to thank you for your promptness and patience
in answering my many questions.

Respectfully,
D. B. Brown.
FRANKLIN COUNTY

Dear Sir:--I beg to submit my report of school work of Franklin County for the two years ending June 30th, 1924.

To begin with I will say that we have not erected any new buildings since my last report. We have, however,
endeavored to keep our buildings in as good repair as our financial circumstances would allow. During the two
years we have expended from the general fund and the district funds for repairs $1,291.14.

Salaries of Teachers.--We realize that we have not paid as good salaries as our good teachers are entitled to
receive. But we have done the very best we could for them under the circumstances. Salaries paid white teachers
for the past two years run from $60.00 to $200.00 per month, and the colored teachers from $35.00 to $70.00.
Though, for the year just closed the principal of the Apalachicola white school received $50.00 per month addi-
tional to the amount paid by the Board from the Parent-Teachers' Association, and the principal of the colored
school received $20.00 additional for 6 months, which was paid by Mr. John G. Ruge. I could not report these
two donations in my annual report, as the donors did not place their donations to the credit of the school fund,
so payments therefrom could be made by the Board, but paid direct to the principals of the schools. The Board
has paid for salaries of teachers during the two years the sum of $38,219.25. This amount was paid from the
general school fund and the districts funds.











1922-1924


Special Tax Districts.--The county is divided into three districts. The results of the elections held in each
of these districts last May were as follows:

District No. 1 voted 3 mills for school purposes. In addition to these 3 mills, there are 3 mills levied for
interest and sinking fund for interest on outstanding bonds and the retirement of the bonds. And while on the
subject of bonds, I shall mention here that within the past year the Board has redeemed $10,000.00 of the
$30,000.00 20-year bonds.
District No. 2 voted 8 mills for school purposes, and No. 3 voted 3 mills. The taxpayers of District No. 3 are
to be congratulated for the spirit shown by them in voting, almost unanimously, for an 8 mill levy for their
schools. If it were not for the increase of revenue that will be realized from this levy, their school would
have had to run along in the same old rut where it has been for the past years. But now we will be in a position
to work out a program for greater efficiency and take steps to meet the requirements for an Intermediate High
School for Carrabelle.

Finance.--This is the same old story: "We need more money for the schools." No institution or business of any
kind can hope to attain to the fullness of efficiency without adequate funds to work on. Funds first, and work-
ing forces come next. The time is here now when something must be done to increase the school funds to an amount
each year necessary to make our schools what they must be if we do our duty to the youth of our fair State.

However, it is noteworthy to realize the growing interest the parents and citizens of this county are taking in
educational affairs.

Parent-Teacher Association.--The Parent Teacher Association of Apalachicola is the oldest one in the county. The
colored parents and teachers of Apalachicola next organized. Now we have a find and enthusiastic organization in
Carrabelle for the white school there and the colored people there have also organized and are at work for their
school.

The white Parent-Teacher Association of Apalachicola has been a very helpful factor of Chapman School. As soon as
the organization was completed, its members began to inquire for the parts where they could do the most good, and
ever since, they have been very active and have been of great service to the better interests of the school. This
association raised within the two years about $1,400.00. All this sum, except $400.00 has been used principally in
placing equipment in the school, and furnishing free lunches to the undernourished pupils. They are now making
plans to purchase several lots adjoining the school grounds for the purpose of giving more ground space. This pur-
chase will be a great advantage to the school as well as an asset.

The Colored Association of Apalachicola has been a very great help to their school. Time and space will not permit
an enumeration of all this association has done for their school in the past two years. But the year just closed
they bought and paid for a piano for the school, and paid the expense of one month of their school, which amounted to
$358.00.

Much good and needed work will be done by the white Parent-Teacher Association of Carrabelle during the next two
years.

Other Contributions.--Within the past two years Mr. John G. and Mrs. Fannie F. Ruge have donated to Chapman High
School a number of valuable books, and gave nine pieces of play-ground equipment, which cost $1,000.00. Mr. Ruge
also donated the sum of $358.00 for the expense of one month extension to the term of the colored school here. This
contribution was made in addition to the supplement fo $20.00 per month for six months, previously mentioned, to the
salary of the principal of the colored school. For this generosity of Mr. and Mrs. Ruge, I desire here to record
the thanks and appreciations of the Board of Public Instruction.

Payment of Taxes.--The delinquency in the payment of taxes is costing the people of this county not less than $1,-
400.00 every two years. This sum would give every small school in the county $60.00 per month for six months. The
law should be changed if it can be done so that taxes would be due in March or April, instead of November. By this
change the money would be available when schools were being taught.

Compulsory School Law.--This is a good law, and it has already done much good for many children. But there should
be some changes or amendments. It should be so amended that no one could escape sending his children to school.
The law is needed for only two classes; namely, the indifferent class, and those whose conditions and circumstances
are such that they can not provide the necessities for their children, and those who can not do without the services
of their children. The indifferent class can be dealt with as the law now stands, but the other class can not be
dealt with. Therefore, some definite plan should be enacted whereby the State should make provisions for the latter
class; for if this is not done illiteracy in our fair State will continue, and that because there is no help for
it.

In conclusion I wish to thank you for your co-operation and kind help to me, I am,

Yours sincerely,
A. A. Core,
County Superintendent Public Instruction.

GADSDEN COUNTY

Dear Sir:--Complying with your request, I beg to submit herewith my report for two years, ending June 30th, 1924.

New Buildings --During the two-year period, we have done very little in the way of new buildings. An issue of
$30,000 in bonds was voted in Chattahoochee Special Tax School District No. 4, with which to build a new school
house for the district, but all these bonds were not sold. The contract was let early in this year; and we
purpose to have the building completed in time for the opening of school this fall. It contains five class
rooms, toilets, a library, and an auditorium that will seat four hundred and fifty students. The plans and
specifications were drawn by school architects, ano the house is modern and up-to-date in every respect. The
entire cost of the building will be approximately $28,000.












1922-1924
We have also built three new buildings for the negroes. Each house has two class rooms and a room for Indus-
trial work. The money for this purpose was obtained by appropriations from the Rosenwald funds and the County
Board of Public Instruction, together with donations from the negro patrons in each community. Each house cost
$2500. The negroes are well pleased with these buildings and are taking an interest in education not known
here before.

High Schools.--We have three fully accredited Senior High Schools as follows: The Gadsden County High Schools,
the Agricultural High School at Greensboro, and the Agricultural High School at Havana. The Gadsden County
High School at Quincy has Manual Training and Home Economics Departments, and a Teacher Training Class was
added the past year. Home Economics was also taught at Havana last year, but Greensboro has not been able to
offer this course for lack of suitable room and equipment. All these schools are crowded with pupils and are
doing first class work. Their graduates have no trouble in entering colleges and unusually make good.

The Junior Schools at Chattahoochee and Concord are also doing splendid work. Each of them is in charge of
competent teachers and they bid fair to make schools that will meet the needs of their respective communities.
It may be necessary to make Senior Schools of each of these in the near future.

We have only one negro school that is doing high school school work. It is Dunbar school at Quincy with an
enrollment of about five hundred pupils, forty of these being in the ninth and tenth grades. We shall probably
make this a Senior High School in a few years.

Bonded Indebtedness.--During my term of office, we have voted bonds to the amount of $150,000 for the erection
of new school houses. Up to this time $40,000 of the bonds have been retired, leaving $110,000 still outstand-
ing. All of these issues are serial bonds with one exception. We have taken the position here that it is best
to issue serial bonds, so as to retire them from year to year as the money for this purpose is collected. Recently
districts numbers seven, eight, and twelve were consolidated into one large district, known as Consolidated Dis-
trict Number 16. It is our purpose to vote and sell bonds at an early date to the amount of $25,000 to build a
High School for said district, it having been decided that this is the cheapest and most practical way of furnish-
ing high school instruction to the children of these respective communities.

consolidation of Schools.--As yet very little has been done n his county towards the consolidation of the smaller
schools. Bad roads and the lack of funds are the insurmountable obstacle that come up each time an effort is made
to consolidate. These are matters over which we have little control, but which will work out to the satisfaction
of all, if it is undertaken at the proper time and under favorable conditions. Until then, we shall be forced to
content ourselves with the best we can do.

School Debts.--I am pleased to report that our county has no debts for current expenses, nor has it been necessary
to issue Time Warrants to take care of old obligations. We adopted many years ago the policy of "Pay as you go"
and therefore there are no debts hanging over us for operating expenses.

Needed Legislation.--The biggest problem with which we have to deal, is that of finances. For the last two or
three years, our people have not made money on tobacco and other crops, ard we have had to run our schools on a
very economical basis. During this time, our tax values have remained the same, yet our schools have continued
to grow. It has been difficult to, keep our schools up to standard but something must be done now to relieve the
situation, if the education of our children is going to be provided for in the future. I recommend for the con-
sideration of the 1925 session of the Florida Legislature, the following:

1st. The passage of a Resolution proposing an Amendment to the State Constitution fixing the maximum tax for
the common schools at five mills instead of one, such tax to be levied and collected by the State for apportion-
ment among the several counties, in the same way the one mill tax is now apportioned. This would enable the
poorer counties to maintain good schools at all times, a responsibility the State can not escape. Other states
have measures of this kind and the people are pleased with them.

2nd. A law requiring all taxpayers under heavy penalty, to file with the Assessor of Taxes a sworn list of all
his properties, so that all property may pay its proportionate share of the expenses of Government.

3rd. An advalorem tax on the natural resources of the State, such as fish, timber, mineral products and the like.
The money arising from this source to be placed in the permanent school fund of the State, the interest only to
be used for the public free schools of the State. Florida is being rapidly depleted of its natural resources,
and something should be done, now, looking toward the education of succeeding generations.

Very respectfully,
C. H. Gray,
Superintendent.

GLADES COUNTY

No report filed.

HAMILTON COUNTY

No report filed.

HARDEE COUNTY

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request for a statement of school affairs of Hardee County for the two years
ending June 30, 1924, I beg to submit the following:

In General.-- Our county is, comparatively speaking, a new county but our school work moves along as smoothly as
if it had been in operation for a longer period of time. And the enthusiasm shown in the different school commu-
nities by individuals, organization of Parent-Teacher organizations and other societies is felt throughout the
county.

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1922-1924

Loving-Cups.--To further the interest and importance of beautifying the school yards we are offering two Loving
Cups, one to the Urban school and one to the Rural school which makes the most progress along this line.

Building and Repairs.--During the past two years we have built only one school building, this a modern building
erected in one of the rural districts at an approximate cost of $1,500. There have been many improvements made
in the way of repairs and paint in many of the schools. At Wauchula and Bowling Green it was necessary to fit
up two additional rooms to meet the needs.

High Schools.--llardee County has two Senior High Schools, the Wauchula Accredited High School and the Bowling
Green High School which aims to be on the accredited list this year. Also, there are three Junior High Schools
which are doing very successful work.

Special School Tax Districts.--All of the county is divided into special tax school districts, each levying a
special tax for school purposes. During the last two years some of the districts were consolidated and the
schools within those districts were consolidated. Hardee County now has nineteen special tax school districts
and the schools in three of these are consolidated with other schools.

Compulsory Attendance Law.--I think that the Compulsory Law is one of the best laws ever enacted by the State
Legislature. While there are defects in the present law it has been a great help in increasing the school
attendance. The sheriff of the county is employed as attendance officer and he is able to handle this work
at a minimum salary with his work and the results are very satisfactory.

Consolidation of Schools.--I am strongly in favor of consolidation of rural schools. In every instance where
consolidation has been accomplished the work measures up to a higher standard than it does in the one-teacher
schools. We are now employing eight school-buses for transporting school children and while the expense is
greater the results have been so satisfactory that it merits the extra expense. Better teachers, better work,
and in many instances a longer term have been secured by consolidation.

Rural Schools.--Hardee County's rural schools are doing excellent work, and a strong effort is being made to
standardize every one of them.

Teachers--We have an excellent corps of teachers, majority of whom have high grade certificates and wide exper-
ience. There has been an increase in the salaries of teachers and we find it will be necessary to continue to
make increases to enable us to keep our best teachers. We are trying to work out plans whereby our best teachers
who put their whole time and self into the work will get the best salaries.

Conclusion.--We are proud of the progress we have made. We are not moving by leaps and bounds but we are advancing.
The salaries of teachers have been raised. The attendance of pupils has increased, more boys and girls are attend-
ing high schools, and there is a general awakening among all patrons of the various districts for the betterment of
school conditions.

Respectfully submitted,
J. B. Rooney,
County Superintendent.

HENDRY COUNTY

No report filed.

HERNANDO COUNTY

No report filed.

HIGHLANDS COUNTY

No report filed.

HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY

No report filed.

HOLMES COUNTY

My dear Mr. Cawthon:--Your letter of August 15 in which you ask for my views on various questions has been received.
With the object of aiding the cause of education, I beg leave to submit the following:

During the past two years we have not made that progress along educational lines that we had wished so much to make.
We have been hindered in our work because funds have not been sufficient to carry on the work in our sixty-six
schools. However, we have been able to awaken among our people greater interest in the betterment of school condi-
tions.

Buildings and Repairs.--We have two high school buildings. One is located at Ponce de Leon in the western part of
the county and the other at Bonifay in the eastern part of the county. Both are modern brick buildings, and at
present these schools are fulfilling their missions in the educational field. Three new wooden buildings have been
constructed during the past two years. Repairs have been made when needed on all of our buildings.

Special Tax School Districts.--We have 41 Special Tax School Districts. Fifteen of these have increased their
village from three to ten mills, and nine have increased from three to five mills. The increased income from
this source will enable twenty-two of our rural schools to add from one to four months to the present term of four
months.


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1922-1924

Attendance Law.--Our compulsory attendance law has too many defects. Loopholes or room for excuses have been
found in it. In my judgment a law should be enacted that would compel every pupil to attend school at least
80 days in a school year unless illness prevented.

Consolidation of Schools.--We have not done any consolidation but I am convinced that the consolidation of
schools in this county wouid better the education advantage of our rural population.

Indebtedness.--The indebtedness of our General School Fund is about $52,000. Our income is about $24,000.
To maintain our schools requires an expenditure of $32,000. We must increase our millage or decrease our
expenditures. I do not believe our people would be willing to lower the standards of our schools. Hence,
it will be necessary to find increased revenue for maintaining our schools.

The bonded indebtedness of our districts is $28,000. Sinking funds are being created to retire these bonds at
maturity.

State Aid.--The Legislature should make provisions by which the State can maintain at least one high school in
each county. Also provision should be made by which the State can aid rural schools.

Taxation.--The greatest trouble about financing schools is getting the property properly assessed. It seems
that it would be about as easy to remodel the human race as to get equality of taxation. The only relief we
can have must come from the State in the way of making all wealth bear its just share of the cost of educa-
tion.

County Boards of Public Instruction.--In my opinion it would be well to abolish all county boards of public
instruction. With ample office help the county superintendent can do all that is necessary. I think the
present method of selecting the county board members is good.

County Superintendent.---County Superintendents should be well educated. Common sense is essential quali-
fication. Degrees, certificates, diplomas, etc. do not necessarily qualify anyone to be a good county super-
intendent. The present method of selecting county and State superintendents is best. It is not very likely
that any small group of men could select a better county or State superintendent than the great mass of electors.
I do not believe the one selected would be farther removed from politics.

Supervision.--The county superintendent can do all the supervising necessary. Any other supervision would only
be a leach on the public with no resulting good to education. For a county to hire a supervisor for schools
would be like hiring one doctor for your family and then hiring another to watch him.

Vital Needs.--We need more money and trained teachers. I hope some one will be able to devise a means of giving
us these in the near future.

With best wishes for your success in carrying on to success the great educational work of the State, I am,

Respectfully yours,
T. J. McDade

JACKSON COUNTY

No report filed.

JEFFERSON COUNTY

Dear Sir:--I gladly submit to you for your approval a brief of the progress of the schools and of the school
activities in this county for the past two years, ending June 30, 1924. We have no new buildings to report.
We have completed the brick building at Wacissa and have put all the others in good repair.

We have no bonded indebtedness and nothing to hold us down from going forward except the sum of $46,000.00
of Time Warrants outstanding.

Our aim and work for the past two years has been consolidation of schools. We believe in the slogan: "Equal
opportunity for all."

We have nine sub-tax districts (only two have any indebtedness) and these should be combined with only two
districts in the county.

The county school millage should be raised to at least 15 mills, or the Legislature should make an appropria-
tion for aid to rural consolidated schools. We have a sufficient number of members of the Board of Public
Instruction, and now the County Superintendent should be given the privilege to vote on all questions.

Both State and County Superintendents should have certain qualifications. They should be selected and not
required to get into politics for the office.

Small counties (like Madison and Jefferson) should come together and secure the services of a good rural
school supervisor.

Each year all of our teachers, trustees and members of the Board of Public Instruction become members of the
Florida Educational Association. Four times yearly we hold county teachers' meetings. In April of each
year we have a county-wide Educational Day.

The colored children of this county are greatly in need of more and better schools and some means devised by
which we could secure better trained teachers.

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1922-1924

The prospects look good for a continual growth of the schools and all must fall in line and provide better and
larger buildings, better paid and better trained teachers.

The present Teachers Examination has been well liked by all teachers of this county, and all praise the services
being rendered by the State Superintendent and his department.

Respectfully submitted,
W. M. Scruggs,
County Superintendent.

LAFAYETTE COUNTY

No report filed.

LAKE COUNTY

Dear Mr. Cawthon:--In accordance with your request I am giving you below a brief report of schools in Lake County
for the past two years.

Buildings.--The continued increase in enrollment is constantly calling for more class room space. During the past
two years we have completed a modern high school building at Umatilla at a cost of $35,000. At Eustis we have
improved and enlarged the high school building at a cost of $30,000. Clermont-Minneola District is about to com-
plete a modern Junior High School building at a cost of $50,000. We have just completed at Eustis a modern school
for the colored at a cost of $10,000. Groveland has just completed improvements to their high school building, cost-
ing $10,000, and are voting bonds to the extent of $10,000 for the erection of a Teacher's Cottage. Mount Dora is
calling for an election to vote $91,000 bonds with which to erect a new high school building and make other improve-
ments. Leesburg is planning the construction of a modern high school plant to cost approximately $175,000. Eustis,
Tavares, Mount Dora, and possibly, Umatilla, are working on a scheme to consolidate the senior high schools of
these districts and purchase ample grounds on which to erect a commodious and up-to-date high school plant to serve
these districts. Dr. Dresslar and other experts have been consulted in the matter, and all think the proposition
feasible and advisable. In order to secure this, however, it will be necessary to consolidate the districts for
all purposes. We should have a law by which we could consolidate high schools in a county and vote a bond issue
without having to consolidate the districts.

Enrollment.--The attendance in the county has been very good considering the looseness of our compulsory law. The
tourists have cut down the average to a considerable extent. By the way, should not the State fund be divided
among the South Florida counties based on the enrollment instead of the average?

Finance.--Practlcally speaking, our County Board has no indebtedness. However, we could use more money to great
advantage, and we don't see how we are going to get along if we can not get more money in the near future. Should
we not have a twenty mill levy now instead of ten?

Teachers.--We have one hundred and fifty-two white and thirty colored teachers in the schools of the county. We
are proud of our teachers and feel that we have the finest in the State. All are members of the Florida Education
Association, and loyal.

Superintendent's New Office,--The County Superintendent and School Board have moved into their new offices in the new
quarter-million dollar court houseand have the best offices and the most convenient location in the court house, as
it should be.

Consolidation.--Consolidation is making certain progress in our county--we once had fifty-two schools, now we
have only twenty-six. We have about fifteen colored schools. We have at present approximately thirty transpor-
tation contracts. We employ the driver and his bus with certain specifications, believing this the less expensive.
However, we believe ownership of suitable busses by the county would be more efficient and satisfactory. Our
people are well pleased with consolidation. We have prevented the establishment of one-room schools by furnishing
transportation at the start when a community has sufficient pupils to justify a teacher.

General.--We feel more satisfied than ever with our schools. We are keeping our eyes open for the good in the
new, and trying to hold on to what is best in the old.

Respectfully,
D. H. Moore,
County Superintendent.

LEE COUNTY

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request I am submitting a brief biennial report for the years ending June 30.
1924.

Buildings.--Considerable money has been expended in keeping all buildings in good repair. A $100,000.00 brick
building has been completed for the Senior High School in Fort Myers, a $65,000.00 twelve room brick building for
grade pupils in East Fort Myers, $11,000.00 three room brick building at Bonita Springs and a $14,000.00 four-room
brick building is now under construction to be completed by Sept. 15th.

High School.--The Senior High School in Fort Myers and the Junior High at Alva are the only high schools in the
county. Both schools have made good progress. The Fort Myers High School will enroll more than two hundred and
fifty pupils and the Alva Junior High about twenty-five which represents about a twenty-five per cent increase
each year. An efficient and well patronized commercial department has been added to the Fort Myers High School.
The Domestic Science department has been very efficiently conducted and full time and attention has been given to
physical education.
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1922-1924
Bonded Indebtedness.--The bonded indebtedness of the various Special Tax School Districts amount altogether to
$222,000.00. Five of the ten districts are bonded to their limit excepting the Fort Myers District which could at
present bond for $125,000.00 more. The other five districts are sparsely populated and have thus far managed
with the cheaper type buildings.

Compulsory Attendance Law.--An Attendance Officer devotes her full time to this work and to rural supervision.
Her work has been more along the line of education than of prosecution. The law has been reasonably enforced and
the results have been very satisfactory.

Consolidation of Schools.--About $10,000.00 a year is being spent in transportation of pupils in the higher grades
to the centralized schools and for those living beyond the two and three mile limit. No schools have been com-
pletely consolidated.

School Debt.--Debts against the General School Fund are $56,000.00 in Time Warrants and $2,000.00 in notes. Dis-
trict notes amount to some $5,000.00. Both notes and time warrants bear 8% interest. The annual receipts for both
general and districts funds amount to approximately $100,000.00.

Maintenance of Schools,--The Special Tax School District should be abolished except for bonding purposes only,
and a maximum tax levy of twenty mills granted to the county, by this change all uncertainties, irregularities,
and inequalities of, the present district tax would be avoided. A trustee should be elected or appointed for each
school and in cities and the larger towns one for each building which would constitute a board of trustees and
should be paid a stipulated salary.

County Boards of Public Instruction.--Three members are sufficient for this board but they should be elected for
a term of three years and so arranged that a new member would be elected each year, thereby avoiding the embarrass-
ments, and mistakes that an entirely new board and superintendent often make.

County Superintendent.--A County Superintendent should be at least a high school graduate and in lieu of a State
certificate or college degree, he should be required to pass an examination satisfactory to the State Board of
Education. He should be appointed at a fixed salary for a term of two years by the County Board of Public Instruc-
tion and approved by a majority of the trustees. He should have the power to cast the deciding vote for or against
all measures that were not voted unanimously by the members of the Board.

In conclusion allow me to thank you most sincerely for your prompt and courteous cooperation.

Yours very truly,
J. D. McFerron,
County Superintendent.

LEON COUNTY

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I herewith submit the following report of the biennium of schools for
Leon County.

Buildings.--Like most other growing communities the lack of accommodations for the pupils has been apparent for
quite a while and we are just now taking steps to relieve the crowded.condition. Tallahassee Sub-District in
October, 1923, voted a bond issue of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars for building purposes and at the same
time the Miccosukee District voted a two thousand dollar issue for an addition to their present building which was
built in 1919. The building in Tallahassee is to take care of the pupils from the kindergarten to the Sixth grades
inclusive. The architect assures us that it will be a most modern and scientific building in every particular.
There are other places in the county where new buildings are needed, but we have not yet made financial arrangements
for the work. Owing to shortage of funds much needed repairs to our old buildings are being put off to a more
convenient season.

High Schools,--High school work is being attempted in only four white schools and one colored. They are Leon High,
Woodville, Miccosukee and Chaires, white, and Lincoln, negro. The Leon High School is an accredited Senior and the
Woodville School was last year put on the list of accredited Junior-B High Schools. This year we hope to raise the
Woodville school to the rank of an accredited Junior-A High School. In the Chaires and Miccosukee schools gratify-
ing progress is being made and we are hopeful that these schools will in the near future be placed on the list of
accredited schools.

Bonds.--The only bonded indebtedness of this county for schools is for the issue noted above aggregating $152,000.00.
The larger issue of $150,000.00 bears five per cent. The rest is at six per cent. So far as we are concerned the
proposed amendment allowing a larger bond issue is not needed unless it should be that it would have the effect of
making the bonds more salable. However, I am favorable to the amendment and hope that it will be carried at the
election in November.

Compulsory Attendance.--The Compulsory Attendance Law is a good one and should be enforced. Last year the county
superintendent was accorded the honor of that position without compensation and did some work in that line, but
his other duties were too numerous to allow much time for the work of looking up negligent parents. One suggestion
from me in regard this matter may not be entirely out of place here. I think that the law should empower boards
of public instruction to levy one-half of the one mill for the purpose of putting this law into effect. The reason
many places are not taking advantage of the law is a financial one.

Consolidation of Schools.--This is a subject of vital importance to the rural school. In fact, it is the only hope
that we shall ever see equal opportunity accorded the city and the country child. We are making progress slowly in
that direction. The number of white schools in this county has been reduced from thirty-five to twenty-four and
next year, we hope to see the number still further reduced. Twelve schools for white children would accommodate all
the children without any hardship on any one.


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1922-1924

The School Debt,--This seems to mean indebtedness other than that for which bonds have been issued and that
is the way I shall interpret it. This county has three issues of time warrants--two against special tax
district funds and one against the general fund. We have reduced the amount against the general fund from
twenty to sixteen thousand dollars, the amount against the district funds has been reduced from twenty-four
to sixteen thousand. At our present rate of reduction if things go well within the next eight years all
these obligations will be past history. With no cash on hand at the beginning of each fiscal year, the
payment of these time warrants and the interest on these and the notes we have to make to be able to pay
teachers until iaxes are collected (in this county most of the money collected until May, June and July)
constitute a heavy drain on the funds of this county. But for these items of expense we should be able to
operate with greater ease and at the same time do much more for the schools. As a general rule and except
in emergencies, I am opposed to the issue of time warrants for they afford only temporary relief and though
the evil day of reckoning is delayed, it comes with a mightier hand when it does arrive. The total receipts
for last year was in round numbers $65,000.00 for the general fund and $23,000.00 district funds. Next year
with the bond fund included I suspect the total receipts will run in the neighborhood of $105,000.00 Eight
years ago the total receipts amounted to less than fifty thousand dollars. At that time there was only one
special tax school district and no consolidations were being attempted.

Maintenance of Schools,--The public school system was inaugurated with the idea of the strong helping the
weak. This idea can be carried out only if the taxable area is comparatively large. Certainly no less area
than that of the county should constitute the taxable unit for the maintenance of the schools. I should like
to see the millage for the general fund increased to twenty mills and no levy against the districts except
for the discharge of the bonded debt against them. Naturally I favor a larger State Millage for the schools
and I think that I should be willing to admit the merit of the argument in favor of this even though I lived
in a county in which the amount paid into the State fund was more than that returned.

Boards of Public Instruction.--In counties with a population of more than twenty-five thousand, I believe
the number of the county boards should be increased to five members. These should be elected and nominated
by the county at large, one each from the three districts and one from the county at large and make the county
superintendent ex-officio member with a vote in case of a tie. The above suggestion, I think, would be an
improvement, but a still better method would be to divide the county into five districts, nominate and elect
one member from these districts by the county at large and give these members authority to select the county
superintendent who would be required to meet certain qualifications and might be a resident of any county or
state. That is to say that he might be selected just as the high school principal is at present. This would
tend to put the position on a professional basis and would make each superintendent stand upon merit rather
than political favoritism. I know from past experiences that there are those who will cry "bloody murder"
and shout that we are trying to take the schools out of the hands of the people, but still I maintain that the
people have their recourse at the polls in selecting the county board.

County School Supervisors.--Whether or not a school supervisor is a benefit or a necessary evil depends to a
large extent upon the personality and qualifications of the one attempting the supervision. Supervision that
merely points out defects without offering suggestions for improvements is worth very little and those being
supervised will soon resent the visit of the supervisor as an intrusion rather than welcome her as one coming
to render assistance. It seems to me that most supervisors are tolerated as necessary evils and not looked
upon as a co-worker who is in hearty sympathy with the supervised teacher. There is no doubt that the proper
kind of supervision is highly beneficial as it tends toward uniformity in the work of the entire system, but
the supervisor must have not only ability but also must possess tact and diplomacy in handling those she super-
vises. To be sure there is danger of overdoing supervision. Too much stress should not be laid upon this
phase of the work to the detriment of the real teaching. The administrative officers have rendered the greatest
possible service and there is but little more for them to do when they have placed a first class teacher in
charge of the pupils under their authority. Much care is necessary to see to it that the supervisory expenses
do not mount too high and thereby make too much of a drain on the funds that should go to teachers.

The State Superintendent.--One naturally feels some hesitancy in writing or speaking of his superiors. Con-
sequently I shall say but little on this subject. I can see no good reason to change the method of selecting
the State Superintendent unless his appointment could be made through the recommendation of a non-political
body. But I do feel that certain qualifications should be required of him before allowing him to be eligible
to hold the office. The minimum of these requirements should be graduation from a standard college or univer-
sity with not less than three years' active work in the public schools of the State.

Conclusion.--It seems to me that we are making progress in the right direction. Many changes in the school
work have been brought about within the last few years. Some of them good, but some, I fear, are of but negli-
gible or even harmful effect. Still I think that we are looking forward and that all our stumbling is an upward
direction. "The Florida Educational Journal" is a powerful instrument for good and I hope that it will continue
to have the active support of all the educational forces of the State.

Respectfully submitted,
R. S. Hartsfield,
County Superintendent of Public Instruction,
Leon County.

LEVY COUNTY

No report filed.

LIBERTY COUNTY

No report filed.

-86-










1922-1924


MADISON COUNTY

Dear Sir:--Complying with your request, I submit the following report from Madison County:

Buildings.--The school buildings in Madison County as a whole are above the average for the northern part of
the State. In the last year we have built one splendid two-room school house of wood and also a hollow tile
and concrete building at Lee. The building at Lee is a one story building with a large auditorium and four
class rooms opening into It. It is arranged for lighting according to modern plans. This building cost
$11,825.00, and the two-roo,. wood building cost $2,000.00. The county has also furnished material for two
one-room negro schools and the i:egroes erected the buildings themselves.

Furniture.--All the white schools in the county are equipped with patent desks and recitation seats and desk
and chair for teacher. Some of the negro schools have patent desks.

High Schools.--There are two Junior High Schools in the county that expect to be accredited Class "A" this
year and one Senior High School that expects to be accredited as Class "A". There are three other schools
attempting some high school work but have no hopes of getting accredited.

Rural Schools.--The rural schools in the county are in a progressive condition with the exception of a few
that have non-progressive teachers at the head. The term of all rural schools in the county is six months
and some of the Sub-Districts supplement from one to two months.

Special Tax Districts.--There are seventeen Special Tax Districts in the county. A Special Tax District is
not created in this county unless consolidation of two or more schools is effected. In the past year three
one-room schools were consolidated into one two-teacher school. These one room schools seldom ran their full
length of term, but since the consolidation the school has an eight months term and the patrons have voted a
five mill tax. Several of the Special Tax Districts have increased their millage from 3 to 5 or 6 mills since
the Constitutional Amendment of 1922.

Sanitation.--Much progress has been made in the way of sanitary toilets in the county. We have experienced
much difficulty in keeping the boys' toilets in a sanitary condition, but this is being greatly improved by
providing two urenals in the toilets--one low for the small boys and one higher for the larger boys. An enemy
to sanitation is a teacher without energy or care that does not practice sanitary habits himself. With that
type of teacher at the head progress in sanitation is impossible.

Libraries.--quite a bit of interest has been built up in favor of installing libraries in the schools. Most
every school where more than one teacher is employed has made successful efforts to install good working
libraries.

Comoulsory Attendance.--No effort has been made by the Board to enforce the Compulsory Attendance Law since
my last report, until recently the trustees and some of the leading patrons of the Greenville Special Tax
District requested one of their citizens be appointed as Attendance Officer for that district. The teachers,
report that the law is being poorly enforced in the district. The officer does not receive any compensation
other than fees derived in serving papers on delinquents and this is possibly one reason of his laxness.

Free Text-Books.--The practice of furnishing free text-book is a bad one in my judgment. It encourages waste
and extravagance of public funds. The children do not take pride in keeping books purchased by public funds
as neat and clean as they do when the parents have to buy them. Parents see that books they buy are cared
for to some extent, but when the purchase is made with public funds they seem to care nothing for the care of
books in the hands of their children. Books that are passed from one child to another in the different grades
are apt to spread disease germs. I am unalterably opposed to the practice.

Bonded Indebtedness.--There is no bonded indebtedness in Madison County. The outstanding indebtedness is
floated principally among private citizens making loans to the School Board.

Finances in Future.--The adoption in the recent General Election of the Tax Exemption Amendment permitting the
exemption to heads of families to the amount of $500.00 on assessments of property values is going to very near
destroy the public school system in this county unless the Legislature comes to our rescue at the next session
and gives us some other means of revenue income for the maintenance of the schools. The exemptions permitted
in the recent amendment will cut the school finances in this county by at least 33 per cent. The present
income was entirely too small to make any improvements. We were just able to pay salaries for six months and
them much below some other counties, and pay the interest on the old debts.

Remedies to Finances.--I suggest a law taxing gasoline two cents per gallon to be collected by the Comptroller
and disbursed each quarter equally between the several counties in the State. Also a tax of one cent on cigars.
two cents a package on cigarettes, five cents each on admissions to theaters and shows of all kinds, and one cent
per package on chewing gum. The last items mentioned to be collected by the tax collector in each county and
placed to the credit of the general school fund in the respective counties,

Qualifications of County Superintendents.--Before a person should be eligible for the office of County Superin-
tendent he should hold a First Grade teacher's certificate in this State and have taught successfully for twenty-
four months.

State Superintendent's Qualifications.--A person to be eligible to be State Superintendent in Florida should be
required to hold a State or Professional Certificate in this State and have taught successfully in the State in
Senior High Schools for a period of forty-eight months.

Oualifications of County School Board Memhers_--A person to be eligible to be a member of the County School Board
should be a graduate of Junior High School or its full equivalent. They should be appointed by the Governor for
a term of four years.
Respectfully submitted,
T. C. Simms.
County Superintendent.










1922-1924

MANATEE COUNTY

No report filed.

MARION COUNTY

No report filed.

MONROE COUNTY

No report filed.

NASSAU COUNTY

No report filed.

OKALOOSA COUNTY

No report filed.

OKEECHOBEE COUNTY

Dear Sir:--Complying with your request, I beg to submit the following report of Okeechobee County schools for
your biennial report:

The interest of our people in public schools is more manifest than ever before in the history of free education.
Our people real:ze that an education is absolutely necessary for an intelligent citizenship, and we are making
every effort to get the best qualified teachers for this great work.

High Schools.--The Okeechobee County High School is now on the Southern Accredited list. Fifteen teachers are
employed. We have up-to-date furniture, including physics and chemistry tables and other laboratory equipment
for all requirements. A well selected library, containing six hundred volumes, is for the use of the pupils.

Rural Schools.--The rural schools are all in a progressive stage, and more and more interest is being manifested
by patrons in rural sections for better school houses, more efficient teachers, well selected libraries, and
longer terms.

Finances.--Our financial situation today is better than it has ever been. However, I believe that improvement
could be made in the present system of collecting taxes for school purposes. I believe that every automobile
in the State should be assessed to the extent of five to ten dollars extra for license tags and that this amount
should be turned over to the county's general school fund; that an assessment of one cent a gallon should be
placed on gasoline for educational purposes and that this amount should be given to the general school fund of
the several counties. Great numbers of our people are investing in automobiles to the exclusion of homes and
lands, yet the children are to be educated, and all should be willing to bear a just tax for the education of
the youth of the land. If this method could be adopted, the revenues for school purposes would be greatly aug-
mented, terms of schools could be lengthened, better salaries could be paid to teachers, larger school buildings
better equipped could be provided, and the present millage on real estate could be lowered. The time is fast
approaching when some new means must be adopted for raising school revenues, otherwise we are going to be unable
to finance our schools.

Qualification of County Superintendents,--Before any one could be come a candidate for this important office, he
should have at least four years' experience as a teacher in the rural and high schools of the county or in the
State, he should hold a certificate covering the subjects taught in the high schools--at least nothing lower
than a new first grade certificate, and his business training and ability should have been demonstrated to such
a degree that he would be able to finance the schools and put the financial situation in first class condition.
The salary of the County Superintendent should be commensurate with the services rendered. The law should desig-
nate the qualifications of a county superintendent and the people elect him.

I sincerely trust that the next Legislature will enact a law giving us the needed financial relief, and designate
the qualifications of State and County Superintendents. The work of educating our boys and girls is too impor-
tant for it to be placed in the hands of untrained and unsuccessful men and women.

In this connection, I desire to express my thanks in behalf of the School Board and teachers of the county for
the hearty cooperation of the State Department, also the State schools, as they have always been ready and willing
to assist us in an able manner whenever called upon.

Respectfully submitted,
W. R. Terrell,
County Superintendent.

ORANGE COUNTY

Dear Mr. Cawthon:--It is with pleasure that we submit the following accomplishments in Orange County since our
last biennial report.

Butldings.--In Orlando, the new Memorial High School (bonds for which were voted) has been completed and in use
for the past two terms. It is a beautiful building, admired by every one who has seen it. It has a splendid
auditorium, seating about twelve hundred. Stage Is equipped with scenery, drop curtains equal to the best of
our opera houses and has been made use of by our citizens for band concerts and other entertainments of an educa-
tional nature. It has a well equippedcafeteria, at which about six hundred pupils are fed during the noon recess
period.











1922-1924
A new school on Hillcrest and Concord Avenues has also been finished. It is built of tile and brick and stucco
finish, has a large auditorium, twelve class rooms, up-to-date cafeteria with capacity of about five hundred pupils.

On Colonial Drive in Concord Park Addition, a twelve room Spanish type building, with auditorium and cafeteria,
is now in process of erection.

Additional lots have been secured on Mark Street and in southwest Orlando for grammar school buildings to be erected
as soon as funds are provided. At the rate our Orlando district is growing one or two new buildings are necessary
each year.

Fairvilla has completed a new stucco finish, two-room building, at the cost of $6,000.00. It is also very attrac-
tive and usable.

Maitland has completed a new Spanish type concrete stucco, four-room building, with their own water system. This
building is located on a new lot donated by Mr. Brock ill, overlooking one of Maitland's beautiful lakes. It is
well equipped with modern school furnishings.

A three-room colored school has also been erected in Maitland, which met with the approval of the Rosenwald fund
committee, which donated $700.00 towards its cost.

Apopka voted $25,000.00 for the erection of a new high school building to take care of the growing needs of that
enterprising West Orange city. Foundation has been laid and building is now is course of construction.

Oakland-Winter Garden voted a $35,000.00 bond issue for an addition of eight rooms to the Winter Garden School.
This building, when remodeled, will be up-to-date in every respect. They also expect to erect a colored school
building at Winter Garden and one at Oakland.

At Union Park, in the Springhead District, a new two-room building, at a cost of $3,200.00 has been built. It
is fully equipped with modern furniture and is located on a two acre lot on the new sixteen-foot hard surfaced
road to the East Coast and will soon have to be enlarged to take care of the increase in the number of pupils,
caused by the development of this part of Orange County, which heretofore lacked good road facilities.

Plans are now being formulated for the purchase of lot and the erection of a modern building at Bithlo, also in
the Springhead District, which is situated at the junction of this new highway and a branch of the Florida Eist
Coast Railroad.

Beulah has voted $3',000.00 worth of bonds for the improvement of buildings and school grounds.

High Schools.--We have State Accredited High Schools at Orlando, Winter Park, Apopka, Ocoee, Oakland-Winter Gar-
den and Pine Castle.

Orlando and Winter Park have a nine months term and are on the Southern Association Accredited list. Efforts
are being made to get our other high schools on the same accredited list.

Forty (40) additional teachers have been added in the last two (2) years and an increase in enrollment of twenty-
eight hundred (2,800) pupils. Some increase in salaries has been made from the special tax district funds since
the privilege of increasing the millage from three to ten mills has been ratified.

Bonded Indebtedness--The Proposed Amendment.--I am most heartily in favor of the proposed bond amendment. Our
county is developing so fast that we cannot bond for a sufficient amount, under the old five mill limit, to meet
the requirements. Will do everything in my power to carry this amendment and hope it will be a successful issue
all over the State.

The following amount of bonds are now outstanding against Special Tax School Districts:

Orlando ....................... $670,000.00
Apopka ........................ 11,250.00
Winter Park ..... ............. 51,000.00
Oakland-Winter Garden ......... 27,500.00
Fairvilla ..................... 5,000.00
Ocoee ......................... 40,000.00
Maitland ...................... 10,000.00
Pine Cistle ................... 20,000.00

$834,750.00

Compulsory Attendance.--The enforcement of the Compulsory Attendance Law throughout the county has been handled
by Mr. C. L. Durrance, Attendance Officer, in such a way as to reduce its requirement to a minimum. The best
way to eliminate the probability of having to compel attendance is to make the schools so attractive and create
such an environment that the children will want to go to school. The results will then be far more satisfactory
than for the child to go because the law requires him to. We must supplant the idea in the child's mind that he
is forced to do a thing which he does not want to do because some one wants to exercise authority, with the idea
that to be able to attend school is a privilege and an opportunity that he must take advantage of or else he is
individually the loser.

We are not having very many persistent or rebellious cases and do not contemplate any very serious difficulty in
securing the hearty cooperation of our people. We should, however, emphasize the importance of citizenship train-
ing as an aid to building up the observance of the laws of our land and country.

Consolidation of Schools,--Schools have been consolidated where possible, and an election has been called to
consolidate two districts for the purpose of establishing an agricultural high school.










1922-1924

Consolidation has had some opposition, but after it has become effective, has proven to be very satisfactory
to all concerned.

School Debt.--Outside of bonds listed above, our county ts out of debt, the General Fund on July 1st showing
a cash balance of $12,961.25.

Maintenance of Schools.--The possibility of Special Tax Districts voting ten mills has been a great benefit in
the maintenance of our schools. Most of the districts have voted from three to ten mills, averaging about seven
mills. This millage, with the assistance given by Parent-Teacher Associations and Better School Organizations has
enabled us to provide additional building equipment, playground equipment and to beautify the school grounds. In
this we have been assisted by the County Chamber of Commerce.

State and Counti, Boards of Public Instruction.--The writer favors our present system regarding Boards of Public
Instruction. Where the matter is left for the people to decide it is difficult for a mistake to be made in the
selection of officers. Out County Unit System, as idealized in Orange County, I consider ideal. Judging from
the fact that educational leaders from various parts of the United States, who have made investigation, have
commented very favorably upon it. In conference with the educators from various parts of the country, the ten-
dency seems to he in favor of the County Unit System rather than a city system of schools. Where a county is
governed by a County Board, in cooperation with the local Boards of Trustees, a good conscientious business man
for County Superintendent, who ai qualified, not only educationally, but with executive ability, the best results
should be obtained, as a double check is, therefore, kept upon all of the school activities.

County School Supervisors.--County Superintendents in rapidly developing counties have so much office work to
personally look after, outside of accounting, which prohibits him from giving the schools as much supervision
as he should, the writer feels that County Supervisors should be employed to assist in the general supervision
of the county school system. These should be men or women of wide experience as teachers, gifted with patience
and tact and a real love for school work, so that when visiting the schools they may win the love and esteem
of the teachers, and in a gentle and considerate way call their attention to the defects in the conduct of the
school, advising rather than dictating corrections. I have found in eight (8) years of successful work that
teachers as a whole are extremely loyal and are willing to do anything in their power for the good of the school
system, and if they know that the County Superintendent or Supervisor is visiting them with a friendly intent
of to find fault, that matters can soon be adjusted to the mutual satisfaction of all parties concerned.

Before closing I feel that I should make mention of the wonderful work of Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor, Canning Club
Agent, with the girls throughout the county, and also of Mrs. Ora D. Layton, Supervisor of Social Service Depart-
ment, which is continuing to function in all of its activities, and also of Judge Donald Cheney, Judge of the
Juvenile Court, and Mr. M. L. Alsteter, Probation Officer, who have rendered such efficient aid in carrying on
our compulsory work. I suggest that where it is possible that this should be put in operation in other counties.
It will save the disgrace of a criminal action being brought against any of our boys and girls, and, therefore,
relieve the anxiety and distress of many parents.

If not out of order, would like to suggest a few changes in our Certification Law.

Two examinations year, one early in June and the other early in September, by which teachers could write their
examination before going away for the summer, or on their return just before school opens. Let there be no Feb-
ruary examination. Make time of conducting--Wednesday, Thursday and Friday, instead of Thursday, Friday and
Saturday, as Saturday is a very busy day in the office of County Superintendents and also with the teachers.
Reciprocate with other States that permit teachers holding Florida certificates to teach on said certificates.

With thanks to the State Superintendent, Comptroller and their office forces, our County Commissioners, Teachers,
and all others for theirhearty cooperation with us in promoting our educational interests, I am,

Your very truly,
A. B. Johnson,
County Superintendent Public Instruction.

OSCEOLA COUNTY

No report filed.

PALM BEACH COUNTY

No report filed.

PASCO COUNTY

Dear Sir:--Complying with your request, I beg to submit the following report on the school conditions of Pasco
County:

High Schools.--The Pasco County High School is located in Dade City, and was accredited this year as a Senior A.
The Trilby school was accredited as a Junior A. Zephyrhills and the Gulf High Schools are doing Senior High
School work, but were not able to meet the qualifications for a credit. We think we can have all these schools
accredited next year.

New Buildings.--Since last report, four new buildings have been erected in the county. For the benefit of the
Coast Section, a new brick building was erected between Elfers and New Port Richey at a cost of $42,000.00 and
paid from the sale of district bonds. A $7,000.00 frame building was erected at Odessa, and two smaller build-
ings were erected to accommodate children in remote districts where transportation could not be effected on
account of bad roads.










1922-1924
Bonded Indebtedness.--The bonded indebtedness of the county is now $74,000.00 and included in only three dis-
tricts. There are other districts wanting to bond for new buildings, equipment, etc., but under the present
law, they can not bond for enough to meet their needs. We are doing all possible to put the proposed Amend-
ment over in this county.

General Fund Indebtedness.--The indebtedness against the General Fund is now $82,000.00 consisting of serial
time warrants, of five issues, the last of which was made to redeem some formally issued and to meet deficit
in 1921.

At present $12,000.00 of these time warrants fall due every year, aside from the interest, which make quite
an item when we consider an income of only $52,000.00. We need to refund some of these issues in order that we
might have more money for school maintenance.

School Consolidation.--Wherever practical, we have encouraged consolidation of schools, and have recently made
several changes along this line. We are now operating fourteen transportation lines. We find this more expen-
sive to the county, but the results obtained are far in advance.

Special Tax Districts.--Nearly all of the Special Tax Districts are voting 10 mills or a millage sufficient
together with the aid of the county fund, to operate the schools for a term of eight months.

Some districts of the county are so large that they do not need to vote more than three mills while some can
barely get by on ten. I do not feel like that is a square deal to all concerned, and would advise some legis-
lation which would do justice to all. That could be brought about by permitting the school Board to redistrict
the entire county and do away with districts where schools have been discontinued because of failure in popu-
lation.

Maintenance of Schoola.--Under present conditions, our revenue remains about the same, while our demands for
money are gr atly increased. It seems to me that the poor people are taxed to the limit, or about all they can
well stand without adding more, but it is ssential that more funds be acquired, if we keep our schools up to
the standard.

If we shoot some of the gas to the schools instead of putting it all on the roads, I believe the question will
be solved, and nobody materially hurt.

Respectfully,
E. B. O'Berry,
County Superintendent.

PINELLAS COUNTY

No report filed.

POLK COUNTY

No report filed.

PUTNAM COUNTY

No report filed.

ST. JOHNS COUNTY

No report filed.

ST. LUCIE COUNTY

No report filed,

SANTA ROSA COUNTY

No report filed.

SARASOTA COUNTY

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I am handing you herewith report of Sarasota County for two years
ending June 30, 1924.

Building.--Since our last report we have erected in District Number Eight a two-room school building to take
the place of the old frame building at Nokomis. This building is erected of hollow tile and stucco, wired for
electricity and with modern sanitary arrangements. We are employing at this school two teachers and prospects
are that this building will have to be enlarged, as population in that section is increasing rapidly. We have
floated a bond issue of $100,000.00 for the purpose of erecting buildings at Sarasota in District Number One.
This has given us a modern primary and intermediate building, sixteen recitation rooms and an auditorium seat-
ing more than nine hundred people. We have erected a four-room school building and auditorium for the negroes
at a cost of $16,000.00. We received aid from the Rosenwald Fund for the construction of our Negro building.
Our high school building has undergone repairs and will rank well with any of the high school buildings in thi
section of the State, except in size. This report is written two months after the opening of the schools in
county and we find that all buildings areovercrowded and that it is necessary to erect emergency buildings or
school grounds. It is our purpose to construct these buildings of frame material in such a manner that the'
be torn down and removed when other buildings have been erected. Sarasota has reached a point in its devel
where one central school to accommodate one thousand children is inadequate, and we are planning to erect
schools in different sections of the city. Care has been exercised in the selection of all teachers and
as our teaching force is concerned, we feel that the schools are well manned.

-91-









1922-1924

Finances.--In finances we feel that we have fared well. Separating from Manatee County and setting up house-
keeping for ourselves has been the occasion of our bonding the county in the amount of $175,000.00. The rapid
increase in the population in our county and the attendant increase in values will enable us to take care of
our bonds and of: any other money that it will be necessary for us to raise. We have completed our second month
of school for the session 1924-25 and paid all salaries and other current expenses without any of the budget for
the current year. The people are alive to school interests and make no demand except that moneys appropriated
be judiciously expended. In this connection, it gives me pleasure to speak of the efficiency and cooperation of
the members of the School B.ard, the chairman of which is the cashier of one of our banks and gives his time
unstintedly to the school interests, particularly the financial end. In this he is ably seconded by each of the
members of the Board. In the last election of the trustees, at which time the village for the two years was
fixed by vote, a schedule was prepared for each district by the Superintendent, and in each instance the village
asked was voted, It was necessary for only one of the districts to vote the full ten mills and this was in order
that they might retire indebtedness contracted in the erection of school building in their small district. I feel
no hesitancy in going before my people and asking them for aid in school matters.

'Cnmpulanry RnEdrt-. nn Law.--I feel that the law as it now stands is sufficient if we can find the officers to
enforce it, and I think that our county is particularly blessed in having officers that will enforce the law. Our
Attendance Officer is one of the officers connected with the Sheriff's office and is diligent in looking after non-
attendants, and I feel that if any case is before the County Judge, it will be dealt with as the case demands. Our
teachers are in sympathy with the ideas of the State Educational Association, and are doing what they can to give
every child in Sarasota County as good in educational matters as any child anywhere can secure. The Teacher Train-
ing Department In our high school is in good hands, and I think that through this agency we will supply a large
part of the demand for local teachers. Our whole high school is well organized with every teacher enthusiastic in
her special branch. Much attention is being given to high school athletics, both boys and girls have a special
coach. I would call attention to a system of play introduced by our principal in the high school and extending
through the kindergarten department. There is no general recess, but equipment is supplied for outdoor games and
at stated periods during the day pupils take they physical exercises and under the supervision of teachers. I
would commend this method, particularly where play ground is limited in extent. I feel very enthusiastic about
education of the future of Sarasota County and I hope that my expectations for the future will be fully realized.

With best wishes, I am,

Yours very truly,
T. W. Yarbrough,
County Superintendent.

SEMINOLE COUNTY

Dear Sir:--Complying with your recent request I submit the following report of the school system of Seminole
County for the biennium closing June 30, 1924:

Butldings.--Seminole County has been erecting new buildings and enlarging others almost continuously during the
past two years. A modern ten-room primary building has been erected at Sanford, at a cost of $35,000.00, and a
$15,000.00 addition has been made to the Sanford High School. In addition to this building, the basement of the
high school has been remodeled so as to accommodate classes in Smith-Hughes agriculture and home economics, these
two courses having been added to the regular classical school courses. At Geneva a four-room brick building has
just been completed and will be occupied this year. A six-room brick and concrete building has been built between
Longwood and Altamonte Springs and will be operated as a consolidated rural Junior High School, taking care of the
pupils from Longwood, Altamounte Springs and Forest City. Both the Geneva and the Lyman schools have large auditor-
iums, and are fitted out with modern equipment and appointments, having water and electricity, and up-to-date conven-
iences. Contracts have been let for two other brick and concrete buildings, one at Chuluota and another at Lake Mary,
and a frame building of two-rooms is nearly completed at Paola. But with all of these additions to the school faci-
lities of the county, schools are crowded, and more buildings will be needed within the next year or two.

High Schools.--While several of our rural schools are doing some good high school work, the only accredited high
school in the county is at Sanford. This school has been on the State accredited list for seven years, and is
regarded as one of the best in the State. Financial conditions have made it impossible for this school to be
operated more than eight months each year in the past, hence we have been unable to secure a place on the Southern
list of accredLted schools; however, the district has recently voted a special ten mill tax and Sanford will have
a nine month school this year, and doubtless will be placed on the Southern list. This school offers, in addition
to the required courses, typewriting and stenography, home economics and Smith-Hughes agriculture, and large numbers
of the students are taking advantage of these opportunities.

Bonded Indebtedness.--Two years ago there were outstanding bonds in the sum of $195,000.00. During the past two
years new bond issues have been voted and bonds sold to the amount of $63,000.00, making the total bonded indebted-
ness at present $258,000.00. Under present valuations no more bonds can be issued, every district having bonded up
to its limit; however, new property is being rapidly added to the assessment roll, and it will probably be possible
within the next twelve months to issue more bond, which will no doubt be necessary if the rate of increase in popu-
lation continues as during the past years.

Compulsory Attendance.--Due to inadequate funds the attendance law has not been very rigidly enforced in this
county. No school census has been taken, but investigations have been made by trustees and others interested, and
reports made to the superintendent of children of school age not attending school. In most cases the superinten-
dent has been able to persuade the parents of delinquent children to comply with the law, and it has not been found
necessary in any case to invoke the services of officers of the law. Lists of absentees are furnished the super-
intendent each week and some responsible man engaged to ascertain the reasons for such absences. The cost has
been negligible, but the results reasonably satisfactory.

Consolidation of Schools.--About four hundred children are transportedd to the Sanford schools, thus obviating
the necessity of establishing and maintaining several smaller schools within a radius of six or seven miles. The










1922-1924
Oviedo school likewise takes care of a number of children from Gabriella and Slavia, five miles west of Oviedo.
The largest new consolidation effected this year was made possible by the erection of a fine brick building
between Longwood and Altamonte Springs. This six-room building will provide accommodation for the children of
Longwood, Altamonte Springs and Forest City, and while the cost of transportation is somewhat in excess of main-
taining the schools thus abolished, yet the pupils will enjoy much better facilities and teachers. In the entire
county during the year 1923-24 there were transported 577 children at a total cost of $12,892.00, or about $22.34
per child for the year.

School Debt,--The bonded indebtedness of the several special tax school districts is $258,000.00, taken care of in
the usual manner of providing a sinking fund for each bond. Only one district has any outstanding notes, and in
this case the amount is but $300.00. The general school fund is indebted to the four banks of the county in the
sum of ten thousand dollars, evidenced by ninety-day notes bearing interest at the rate of eight per cent per annum.
These will be retired by receipts in November. There are outstanding $16,000.00 Time Warrants against the general
school fund, these to be paid off as they come due, $1,000.00 each year beginning July, 1925. Interest is paid
semi-annually on these time warrants at the rate of six per cent per annum. Quarterly a fixed sum is transferred
from the current general school fund to a Time Warrant Interest and Sinking account, which will be sufficient to
retire the warrants as they become due and payable.

Maintenance of Schools,--Of the 24 schools of this county, ten are for white and fourteen for negro children.
The enrollment, however, of the white schools is substantially in excess of that of the negro schools, the white
being 2083 and the negro 1616. For teachers the county paid during the past year $60,526.50, and for transporta-
tion of pupils $12,892.00, making a total for these two items of $73,418.50, or an average of a little less than
$20.00 per pupil. With tax millages as high as at present, and no possible way of increasing such millage if
desired, the maximum being levied for general funds and in every special district with one exception, unless
there is considerable advance made in assessed valuations, we shall encounter great difficulty in maintaining our
schools another year at their present standard. Yet, with a rapidly increasing population and new enterprises
almost daily arising, we have strong hopes that the situation will not be serious, and that there will be no
necessity for legislative action providing for any increase in the already too high millage.

Respectfully submitted,
T. W. Lawton.

SUMMER COUNTY

My dear Sir:--I beg to submit the following report of educational conditions in Sumter County for the two years
ending June 30, 1924:

Buildings.--Our school buildings, with one or two exceptions, are sufficient to house us at the present time.
Our plan is to place modern equipment in all of our schools, build, and otherwise make conditions as nearly perfect
as we can.

High Schools.--We are putting forth every effort to place and maintain our high schools on a high standard of
efficiency; it is very necessary that the high schools function properly, because this useful and finishing touch
should not be denied the children of any county. Our future is bright for the high school course.

Bonded Indebtedness.--(A) At present our bonded indebtedness is $80,000.00, including two recent issues by the
Bushnell and Webster school districts of $25,000.00 and $35,000.00 respectively. All of our bond issues were
for the purpose of building new school houses. Bushnell expects to vote a second bond issue if the amendment
carries in the general election.

(B) We need more money for building purposes, and our salvation is the amendment; our people are willing to vote
almost an unlimited tax upon themselves for school purposes, and our educators do not feel like they should be
held down to only five mills, which is the present law.

Compulsory Attendance Law,--Our present law is far too elastic; there is a loop-hole for any indifferent or dis-
satisfied parent who does not care to see his child in school. The remedy is: a better law; competent and effi-
cient attendance officers and a conscientious school board.

Consolidation of Schools.--The question of consolidation is only beginning with us, but I see it is the thing for
the schools. The small rural schools should go because of poor advantages in general including: short term, too
many grades to the teacher, lack of medical attention, insufficient equipment, bad surroundings and a number of
other things.

School Debt.--Our school debt is not large; it consists of Time Warrants in the sum of $27,250.00. All of which
is against the general school fund, a portion of which is paid off each year. We have found it to be a bad policy
of business to permit a large indebtedness against the general school fund, and it is our intention to reduce it
to a minimum. Our annual receipts for all funds is approximately $85,000.00. Seemingly a large amount of money
is spent each year for interest but borrowed money has to be paid for.

Maintenance of Schools.--The idea of the Special Tax School District appeals to me; it seems to bring the respon-
sibilities of the school closer home to the patrons. It is like narrowing things down to the home of a family.
The State and county have a great duty to perform in maintaining schools, but let's see first that the people are
awake. The State's great duty is to see that every community is given free reign to develop, that the laws are
sane and usable. I have in mind our present school attendance law and our law for voting school bonds, as well
as other laws.

The Boards of Public Instruction.--I am well pleased with the present number of our county and State boards o
education; I believe more would be too cumbersome. The method of selection does not altogether appeal to me
because of a goodly number of reasons, the first of which is this: I do not think it is right that a hard w
conscientious person must cease in the midst of hLs working and planning and go among his constituents to r
fight for his life. It is too distracting, it is too hazardous. Then again the idea of possible defeat 1
man too cautious, and so he is not likely to put his best efforts into his work. There is no questioning

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1922-1924

that our county and State superintendents should be well educated, efficient people; back of that they must have
competent board members, else we do not get the best results. The people need a wide awakening; when they cast
their ballots they should always mark the line which means efficiency and service. In short, what we need is a
highly intelligent constituency. The system may be wrong, and it may be wrong because the people have made it
so, just like any other system may have its evils also.

Teacher-Training Department.--I am glad the State will aid any county in establishing a department of this nature
in their schools, because first of all I believe in good teachers. The teacher has charge of a child during the
most critical period of its life, and for a longer time than anyone else; therefore I maintain that the best we
can do for our teachers is none too good for them. The State has taken a noble step.

Yours very truly,
W. T. Eddins,
County Superintendent.

SUWANNEE COUNTY

No report filed.

TAYLOR COUNTY

Dear Sir:--I beg to submit the following report of the school work in Taylor County for the past two years:

Since July 1, 1922, we have made steady, if slow, progress along most lines of our educational work. Two special
tax school districts have been consolidated and the two combined are now erecting a commodious school building.
We have purchased and installed more than $5,000.00 worth of furniture and equipment. Some $3,000.00 more has been
spent for repairs and additions to school buildings. The Taylor County High School has been accredited by the
Southern Association of Colleges and the high school at Carbur has been accredited as a Junior "A". Our average
attendance has made a small increase but not as much as it should, this increase being mainly in the Perry school
and in the consolidated schools of the county; the one-teacher schools showing an actual falling off in attendance.
The scholarship of our teachers has gradually increased. Nine special tax districts have voted the ten-mill
maximum school levy, six others have voted five mills, leaving only five districts with a three-mill levy.
The Taylor County Chapter of the Red Cross now has a full time nurse, and the School Board by contributing
$50.00 per month to the Red Cross secures a good part of the time of this nurse for health work in the schools.
The work that has been done along this line during the past two years would be hard to measure. Hundreds have
been given hookworm treatment, hundreds of others have been vaccinated against typhoid and smallpox and numbers
have been operated upon for the removal of tonsils. This is by no means all of the health work that has been
done, but gives an idea of the kinds of work the Red Cross nurse has been looking after.

Now I shall attempt to make a little comparison of conditions as I found them when I came into office Jan. 4, 1921,
and I shall shortly leave them.

When I became County Superintendent there was not a consolidated school in the county. There had been some at-
tempts at consolidation at different times before my coming in but they had all "fallen down." During the past
three and one-half years we have consolidated fourteen schools into six, besides getting rid of three useless
schools not a part of this consolidation. It is needless to say that the effectiveness of the work has been
greatly increased where consolidation has taken place.

When I became Superintendent more than one-third of our teaching force were without certificates and there was
only one college graduate teaching in the county. At this time only three are without regular certificates and
one of these only lacks one year of graduation from college. We have not less than five college graduates teach-
ing in the county, and, besides these, one teacher with a State Certificate, one with a Professional and several
with "New Firsts" and specials in high school subjects. Along no other line have we made greater progress than
in the scholarship and efficiency of our teachers.

Fifteen thousand dollars have been spent for new buildings, additions and repairs during my administration. More
than five thousand of this was spent at Carbur. Less than five thousand dollars, as I remember, was spent during
the four years prior to my administration for new buildings and repairs and only a tithe of what we have spent
for furniture and equipment was spent during the four years prior to my coming into office. Having to spend so
much, for buildings, repairs and equipment (the old Board "passing the buck" up to the Boards serving with me)
has increased our general fund indebtedness in round numbers about $20,000.00, but the increased expenditure
has been more than paid for by the increased efficiency it has brought about. At Carbur, for instance, the
average attendance has increased from 82 to 187 in three years (I mean the schools consolidated into Carbur
only averaged 82 the year before consolidation and the Carbur Consolidated School averaged 187 last term) and
the efficiency of the work has increased more than the attendance.

We had only one high school in Taylor County Jan. 1, 1921, and it had never ranked higher than intermediate. Our
high school at Perry now ranks among the best in the State, being accredited as a Senior "A" and its graduates
are eligible to enter any of the Southern Association of Colleges without examination. We have a high school of
Junior "A" grade at Carbur that has been of much benefit to the southern end of the county during the three
years of its existence.

In speaking of the progress we have made, it is only fair to add this observation:

While our average attendance has increased, there has been an actual falling off during the past three years in
the average attendance of one-teacher schools, the increase being mainly at Perry, Carbur, Fenholloway and
Spring Warrior. With the exception of Perry these schools have been built up by consolidation. It is true,
even if not pleasant to our pride, that the one-teacher schools are proving more and more as the years go by
that they are not functioning. Most of the patrons of these schools see that something is wrong, but they often
blame the bad results on Superintendent and Board, claiming that they will not furnish the proper teachers and
that the schools are discriminated against; but it is a known fact that it is exceedingly hard to get very capa-
ble teachers into one-teacher schools, unless school officials are willing to wait until fall and winter terms










1922-1924

are over, and usually patrons do not like to have their schools run during the spring of the year. I do not
know how it is in many counties, but in this part of the State the rural sections are not faring as well in
many ways as they did twenty-five years ago. Many points seldom have preaching services. I know of places
that used to have preaching once a month that seldom, if ever, have it now, and this is very common in numbers
of sections. I beg pardon for mentioning this, but shows that we really have a rural problem that looms
large in this part of the Land of Flowers. Perhaps future Superintendents and Boards may find the answer as
far as the school part goes.

Here are some of our very pressing needs as I see them:

First and foremost, we need a school survey by outside experts to show us just where we are, to outline a con-
solidation program extending over a term of years, this to include a proper consolidation of our twenty
special tax school districts into one-fourth or one-fifth of that number; to point out proper locations for
whatever additional high schools may be needed; to show just what we need--the minimum need--in the way of
supervision; to show where economies can be effected; to better correlate (by showing us how) the work of the
grades with that of the high school; and to show what can be done to provide better health conditions in our
schools.

Second, by some means, legal enactment if necessary, the School Board should be able to so combine special tax
district and general school funds as to treat each school exactly alike. As districts are at present consti-
tuted this is well nigh impossible.

Third, we need by all means, enforcement of the compulsory attendance law. This could be done by one qualified
to serve as rural school supervisor and thus fulfill a double purpose. The increased average attendance
brought about by proper enforcement in Taylor County would get us enough additional from the State one-mill
tax and the State school fund to almost if not quite pay the cost of enforcement.

Finally, we need a general awakening. We need to be roused from our lethargy. Men and women of vision are
needed for educational leadership, and when we have this, we will come nearer getting the other things I
mentioned that we need as well as the things I have not mentioned.

In closing I desire to thank you for the many courtesies you have always extended me and to wish that your
future work in the State Superintendent's office may be both pleasant to you and profitable to the people of
Florida.

Very respectfully,
W. T. Cash,
County Superintendent.

UNION COUNTY

No report filed.

VOLUSIA COUNTY

Dear Sir:--In response to your recent letter concerning the biennial report I wish to submit the following:

Buildings.--In the past two years the various Special Tax School Districts of Volusia County have issued bonds
in the sum of five hundred and eighty-two thousand ($582,000.00) dollars for school improvements.

Daytona has erected a Junior High School at a cost of approximately $60,000.00, and also has added to the
various ward schools and the colored schools at an additional cost of $125,000.00

New Smyrna has built an addition to the High School at a cost of $20,000.00. Looking to the future the School
Board has purchased an entire city block in New Smyrna for the purpose of erecting a modern High School
building. This building will probably be erected within the next two years.

A Junior High School and Grammar School building is now being completed at Oak Hill at a cost of $30,000.00.

Port Orange has recently voted a bond issue of $40,000.00 for the purpose of building a modern building at that
place.

Holly Hill has recently bonded for $7,000.00 to build an addition to their school.

Daytona Beach will soon complete an excellent Grammar School building, and has also purchased a site for a
second building in Seabreeze. The second building will probably be erected next year. A bond issue of
$125,000.00 was authorized to take care of both these buildings.

At Ormond an excellent colored school has been built at a cost of approximately $12,000.00.

A new building has been completed at Seville which will house the High School that is to be established there
this year.

A two-room addition is being built at Pierson.

One room is being added to the Glenwood school, and one to the Samsula school.

DeLand is spending $125,000.00 this year which will include the erection of a large primary and intermediate
building, and also a building for the colored people.

Enterprise is completing an addition to their school, and also has constructed a separate auditorium and
community building.
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1922-1924


High Schools.--At the present time there are five State accredited High Schools in Volusia County, four of which
are on the accredited list of the Southern Association of Secondary schools and colleges. The sixth Senior High
School will be established this year at Seville. Junior High Schools have been established at Enterprise,
Ormond, Port Orange, and Oak Hill.

Bonded Indebtedness.--Of the twenty-three Special Tax School Districts in Volusia County eleven have issued bonds.
Most of these districts have issued all bonds possible under the present law. However, valuations are increasing
very rapidly and it will be only a short time until additional bond issues can be authorized. However, with this
rapid increase in valuation wL find that the increase in the demands of education are much more rapid. The only
way we will be able to keep up with our school needs is by passing the amendment which will be voted upon this
fall.

Compulsory Attendance Law.--While it is impossible to operate the present law to the best advantage it has had
a marked effect upon our school attendance.

Consolidation of Schools.--Many of the small one-teacher schools have been abolished and the children transported
to a larger school. As communities developed it has been the policy in this county to transport the pupils
rather than build small school buildings. Transportation has been by contract at an average cost of about
three 63.00) dollars per month for each pupil.

School Debt.--All debts in Volusia County are evidenced by bonds against the Districts and Time Warrants. Time
Warrants are being retired out of the General School Fund at the rate of ten thousand ($10,000.00) dollars a
year. We do not anticipate issuing more Time Warrants as this method of financing is too much of a burden to
the General School Fund out of the limited amount that can be collected.

Maintenance of Schools.--All white schools with the exception of the High Schools are maintained from the General
School Fund for six months. The High Schools are maintained for seven months. The Special Tax School Districts
maintain all schools for an additional two months.

Yours very truly,
Geo. W. Marks.

WAKULLA COUNTY

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I herewith submit to you the following data in regards to the schools
and expenses of Wakulla County:

In the past four years this county has built one two-room school buildings at a cost of approximately $900.00,
and four one-room school buildings at a cost of approximately $600.00 each. One six-room building, built out
of concrete at a cost of approximately $13,000.00. All the buildings are modern and up-to-date in every
respect.

We have consolidated four of our small schools, and we hope to consolidate more of the schools in the near future.
I firmly believe in consolidation, and I am going to use all my influence in getting as many schools consolidated
as possible. There is a move on in the eastern part of the county to bond Special Tax District Number One for
enough money to build a $15,000.00 building, and consolidate the following schools into one school, making this
school a Junior High School: Wakulla, St. Marks, Newport, Gibson's Mill, and the Miller School. All the above
schools are in a radius of five miles of the building that is to be erected.

All the white schools run from five to eight months, and the colored schools from three to four months. Most
all the special tax districts are going to vote an increase in the next election, so as to make the terms longer
and to pay the teachers more. We need more money, and I sincerely hope that the next Legislature will provide
a way that we can secure money enough to make all the schools eight months, and to enable each county to get
out of debt. I sincerely hope that you will call a meeting of the County Superintendents together before the
next Legislature meets, so we might get the Legislature to do something for the cause of education.

Please arrange this as you think best, and I shall appreciate it very much.

Thanking you in advance and for all past favors, I am,

Yours very truly,
J. C. Pigott, Jr.
County Superintendent.

WALTON COUNTY

Dear Sir:--

Buildings.--The school buildings in this county are in very good condition, most of them are of course, wooden
buildings, some of them very old and need remodeling with reference to light, etc. Only two new buildings have
been built during the past two years, a one-teacher white school building, cost of the county toward this build-
ing approximately $300.00. Tiroli, colored school five rooms, costing about $3,000.00, accepted Rosenwald aid.

High Schools.--At present there are two white high schools in the county. One Senior High School Class "A,"
located in DeFuniak Springs, with modern buildings and modern equipment. Have one Junior High School, located
at Freeport, in the southern part of the county. By special arrangements with the State of Alabama the children
in the northern part of the county who are ready for high school attend the Covington County High School,
located in Florala, Ala., on the State line. Distance for Florida pupils one to three miles.

Bonded Districts.--We have three bonded school districts in the county, one recently. Freeport has had a special
bond issue for enlarging and improving their present building and grounds.










1922-1924

Compulsory Attendance Law.--We have the following system of enforcing the compulsory school attendance law: A
local attendance officer in each school district, and attendance officer in each School Board Member's District,
and a County Attendance Officer, who is also a deputy sheriff. We do not have the law rigidly enforced on
account of the pupil being able to get excused for so many reasons. The law should be amended in order to get
better results.

Inequalities Taxable Wealth For Each Child In The State.--I believe that if every child in Florida is to be
afforded equal opportunity then each of them should have the same amount of money spent for their education.
Under the present system, some counties have low assessed valuation and many pupils. Other counties with an
equal assessment will probably have one half as many pupils. In a condition of this kind the child in one
county has two dollars spent on his education while the other will only have one dollar spent for his. This seems
unfair, because the county with the fewer number of children can have better equipment, better buildings, better
paid teachers, and longer terms of school. Another thing the wealth of the State is not evenly distributed,
so some counties enjoy the above good things mentioned, others are paying an equal tax rate and are struggling
for existence. I am overlooking the fact purposely, that poor management on the part of the officials in some
of the counties is in a measure responsible. But this could not apply only to a very small per cent. The
remedy, every county in the State pay the same millage, let the State Board fix the amount, have all school
money deposited to the credit of the State Treasurer and then re-apportion the money to the different counties,
based on the number of pupils of school age, and in this way the citizenship would pay an equal amount rate of
taxes and every child in the State would have an equal amount of money from the State spent on its education.
I would not suggest any changes with reference to bonded districts, but would specify that only a certain per
cent derived from the State from taxes could be spent for improvements to buildings and equipment and the rest
of it would be applied to administrative purposes, including teachers' salaries, etc. I think that the length
of term should be increased from the minimum of four months to a minimum of six months. Personally I prefer
nine in every school district.

County School Borrds.--I think that the number should be five. I believe that they should be elected so that
they each hold office for four years, instead of two as at present.

County School Supervisors.--We have in this county a permanent organization of Supervisors and Trustees, who
assemble in convention each year during the month of June. The advantages we find are, renewed interest,
good co-operation, personal visit to the different schools monthly, a written monthly report from them at the
end of each school month and more confidence in the County Board of Public Instruction, by reason of the fact
that all sections of the county know what the Board as a whole is doing for their respective districts.

Improvements For High Schools.--I sincerely believe that every High School, intermediate or senior at least,
should offer some vocational work for boys and some for girls. I find that the public generally is disappointed
in the training that our high school pupils are receiving. Lots if theory and no practice. I believe that the
State Board should require more work of this kind. The percentage of high school graduates attending college
is relatively small, but each of them is expected to earn a living. I would like to see them taught how to
do some one or more useful things in order to earn a living.

Respectfully submitted,
J. J. Kennedy.

WASHINGTON COUNTY

No report filed.







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