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 Title Page

Group Title: Narrative reports of county superintendents, State of Florida
Title: Narrative reports of county superintendents
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00082791/00004
 Material Information
Title: Narrative reports of county superintendents
Alternate Title: Research report 37 ; Florida Dept. of Education
Physical Description: 6 v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Education. -- Division of Research
Publisher: Florida Dept. of Education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: March, 1965
Copyright Date: 1962
Subject: Public schools -- History -- Sources -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Sources   ( lcsh )
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Department of Education.
General Note: Covers the period from 1870 through 1924. No narrative reports published between 1880 and 1892.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00082791
Volume ID: VID00004
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 48541382

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Full Text

1906-1908 TO 1910-1912
in I
SI_ _


Thomas D. Bailey
State Superintendent of Public
Tallahassee, Florida
MARCH 1965

~T~ S~/4"i,





1906-08 to 1910-1912

Research Report 37
Division of Research

Thomas D. Bailey
State Superintendent of Public Instruction
Tallahassee, Florida

March, 1965

Research Report 37 is a compilation of County
Superintendents' narrative reports covering
statistical and other school data for the period

The preparation of this report is one phase in
the implementation of Florida's plan for improv-
ing statistical services of the State Department
of Education under the Provisions of Title X,
National Defense Education Act.

1906 1912

Research Report 37 is composed of extracts from the file of State Superin-
tendents' Biennial Reports in the State Department of Education. It presents
in full the narrative reports submitted by county superintendents for the
period 1906-1912. Earlier reports, Research Reports 20, 21, and 27, covered
the period prior to 1906. Each county superintendent's report covers a two
year period, therefore, there are three separate reports for each county in
Research Report 37.

In 1908 in his letter requesting narrative reports from county superinten-
dents, State Superintendent W. M. Holloway stated in part;

The reports from the County Superintendents of Public Instruction
form a very important feature of the Bi-ennial Report, and are
always read with deep interest by students of education.

It is our feeling that the interest of students of education in these reports
has increased with the passage of time and development of our present system
of education.

In the 1906-1908 State Superintendents' Biennial Report reflects concern for
the level of teachers' salaries

It will be remembered that the average monthly salary of teachers
for the term of 1905-6 was $39.56, and that the average length of
term was 5.3 months. The average annual salary, therefore, was
$209.67, or an average salary per calendar month of $17.47. At
the same time the annual income to the State on account of the
hire of each convict leased by the Board of Commissioners of State
Institutions was $207.70, or an average income per calendar month
of $17.31; but the average annual wages of each free laborer
employed in the ordinary trades and occupations was $480.50 with
an average wage per calendar month of $40.04. This comparison
has had the effect of stimulating the County Boards of Public
Instruction to pay better salaries, and while there has been a
very gratifying increase in the salaries of teachers to the
extent that the average annual salary is now $241.33 with an
average monthly salary of $44.69 for a term of 5.4 months, yet
the salaries are still so ridiculously low that most of the
young men of the State decline to enter the profession of
teaching, and the men already in the service are unwilling
to remain therein for any great length of time. The result
is a great loss to the cause of education.

The Florida Education Association was organized in 1886. It was customary for
the State Superintendent to deliver an address at its annual meeting. Following
is an excerpt from the address of State Superintendent Holloway at St. Peters-
burg in 1907.

The elements in the cost of education are threes Money, the
teacher's life, and the pupil's drudgery. An educated man
or woman, at twenty-oneiyears of age, has cost some one or
some institution about five thousand dollars in money, but
this is the smallest part of the cost of his education.

The second element, the sympathy and vital force expended on
the part of his teachers, if they have done their full duty,
is a much greater and more precious expenditure. But more
important than the money and the teacher combined is the
drudgery invested in education by the person who is trained.
Education cannot be given to any one. It cannot be bought
and sold. It is as personal as religion. Each one must
work out his own mental and spiritual salvation. This is
the fact that makes Democracy possible. It is the salt
that saves the world. Parents and philanthropists, and
citizens and States, can provide the money and furnish
the opportunity; the teacher, if what he ought to be, can
furnish the encouragement and inspiration, 'and all of this
ought to be done in generous and masterly fashion; but the
principal ingredients in education must be furnished by the
self-denying drudgery of the pupil and student. He is the
pearl of great price for whom we can afford to sell all
that we have, and in whom we can afford to invest.

The Legislature of 1907, realizing the importance of the
County Superintendent of Public Instruction in relation
to the county school system, and being aware of the fact
that great difficulty had sometimes been experienced in
finding competent men for the position at the salary
paid, passed a law regulating the salaries of these
officials... basing such salary on the total annual
receipts for school purposes in the county... ranging
from $600 per annum as a minimum to $2,400 as a maximum.

The legal maximum salary of $2,400 per year was paid in Duval County and
Hillsborough County while the minimum $600 salary was paid in Baker, Cal-
houn, Franklin, Liberty and Wakulla. The state average was $1,129 per

Reports of county superintendents
are reproduced as printed without
editorial comment or revision.

Gainesville, Fla., October 12, 1908.
Hon. W. M. Holloway, State Supt.Pub, Inst.,
Tallahassee, Fla.,

Dear Sir:--In obedience to your request, I herewith submit the following brief
report from this county:

School Buildings.--During the past two years the county has expended $5,000 in
erecting frame buildings. Five thousand five hundred dollars has been expended
in ceiling, painting and repairing school buildings.

Financial Condition,--Our financial condition is very good. We are paying good
salaries, and are securing better talent in our schools.

Uniform System Aid Under Chapter 5382,--Under this chapter, we have mantained(sic)
,two Seinor (sic) High schools, six Junior High schools, and three R~.-_ua Graded
schools. Great good has been done in Alachua County by promoting Higher Education.

Under Chapter 5381.--Under this chapter, nineteen schools have been extended and
much good has been accomplished in securing better average attendance.

Special Tax Districts.--There are thirty-six Special Tax school districts in
Alachua County; they are highly appreciated and are very beneficial in many ways.
The annual Special District income is $14,663.00; it is used to supplement the
salaries of teachers, to lengthen the school term, and to erect and repair school
buildings, and to furnish all necessary supplies.

County Supt. Pub, Inst.

Macclenny, October 10, 1908.
Hon. Win M. Holloway, State Supt, Pub. Inst.,
Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request I have the honor to submit the follow-
ing report, in brief, of the condition and progress of the schools in this county
for the past two years:

Buildings.--Each of our buildings is constructed of wood and has cost us from
twenty-five dollars to twelve and fifteen hundred dollars, Since submitting my
report two years ago, we have erected two fine buildings, one at Taylor and the
other at Olustee; these buildings completed and fur'isntd will cost us about three
thousand dollars, all are comfortably seated and well ventilated and admirably
located. We are pleased to report that Baker County has, as a whole, excellent
school bu illings throughout.

i~ id --Our school fund is in very good condition. Warrants are readily
cashed upon presentation for face value. In July a balance was made which dis-
closed the fact that our output had been Sia..~ that of previous years and treble
even in some years, and with all this great expenditure we presented a balance of


over three hundred dollars. In Special Tax districts we have eight months'
terms and in the country 'from three to five months' terms.

Schools.--We haven't any Senior High Schools, but the Macclenny High school will
be made and is.making excellent progress. 'We have one Junior High school, three
Rural Graded schools, all of which are doing fine work. This gives quite a nice
increase since my last report. As to the teachers of schools, I have this to
suggest: I think it decidedly best that all Principals of Senior High schools
and Primary departments be required to hold State Certificates. A child should
be started in his school work by a capable and experienced teacher, and as that
child advances to the grade of a Senior High school the teacher likewise should
be required to advance and thus keep pace with the child; to this end the law
should be so enacted.

grading Committees.--The present method of grading papers is very good. I do
not favor a State Grading Committee f9r many reasons. The present method has,
in the past, proven most satisfactory and I believe it will do so in the future.

Compulsory Education.--The day is not far distant when a mild compulsory edu-
cational law will be upon our statue book. I await with pleasure this law,
and firmly believe it to mean much to our future welfare. The general trend of
affairs too clearly establishes the great fact that within the coming generation
those who are unable to read and write, etc., are 4dstined to a hard lot; many
of the older heads of the papsing generation seem to overlook this fact, but
we, who see and realize it shotid try to enact some law touching thereupon.

County Levy.--In my report of two years ago I urged and advocated that it was
right and essential that the power of county levy for school purposes be delegated
to the County School Board of each county. It is right and proper that this
authority and jurisdiction be given them, and it is with pleasure that I now
note this authority is with the school board so long as they confined~ themselves
within the millage limit. With such powei now vested in each school board it
can more easily determine what millage is necessary and then levy same; thus
enabling the financial situation of each county's school system to be in fine
control at all times.

Teachers.--We are pleased with the teachers used in this county and only regret
that it is, at times, difficult to secure sufficient teachers with which to run
our schools, Many of our teachers have that progressive, go-a-head spirit and
are doing splendid work. Some of them spend their vacations in Normal schools,
and I mostheartliy recommend this. As a rule we class our teachers with any
teachers in the State in the same line of school work.

All of which it is my pleasure to respectfully submit for your bi-ennial report.
County Supt. Pub., Inst.

Starke, Fla., September 30, 1908.
Hon. W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sir:--I take pleasure in complying with your request of recent date relative
to the school work of Bradford County for the past two years.

Buildings-. -During thepast two years thec School Board of Bradford County has
expended about twenty-five hundred dollars ($2,500.00) by way of improvement
among the countyschool buildings. At Lake Butler a fine brick building cost-
ing ten thousand ($10,000) dollars has just been completed. This building has
eight class rooms, library, office and auditorium equipped with the latest and
best furniture. This splendid building is a monument,of the process and liber-
ality of the citizens of Lake Butler

High Schools,--We have a Senior High school at Starke and a Ju nc High school
at Lake Butler, Lawtey, Providence and Raiford, These schools are well attended
and the people have co-operated with the school authorities in securing regular
attendance and urging the more advanced pupils to patronize their home schools
and thus secure classes of higher grades.

State Aid Based on Property Valuation.--This is unquestionably one of the best
laws.ever enacted, to encourage longer terms. Before this law was enacted our
school term was four monghso Now twelve of our country schools run six months
and all the rest five months. This legislation has en:ouraged'the establishing
of Special Tax districts that more funds might be realized and longer terms
secured. In fact, it was ..this legislation 'bha enabled us to secure higher
village for oav"school purposes. Formerly our C.c~Lnty Com~tsi3.:n6ers levied five
mills, but this year it'will be six and one-half. Realizing that `c.,ipeter cy
demands good pay, we have endeavored to show our appre.:iati on of good service
by giving better salaries. Four years ago the amount paid,for teachers' salaries
was thirteen thousand, seven hundred and eighty dollars ($13,780). This year
(past) twenty-one thousand, five hundred and two dollars i$P .21,502). An increase
of over 55 per cent'.

Special Tax Districts,--The number of Special Tax districts continues to increase.
We now have twenty and others will be established soon, Bradford County realizes
annually over five thousand dollars ($5,000) from her Special Tax districts.

School Library.--Two years ago the School Board announced that they would dupli-
cate the amount raised in any community for the establishment of a school library.
The result has been very gratifying. We now have sixteen school libraries. In
each of these schools we have placed a good book-case, and the books are carefully
selected for each grade. We now pr:cp,,, e to e4n;a-'ge the establihiMet of a
teachers' professional library. The Superintendent to be the custodian of all
the books.

Financial.--At the regular meeting of the School Board, the first Monday of each
month, we pay our teachers cash. The trustees of the various Special Tax districts
borrow money, if necessary, to meet'the amount given to teachers' salaries. This
amount being supplementary to the apportionment granted by the School Board. If
all the money due our county from the State had been paid at the close of the
scholastic year (June 30, 1908), we would have had a small balance in our treasury.
We are planning for better building,, longer terms and better -q'uirpRd teachers.
The school officials of the county have watched with o a i .l. interest the splendid
advancement in our educational work throughout the State. We *c.ngretulate you
upon your wise and conservative dini rtin

Yours truly,
CoE."PGu SUF. fub' Ins
County Supt, Pub. Inst.


Titusville, Fla., October 13, 1908.
Hon. W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request I submit the following statement:

Buildings.--Since your last Bi-ennial Report, we have made a two-story two-
room addition to Titusville, at a osat of $1,250, and the same kind of an
additiont::o Eau Gallie, at a cost of about $1,000, We have repaired, painted
and put in good repair, nearly all our rural schools, so that our school
property is in first-class condition.

Consolidation is a growing sentiment in this county, hence the reasons for the
additions to Titusville,and Eau Gallie. Before another year we shall have to
-build an addition to Cocoa, which now has a six-room building.

High Schools.--We have one Senior High school at Cocoa, and Junior High schools
at Tituisville and Eau Gallie. We hope to have to ask you to certify Titusville
as a Senior High school another year.

Schools Extendeid Under the 80% Act.--We had for the session 1907-08 four white
schools and four negro schools to receive benefit under this act. I think this
one of the best laws ever passed by the Legislature, but am wondering when we
may expect our money. There is due our county now something over $2,200 in
State aid money. Not receiving it this year caused us to have a deficit for the
first time in three years..

Tuition of Non-Resident Children.--Our Board of Public Instruction last year
passed the following preamble and resolutions:

"Whereas, It appears that there are a great many illegal pupils attending the
public schools of this county; and,

"Whereas, Regulation 14, County Board of Public Instruction, provides for the
payment of a tuition fee; therefore be it

"Resolved, first, From this date all pupils from other States, and other counties
of this State, shall pay ,a tuition fee of $5 each for the term.

"Second. It shkill be the duty of the teacher, before enrolling pupils, to
ascertain how many are non-resident, and collect the fee before entering the
name of pupil on school register.

"Third. The teacher shall remit such sums as map be collected at once to the
County S4perintendent of Schools, who shall in turn deposit same with the
Treasurer." We received from this source $115.

State Aid Based on Prorperty Vyi1Ation.--This Act is, I think, all right, and
is a great help to small rtral schools. Right at this time we are waiting for
some of this aid. We have $33.75 in this fund, and if it can be augmented I
know where to use it to good advantage.

We have no Special Tax districts now, and hope to be able to keep our schools
up to their present high standard with the 7 mills general school tax.


Consolidation of Schools.--We are transporting to our Senior High sch-:4ol at.~ Cocoa
the pupils belonging to seven rural schools. This costs us for transportation
alone, $245 per month. We save, then, about $35 per month, and the benefit
received by the children by being placed in a graded school, cannot be justly
computed in dollars and cents. We are transporting the children from LaGrange
to Titusville this year; consolidation is growing in popularity each year. It
is the solution for the over-worked rural teacher, with eight grades and a chart
class for good measure.

The Future.--It is the earnest desire of the School Board and Superintendent of
this.county to make this county second to none in the State; we want the best of
everything; best and most sanitary school houses and grounds, best seating, best
blackboards, and the very best teachers.

For a small county, we are liberal with our teachers. Our maximum salary to
white is $120, minimum $35--negro teachers, maximum $50, minimum $25.', Our length
of term for High schools is eight months; for rural schools six months and for
negro schools four and five months.

Respectfully submitted,
County Supt. Pub. Inst.

Blountstown, Fla., October 10, 1908.
Hon. W. M. Holloway,
State'Supt, Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sir:--Our County Board has aimed to steadily improve our school interests in
all respects--teachers, houses, furniture, length of terms, and methc-ds of teach-
ing. The county schools have had a five-mc-nth.; term for some years, Our Special
Tax districts usually have six, seven, or eight months owing to the amount of
money received from taxation or State aid.

Teachers.--Our teachers are advancing in both quality and number. Since the
establishment 'of the High schools, we have almost as many low-grade teachers as
we need. It is interesting to note in this copnna.:tic.n that' thirty-seven took the
examinationthe past year, almost double the number examined any preics year.
The salary of the principals of graded schools is ample, but that cf subordinate
teachers is too low. The salaries of the first range from $60.00 to $100.00 per
month; that;of the last is $30.00 to $35.00, and $40.00, a.cc,.rding to grade of
certificate, with such additions as the peo.:ple: or trustees iak t: it.

Buildings.--Since our last report, we have had seven new houses built, and have
accepted one addition to a High school sand rejected another. Out board is having
houses better constructed and better material used in their cns. ru.tion than is
found in the old houses. We are using every safeguard to insure this, In the
last appropriation is an item of $1,000 to'put in stoves, flues, windows, etc.
In the last report we mentioned furniture of the best,quality for four graded
schools. Four more schools will be added to the list soon,

Since the last report, the curriculum of the High school here has been advanced
from the Eighth grade to include the Tenth grade, and there is fine promise of a
Senior High school in a year or so. 'Our schools have shown considerable ambition


trying to secure State aid, and have been granted over $1,000.00 this year.
It is to be hoped that this can be put on such a firm basis that schools
awarded this in future will secure it promptly, and not be delayed as at

In a general way we are doing all our means will allow to keep pace with
the times, and to fit our boys and girls for intelligent citizenship.

Respectfully submitted,
County Supt. Pub..Inst.

Inverness, Fla., October 15, 1908.
Hon. W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sir:--In response to your request of recent date, I beg leave to submit
the following report: In the history of the county the schools were never in
a better condition, educationally and in every other way, than at present.

We carried a surplus of $2,335.90 in the general school fund, over from last
year, our object being,to have on hand enough money to meet our obligations
to the teachers until taxes are collected. All taxes should be paid by the
20th of December of each year, and by this means most Boards of Public In-
struction would never have to borrow money.

A school-warrant has never been discounted in this county and school-warrants
are today worth 100 cents on the dollar.

We try to be conservative in our management of our schools, and still try to
keep up with the procession. We operate all of our schools from six to eight
months each year, and pay teachers $30100 to $95.00 per month. The County
Superintendent is paid $75.00 per month.

This year we have made appropriations for 27 schools, employing 39 teachers.
Twenty-two of these, with 34 teachers, are white schools, and five, with 5
teachers, are negro schools.

The attendance thus far this term has certainly been 10 per cent. better than
ever before, and after several trips over and through the county, and visiting
a number of the schools and talking with the teachers and patrons, I am encour-
aged to believe that this year's school work will show a marked improvement
over any year since public schools were established in this county. Although
I am not yet fully satisfied with all conditions and am not going to "hold-up"
until we accomplish more for our boys and girls. Finally, though we consider
that school matters in this county are progressing as well as could be expected,
yet, we do not propose to rest content until we have brought our schools to the
highest attainable efficient and success. To this end, we assure you, the Super-
intendent, School Board and teachers will strive as far as in them lies. Those
who are in advance of us on educational lines will find us ever ready to listen
to their counsel and profit by their experience.

The inspection of the schools enables me to find out what the teachers need in
order to make their work more successful, and in all my schoolwork I have always


paid close attention to these matters.

Our schools are now closely graded, as we claim to have one am.'.ng the best
"County-Course-of-Study" in the State. This greatly aids the teachers in
classifying their work and systematizing the schools.

We are well supplied with comfortable, frame school houses, all of which are
furnished with wAter, heaters and patent desks.

The "Free School-Book" system has prevailed in this county for several years,
and grows constantly in the affections of the people. We failto see how a
regular Course of Study, Uniform Text Books and uninterrupted advancement of
pupils can be maintained without it. The failure to purchase text books at
the proper time, caused by the inability of parents, never occurs to check the
onward progress of pupils. It has also proven to be the cheapest method of
furnishing school books.

Our teachers are very much interested and are earnest in their work and have
greatly improved as teachers during the past few years. They are usually well
qualified for'their work. Some of them have taken special courses in training
schools, and nearly all of them have read a few good books on the suibje-.t of

We have a wise and judicious County School Board. They are competent and in all
matters just. 'The board has exercised much care in the selection of teachers, as
in dealing with allother school questions .

Trustees in recommending teachers have not usually abused that trusc. If the
trustees do not have teachers whom they know to be Competent they, as a rule,
leave the selection and employment to the School BEard, This is a wise practice,
on the part of the trustees, and one that is gaining in prevalence in this county.

I do not wish to close this report without speaking of the universal and most
hearty co-operation and support that, is given us in our educational work and in
the public school interest by the board of C'.cunrv Commissioners and citizens of
this county. The school tax is paid cheerfully, and alnm&fi every citizen does
whatever, he can to encourage his highest success.

May the great cause prosper throughout the entire State.

Respectfully submitted,
,,-.unty Supt. Publ.: Inst,

Green Cove Springs, Fla., Sept., 1908.
Hon. W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub, Inst., Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request of recent date, I herewith submit my
bi-ennial report of schb.ol in Clay County.

Our chief aim is to make education more practical each year, teaching the things
that will do the pupils the most good in every-day life.


The prosperity of schools in this county was never greater than at this time.
The question with us, too, has been, how to increase the salaries of the
teachers, thereby securing better teachers, and of lengthening the term, and
at the same time keep our warrants at par.

This we have managed to do.

Our property valuation is small, and we have to make a levy of from 5 to 6h
mills, to run the schools. This with the sub-district millage enables us to
maintain the schools from six to seven months each year.

We have a few schools making the required average to receive aid from the
State under the 80 per cent, act. Every school in Clay County is in a special
tax district, and in some of these districts we have a little trouble getting
men to serve as trustees, who will give enough of 'their time to attend to the
business as such trustee, but the greater part are glad to serve in this

I believe that special tax district elections should be held every four years
instead of two, and in so doing lessen the expense. We have this year secured
the service of teachers for about all the schools in the county, something never
before done at this time of the year.

Too, we have secured better teachers because we can pay them better wages, and
they are rendering us better service. Green Cove Springs has the only Senior
High school in the county. The present principal, holding a State Certificate,
taught for us last year, and is now rendering good service. He is assisted by
four very proficient teachers, who spare no time or means to advance the pupils
under their care. There are maintained but few colored schools in this county,
but one of them, a Junior High, in Green Cove Springs, ranks second to but few
in the State.

Several graduates were turned out from this school last year and some of them
intend to enter the profession of teaching.

Transportation is not as popular in this county as it was a few years back.
Our consolidated schools have not accomplished what was expected of them. It
seems pupils are tired when they reach school in the morning, afterhaving
ridden five or six miles, and they are not at their best to begin a day's
work. We ought to get better results from our consolidated schools.

We transport about 40 or 50 pupils at a cost of from $80 to $100 per month.
All pupils are given transportation that walk more than three miles.

We have built three school houses in rural districts within the past two
years, at an approximate cost of $300.00 each, and all other school houses
are kept in good repair.

Several hundred dollars are expended each year in repairs and keeping the
schools in a sanitary condition.

Our School Board has arranged a County Course of Study and rules and reasg
nations for use in the schools throughout the county. Never before has there
been such for the use of our teachers.



I believe .there ought, to be one or two members .f theSchool Board retained on
such board at each election unless the Superintendent haLs been in two or more
years. I am afraid we have made a lisetal- in .hii co-unty, as every Board member-
elect and the County Superintendent are new men and cai.h has been out of school
for a number of years, and all the work amc~ng the ch.o.ols is new to them. There
are good men elected on the Board, and after they get some experience, no doubt,
they will be able to render good service,

Yours very truly,
S county Sipr, Fub Inst.

Lake City, Fla., September28, 1908.
Hon, W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sir:--In response to your aeques.n for a brief reprt of the work done and
the condition of the scbhoc-ls in the ol*"unitv,' I wish to submit the ftllv ingg

Condition r2f School Houses. ==E-ight years ago vhen I it... charges of the :.ffi:; of
County Superintendent, I f.u-nd the ~.;!lt houses in bad condition all over the
county. While hew houses have not been built in every l.::ali ty, yet we have
repaired those that could be repaired and built new houses in maiy instances, thus
with few exceptions all of our school houses are in fair condition and cn;imf.,rtable
We have spent in building, in round numbers, $15,000.00 from the county schoi.l
fund and $10,000.00 which the city of Lake City c.ntrib.re.d' toward b',il.ding a
new high school at Lake City, making a total of $25,00000. We have erected a
handsome high school building at Lake City at a cost of $17'o.500 00, and other
buildings throughout the' --unty at ,a cost of $7,500.00,

We have spent in repairing ,buildings $2,100.00. We have f.irii hd all of the
white schools with patent desks and sg, bla ,:l.b ,eir's. at a cost of $6,600.00, thus
making a total of $33,700.00 spent luring the eight years of my administration as
County Superintendent, in bliilding, repairing and furnihinirig the schools of the

The School Board, according to my last annual ,Re-...:rt, owed $12,701.88, but we are
due from the State 4600.00 on the 80 per cent. average for lhe scholastic year
1907, and $1,040.00 -for 1908, making $1,6-0.000 due on t: .... ~aking the 80 per
cent. average. The county is also due trom the .tzde-. the prFro.pistationn on ne
Senior High school and one Junior for the ,:h.lerstic year 1908; also whatever is
prorated to .the county from the $400000000 ,.roripriation made by the last Legis-
lature for the purpose of extending the schooltermSo Thhee-: amounts have been
paid by the School Board, and if the money has been paid from the State, the
indebtedness of the School Board woul.6d have been rA.d-.x.:':.d to .i.'Lwj. $8,000.00.

We have in the county one Senior High school at Lake City, second to none in the
State. We have a handsome new brick b- di~.,dng, well urni..heod and equipped in
every particular for the High sb.c h..l dparr-,enf, and a splendid frame building
for the primary and grammar grades. .:th bvIdingi. are well 11 cat:-,. ventilated,
and kept in good sanitary condition. 'The school is located in a b'r ui fl r -esdent
part of the town ronne,:rcd with the city .i r..7.'g ysm and siu.p plie vir.l city



We have one Junior High school at Ft. White with the buildings and grounds
in good condition and the school doing good work. We have a number of good
rural schools located throughout the county, which are stimulating public
sentiment in favor of better schools and more regular attendance. During
the scholastic year 1907 only six schools made the 80 per cent. average in
order to secure the two months extension on the terms, and they were small
schools. In the school year 1908 we had eight schools to make the 80 per
cent. average, among which were the largest and best schools of the county,
We see from the above that a higher standard of rural education is being set
up, and it is largely due to the liberal laws favoring rural districts,
enacted by our State Legislature.

Special Tax Schools.--We have seven active Special Tax district schools in
the county which are supplementing the educational facilities in those '
districts very materially. We only assess a six-mill school tax at present,
but we try to spend the money judiciously and make it go as far as possible.
We need a better school system, but it requires time and money to perfect a
school system, and it cannot be done unless you have ability back of depart-
menME, from the office of superintendent to the kindergarten teacher. Teachers
should be employed and paid according to their ability and experience and not
because they are holders of certificates. County Superintendents'should be
men thoroughly competent from an educational standpoint as well as from a
business standpoint, to take charge and execute efficiently all duties required
of them by law, and when positions are filled with such material, the fewer
changes the better, for the success of the school system. Experience in all
o0her vocations stands'for something, but experience in our school work countS
but naught. I hope the time will soon come when school men will have more
professional standing, for the ability they possess, the work done and the
experience they have had.
Respectfully submitted,
County Supt. Pub. Inst.

Miami, Fla., October 8,1908.
Hon, W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sir:--I beg to submit, in accordance with your request, a brief report
of the. cinditibn and progress of Dade County schools; the time which this
report-is intended to cover dates from November 20, 1906, when my last report
was made to you.

Buildings:--In order to provide for the rapid increase in population our Board
has had to erect twelve new buildings, too of which would be a credit to any
community. The building now being erected at West Palm Beach at a cost of
$50,000.00 is of concrete blocks with tile roofing,, is thoroughly y up-to-date
and one of the finest in the Sohth. In Miami a .system of ward schools has been
initiated and'a new concrete building wih four class rooms for the four lower
grades has been erected in the northern part of the city to relieve the conges-
tion at the Central 'Grammar school. Later other ward schools will be established
in other sections of the.city. All schools are equipped with best quality patent
single desks, and in the High schools at Miami and West Palm Beach complete
chemical and physical laboratories are provided,



High Schools.--There are maintained two Senior High schools in Dade County, at
Miami and West Palm Beach, respectively. At Miami the High school is a separate
institution, employing four instructors. At this place the grammar and primary
grades are provided for in two Grammar schools with twelve and four teachers,
respectively. In West Palm Beach the school provides instruction for all twelve
years in one school, together with a flourishing kindergarten with about forty
pupils in attendance. In this school instruction in drawing and vocal music is
also given under competent teachers.

Rural Graded Schools.--Three schools receive State aid for Rural graded schools.
viz: Delrty, Lemon City, and Stuart. Three teachers are employed in each of these
schools, and the work done is of a high order. Some ten or twelve other schools
receive aid under the 80 per cent. appropriation.

Special Tax Districts.--Three new Special Tax school districts have beeh created
since the last report, making five in all. The Miami district has a'special tax
income of $4,900.00; .West Palm Beach $4,600.00, Neptune $1,300.00, Stuart $712.00,
Biscayne $285,00. At Stuart, the trustees are arranging to erect a new building
at a cost of $5,000.00.

Teachers.--In all about ninety teachers are employed in Dade County; and in
efficiency, I believe, they will compare favorably with those of any part of the
country. The schools generally are doing'splendid work, and this is due largely
to the fact that salaries have been increased mAterially, thus enabling the Board
to secure better teachers. We have no fixed rule for regulating salaries and in
doing so the following points are considered in about the order named; Competency
as evidenced by certificate, experience, success, and professional growth. Lo-t
cation also has some weight as far as it relates to cost of board..

School Board.--The members of the Dade County Board of Public Instruction are
educated, two of them are old teachers, and all are men of broad business
experie'nce--just the kind of men,needed to make an ideal Board and to hold up
the hands of the Superintendent. Conscientious and paintaking investigation is
the characteristic of their actions on all.matters, and the educational interests
of the whole county are safe in thAir hands.

Respectfully submitted,
County Sutp. Pub. Inst.

Arcadia, Fla., October 1, 1908.
Hon. W. M. Holloway
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla,

Dear S*ti--In compliance with your request of recent date, I beg to submit the
following school report for De Soto County, including the calendar years 1907
and 1908

Financial, Condition.--Notwithstanding more money has been expended,for school
buildings, furniture, apparatus, etc., and higher salaries have been paid teachers,
than ever before, still we had a net bAlance July 1st, 1908, in the generalffiuid
of $3,356.76 and in the special funds of $4,424.38. /



A few of our districts are in debt for new buildings, but their yearly income
is sufficient to bring them out of debt within the next year.

Two of our old members of the Board have been nominated for re-election, so I
feel safe in saying that our county will remain in a good financial condition.

Buildings.--As a whole, we have as good buildings as any county in the State.
Recently the following new buildings have been erected: Arcadia, a $15,000
stone building; Fort Ogden, $1,500; Gardner, $1,100; Hull, $600; Union, $450;
Fort Winder, $400; Prairie, $300; Holmes $250; Tura, $300; Maud, $200; also
improvements have been made on quite a number of others.

Nearly every school is furnished with patent desks and most of them equipped
with globes, maps, and libraries.

Schools,--For the past two years greater interest has been manifested in the
school work than ever before in the history of our county, and improvements
can plainly be seen. We have fifty-six white schools, employing ninety-eight
teachers at an average monthly salary of $52.70. Our regular term is five
months, but by the aid of the various State appropriations our average term is
about six and one-half months.

We have three Senior High schools; Arcadia, employing ten teachers, and with
an enrollment of 350 pupils. Wauchula, with an enrollment of 400 pupils,,
employing eleven teachers; and Punta Gorda, with an enrollment of 200 pupils,
employing six teachers.

We have two Junior High schools: Bowling Green, with an enrollment of 150
pupils, employing four teachers, and Nocatee, with an enrollment of 125 pupils,
employing four teachers. Fort Ogden and Ona are also doing Junior work, but on
account of having to build they cannot run the full.eight months.

We have eight other schools fairly well graded and employing two teachers each,
which may property be classed as Rural graded.

Last year the following schools made the 80 per cent, average and were continued
two months:

Fish Branch, Fort Winder, Brownville, Castal~a, Tura, Prospect, Parnell, Popash,
Zolfo, Fort Green, Maud, Oak Hill, College Hill, Paynes Creek, and Arcadia (colored).

Revenues.-- We have been levying the maximum limit of 7 mills for school purposes,
which gives us annually about $25,000, which, with about $8,000 from the special
tax districts, the State apportionments and the Legislative appropriations, gives
us about $40,000 for school purposes.
It is very unfortunate that the Legislature of 1907 did not make provisions for
these appropriations to be paid. Not one cent of these appropriations for 1907
has yet been paid, and we hope the next Legislature will make provisions for these
deficiencies to be met.

Sp cial Tax Districts'.--We now have thirty Special Tax districts, each levying the
maximum limit of three mills.

We are also advertising for two others, and we feel sure that within the next two
or three years every school in the county will be in a Special Tax district.



These districts extend their terms to seven or eight months and most of them
supplement salaries in order toget better teachers.

Teachers.--Our teachers are energetic, progressive and enthusiastic, and we are
giving them all the encouragement possible by better salaries, better equipment
for their school, and by maintaining a Summer Normal for two months each year.
Last summer about sixty of our teachers spent from six to twelve weeks in some
good Normal.

Yours very truly,
County Supt. Pub. Inst.

Jacksonville, Fla., October 3, 1908.
Ron. W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request for a report from Duval County covering
the years 1907 and 1908, I beg to submit the following brief report concerning
the condition of school affairs:

Buildings:--During the school year ending June 30th, 1908, this county expended
$1,050 for school lots, $47,121.98 for new buildings, and $7,570.50 for repairs
to buildings.

The year previous there was expended for school lots $2,130, $34,573.15 for new
buildings, and $5,947.22 for repairs to buildings, making a total of $98,392.85
expended for lots and buildings during the two years.

In this connection I wish to mention the improvements made to the Jacksonville
schools, with regard to fire escapes. All rooms on the ground floors of these
schools have an exit opening on a platform about 10 by 6 feet, which has a
short flight of steps to the ground. The upper floor of each has an outside
stairway on each side of the building and one in the rear. This gives the
upper floors at least four, and generally five different ways of descending,
while the ground fllors, having their individual exits, can in no way interfere
with the children coming from upstairs. In case of fire I am confident that
we could empty any of our buildings in two minutes.

Transportation.--For the school year ending June 30th, 1908, our expenditure
for the transportation of pupils was $7,002.50,

By this method we have been able to consolidate a great many of our schools,
and on this account we expect to make three of our schools Junior High schools
during the coming term.

These schools have an attendance of over 100 each, about three-fifths of the
pupils being hauled.

Teachers.--My report for .the past year shows 215 teachers employed, 131 white
and 84 colored. The salaries paid for the year being $49,360 for white teachers,
and $21,018.50 for colored teachers.

There is a marked increase in the number who attended the Summer Normals, or who



take special training during vacation. On account of the salaries paid here,
the majority of our teachers arerresidents of Jacksonville, or Duval County,
who have had nothing but a High school education with possibly a year's
Normal course, and we are consequently very seriously inneedof better trained
teachers. A summer institute or a training school is very badly needed.

We have received from the State for our Junior and Senior High schools, for
Rural Graded schools, and for extended term upon the 80 per cent. basis $8,818.59.

The average number of schools in operation for the past two years is 66. Eight
white schools and seven colored schools being in the City of Jacksonville, the
balance in the country.

Among the Rural Graded white schools we have one four-teacher school, three
three-teacher schools, and four two-teacher schools, all of which have.a full
term of eight months.

The financial condition of this county is all that might be expected when the
fact that we have just completed the erection of a $75,000 High school building
is taken into consideration. Two years ago there were judgments against the
Board foE $17,118.51, which has since been reduced to $2,060.14. The total
indebtedness of the Board is $97,448.07, which includes the above-mentioned
judgments and $64,459.17 on account of the new High school building. Leaving
out the amount of warrants irsgued' on. the A.M building, our expenditures for
the year are about $12,000 less than our receipts, upon which fact we base
the calculation that we will be practically out of debt in about five years.

Very respectfully,
County Supt, Pub. Inst.

Pensacola, Fla., September 22, 1908.
Hon. W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sir:--Complying with the request made by you in your circular letter of the
29th day of August, 1908, 'I herewith submit a brief synopsis of the work "
accomplished in the public schools in this, Escambia County, for the school
years of 1906-7 and 1907-8:

Expended for new school buildings and lots--
School year 1906-7 . . ... . . . $ 9,298.68
School year 1907-8 . .. . . . .. .. . .. 5,888.04

Total expended for buildings and ;lots . .. $15,186.72
Salaries paid teachers--
School year 1906-7- .. . . ..... $45,368.45
School year 1907-8 . . . 49,090.05

Total 'lor teachers' salaries for the 2 yrs. . . $94,458.50

Please note that the $49,090.05 paid for'teachers' salaries in 1907-8 does not
include the $2,722.75 due by the State for teachers' salaries for the two extra
months taught by the teachers in sundry schools in this county under Chapter 5654,



laws of Florida, acts of 1907, better known as the 80 per cent. attendance law,

The State is now behind with this county under the several acts granting aid to
schools as follows:

Under Chapter 5381, acts of 1905 . . .. ..... . $ 1,612.50
(This item was advanced by this county during the months of
April, May and June, 1907).
Under Chapter 5653, acts of 1907 . ............. 1,680.00
Under Chapter 5654, acts of 1907 . . .. ... 2,722.75
Under Chapter 5657, acts of 1907, about .. . .. .. ,2,350.00
Total . . ... . . . . . . . . . $ 8,365.25

The State Superintendent, I feel sure, will remember that the rules as to ap-
propriations for this county have been rididly enforced, for while we have two
schools in this county doing full Senior High school work, on account of the
principals of same not holding State Certificates, said two schools have been
rated as Junior High Schools, and this county thus lost $480.00 for the school
year ending June 30th, 1907, and for the same cause our statements for the
school year ending June 30th, 1908, for Senior High schools were reduced from
$2,160.00 to $1,680.00.

The schools of this county, while not making a very rapid increase in numbers
enrolled from year to year, the growth has been steady in numbers enrolled,
and more marked in average attendance as will be seen by the figures represent-
ing the school year of 1906-7 and 1907-8. Total number enrolled in 1906-7
5,540, with a daily attendance of 3,967, and for the school year of 1907-8,
the total enrollment was 5,645, with the daily attendance of 4,080.

Double enrollments have been rigidly eliminated, and the reports for daily
attendance have been kept under rigid surveillance.

Owing to lack of money, with only one exception our Board of Public Tnstruction
has refused to erect new buildings for this school year 1908-9, and. this
exception -is a new building for, the school at Muscogee, which was sadly needed,
and because the Southern States Lumber Company at that point'offere4 to erect a
five-room building on very liberal terms, which were accepted by,the Board, and
the building is now in course of construction, and will be ready for occupancy
by the middle of October.

We now have school buildings for the whites in every section of the county y where
there are children enough to organize and support a school, said buildings .in
every instance, with one single exception, being the property of the School Board,
While said buildings are not fine 'and expensive, the school rooms are large, well
lighted, and ventilated, and seated with patent desks, and are fairly well equipped
with blackboards, etc., and on the whole are comfortable and well adapted for
school purposes.

For the nEret we are not so well supplied with buildings-belonging to the
Board being forced to utilize churches for school rooms, for which a small rent
is paid annually; but for the large negro schools inthe city, we have fairly
,comfrtable' and,well equipped school buildings.

The old axiom "Rome was not built in a day" applies equally as well to the build-
ing up of a well equipped school system.



It takes time, money, and a deal of hard thinking and much active work to
evolve from nothing as complete, well organized, and equipped a system of
public schools for any community as that now in operation in this county,
and while freely admitting that it is far from perfect, and will perhaps
never be, it now far exceeds anything in the line of school buildings,
equipment, and in the thorough work done in said school buildings that was
ever before offered to the youth of this county.

We believe in, and admire fine buildings, public or private, and if the ways
and means were in our possession, or under our control, we certainly would
like to see a number of fine school buildings erected in this county; still,
we must not lose sight of the fact that it is not brick, stone nor marble
that makes the good school, but it is the brains behind the school desk that
is the great motor power.

Finances.--At the risk of being considered a bore by the solons in our
Legislature, I will again call attention to the fact that we have never had
a revenue bill drafted and passed that was based on business methods.

The business of the State should by all means be conducted on strict business
principles; indeed, the State in its business methods should be such an example
of perfection and system in all of its business transactions that same might be
copied by the citizens of the State in both public and private enterprises;
but how do the present or former revenue bills of this State conform to strict
business methods, when each and every such bill passed within the last twenty
years has virtually offered a premium for delinquency in the payment of taxes?

The reverse of this is the method of every corporation or private business
interest in the State, and for that matter in the United States. Business
men and business corporations offer a premium for prompt payment of obligations,
and the State would find that with the same methods its treasury would not be
in its present empty condition for several of its funds.

I will again suggest that the taxes be as they now are, made due and payable on
November 1st, with a discount of 2 per cent foreveryone who paid his taxes in
November; a discount of 1 per cent. for everyone who paid in December, and
require those who waited until the month of January to pay the full amount of
their taxes, and one-half of 1 per cent. interest be added for each and every
month after January until same is paid.

The State can afford to be generous, but it should never by any act oppress its
individual citizens, so it would be right for the State to offer a discount of
1 per cent. per month for prompt payment of taxes, but its penalty fof non-
payment should not exceed a rate of more than 6 per cent. per annum, for the
adding of interest after a certain date should only be to call the attention of
a tax payer to the fact that the longer he delayed the paying of his taxes, the
greater the amount would be.

The present revenue law does offer a discount for payments in November and
December, but attaches no penalty for those who hold back in paying their taxes
until the months of July, August or September.

For illustration of the workings of the present revenue law I will take two men
living in the same community and*having the same amount of property on which
taxes are assessed, and for convenience we will place the amount of taxes that



each one has to pay at $100.00. One of these men pays his taxes during the month
of November, and getting the discount of 2 per cent. allowed by the State for
prompt payment, pays his $100.00 with $98.00, while the other man loaned out his
$100.00 for nine months' time at the rate of 8 per cent. interest (the present
worth of money in this community), andon the 31st day of August collects his
$100.00 with interest for nine months at 8 per cent,--$6.00, and then walks into
the tax collector's office and pays his taxes of $100.00 and has $6.00 left, thus
virtually paying his $100.00 taxes with $94.00.

Is a law that permits such gross;; inequalities in the payment of taxes based on
sound business principles?

The present law in its workings is particularly hard on Boards of Public Instruction,
for the terms of the public schools are more than half completed and at least
two-thirds of the total payrolls for the school year have been made up before
money begins to come into the school treasury freely enough to meet the monthly
payrolls, and as a consequence Board of Public Instruction are forced to borrow
large sums to meet payrolls for the first eight months of the school year, and
the interest paid on these large sums of money borrowed is one of the large items
in the annual expenses.

In nine cases out of every ten it is easier to pay one's taxes during the months
of November, December or January than it is to pay in May, June, July or August,
for moneyis usually more abundant at that season, for if the farmer has a bale
of cotton, a barrel of syrup, bushel of potatoes, a fat steer or hog, this is the
season of the year same are to be had in best condition, but what business man
is going to be in a hurry to pay a bill, even if he has a lot of ide money in
his pocket, if said bill could be put off six, eight or nine months without a
cent of cost?

Respectfully submitted,
County Supt. Pub. Inst.

I Apalachicola, Fla., September 1, 1908.
Hon. W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sir:--Complying with your request of recent date, I her ~''Lh submit a report
of schools and school work in my county covering the bi-emmia n period since last

Buildings.--The school buildings of this county are, with one e~cep .ri;iii, situated
on lots of land owned by the County Board of Education. The buildings are wood
frame buildings, and in good state of repair, There has been an additional room
added to,the Carrabelle Junior High school building since my last bi-ennial report.
School buildings are kept in good repair and the best buildings are kept insured
as a precaution against total loss in case of fire.

School Grounds.--The Board has been wise in protecting the school property by
fencing in the houses and grounds, and they are fairly well kept. The grounds
are ample for exercise-and ventilation,



Financial.--Our financial condition,is much the same as it has been formerly,
and now I am of the opinion that unless our School Board succeeds in its
present struggle to have the Assessor make the millage levy, as indicated by
them, hard as it is, on their annual itemized budget as required by law, then
we are still in a straitened condition for finances. Just why the Board of
County Commissioners should ever have had anything to do with a fund of the
county, expenditures of which they knew absolutely nothing, is passing strange
to me.

State Certificates for Principals of Senior High Schools.--In discussing this
item I am more convinced than ever that my predictions of two years ago have
proven infinitely correct, and that as a result of the State Board's regulation,
so popular with many at the time, will prove a very expensive luxury. The
State Certificate teacher is our dictator as to salary. The difference in
salary before and since the enforcement of the regulation is as between $90.00
per month to $125.00 to $160.00, the same principal, and same school. If we
persist in our extravagant ideas, it will not be long before the old ship of
education will be foundering in the sea of despond.

Teachers.--The effects of our summer training schools'for teachers, coupled with
our State uniform examinations semi-annually, have proven all that we could wish
in the production of teachers, and is the basis of our supply and demand.

Compulsory Education.--I reiterate my opinion on this subject as expressed in my
report two years ago. We must ultimately come to it if we ever succeed in the
fight against ignorance.

Junior High Schools.--The Junior High school is the friend of the middle classes
in equipping their children for the active duties pf life. It covers &he idea
of the common school education from which so many eminent men and women have
come:in the past to bless our civilization.

Senior High Schools.--The Senior High school as the elder brother of the Junior,
is doing a grand work. It is the county's highest educational institution, and
as such ought to be most liberally encouraged and patronized'. The very worst
feature is in not being able'to hold the youth in school till he or she has
completed the twelve full grades.

Rural Graded Schools.--The Rural Graded school is. a winner, but the Board which
puts up the money to extend them and pays interest on the money, then fails to
get the benefit of the appropriation, is the loser. Our county stands today out
on extensions and on State aid appropriations in the hole more than a thousand'
dollars. I presume expensive legislation is the cause of this.

Schools Extended Under the .80% Act.--This act meant well, and for a time did well
as a stimulator tp a class of schools, but for want of confidence in getting the
appropriation, our Board did not try for the extension, but extended this class
of schools on their county appropriation one month beyond their regular term.

I have already discussed the question of "State aid based on property valuations,"
and I am not ready to change my views on .this point.

We have no Special Tax districts in Franklin County.
Respectfully submitted,
County Supt. Pub. Inst.



Quincy, Fla., September 26, 1908.
Hon. W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request of a recent date, I herewith submit a
brief review of school matters in our county for the past two years.

In my report in your Biennial Report of 1905-6, I made reference to the dilapidated
condition of the Quincy Junior (now a Senior High school) High school building,
built in ante-bellum days, and stated that we were about to erect a new building
which I thought would be complete by the next year, and then everything seemed
very promising to that end.

Our people during the early part of the year 1907, after several meetings and much
discussion, subscribed $25,000.00 for the erection and equipment of a new High
school building; the city of Quincy voted that the baseball ground (twelve acres
and city property) should be donated to the county as a site for the High school
building. The principal of the High school submitted plans for the new building
to be erected, and everything bid fair that we would soon have a structure for
High school purposes of which the town and county would be proud, and which would
be calculated to intensify the sentiment in favar of the public schools that was
spreading and becoming more favorable throughout the county.

Such was the state of things when, all at once, the panic of 1907 settled down
upon the country and the whole matter now stands in abeyance, and for the D recent
the school is being conducted in the same old building, but I think during the
coming year that the matter will again be taken up and assume some definite shape.

Since my last report the Board has assisted in the erection of four school build-
ings, three of which cost about $4000.00each, and one at Gretna, in Special Tax
district No. 2, costing $2,000.00, of which the patrons of the school, mostly of
the little village of Gretna, paid $1,400.00'0 These things show how the people
are taking to school matters. A few years ago very few thought of paying out
money in this way. No hostility is now being displayed toward anything of this
kind, and the kickers are generally in a small minority, and the ge-nrals drift in
our county is in the direction of better schools and better school'houses and

As a general thing we have more competent teachers all over the co'untq than we
have had heretofore, and they are being paid higher salaries and all are paid
in cash at, the end of the month:' Last year, and also this year, the Board asked
for a levy of 7 mills--the maximum limit--which keeps our financial matters on
a solid basis and, consequently, we have very little reason to :c.nmplain and I do
not think that anything serious will retard our progress in the right direction.

We lengthened the terms of three schools last,year under the provisions of the
one-month extension act, and three under the Eighty per cent,. Act.- The one month
extension and'the Eighty per cent. Actshave been of great benefit to us. Several
years ago we commenced the,transportation of pupils from >ne school district to
another in order to do away with small schools, and we are continuing to work on
that line,,

We are trying to induce every young teacher we have to attend the State schools
at Tallahassee and' Gainesville Very few go to Gainesville, but a good many attend



the Tallahassee College for young ladies. As far as the summer schools are
concerned, so far I do not think any material advantage has been derived from
those of our county who have attended them except in the way of rubbing up
those who are already prepared to stand the examination, but we insist upon
every one that can possibly go to attend college and take the regular Normal
course in order to make themselves thorough in the studies taught in our
schools. The County Superintendents are required (see Par. 12, Sec. 44,
page 26 of the 1907 Digest) to take the census of every child, black and white,
between the ages of six and twenty-one, and then he is required to transcribe
the entire list in a neat manner in a book sent him for that purpose. It is
a laborious job. And for all this the law allows him only three cents for
every child enrolled. Now it is necessary that he employ assistants to take
this census,,and it is difficult,to get them at,three cents,per head. This
burdens the County Superintendent with a great deal of extra work for which
he receives no remuneration at all. I think it nothing but justice that the
County Superintendent be allowed five cents per head for doing all this work.
This has to be done in 1910 by the 15th of May.

In conclusion, our Board of Public Instruction is up-to-date and wide-awake,
and leaves nothing undone that will add to the efficiency of the schools.
Respectfully submitted,
J. R. KEY,
County Supt. Pub. Inst.

Jasper, Fla., November, 1908.
Hon. W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub, Inst., Tallahdssee, Fla.

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I respectfully submit, for your
Bi-ennial Report, the following special report of school operations in Hamilton
County for the last two years:

General Condition of Schools:--Schools are steadily improving in every respect--
in an increase of enrollment; in average attendance, the work accomplished, and
in better and more comfortable buildings. Patrons are taking a more active
interest in the cause of education, and are asking for longer terms. Public
sentiment is growing in favor of more money for school improvement in every way.

Buildings.--Within the last two years eight new buildings have been erected,
at a cost of $2,000.00, and three others are in course of construction. About
$365.00 have been expended for repairs on old buildings, $865.00 for furniture--
patent desks, Hylo-plate blackboards, and blackboard outline maps--and $580.00
for wells and other purposes,

School lots and buildings owned by the Board of Public Instruction are in a
much better condition now than ever before.

Teachers.--I have had less trouble for the lastyear in securing teachers than
formerly. This has been due, mainly, to the good work of the Jasper Normal
Institute (Jasper Senior High school) in training students for teaching. There
has been a better class of teachers, an improvement in methods of instruction,
and better and more systematic work. In assigning them to schools, I have tried

-22- *


to fit the teacher to the school and not the school to the teacher. I have
taken into consideratLon the enrollment, average attendance, and advancement of
pupils, and in connection therewith, the qualifications of the teacher--grade
of certificate, training, and tact for teaching. I have endeavored to engage
none but honest teachers in the broadest sense of the word.

The amount paid white teachers for the year ending June 30, 1907, was $11,495.24;
negro teachers, $1,145.50;itotal, $12,640.74. The amount paid white teachers
for the year ending June 30 last, was $12,190.50; negro teachers, $1,175.00;
total, $13,365.50.

High Schools.--The three High schools--Jasper Senior High school, White Springs
Junior High school, and Jennings Junior High school--have all made a fine showing.
The enrollment and average attendance of each has been high, and they have done
splendid work; they have grown materially in interest and effectiveness. The
general effect of their work on the country schools has been very gratifying.

Each of the High schools received State aid for the year ending June 30, 1907,
but for the year ending June 30, last, the money from this source was not
available, presumably, on account of a shortness of State aidfunds. I trust,
however, the apportionmnets will be forthcoming after a while.(sic)

I am heartily in favor of the continuance of State aid appropriations for Rural
Graded, and High schools. They are greatly needed and are not only a benefit
to the schools receiving them, but a help, indirectly, to other schools as well.

State Aid Under the 80% Act.--Two school made the required average under this,
law, for the year ending June 30, 1907, but have not yet received the amounts
due them. One school came up to the average last year. I trust the State will
continue these appropriations, and that it will fix the apportionments so the
funds may be had when, due. The average requirement, however, should be lowered,
I think, to 75 per cent. of the total enrollment, or else be changed to 80 per
cent. of the average monthly enrollment. As it now stands, it is too high to be
reached by many of the country schools.

State Aid Based on Property Valuation.--For the year ending June 30, 1907, nine
schools received State aid under this head. The amount expended was $293.50. It
was of great help to the schools. About the same number of schools was intended
last year, with the expectation of securing a like amount from the same source,
but the funds have not been available. I presume they will be after a while.
The money thus obtained has had a wholesome and stimulating effect on the schools
receiving it, and I hope the appropriations will be continued. No better law for
the good of common schools has been enacted.

Special Tax Districts.--There are four Special Tax districts in the county. Each
levies three mills, The total amount expended annually on these schools from the
Special Tax fund, is about $1,800.00. The money so expended has been well used,
and the schools have derived much benefit from it.

Special Tax districts have aided greatly in bui!lng, up better schools, and in
educating the people to be more liberal in supporting them, thus insuring longer
terms, better teachers, equipment, and houses.

Financial.--The county is in fine condition financially. At the close of the last
scholastic year there were $3,765.33 in the treasury. Warrants, it is true, were



w.' tendingg to the amount of $3,373.05, but $1,673.75 of this amount was due
from the State aid fund; so that if the State aid appropriations had been
received in time, there would have been a net cash balance of $1,699.30 on

Principals of Senior High Schools.--The law requiring principals of Senior
High schools to be holders of State certificates has had a good effect, and
should be kept in force. It compels a higher standard of scholarship and
efficiency, and insures the placing of the best educators at the,head of our
best schools, thereby raising the educational standard of the State. From
better preparation, come better results.

State Uniformity of Text Books.--I am opposed to State uniformity of text
books, for good and sufficient reasons--reasons that have been repeatedly given
by the most prominent educators in all parts of the country, and which were
thoroughly discussed by members of the last Legislature. It has been a failure
in nearly every State in which it has been tried. It affords too great a chance
fr.r. graft between book-men and State officials. Most of the reasons put forward
ti fa,':-'r of Stateuniformity, so far as the saving of expense is concerned, are
not very sound. One objection of State uniformity advocates to the present
system, is that it is a hardship for patrons moving from one county to another
to be compelled to change books; that is a very puerile one; patrons of that
class, as a rule, do not usually send to school., A little compulsory law would
be good for them. Each county, as a school unit, should have the privilege of
selecting its own books.

Higher State Educational Institutions.--I am in favor of:a one-mill tax for the
support of the four higher educational institutions of learning, because higher
education pays, and because the schools need it to put them on a permanent basis.

Agricultural Education.--I think there should be a law requiring, to some extent
agricultural instruction in the public schools. Education should be made as
practical as possible in every way.

Educational Qualification for School Officers.--Many members of School Boards
are badly deficient in this respect. A law of some kind should be enacted
requiring an educational qualification for them--one that would weed out those
who are incompetent. It is a travesty on education to elect to office men who
cannot write, consecutively, three sentences of English correctly, and who have
not even a practical,,or a general knowledge of school affairs, and therefore
can have but little idea of what is best for the cause of education.

As a rule, most County Superintendents of Public Instruction have the necessary
qualifications, because they come from the ranks of teachers, but there .should
be no objection to a law making a first-grade county certificate a requirement
for eligibility to the office.

State Revenue Law.--Taxes should be collected much earlier. The limit of time
should not be extended to a later date than February 1st. Extending the time
to'April does not help the great body of tax-payers; it only helps those who
have money to use in speculation. It is a great hardship on teachers to have
to wait several'months for their money, where School Boards are not disposed
to borrow, until taxes are collected; whereas, if they:were collected promptly
when due, there would be no necessity, in most counties, to borrow at all.



School Libraries--Reading--The Aim of Education.--I wish to urge the great necessity
for good libraries. These 'should be made up of the best works of reference, and
the best standard literature. A collection of good books is needed in every school
to cultivate a literary taste--something which text books can never do. Good books
are often the best companions, and help to bring out the higher possibilities,
and to awaken the finer thoughts and feelings. No one's education can be complete
without the knowledge gained by extensive reading.

Let me add, in this connection, that the true end and aim of all education is to
use it for the public good; to lead noble lives; to help our fellow-man to a better
citizenship, and a higher appreciation of the object of life--to endeavor to make
the world broader and better for living in it.

Conclusion.--In conclusion, I wish to thank you for the courtesy and consideration
you have shown me during my term of office,, and to express, my appreciation for the
,good work you have done as State Superintendent of Public Instruction for the
cause of education in Florida. I trust your next term will be as fruitful of
good results as the present one.

Very respectfully,
County jiit,. Pub, Inst.


Hon. W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla

Brooksville, Fla., November 10, 1908,

Dear Sir:--The public schools of Herna;do County have made gratifying progress
and achievement during, the past two years, 'Th ipr .'fici ncy of the pupils, the
faithful competency of the teachers, and eft1.:.aRnc.y of the ed'a xtii'.navl system
of the county are prc'ven by,the prizes dwa.rdedd to the Hernando County educational
exhibit at the last Florida State Fair held in Tampa FFetruary 5-22, 1908. The
following is the list of prizes awarded to this county at that time:

Largest and best county educational exhibit, .. .. . iclan and $200,00
Largest and best educational exhibit by county system. . ... 100.00
Largest and best county educational exhibit of system of
rural schools . .. . . .. . . . 100.00
Rural school making the largest and best educational e.>:bbit1,.
S'.awarded to SpringM-Hll. a~nd Jstachatta' -.:h.cls . . 100.00
Largest and best individual school exhibit, awarded to above
mentioned schools ... . . 25.00
Largest and best individual Senior High school exhibit, awarded
to the Hernando High school at Brooksville. . 25.00
Largest and best individual Junior High school exhibit, awarded
to':the Spring Lake High school, at Spring Lake . . . 25.00
Best ebw r of any good system of drawing through twelve
g 'ade of the public school, awarded to the High school at
Brooksville. . . . . o . . . 10.00

The Hernando County educational exhibit as a whole was given a percentage of 100,
showing that it could not have been excelled, having covered every point required.


T '6n:-r'i",

Financial Condition.--The school finances have been in a healthy and satis-
._'- r.:-y condition for several years. At the end of the year closing June 30,
1908, debts and obligations of every kind were met and a surplus of more than
$4,000.00 was left in the various school funds of the county. The general and
special school tax levies have been placed by the consent or vote of the people
at the limit of the law--7 mills for the county and 3 for the special tax, with
the exception of two special tax districts. All salaries are promptly paid at
the close of each month, and this has been the rule for ten years past.

School Term.--The County School Board has provided for running all white schools
eight, and negro schools four to six months.' Every school is now running, parents
co-operating earnestly with school authorities and teachers.

Buildings and School Grounds.--These are well cared for. A majority of the
grounds are enclosed with substantial wire fences, and several are adorned
with trees and shrubbery planted and looked after by the pupils. Nearly all
school buildings are ceiled. With the exception of four, every white school
building in the county is painted. The negro school buildings have been
placed in good repair. All white school buildings 'are fully equipped with
teachers' chairs and desks, pupils' patent school desks, maps, globes,
reference books, blackboards, stoves, shades, wash basins, and other necessaries
of a good school. Several schools have nice organs. All have necessary water
facilities, usually cisterns.

State Aid Schools.--The Senior High school at Brooksville, and the Junior High
school at Spring Lake receive State aid. Both the High schools pursue the
State course of study, as the county course was made to conform to that of the

School Libraries.-- The High schools at Brooksville and Spring Lake, and one
or two other schools have good, but small literary libraries. In addition
the school at Brooksville has a physical cabinet for experiments in physics,
and a museum of natural history specimens.

Special Tax School Districts.--Special Tax school districts extend over the
entire county. Every school is supported from two to four months by them.
All incidential and small repairs are paid for out of special tax funds. With-
out their assistance the public schools would be seriously injured. There are
eleven districts in the county. Except in two districts the people have voted
the full millage allowed by law.

Free Text Books.--For seventeen years the county has been using the free-text
book system. All pupils in the county, both white and colored, are supplied
with text books free by the School Board from the primary to the graduating
class of the High school. To this system is largely attributable the
phenomenal success of education in the county. The people would not permit
this feature of the school system to be eliminated.

Teachers' ?Sal,-?,Ss.--Teachers' salaries are fixed according to certificate and
: -'* lnc;, Teachers holding First Grade Certificates and possessing successful
experience of three of more years are paid not less than $50.00 per month. The
'nr. ,:i paid is $125.00 per month. All 9re promptly paid at the close of each
month. The system of progressive salaries has been tried with much success.



Transportation and Consolidation.--Schools have been consolidated and the pupils
of the discontinued schools transported to c-thar& with much benefit to the
children and improvement of the schools. It has also been a source of economy,
because while permitting increase of salaries of teachers, it has lessened'the
general expenses of maintaining schools on account of the smaller number to be

Farewell.--For sixteen years the present Superintendent has labored continuously
for the improvement and upbuilding of popular education in Hernando County,
especially for the distribution of educational opportunities throughout the
rural and sparsely settled sections of the.county. He has watched with pleasure
and pride the development of the poorly equipped, badly managed, meagerly attended
and inefficient country schools of the county into fully supplied, wisely
directed, well attended'and thoroughly capable rural schools, which are giving
to the youth of the county creditable', and efficient common school education. He
has seen with gratification the common and high schools, whose welfare has been
placed in his hands, give to the world young men and women who are an honor to
the county that educated them and a rich blessing to the commonwealth .whch
fostered them.

I trust that education and the schools of my county and State may continue to
improve until the present shall be far surpassed by the future. To that end I
will devote my efforts in future in any capacity assigned me by the people whose
servant I am, and whose voice I am ever ready to obey.

Respectfully submitted,
County Supt. Eub. Inst.

Tampa, Fla., November 3, 1908.
Hon. W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I submit the iollcwing special
report on the schools of Hillsboro County:

Buildings.--During the two years last past we have spent for new buildings
$80,247.79, the largest and handsomest building constructed being the Michigan
Avenue school in the city of Tampa, which cost about $60,000.00, containing
eighteen class rooms and fitted with all modern conveniences. A large stone
High school at Clearwater, costing $6,000.00, and a brick school in Ybor City
costing $15,000.00, numerous other small buildings have been constructed besides
additions to buildings already in use.

Repairs.--We have spent for repairs for various buildings in the two years
$6,239.00; nearly all buildings in the county are now in go&d repair. We spent
for furniture during the two years $9,194.89. We believe schools should be
supplied with the best equipment the Board is able to buy, and we have supplied
most of the graded schools with single patent desks and the smaller country
schfdols with double patent desks. We have nearly enough to supply every school
in the county up to date. While our schools are growing rapidly, if the Board
continues to purchase at the samerate it will not be more than a year or two
before every child will be comfortably seated.



Libraries.--Our three Senior High schools, Plant City, Tampa and St. Petersburg,
have good libraries and are adding constantly to the number of books; we find
that the children take advantage of these libraries. I believe that these are
great helps in moulding character and directing the thoughts.

The Junior High schools, of which there are four, have good reference libraries,
and all of these schools are sufficiently equipped with physical and chemical

The County Board has been running the schools as economically as possible, and
while they have materially increased teachers' salaries during the past two years,
the average salary at the close of the fiscal year 1907 being $53.00 and the
average salary of last year $57.00, they have gradually accumulated a surplus
until at the present time the School Board is in good shape financially and we
have been able to run our schools from July until the ist of November without
making loans. If we could collect what was due us from Special Tax districts
and other sources, we would be able to pay up our indebtedness in full, and
have a large surplus left on which to run until taxes come in. We levy 7 mills
for general school purposes, and think::that amply sufficient to run the schools
on the present basis and to continue to increase teachers' salaries where

Special Tax Districts.--The Board of Public Instruction believes that special
tax school districts are a great benefit in many ways, especially in creating
interest on the part of the patrons in their, schools, in enabling them to make
Such improvements as they desire without having to wait on the school fund for
help, and by giving them funds out of which they can supplement teachers' salaries
and lengthen their school term, if they so desire. Having encouraged the creation
of special tak school districts, we now have nearly all of the county in districts.
There being fifty-four existing districts at:present, and no district ever having
voted itself out of existence. We have loaned them money, the rule being to loan
them two years' income at any time after they are created, for which we charge
them 8 per cent. interest, the amount we have to pay for the money we borrow for
them. Many of them have taken advantage of this loan and have erected handsome
school houses; they owe us this year something over thirty-seven thousand dollars.

Patrons have never voted out a district after having once created it, and I do not
believe they ever will consent to do so, because we find them actively interested
in. their school.

Teachers,--No true teacher is ever satisfied with the work accomplished, no matter
how conscientious his efforts may be, nor how industrious or studious the children
are, and we are not entirely satisfied with our teaching force, but we believe that
we have as conscientious and capable force of teachers as can be gotten together
in any section of the world, and the record made by our children, both in the
grammar and high schools, is highly to be commended, and we feel that the teachers
should have first credit for these results. Many of our teachers are graduates
of Normal schools, and a large percentage of them have taken advantage of such
schools as the Summer School of the South at Knoxville, Tallahassee College for
Women, Peabody Normal school and other schools of high standing. They seem to be
enthusiastic tntuetir work and are willing to go to any reasonable expense to
increase their efficiency as teachers; they seem to appreciate the fact that the
County Board is willing and ready at all times to recognize efficient work by



increase in salaries, and while the salaries are not as a whole as high as the
work done would merit, they are reasonably in proportion with compensation
received in other lines of work.

Grading Committees.--Our grading committees are selected from the most capable
teachers of the county, and have been fair and just in all cases, at the same
time requiring a high standing of efficiency before passing applicants for
certificates. So long as we succeed in securing grading committees of this
class we feel sure that the educational interest of the county will not suffer
under the uniform examination law. The examinations are too long, though not
too searching in their character, and we believe that the same results can be
obtained by materially shortening the examination. We believe also that grading
committees should be paid $5.00 per day for their services and that the time
should be limited in proportion to the number of applicants, in order that the
committee might do full and impartial justice to all applicants.

Compulsory Education.--We feel the need of a compulsory education law. We favor
the passage of a local option compulsory education law, allowing the counties
who desire to do so to place the law in operation, On account of the large
manufacturing interest in Tampa and the employment of child labor in the factories,
we probably feel the need of this law to a greater extent than any other county
in the State.

Transportation of Pupils.--The Board of Public Instruction for six years past
has been transporting children to schools where they live more than two miles
from school, and where an average attendance for each wagon of eight children
can be maintained. We are paying $2.00 per month for the average attendance,
and have found this to be of great benefit to the country schools, as it permits.
of consolidation of smaller schools, which gives us Rural Graded and High schools
for the country people instead of little short-term ungraded schools that were
maintained in the past. We believe that this money is well invested and intend
to continue and to extend the operation of this system as rapidly as conditions
will warrant.

We paid out for this purpose last year $2,461.50.

Industrial Instruction.--We have a manual training department in operation in
St. Petersburg and in Tampa, and require the boys in the Seventh and Eighth
grade and the High school department to take advantage of this instruction. We
have also at St. Petersburg a Domestic Science department for the girls. We
find these departments to be'very attractive to the pupils, and we believe that
the training of the hand and eye, as well as the mind, is an important factor
in the education of a child, and we hope in the future to be able to extend
these departments until they become of greater efficiency than is possible' at
present. We believe that children, especially in country districts, should be
instructed in the elements of agriculture and horticulture, and we believe that
this will be possible in the near future, as the teachers will be required to
take an examination in agriculture next year.

Music and Drawing.--We are teaching in the city schools vocal music and draw-
ing. We have two new teachers in each department and we find that the departments
are of great value to the schools, and that with the graded course on each subject
in use now, the children have reached a state of proficiency that we hardly
anticipated at the dime these departments were instituted.



We are extending to other schools, where we can do so economically, the same
training and hope to give instruction in these subjects in all of the large
schools in the near future.
Respectfully submitted,
County Supt. Public Inst.

Bonifay, Fla., October 12, 1908.
Hon. W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sir:--In response to your request, I am sending you a report of schools
and conditions of Holmes County.

School Buildings and Grounds.--As a general thing the buildings and school
grounds are poorly kept, although more interest is given them than has been
in the past.

During the past two years three new buildings have been erected at a cost of
about $1,000, and several old ones repaired. We realize the fact that better
buildings are essential to the advancement of our schools, and as fast as the
financial condition will permit, we endeavor to stimulate an interest in better

High Schools.--At the beginning of the bi-ennium, we had a Senior High school
at Bonifay and a Junior High school at Westville. The Senior High school lost
its grade last year because of the failure to secure a State Certificate holder
as principal; however, we hope to have two Senior High schools and one Junior
High school this year.

Schools Extended Under the 807 Act.--During the scholastic year ending June the
30th, 1907, we had ten schools making the 80 per cent average, eight of which
were extended two months, and two lost their apportionment by failure to complete
the additional term. The amount appointioned to the eight schools completing
their terms was $1,375.00. For the year ending June 30th, 1908, five schools
were extended under this act, at a cost of $325.00. We believe the Legislature
did a good thing when it enacted this "State aid" law, and we further believe
that the next Legislature can and will pass even a better law by making provision
for the payment of such claims at the end of the year for which the State aid
is granted. The salary of teachers in schools extended under the 80 per cent
act for the past two years has been advanced from the county school fund.

State Aid Under Valuation Act.--Holmes County has received $467.50 under the
provisions of this act, from which six schools were extended one month during
the last year. We still have a balance on hand of this fund which we offer to
schools making 65 per cent average of its largest enrollment.

Special Tax Districts.--We have nineteen Special Tax districts in the county,
and the aggregate amount of taxes collected the past year was about $3,000.00.



The Special Tax district fund is used for, and is a great help in supplementing
teachers' salary, repairing buildings and paying incidental expenses. We have
petitions in for three other districts, and I think it a q'ueifi,, of only a
short time before every school will be a Special Tax school.

Financial CTcnition of School Fund,--The financial condition of the school fund
is better than it has been for years. On July 1st of this year there was a cash-
balance brought over of $580.86 on the county school fund with warrants outstand-
ing to the amount of $157.44 and a net cash balance of the district fund of

Holmes County has been very fortunate in securing men for members of the Board
of Public Instruction who are in full sympathy with the educational interest
of the county, ever ready to co-operate with or assist the County Superintendent
in any, effort to promote the interest of education.

Respectfully submitted,
County Supt, Pub, Irlt.

Marian ~a, Fla., September 21, 1908.
Hon. W, M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sir:--In compliance with request in your letter of August 29th, 1908, I
submit the following report of the condition of schools in Jackson County:

The area of our county is so large, and 'the population so evenly distributed
over the whole territory, that we are under the necessity of .-eping up a
large number of schools. We have now twenty-seven white and il:tyt:ir
colored schools, including the four High schools. Under this condition of
,things we have not been able to increase the length of terms in our country
schools bey.cnd four months.

Notwithstanding the fact that the money advanced to the schools making the
average attendance of eighty per cent in 1906-07 was not returned to us by
the State at the close of that scholastic year, our School Board continued
to pay the salaries of teachers of schools imaing the required average during
the last scholastic e.q: of these there were twelve.

In July, 1907, the School Board made liberal appropriations to aid in the
erection of buildings at Marianna, Graceville, and .re.n'~:..d. A substantial
brick edifice was finished and ready for use at Graceville on October 31st,
1907; and this school has become a Senior High school', with enrollment of
about 300 pupils. At Greenwood a neat two-story frame building was finished
last fall, and our Junior High school at that place is now prospering under
the more favorable surroundings.

We have been delayed in the construction of the High school building in
Marianna, but the work is now going on rapidly, and by the first of next
January we will have a substantial brick structure the equal of any in the



The total enrollment in all the schools during the last scholastic year showed
a decided increase over the previous year. A greater interest is manifested
by thepatrons of white schools, and evidences are not lacking of increased
efforts for the education of their children.

We are still somewhat hampered by a scarcity of competent teachers for our
rural schools.
Very respectfully,
County Supt. Pub. Inst.

Monticello, Fla., October 13, 1908.
Hon. W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sir:--According to your request I send the following report:

Since the late unpleasantness between the States this county alone has expended
one hundred thousand dollars purely for mental improvement. Surely this has
broadened the mind and quickened the intellect, fitting the youth for better or
for worse according to his own choosing. This is where John Wesley stood when
he organized the Methodist Society, and it is where we stand today--that
individual effort or free moral agency stands supreme.

Finances.--Last year our county spent upwards of twenty thousand dollars, thereby
placing Superintendent's salary in the hundred-dollar column, and increasing the
service 40 per cent. We have perfected arrangements at Lloyd for a Junior High
school, creating the fifth graded school for our county, all joint heirs to the
sixty thousand dollars appropriated by the State, when it is in the treasury,
Our people are patriotic people. We are now levying a 7-mill school tax, using
the law limit, and I hear no grumbling. We have no Special Tax district. The
only suitable location is at M. C. Gouck's old mill where the A.B. & 0. crosses
the T.S.& E. There we could double tax railroads without inconvenience to local

Recommendations.--Since we have compulsory taxation, it would be a great blessing
to a large number of dependent children if we could have compulsory attendance;
though, like the dog tax law, it would be unpopular. Such a law would create
better attendance or greater astuteness in framing excuses. State uniformity is
demanded. I know that each county is a sovereign unto itself, where Sovereign
Woodmen can meet and worship in seclusion, but I claim that we Florida people
are a one people, and should have the same school books wherever we move,
either in the city or suburbs. If legislators wait for the County Superintendents
to recommend such a law, then they will be waiting when Gabriel makes his last
long and loud blast. The County Superintendents have made some noble
recommendations, but uniformity is one that most of them will shy from. So
long as people refuse to read the Commoner, then so long will I believe rural
libraries worse than a useless expense.

Respectfully submitted,

County Supt. Pub. Inst.




Mayo, Fla., September 16, 1908.

Hon. W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sirs--The Board of Public Instruction for Lafayette County is endeavoring
to make the public schools so much of a success that therewill be no excuse
for parents to send their children to any other school.

To teach the schools of the county required the employment of fifty-three
teachers, of whom sixteen held First Grade, twenty-four held Second Grade,
and thirteen held Third Grade Certificates, besides one who obtained a
temporary certificate.

Total enrollment of pupils in the county 1,495, with an average daily attend-
ance of 856.

We have only one High school in our county, "The K&ayc High school," and while
we would like to have more, still we have a right to be proud of the one which
we have.

The present teaching force is well trained, and energetic, and is dci:ng satis-
factory and effective work. We find when we get a good teacher that .t pays
to hold Ihim.

We have built in the last two years school houses at Day, Townsend, Mayo, Alton,
Mudswamp, Hatch Bend, Rock Sink, Mallory, Eugene, Cross City, and Mingo, at a
cost of from $200.00 to $9,000.00, and have seated nine houses with patent desks,
and it is the intention to continue until each school is suppliEd

We have eight active Special Taa. districts and two .lrmant, but they are showing
signs of life by better attendance. Our county is in very good shape financially,
and we pay all bills promptly.

The Superintendent and School Board work in harmony with one another. The
great trouble we have to contend with is that teachers sign contracts and then
continue to apply for situations in other counties until they secure places
which pay a little more than theones which they had contracted for, and then
refuse the first without any excuse.

Our people are learning to love their school like -they do their home and are
interested in. education, and we trust, with their support and co-operation,
that we may make our p'jblic schools measure ,up to their sp; ti.,, ,tEon

Respectfully submitted,
W. R. FLET'C'ER, ,
County Supt. Pub. Inst.



Leesburg, Fla., October 12, 1908
Hon. W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I send you the following statement
as to the progress and condition of the Lake County public schools during the
past two years:

EAuipment.--With the exception of one or two conditions the schools have been
satisfactory to the School Board. Our equipment, such as buildings, furniture
and apparatus, have improved, and all pupils are comfortably though not handsomely
provided for. Two school buildings have recently burned, but one of them has
been replaced, and the other will be soon. A few other substantial houses have
been erected.

Teachers.--Although teachers for the country schools have been difficult to get,
we have been able, by hard work, to supply all schools.

Attendance.--The attendance of pupils has been good, some of it being secured,
however, by the offer of rewards from the'State.

Transportation.--We furnish transportation to all pupils who live more than three
miles from the nearest school.

Salaries.--The salaries of teachers have largely increased. In many schools we
pay from 25 to 50 percent. more than we paid to teachers three years ago. But
being able to assess a higher millage than formerly, we are still able to meet
these increased expenses.

High Schools.--We have one Senior High School at Leesburg, which sends out several
graduates every year, and a Junior High School at Eustis which is doing excellent

Special Tax Districts.--We have twenty-one Special Tax districts which contain
twenty-five separate schools, and more are being organized every year. Nearly
all of them assess a 3-mill tax.

Finances.--Our finances are in good condition. We pay all warrants at par, and
this year had a few thousand dollars on hand with which to start our schools on
their present term.

Respectfully submitted,
County Supt. Pub. Inst.

Fort Myers, Fla., September 15, 1908.
Hon. W. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sirs--In compliance with your request of recent date, I herewith submit
the following report relative to the schools of this county, for your Bi-ennial
'. ~ r,, for the last two years:


1906 -;-

School Buildings.--We have twenty-four white schools and one negro school in
the county. This may seem to be a very small number of schools for such a large
county, but this is due to the fact that a very large portion of the county is
still unsettled. However, the settlements are increasing, and I am glad to
report some new schools. Last year we established a new school, the building
costing us $350.00. We also erected another building at a cost of $315.00.
This year we have established three new schools, one of which will be conducted
in a temporary building prepared by the patrons, while the other two will
have new buildings which have not yet been completed. When completed, they
will cost, on an average, about $200.00 each (the patrons doing the carpenter

All new schools are being supplied with patent, single desks, and we are
working out all "home-made'desks as fast as we well can, and replacing them
with the patent desks. We are painting all new buildings as they are erected;
also repainting some as well as painting others that have never been painted.

High Schools.--We have one Senior High school, known as the Lee County High
school, which is located at Ft. Myers. This school has grown in size, as has
the building grown in age, and in my next report, I hope to be able to note
the erection of a fine, large structure to accommodate all who may attend this
popular school. We have our only Junior High school at Alva, which is fast
becoming very popular in that part of the county. As yet we have not been
able to establish any Rural Graded schools. Two of our rural schools obtained,
or were granted, State aid under the Eighty per Cent.Act the past term. I
expect a number of others to make the average this term.

Special Tax Districts.--There are seven Special Tax districts in the county,
and an election has been called for the purpose of voting on the establishment
of another. Patrons of schools in these districts would not have them voted
out for anything. It is our purpose to try to get these enlarged, and to have
others established when the time comes for the bi-ennial election next year.
The special tax fund is such a great help in extending the term, in supple-
menting teachers' salaries so that we may secure the services of those most
efficient, and in improving the buildings and grounds, etc. Once established,
Special Tax districts are seldom ever dissolved.

Finance.--The financial condition of.our county is such that we are able to
pay as we go. Our warrants are never discounted. Last term, we had to borrow
a little money to place ,in the general fund, but we did so without much
inconvenience. We had more than we needed in the Special Tax fund just at
that time, so we had the Treasurer to transfer to the general fund the amount
we needed; then when the taxes were collected, we had the money returned to
the Special Tax fund.

At the close of the scholastic year we usually have, and I think we have this
year, enough money left on hand to carry the schools well into the term before
we get any taxes for the current year.

Teachers' Salaries.--We exercise the greatest care in selecting teachers for
our schools. As far as possible, the schools are filled with first grade
teachers, and only when we need a teacher for a very small school where the
pupils are not very well advanced, do I consider the application of a third
grade teacher. The principal of our Senior High school, of course, has a
State Certificate.



We try to get good teachers, and then we try to pay them for their services--
at least, as well as they are paid in any other county. Our salaries for the
ensuing term range from $40.00 to $120.00. The average monthly salary paid
teachers last term was: Male $68.69; female $52.91.

School Term.--The regular termpaid for by the County Board is six months. In
Special Tax districts the term is extended to seven and eight months--mostly

Attendance.--The average attendance upon the schools of this county is not,
nor has not been, what it ought to be. Some of this lack of confidence can
be attributed to local causes, but I am sorry to say that in some instances,
parents are to be blamed. In such cases, where parents have so little interest
in the education of their children, I think it would be well to have a State
law compelling them to become interested.

Transportation of Pupils.--In the sparsely settled communities where children
live quite a distance from the school house--say about three miles--the Board,
when possible, contracts with some responsible person to transport such
children. By doing this, we have better schools in these communities, and we
secure the attendance of children that would be out of school otherwise over
50 per cent. of the time. And to give every child in the county some advantage
of, at least, a common school education, is one of our highest aims.
Respectfully submitted,
County Supt. Pub. Inst.

Tallahassee, Fla., October 21, 1908.
Hon. W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, as per your circular letter, I have
the honor to submit herewith a general report of the school work of Leon County
for the past two years.

School Buildings and Grounds.--We have thirty-three school buildings for whites
and forty-one for colored. Some of these latter are churches, which we assist
in repairing on condition that we are to be allowed to use them for school
purposes; this arrangement usually works well. We have built eight new school
houses in the past two years, five for whites and three for the colored race,
at an approximate cost of twenty-five hundred dollars ($2,500.00). We have
also repaired seventeen school houses at a cost of four thousand two hundred
and seven dollars and ninety-nine cents ($4,207.99). We have expended for school
furniture, fences and improvements on school grounds two thousand five hundred
ninety-eight dollars and eighty-five cents ($2,598.85).

Senior bigh Schools,--We have two Senior High Schools, both teaching all the
grades; one is for the whites, and one is for the colored race.

Junior High Schools.--We have one Junior High school, but have no Rural Graded
schools receiving State aid as such.



3_- i al Tax Schools.--We have one Special Tax district, and it has two schools,
one for white, the other for colored youth. The revenue of this district is
five thousand one hundred and twenty-eight dollars and eighty cents ($5,128.80).

Financial Standing of Leon County as to School Funds.--We are not in debt and
our warrants are worth their face value in cash. Our receipts for the past
school year were thirty-seven thousand ninety-one dollars and fifty-one cents
($37,091.51). We carried over a balance on July 1st, 1908, in our treasury of
six thousand eight hundred dollars and nineteen cents.

Interest of Our People in Educational Matters.--Interest in educational matters
is well sustained and general throughout Leon County.

Respectfully submitted,
County Supt. Pub. Inst.


No report received in time for publication.

Bristol, Fla., November, 1908.
Hon. W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sir:r-In compliance with your request for a report as to the condition of
the schools of Liberty County, I have the honor to submit the following
statement, viz:

Interest Manifested.--The citizens of Liberty County are more interested in the
education of their children than ever before in the history of the county, and
as an evidence of this we have a larger enrollment in our schools, and a better
average attendance.

County High School.--Under the management of an able principal and an efficient
corps of assistants our County High school has given entire satisfaction. Our
people are beginning to realize the benefits to be derived from a good graded
school, and many who once so strongly opposed my efforts to raise the standard
of education in the county now send their childrento school and show their
appreciation of the good work being done. The County High school building
located at Bristol, the county site, is a good, substantial two-story frame
building, with four large, comfortable rooms, furnished with good patent desks,
hyloplate blackboard, wall maps, charts and globes. The school is also supplied
with a good library. The term of the school is eight months, Present enrolUlment
one hundred and seventy pupils.

Ei-.dlangs.--During the past two scholastic years we have built three framed
school houses, two for white children, and one for negro children. We have
now twenty-one schools, fifteen whites and six negro schools; nineteen white
and eightt colored teachers are employed. The Board owns fourteen school houses,
all g.:..d. comfortable frame buildings., eleven of which are furnished with patLc-nt
desks, and all properly heated and furnished with charts and maps. Seven of our



schools are taught in churches or houses not owned by the County Board of Public
Instruction. We have two school houses in process of construction, and all
school houses are to be painted.

School Term Extended.--Our school term has been extended from four to five
months, and in order to encourage th'e people to send their children to school
all schools making an average of 60 per cent. for the term are allowed an
extension of one month, making the term six months, if the patrons so desire it.
All our teachers are paid promptly at the end of every month, no discount of
school warrants allowed.

School Board.--In justice to the present School Board, I desire to say that in
my opinion they have done all that they could do, with the means at their
command, for better houses, better schools and equipment. Salaries of teachers
have been raised and terms of schools lengthened.

My official connection with the schools of this county will end with the present
year, and while we have not been able to accomplish all that I wished and hoped
for, enough has been done to convince anyone that good schools have been established,
and can be maintained in Liberty County.
Most respectfully yours,
County Supt. Pub. Inst.

Madison, Fla., October 1st, 1908.
Hon. W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sir:--Complying with your request of August 27th, I herewith submit the
following report:

Buildings and Grounds.--During the last two years we have erected eight new
buildings and made additions to two others at a total cost of $2,500. Carrying
out our general plan of building nothing but good houses, all of these are
neatly painted and substantially built frame structures. There are a few more
places needing new houses which we expect to build as soon as the necessary
funds are available. Practically all our houses are furnished with good black-
boards and quite a number are seated with patent desks. We have provided good
open wells or pumps for all schools. The matter of beautifying school grounds
has received special attention. Teachers have been urged to observe Arbor Day
with appropriate exercises, and while results have not been as favorable as we
could wish, we intend to continue until we make every school yard attractive.

Schools.--At the head of our list of schools in the county is the County High
school at Madison, which maintains the full twelve grades. Last year there
were four graduates, three of whom are now taking higher courses elsewhere,
and the fourth is taking a Normal course in this school. I desire to mention
also the Florida Normal Institute, which is conducted in the High school build-
ing and maintains a course for the teachers of the State.' This school was
established two years ago and its growth has been encouraging. Last year over
seventy-five pupils from all over the State were enrolled in the Normal depart-
ment. The principal of this institution has associated with him a strong



faculty who are prepared for the special work they have to do, and the prospects
are exceedingly bright for the future. Last year we established Rural Graded
schools at Pinetta, Greenville and Cherry Lake. This was made possible by the
State Board reducing the required average from fifty to forty. I hope the State
Board will continue at the present average. We now maintain fifty-fix white
schools with an enrollment of 2,134 pupils, and thirty-six negro schools with an
enrollment of 2,719 pupils.

State Aid.--During the past year eight schools made the required average of 80
percent and were extended two months by the County Board. Some fifteen others
were extended one month each from money received under Chapter 5383 during 1906
and 1907. Our schools have been materially aided and greatly stimulated to
extend the term and advance the grade by these various forms of State aid, and
I hope future Legislatures will be liberal in-their appropriations for encouraging
all the schools; but some way should be provided for prompt payment for these
purposes. At this time the State is due this county for State aid about $2,500,
most of which was advanced by the County Board, expecting payment in July.
This works a hardship on the County Board, and some provision should be made
for prompt payment of the obligations of the State.

Special Tax Schools.--Three Special Tax districts have been established in the
county, one during last year, from which we receive about $700.00, The results
from these districts have been all that could be desired, but the people are
slow to realize the benefits to be derived from this modern and progressive
school idea.

Financial.--The financial condition of the School Board is gratifying. At the
end of the scholastic year, July 1st, 1908, we had a net cash balance of $4,447.31.
Owing to the fact that we run a large number of schools in the summer, we have
to borrow money before taxes are paid in. We pay all obligations promptly in
cash as soon as approved by the Board. It has been the policy of the Board to
use every economy to keep out of debt and at the same time be as liberal as
possible in everything absolutely needed.

General.Review.--On the whole, we are progressing, slowly, perhaps, but surely.
Terms are being lengthened, the enrollment increases every year and the increase
in the average attendance has more than kept pace with the enrollment. Many
schools have advanced to higher grades and patrons and children are showing
more interest than ever before. For this the present School Board, two of whom
will retire January 1st, 1909, deserve most credit. By their zeal in educational
matters, their liberal pblicy towards all schools and their good business
judgment in handling the finances of the county, they have given the cause of
education an impetus in this county which will be felt for some time to come.

Respectfully submitted,

County Supt. Pub. Inst.

Bradentown, Fla., October 10th, 1908.
Hon. W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla.



Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I have the pleasure of submitting
herewith a report of the schools of Manatee County.

Viewing the county from both a material and educational standpoint, we find it
has made steady progress for the past two years, or since your last Bi-ennial
Report. The enrollment and average attendance of children show a larger per-
centage of school population than in previous years.

Improvements in Buildings Most Marked.--The improvement in school buildings
and equipment is perhaps the most marked feature of the educational progress
of Manatee County. The old log-house is now a thing of the past, and in their
stead good, nice, comfortable buildings have been erected/in every school
district, and patent desks have taken the place of the old-time benches. Some
attention has, also, been given to beautifying the school grounds.

This progress has not been confined to any particular branch, but has covered
about the entire field of school work; and while each progressive step has been
short, the many steps make a most creditable showing. The amount of money
expended for educational purposes during the past year has exceeded that of any.
previous year. Our people have been educated up to the point where they realize
that better pay means better results, both as to expenditures for equipment and
for instruction.

Buildings Erected.--During the past two years, eight new buildings have been
erected--the new buildings taking the place of old, inconvenient structures--
six large rooms added to the High school building at Bradentown; also two
additional rooms to the Senior High school building at Palmetto. Conspicuous
among the new buildings is the Manatee Junior High school building, a nice
twoQstory framb structure. For the next few years little is to be done incthe
way of providing for new buildings.

Number of Schools. -After consolidating a few of the smaller schools, we now
have forty-nine schools--forty-four white and five negro schools--with sixty-
three white and six negro teachers employed; with salaries ranging from $25.00
to $187.50 per month.

Graded Schools and TZers.--We have at Bradentown, the county site, a Senior
High school--known as the County High School--a Senior High school at Palmetto,
with Junior High schools in the towns,of Manatee and Sarasota; and a Rural
Graded school in the village of Parrish. The graded schools are operated for
a term of eight months, and the terms have been extended in most of the Special
tax districts throughout the county.

Ieachers.--Our schools are taught by ladies largely, there being only eight or
ten male teachers employed in the county. Several of these are college graduates,
others have had college and normal training, while a major part of the remainder
have had high school training. As a rule they are a faithful, conscientious band,
willing and ready to do anything for their advancement in knowledge and the better-
ment of their schools.

State Aid.--Under the State aid laws, our graded schools at Bradentown, Palmetto,
Manatee and Sarasota, met all requirements of the law for the term ot 1907-8,
and were entitled to the benefits offered, as were, also, twelve schools making
80 per cent. on the average attendance, and seven schools coming under Chapter 5383,


being entitled to one month extra over the regular county term. The failure
of the State to meet these obligations, amounting to more than $5,000, and
advanced money by our County Board from the general school fund, has proven
a vexatious disappointment to our County Board, and, in a way, handicapped
their plans for the near future; besides, leaving the county school fund
several thousand dollars in debt at the close of the school year.

County Boards of Public Intruction.--For the past ten years our County
School Boards have been composed of intelligent and conservative men, whose
aim it has been to keep abreast of the educational progress of the times,
and to provide for the education of all the boys and girls under their care;
and it is gratifying to feel that these efforts have met with appreciative
and responsive efforts on the part of our patrons, and that results have
been accomplished to which all can point with pride.

Personnel of:New Board.--From the personnel of the new Board which will take
charge of the administration of our public school affairs after the 1st of
January, 1909, the county has a right to expect that the progress and
improvements already begun will be continued.

Retiring From Office.--On retiring from;,the office of County Superintendent,
after twelve years of service, and upon taking a retrospective view of the
past, I feel a pardonable pride and gratification in the work that has been
accomplished; and, the increased interest on the part of our people, the
activity of our teachers, the-spirit of school building and other lights
opening before us, I do not hesitate to predict much good in the near future
for the educational interest of Manatee County.


County Supt. Pub. Inst.

Ocala, Fla., October 10, 1908.
Hon. W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla.

My Dear Sir:--In accordance with your request, I am glad to submit to you
the condition and progress of the schools of Marion County. We are gradually
making our schools better by making the term longer, by increasing salaries,
thfrsb~, securing better teachers, by building better houses, and placing in
them new and better seats, more furniture, the latest maps, the best charts,
and establishing small practical and working libraries.

I am proud of our teachers; we have an excellent corps of high degree, and
I believe doing most excellent work.

New Building% --While we yet have some undesirable buildings, 90 per cent, of
our houses are good and substantial, neat and attractive; they are all ceiled,
well furnished, amply ventilated and properly lighted.



Within the last two years the districts and county together have made six
thousand dollars worth of repairs and improvements on old buildings, and spent
$14,000.00 in new buildings.

We have built two of the most convenient and best arranged buildings in the State,
one at McIntosh, and one at Pedro; both built on the same plan, except the McIntosh
building has one more room, and cost $2,500, while the Pedro building is well
worth $2,000.

We have just completed a $9,000 pressed brick building in Ocala for the primary
department, consisting of the first, second and third grades.

Financial Conditions.--While we do not have as much money as we would like to
have, and not as much as we actually need for the schools, yet we are in excellent
financial condition. The county is assessing six and one-half mills, and all of
the Special Tax districts except nine of the thirty-three now in operation, are
assessing three mills.

My last annual report ending June 30, 1908, showed the total indebtedness for
the county to be only $602.73 with $453.71 cash in the treasury; the thirty-three
districts had $6,396.16 outstanding warrants with $3,893.52 cash in the treasury.
The only reason that either the county or districts have any indebtedness more
than cash, is the inability of the State to pay the county, and graded schools
the amount due them from State appropriations.

The State today is owing Rural graded and High'schools $3,560.00 and the county
for extending schools for two terms under Chapter 5654 and Chapter 5657, $4*700.
I suppose this money will be paid some time, but the lack of it is greatly
crippling some of our schools at presents

Our total income from all sources last year for school purposes was $60,384.17.
Our warrants are all cashed at face value at any of the banks, and we have no
trouble in;borrowing all the money needed at 6 per cent, per annum. Last
year we paid $44,280 for salaries of teachers and $16,104.17 for all other

Special Tax School Districts.--Wq now have thirty-three Special Tax school
districts organized and in operation, from which we raise nearly $12,000. The
Special school districts are very popular in this county, and have greatly
advanced the school interest and efficiency wherever tried.

It enables the trustees to lengthen their term, to supplement salaries in order
to secure better teachers and to go ahead and make all necessary repairs and
buy new furniture when the county is unable to do so, We have one district
furnishing free books to all children attending school. Another advantage to
the districts is, ;.that.each has thIee trustees taking part in the management,
which brings three times as many persons in close relation with the:.schools
as the old system with one supervisor.

Compulsorv Education Law.--As I have expressed myself before, I am in favor of
a Compulsory Education law. I believe the society, business and progress of
the country all demand it. Many claim that we are not yet ready for such a
law. I have found that a great many people and often a majority never get



ready for the very things that have advanced the country and resulted in such
noble reforms, until it has been forced upon them; then they accept the change,
rejoice over the result. and for no con.sideratton would they return to former
conditions. Let us start with a limited compulsory law, say from six to ten
or twelve years, and if that works, increase it afterwards.

Uniform Text Books.--I favor a Scate Unifnrm System of Text Eocks. I have
given the subject considerable study and can see no argument. that applies to
county uniformity, which we all favor, that will not apply with equal force to
State uniformity.

The only difference between any of us, it appears to me, is, what shall consti-
tute the unit of uniformity; one says the State, while the other says the county.
The same argument for or against, can certainly be applied to either,

My Su csessc, r.--My term of office expires the first of next January, 1909, when
Mr. J. H. Brinscn will succeed me. Mr,, rrnnson has taught school in this
county some twelve years, and in Rollins College two years. He is well quali-
fied in every way to fill the office, and I believe he can take up the work in
its r,,sent pro&spero'as condition, and still make greater iamr.:,v'mt~'a, injet
new ideas and methods which will greatly 'rstrengthsen and build up the work.

Most respectfully,

WoD.U. PN,
Count nt Spt, Pub. Inst.

Key West, Fla., OC.,:tber 10, 1908.
Hon. W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla.

My Dear Sirs--Previous to the "War between the States," the public schools of the
South were generally known as free school:, and were mainly 3,,,pported from the
sale of school lands-- every sixteenth section of every -cownship having been granted
to the several States by the General Government for that purpose. During the
military unpleasantness between the North and South ,which existed for a period
of four years, the school system of the South was virtually deisrrysed : every
male teacher, and nearly every boy over fourteen years of age, going to the font
to serve his country. Owing to this cause, at the time of the surrender of
General Lee's army at "Appomattox," there were no schools of any importance
existing in the entire South, and the cause of education a d retrograded at
least half a ce.nturvy except so far as the va,.,,rh of the land had re.c;i.;ed a
thorough education in manliness and patriotism.

In Key West the old free school, formerly taught by that famous old pedagogue,
John BehrheB', had ceased to exist, leaving nc.hlng as a renrmiride.r L.K; its bell,
which was a relic from some old ship vhbi:h had Ieft- its battered hulk upon the
dangerous reefs of Florida.

The first school in Monroe County after the war, under the public school system,
was opened in the upper story of the house -.f Ja:cb inavers in the year 1867,
at the corner of Thomas Street and Jackson Squiare, This school was for negro



children, and was taught by a man named Cullingford, assisted by Julia Post;
the same old bell that had ding-donged the white children to school now per-
forming that service for the negro children.

Jas. W. Locke, now Judge of the Southern District Court of Florida, was the
first Superintendent. In the following year, 1868, a school for the white
children was established in the old Masonlic. Rall, with Eugene Locke (now clerk
of Southern District Court of Florida) as principal. The school remained in
the Masonic Hall until another school house was built from a donation received
from Mr. Sears, manager of the Peabody fund, This building was constructed by
a man named Burbank, and was called Sears' school after the manager of the
Peabody fund.

Progress and Condition of Schools.--From the establishment of the .chz.-cls of
Monroe County under the publ.i.: acbho,-l system, u mer Jiudge Locke as Superintendent,
to the present time, under the superintendency of Dr. Harris, the progress of the
schools has been fairly good. For a long time it was a difficult matter to get
home teachers, but at the present time we have been fortunate in securing all
except one of our teachers from home, educated in .-ubli1 schools, and our teachers
will compare favorably with those from any portion of the State.

Work of Present Administration.--The Board of Public Instruction has acquired two
building: sites valued at $50,000, se.:,irtd bonds for $60,00, and has removed an
old building from an unsanitary marshy pla.Ie, to the beautiful lot on Division
Street, remodeled and practically rebuilt it, making it one of the neatest schools
in the State. The Board of Public Instruction is having constructed upon the
beautiful Bartlum property a large two-story reinforced concrete building for
high school purposes, containing a large auditorium and twelve class rooms, to
be fitted up with all up-to-date electric appliances. Said b.ut ding will be
named by the Board for Dr. Harris as a testimonial of their appreciation of his
personal efforts in securing the same, and bettering the conditions of Monroe
County schools.

It is estimated that the cost of the building will be about $40,000. The Board
hopes to be able to start another building for the negro children, but will not
be able to do Tiaucl, as the term of their : .ffi will expire the first of January

Schools.--There are eleven public schools in Monroe County: four for whites in
Key West; six for whites on the adjacent keys; one for Cubans in Key West, and
two for negroes in Key West,

Teachers.--There are twenty-eight teachers in Monroe County public schools:
nineteen white, one Cuban, and eight negroes. Of this number there are only
two male teachers, one white and one negro,

Legislation Needed.--Strict legislation is needed for the separation of white;
Cuban, and negro races, also for accurate account and prompt payment of all
county money into the hands of the Treasurer by those having it in charge.
Pesape-caitily submitted,

Cont~v Supt. Pub. Inst.


1ih06- A

Fernandina, Fla,, September 28, 1908,
HM.:.n W. M. Hoilloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request of August 27th, I beg to submit the
following report, of Nassau County:

Financial Condittin.--Our financial report of July 30th, 1908, shows an indebc-
edness of $11,542.96. Amount of uncollected taxes, $8,956.82.

New buildings and the raising of teachers' salaries greatly increased the expenses
of the School Board last year. By careful management and an increased village to
be assessed, we will liquidate this debt by the end of the present scholastic year. '"

Our teachers are paid promptyi and receive the face value of their warrants;
arrangements being made with the banks to cash warrants at a fair rate of interest.

EBuidings,--During the year 1906-1907, we erected two school buildings in our
ru-aAl districts at a total cost of $484 00.

In the year 1907-1908, we erected six substantial frame buildings in the rural
districts at a cost of $1,880.00.

The amount of $4,240.37 has been expended on the Fernandina High school building,
which has been enlarged by the addition of three recitation rooms and a large
Auditorium. The building is of brick, and now contains seven recitation rooms,
library and auditorium, besides cloak rooms, etc. Its appearance has been
improved by the laying of a wide stone pavement running the length of the school
property. One colored and two white schools have been added to our list. Total
cost of new buildings for past bi-ennium $6,604.37.

Repaits.--During the past two years $1,086.48 has been expended for repairs on
school buildings. All of our houses, fifty-two in number, are in fairly good
condition. Improvements have been and are being made on houses and grounds,
as fast as available means will al.lcw,

Fgrniture.--Special effort has been made by the Board of Public Instruction to
make all country schools as comfortable as possible. TwI years agec but twenty-
four school buildings were furnished with pAtent desks; reports now show that
forty-two of our school buildings are comfortably seated with patent desks.
The amount of $529.10 was invested in desks, maps, charts, etc. This does not
include amount paid out for stoves, wells, and other improvements on rural

Uniformity of Text Books.--Last year the County Board adopted a list of text
books which was introduced into the schools as far as practicable. This year
all the schools of the county will have uniform text books,

:Schools.--We have one Senior High school in the county which has been thoroughly
graded and continues to prosper.

We also have one Junior High school (c.-.lredl' which ranks an ng the best colored
schools of the State. The building has been recently painted and thoroughly
repaired. We hope to give this school better equipment next term.



We have no Rural graded schools receiving State aid, but several meet all the
requirements of the State Board excepting the number of pupils in attendance.

All things point to a most successful term this fall, and we hope to make
advancement this year that will place our schools on an equal footing with any
iup-to-date schools of the State.

The 80 per cent. Act continues to stimulate interest in the country schools.
In the year ending 1906, one school reached the required average; in the year
ending 1907, two schools received State Aid, this year the number has been
increased to four. From present Irdications of interest felt, there will
probably be many more next year,

Very respectfully yours,

County Supt. Pub, Inst.

Orlando, Fla., September 25, 1908.
Hon. W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sir:--In obedience to your request, I beg tosubmit the following remarks
in regard to the progress of education in Orange County during the two scholastic
years ending June 30th, 1908:

High Schools.--We have two Senior High schools and one Juuntior. The work done in
these schools :s of a very high order, owing largely to the very superior training
easily obtained in our State school for training teachers, and similar schools in
neighboring States, of which our teachers take advantage.

Teachers.--We have been enabled to pay our teachers somewhat larger salaries than
heretofore, but not near as large as they deserve. Our endeavor has been to offer
such pecuniary inducement to our best teachers as will keep them with us; but
still we lose yearly good teachers because other employment offer better wages.
For instance, we give on an average $500.00 per term of eight months to our
assistant teachers in our High schools, while many of their old schoolmates are
earning $750,to $850 in office work.

This fact tas its weight in choosing an employment. Recently while visiting a
county in',Western Florida 1 met a young lady who had attended one of our High
schools, but was employed then in a telegraph office, was earning $750 a year,
while several of her classmates of the same age were teaching, in Orange and
adjoining counties with salaries from $250 to 4300.O00 per school term of six
months. These thingsought not soito be. There must be a remedy.

We pay a maximum tax of seven mills or 7-10th of 1 per cent. on property valuation,
which valuation is about one-third to one-h.alf of true value, according to the
custom in this State. Most men pay more for their tobacco than they pay the teacher
for the education of their children. They cannotdo without their tobacco, but
their children can do without education. Thn s shcwng is far from creditable,


State Aid.--State aid to schools making 80 per cent average has failed to show
up this bi-rennium.. Our Board advanced to the teachers the two months' pay
promised by the State the first year, but advised them that they could not
do so again; consequently few applications were made, and so far those few
have again been dlsbh,.,ncred.

Special Tax Districts.--We have seventeen Special Tax districts and three other
districts have voted on the subject, but the votes have not yet been canvassed.
We cannot ipe.-a too highly of the good work done by these Specala Tax districts.
Thy have built new school houses arid repaired and greaTly improved IB d ones.
They have supplemented the salaries of teachers, lengthened the term, and
tfrpli-.d books to those not able to purchase them.

C~n'.,y Supto Pub. Inst.

Kissimmee City, Fla., October 17, 1908.
Hon. W. M. tk-cwkav,
State Supt. Flb. Inrst,, Taliaassc. Fla.

Dear Sirs--Yours in regard to the schools of this c'c'nt. received, and should
have been answered sooner, but on account of the loss of our High school build-
ing, I have been so very busy that I .'verl,:.c.Lek same.

The schools of this county are in a very prosperous condition and we are now
building a handsome three-story brick building for the use of the Kissimmee
Hig. school. This building when c:mpletpIeed will be one of the finest in the
State and will be a cre.di't to the county.

Our Special Tax districts are also in g R.h.Pd shape ,and in fact, all of the
schools of the 'ciunnta are ding g'>d work and the erttLdanr is better than in
former years,

Our school lfun.ds are all in g.:-d .shapr-, and the teachers of this county
experience no trouble, in getting their wariatUnii cashed.

'I sincerely hb.~e the schools throughout the State will make this one of our
most p :r,;:p r-.j ; years.

lt very Trl.y,

W. J. SE .,,
County S',,pt. Pub. Inst.

Dade City, Fla., Septeber 14, 19086.
Hon. W. M. IH'li v&y,
sitar- Supt, at. Inst., TailaeJassee, Fla,
Dear Sir:--The thirty-four schools of Pasco C.cl-nty received the last two years
for t-'L him, services $26,043.25, and ;j,023,2:' for new building., T' sch..,.il



are in good condition, taught by a good grade of teachers,

The.Dade City. High school has a splendid new building in addition to the six
large,.well-lighted rooms previously reported. The faculty consists of a
principal and seven assistants. The school is doing good work.

The Trilby Junior High school'has a nice building of three rooms, and a campus
of five acres.

The San Antonio Graded school has an acre campus and two recitation rooms.

Blanton, Bailey, Pasco, Union, Hudson, and Fivay, each has two recitation
rooms and one acre or more campus.

Slaughter, Withlacoochee, Summer, Ellerslie, Richland, Childer, Independence,
Darby, Clay Sink, Wesley, Matchett, Ehren, Prospect, and Greer each has one
recitation room.

Richland, Summer, Wesley, Slaughter, Hudson and Hancock had one month extension
based on property valuation the past year,

Ellerslie, Childers, Prospect, Union, Independence, Matchett, Darby, Greer,
Blant6n, Emmans, Withlacoochee and Lake Buddie~ schools were extended under
the 80 per cent Act, and had eight months' good school work. All schools
in the county have Special Tax funds except Hancock. There are five colored
schools in the county; they are in session four months per year.

Respectfully submitted,

County Supt, Pub. Inst.

Barrow, Fla., September 20, 1908.
Hon. W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sir:--Complying with your ditfeti..ons of recent date, I beg to give you
the summary of the condition of the schools of the county, and some observations
of the educational interest.as you direct.

Schools.--For each of the two years just passed we have maintained seventy-two
white and ten colored schools. Of the white schools, three are Senior High
schools, four Junior High schools, and four Rural Graded schools. There are
two of the colored ranked as Junior High schools.

Buildinas.--In addition to the two brick buildings at Bartow and Lakeland,
there is now in course of erection a third High school building at Fort Meade,
at an estimated cost of $10,500. Of the Junior High school buildings, we are
now building at Mulberry one at a cost of $10,000, and have just completed
one at Griffin at a cost of $1,800. With the completion of these and those
already built, there will be an outlay for buildings alone during the two
years of $35,000, giving us a class of buildings equal to any in the State--
a credit to the interest and enterprise of our people, These buildings are
all supplied with complete laboratories for the work required by the Uniform
Course of Study.



There has been a marked interest in our rural districts in all matters
relating to the school interest, and as a result there have been built
very substantial buildings in many localities.

Finances.--There is at this time unpaid warrants in the sum of $1,500.
This indebtedness has arisen from the expenditures above enumerated. While
these expenditures have been made, yet the schools have not suffered
thereby. Teachers receive salaries equal to any paid in any county.

Our schools have been much affected by the failure to receive our
proportion under the 80 per cent. Act. No teacher is now willing to
undertake the risk, hence, our present term will be much shortened.

The one very important action of boards of Special district trustees
in requiring all teachers to hold First Grade Certificates,'where any
question arises as to the necessity, has given us a corps of teachers
of whom the county is proud. In fact, there is no county where the great
body of teachers are prompted by such a high professional spirit.

Our tax values are increasing so rapidly that we will soon be prepared to
liquidate our indebtedness and meet any improvements without creating any

There should be some legislation in the matter of authorizing Special Tax
districts to raise funds for building purposes. With this and soie other
minor subjects, there is no necessity for any changes.

Respectfully submitted,

County Supt. Pub. Inst.

Palatka, Fla., September 30, 1908,
Hon. W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I respectfully submit the
following report of the Putnam County schools for the two years ending
June 30th,, 1908.

BuildinUs.--During the two years past we have erected seven new school
buildings, replacing the old onesat the following places: Orange Mills,
Bannerville, Springside, Rice Creek, Rodman, Peniel, Bostwick, and
San Mateo; the five first mentioned have one room, while the others have
two. All are neatly furnished and are very comfortable houses Four of
them are furnished with single patent desks and Hyl,:plate blackboards.
The people of our county are very much interested in the cause of education
and have assisted us materially in the work of erecting and repairing our
scbhol buildings. Beside the building of new houses we have expended quite
a sum in repairs and additions to our *ld houses, cons.equencly the school
buildings of Putnam County are in very good repair and are comfortable.



High Schools.---There are two High school in this countyy the Palatka High school
and the Crescent City Junior High school Both these schools are well organized,
and having been taught by an excellent c rps of teachers, much g wo'd work has been
accomplished, The Crescent City school, while only established as a Junior High
school, taught three years of High school studies last term, We are confident
that these schools will measure up to the standard set for High schools.

Rural Schools .-In our rural schools we cannot report advancement. We are paying
our teachers better salaries, and as a rule, we are getting a better class of
instructors, therefore, it naturally follows that we get better results.

Wherever it has been practicable to do so, we have consolidated our smaller
schools, and by so doing conditions have been made better. I know of no better
method of improving and arousing an interest in our rural schools than by
consolidation. Naturally we meet with some c~pp-ostion where people prefer to
keep their children in a small school at their door to having them hauled a few
miles where they can enjoy the advantages to be derived from the consolidation
of two or more schools. However, in every case where we have succeeded in
consolidating, we have been able to give better educational s iwnelages, and the
change has been satisfactory to the majority concerned,

Special Tax Di. tricts.--We have only eight Special Tax districts, three of which
have been established during the past two years. In various ways we have endeavored
to show to our people the advantages of these districts, but they have been slow
to appreciate them, consequently we have not made any great progress along this
line. Wherever we have succeeded in establishing a district, however, the people
have been pleased and have expressed no desire to have it discontinued.

Financial.--At the close of the scholastic year our report showed a net balance
of $5,501.21. We pay our teachers' salaries-and all bills promptly on the first
of each month. Our cash balance has been increased a little for several years,
and at ,the same time many needed improvements have been made. It has been our
policy to keep out of debt
Respectfully submitted,

Ctuntly Skpt Pub. Insto

St, Augustine, Fla., October 17,1908.
Hon. W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla,

Dear Sirg-In compliance with your request, I submit 'r'evi tri report of public
school work in St. Johns County for the two years ending June 30th, 1908s

School Buildings.--The St. Augustine High and Graded school is stall occupying
its old thirteen-room frame building, but we hope that we are Spending our last
year in these pent-up quarters. All preliminary arrangements have been made for
the construction of a forty-room brick High'add CGraded school house, to cost
about $60,000.00. Orders are now being placed for material, and we hope to
,c.upy this building next year.



Four new rural school buildings have been erected within the past two years,
at a cost of $700.00. In this county there are thikty-thre public, school
buildings, containing fifty-two rooms. Eight of these buildings, and
thirteen rooms, are occupied by negroes. Forty-five of our school rooms are
pru.;ided with patent desks, and seven with comfortable home-made desks.

Schools,--St. Johns County has one Senior High and Graded school, with
twelve grades, fourteen teachers, and an enrollment of four hundred pupils.
The building has fourteen rooms, and is equipped with three hundred and
twenty square yards of blackboard, four hundred and sixty-seven patent desks,
globes, maps, charts, and a complete Crowell System -:f physical and chemical

We have twooJunior High schools; one in St. Augustina with seven teachers
and two hundred and fifty enrollment, and one at Hastings with four teachers
and one hundred and twenty-five pupils enrolled.

We have one Rural Graded school at New Augu.tine; with three teachers, and an
enrollment of one hundred and twenty-five pupils.

Scho9las Entended Under the 807 Ac ,--Fouray schools have'been extended under
this Act, making the terms eight months instead of six. I regard the enact-
ment of this law a wise move on the part of our Le.gislaturi.' It has a tendency
to stimulate all schools--not receiving State aid from any other source--to
better attendance, with the hope of making 80 per cent. and getting the two
months' extension, and though they fail to make the required percentage, they
getthe benefit of the improved attendance necessitated by the effort.

State Aid Based on Property Valuation:--Under the above we received last year
$524.00. This amount aided very materially in extending the term of those
schools failing to receive other State aid.

Requiring Princiails of Senior High Schools to Hold State Certificates.-
I heartily approve of the action of the State Superintendent of Public In-
struction in enforcing the regulation of the State Board of Education,
requiring Principals of Senior High schools to -be holders of State Certifi-
cates. This regulation, however, has had no effect orpon our High school,
as it has been under the successful management of the same principal ever
since the year 1902, and when this regulation was enforced, he had no
difficulty in procuring a State Certificate: with a grade *.f over 98 per

Financial.--The condition of St. .Johns County.'s school fund is good. At
the close of the last fiscal year my annual report showed a net cash balance
of $8,000.00, and at the close of the year previous the balance was $5,000.00.
Our school warrants are always cashed at face value. Our school levy has been
five mills until the change in the Constitution making the maximum limit
seven mills, since when the levy has been six mills.

This year, with the construction of a new High school building in view, we
asked for, and were granted, a levy of seven mills.

Yours very truly,

County Supt. Pub. Inst.



For hIerAT:.=, VFla 3ept.pmber 28, 1908.
Honor. W, M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub, nst,., Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sirs--In compliance with your request, I will endeavor to report the progress
of school matters in St. Lucie C,..jnt? i fr the past\ two years. We started school
matters in this county with a conApidrable debt July 1, 1905, and have been unable
to shake free from it owing to the unwillingiess of the people to increase the
taxation.. My predecessor, myself, and rthe Board have urged a special raise, and
this year we hope provision will be made to wipe off out debt which has now reached
the sum of about $5,000.00. We have nort besiaced ro Veep9 even with our necessities
in the matter of school buildings, and during the last Ewo years new buildings for
school purposes have been erected at Quay, Vero, Gifford, Fort Pierce, and Eden,
and we are now building to meet the need's of the Ta'ncie settlement on the shore of
far-off Okechobee, .where a splendid estin of our ccuntj is now developing. We
are providing for a school of forty, or over, at that place, where so recently
there was not even a spot on -h.. map.

I have always strongly urged the advantages of consolidated schools, and with
improving road facilities we hope soon to es btabsh a .cha.ne' i Rural Graded
schools along the front or Indian River section of the county, which will entirely
wipe out the old-style country schools, end.au..rlag to reach eight grades. The
past;season we have had a very' succc:es9sul sch.c i with an enrollment of fifty
pupils, located on an island in Indian tiv.er Narrows, The pupils attending.this
school were collected by two launches fr,?m a radius orf some fU -r or five miles,
and returned to their homes in safety and comfort each day of the term. This
somewhat unique method of centralizing has proved very satisfactory to a
peculiarly situated, section. At Fort. Pierce we are d, .sll.,piLng a fine school
Last year we had .six teachers and an arrtendAance of two hundred and twenty-five
pupils. This term has opened with.,rw c hundred fcrty-three pupils and eight
teachers. The school conditions' c.taining here have always been rather peculiar
in the matter of our higher grades, A,new and growing place with a considerable
portion of the population rail.ad e mplicyels,E attendance i'Tring su'cesineve terms
has presented a feature of constant change, working very discouragingly in ~e'
matter of building up the higher grades, At present, however, the prospects are
.brighter than ever before, and we are now ,,r'tkling i-ith a strong ninth and 'tenth
which promises well towards a Senior High school for next term.

Our country schools last year did very well in.the matter of earning the 80 per
cent, aid, five of them having been successful. In a community where so much
ignorance exists among the parents,, as I regr,.st to say we have here, it is most
difficult to create an interest in school matt..ers~, They'will not realie that
they owe a duty to their children far be.y,.nd small matters of personal cOnvenience,
and on the most trifling pretexts 1-eep the title ones away from the excellent
opportunities that are offered them. A Canadian by birth and education, accustomed
.all my life to compulsory educations,, 'tiss. is a most discouraging feature to me,
and I feel that we would be dl:ing our duty much better in our capacity as edu-
cators if we had this feature in force in this State in its broadest form. I
have in'my mind. at present thirty or forty children in this ,sa.all town of 1,200
inhabitants who should be at school, but are kept out on some trifling excuse,
We need the truant OCficer,. i


' 'ii3iip,, ,,,^

'"-" pay our teachers well. Salaries range from a single instance from $35.00
to $100.00 per month, the majority being $50.00 or better,

'"..r terms range from eight months for the larger schools to four for the
smaller ones, the majority being six-months.

In the matter of seating and apparatus we are well in line. Almost all our
desks are single patent, and the blackboards Hyloplate.

i'-rg.' am ..ng the "als*. rans" and going down and out of school matters on January 1st,
it is a matter of great satisfaction to me to leave the school affairs of the
county in excellent running shape. Our schools are all supplied with competent
and earnest teachers and a prosperous term is assured. I trust our new County
Superintendent will prosper in this direction. The work has been a labor of
love with me, and in spite of its numerous and soul-trying difficulties, I
have enj7:yed my term of office.

Respectfully submitted,

County Supt. Pub. Insto

Milton, Fla., October 15th, 1S08o
H~t. WW. M. Hi:. 1 ays,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla,

",.'i&r Si r:--In compliance with your request for public school data from
Santa Rosa County for your be-ennial report, I beg to thank you for the
privilege and to embrace the opportunity of saying something of the growth
and progress of the educational department. The reports of the State Super-
intendent for previous years will give facts and figures for all who may wish
to compare statistics.from the beginning of my administration in 1893 to
oi anry, 1909, the expiration of my tenure of this office, or trust reposed
in me for four successive terms of four years each.

Jumbt...r .,.l. '3hl1L. --While I realize that numbers of schools are not paramount
in edu' ,ational matters, I may be pardoned for saying that Santa Rosa is a very
large county; it comprise~, more than fifty rown.ships., or exceeding eighteen
hundred square miles of territory, much of which is being settled and devel .opeld.
I have endeavored to consolidate where practicable, and have discouraged the
jvis.i.e-,,-T of schools for strong reasons well known to all-who have considered
the education of rural youth.

White Negro Total
Number of'schools 1893-4 55 11 66
Number of schools 1906-7 76 10 86
Number of schools 1907-8 84 10 94

White Negro 'oral
For year 1906-7 1,962. 525 2,487
For year 1907-8 2,441 512 2,953



Average Attendance.,
White Negro Total
For year 1906-7 1,334 376 1,710
For year 190"8 1,698 379 2,077

School Buildingj.--Prior to 1893 there was not a single public school building
owned and cirtc.;'lled by the Board ..r FP'lt., Instruction in Santa Rosa County,
whereas in October, 1908, there are seventy-four school houses, the property of
the county, ranging from the one-room rural house amply large to accommodate all
the youth of its district to the nine-room County High school building with
library and auditorium for whites, and two negro school houses, and in addition
to these about eight school houses for whites and one for negroes are contemplated
for erection before J~~niryy lst, 1909; some of them are now being built and others
have materials on the ground. 'Some of our buildings are painted and arrangements
or ,r-,po',.I tLriI' for the painting of all others have been made, and it is hoped
that these plans will be consummated before Janiary 1st. All school houses are
i'epplied with patent desks, blackboards, charts, dictionaries, maps, etc., and
qc~i a number with encyclopaedia; libraries, or a nucleus for a library, have
been established in many instances. 'Neither pains nor moanib have been epared to
furnish every school with a good supply of pure water, ample ventilation and the
best of sanitation. Civic pride, very much encouraged by the Board of Public In-
ahrtl~~t-!r, is evident in some districts whose school premises are being inclosed,
trees planted, flowers and shrubs set, thus making the school grounds beautiful
and 3shool more attractive.

Financial Condition.-"From the annual report of the educational department of
this county for scholastic year ending June., 1893, it will be seen there was a
considerable deficit; up to that time, and for some years tbefoire, echooo.l warrants
were almost invariably traded at mercantile establishments or discounted at from
five per cent, to twenty per cent. for merchandise or cash; a reference to
condition of finances for school year ending June 30th, i0, reveals a cash
balance in treasury of sixty-five dollars and eighty-five cents and an uncollected
balance due the fund amounting to eight hundred sixty-one dollars and sixty-four
cents after paying all outstanding indebtedness. S-ich a condition appears flatter-
ing or healthy, considering the constant demand for new buildings, furniture,
other needs and the increased cost of materials, labor and equipment after main-
taining more schools than were ever 'Ilh since pAll:, schools were established
in the county.

Last year during the finanical panic the bank with which the county Board of Public
Instruction had arranged to pay school warrants at face value failed to comply
with contract and funds were borrowed, most largely from depositors, and all warrants
were paid one hundred cents on the dollar. Any Board of Public Instruction whose
accounts are solvent will not experience any trouble in obtaining funds or negoti-
ating loans with which to meet obligations. Right here,'gentlemen of the State
B,-,ard of Education, members of the Bcard of Commissioners of State Institutions,
and-members of the Legislatures of 1905 and 1907, I want to say a great and gross
injustice has been done the County Superintendents, members of County Boards of
Public Instruction and teachers, as well as to many y-vuh of-the several counties
of the State of Florida. The Legislature enacted bills providing for the payment
of certain sums, respectively, to certain schools designated as Senior High schools,
Junior High schools and Rural Graded schools; also, certain sums to schools that
made an average attendance of eighty per centum of their enrollment, and also



]r. ,~vde, for an extension of term of one month for certain other schools.
The State Board of Education granted, so far as this county is concerned,
our apFliitions--with but few exceptions--and today the State owes us about
5ixteen hundred dollars for year 1906-7, about twenty-five hundred dollars
for year 1907-8 for the two months' extension, all for 1907-8 on the one-
month extension, and has only prorated the High school funds in part, still
indebted from that source to some extent. The County Board of Public In-
struction, relying on the promises of the State Board of Education and
acting on the advice of State officials, borrowed the funds with which to
pay the State's indebtedness to Santa Rosa County for year ending June 30th,
1906, and this money is still being carried by the local board which is
paying eight per cent, interest. The extension of terms, etc., for year
1907-8 still remains unpaid--the salaries of the teachers for that year--
some of these teachers are widows with dependent families and all of them
poor;,they write me almost daily when the State will pay them. Some schools
whose extended terms were not taught in 1907-8, but extended through cour-
tesy of State Superintendent to be taught in 1908-9, cannot be supplied for
extended terms because teachers have no confidence in the credit of the State
or the obligations of the State to its youth'and payment for their instruction.
0 tempora, O mores.

Teachers.--Whlie our teaching force is fairly g.ood--in many instances quite
strong--it could be improved. That there is a demand for more teachers and
better teachers will not be disputed; the problem demanding solaiuitn is how
can we get them. Teachers must invest some capital in education and prepara-
tion for work, and time is also a factor; after qualifying as prescribed by
law--and otherwise in many cases--the great majority at best secure an
assignment to two schools of four or five months' terms each, at a salary
per annum, as you have truly'said in one of your Bi-ennial Reports, which is
but a few cents more than the annual hire of a State convict. Some school
patrons complain of the poor qualifications of some teachers; complain after
begging and insisting that a teacher of some kind be sent them, and school
officials are censured when unquestionably the fathers and mothers of the
yoLuth of the country and the politicians of the land also, assembled in mass
meeting, should be required to hear these complaints and bear or receive the
censure. No teacher can work for the average annual salary received, pay
expenses of living and necessary cost of professional advancement or progress
and continue to be a teacher of life. Almost any intelligent young man or
woman who has obtained a creditable second grade or a passable first grade
certificate is offered a position for the entire year at a greater salary
per month than can be had for teaching, and most of them do the sensible
thing--accept--just what we would do under similar circumstances or conditions.
I might say more on this subject, but will not do scl facts are presented
for consideration of all interested and I trust that those not interested
will become interested, This is a matter of vital importance to all who
have go.d citizenship at heart.

Examination Laws,--I believe that special examinations should be continued.
I re,:ogn ie the fact that the law providing for special e~amination.s is
abused, but not more so than the law authorizing Uniform State Examinations.
The special examination has enabled Santa Rosa County to secure many good
teachers, whereas, if there were no such law, many of our schools would not
have been taught. In connection with this matter I ask indulgence to say



that only one person whom I have qualified to teach in special examination, has
failed 'to qualify in a regular examination, and this person failed to make a
certificate within three per cent. of requirement of law.

I believe that examinations to a large extent should be oral; such an examination
would, in part, very largely assist in determining the capabilities of teachers.
At present all candidates for certificates, are required to qualify or fail on
the same..questions on nine subjects, and the applicants for first grade certifi-
cates are to take three &dditric'nal subjects. Thiu does not appear to be..fair;
quite a distinction between grades of certificates is made both by school officials
(sic) and the patrons of many of the most isolated districts. It appears that
it would be fairer to those already teaching and to those who desire to become
teachers to have separate questions for all grades of certificates, especially
providing that applicants for first grades hall have questions different from.
applicants for second and third grade certificates. Many will not attend nor,
attempt to qualify in examinations today because in a great majority of subjects
the same questions are given all examines. I believe in a high standard, but
'the present system app~erfs: to debar many. who might become useful teachers.

Taxation.--Santa Rosa County, alone and unaided, tested the law providing for
county'school levy last year. The Board of Public Instruction asked for a levy
of seven mills and this levy was denied by our Board of County Commissioners;
an alternative writ of mandamus was sued out in Circuit Court by Board of 'Public
Instruction, and as a result a peremptory writ was issued; the Board of County
Commissioners appealed to Supreme Court and this court sustained the'Circuit
Court. Any County Board of Public Instruction can now get the limit of levy
for school purposes.'

A better assessment and collection of poll taxes should be made. Many polls
are each year not assessed, and in election years more polls than are assessed
are collected, or rather paid by voters than are assessed, and some polls,
quite a number, which are assessed, are not collected. I am candid to say
that if all persons due poll taxes were assessed and those poll taxes collected,
that the county levy for school purposes could be reduced about one mill; other-
wise thechildren'would have the benefit of six months' term instead of five
months in all schools except the County High schviol and others receiving special
funds, or funds in addition to the county appropriations.

Course of Study. -The course of study as outlined is rather heavy, not only
for the lower grades, but for'the higher grades also';the common schools are
not maintained for the purpose of preparing students for Yale, Hararvard, or
Princeton, but for preparing youth, the masses of -the youth, to meet the
respolsiiilities of afterlife. It would be much better, in my humble opinion,
to cut out or.eliminate some subjects to be taught and shorten the course or
extent of others and substitute thereof domestic science, the elements of
agriculture and kindred subjects and have our youth in public schools acquire
knowledge that will enable them to meet in a practical way the daily problems
with which they may be confronted. Many rural schools enjoying a term of eight
months could have one or more acres on which diversified crops, might be grown,
experiments made, arboriculture sutdied, and much practical information gained.
A great majority of rural youth only ask for opportunity-and the State, their
parent, should give them opportunity. Give us better common schools, a County
igh school and one University open to both sexes; co-education properly conducted
will produce emulation and curtail expenditures for State Institutions and save
moniy for our rural, schools, which ae the feeders of High schools and Universities.



School Leislation.--Amend the present school law to make examinations oral
to some extent; require 4n examination of teachers on the subjects of domestic
science, the elements oflagriculture and political economy; to what extent
these examinations should extend I leave to the discretion of, the State
Superintendent and those who will occupy official positions, I would
respectfully urge that the examinations on these subjects at first be moderate
and the subjects be gradually introduced as texts in our public schools.

There should be a better assessment and collections of poll taxes; some law,
if the present one is inadequate, should be enacted to get better results
than are now had, An increased milage. for county school purposes will
inevitably come--that is to say the Constitution will be amended so as to
permit more than a seven-mill levy for local purposes, and last but not
least, the next legislative body of the State should make an appropriation
to meet salaries due teachers under Acts of 1905 and of 1907, provided these
salaries are not paid by State before the next legislative session.

Some Deductions.--Comparisons will show that Santa Rosa County has made
progress in numbers of schools, the acquisition of lots, the erection of
buildings, equipment, apparatus, furniture, libraries, reference books, etc.,
yet I realize that much is yet to be done, but believe that the foundations
have been laid for a good public school system.

Comparisons will also show that in 1907-8 there were enrolled in the public
schools of the county four hundred seventy-nine more youth in our white
schools than were enrolled the previous year, and that there was a proportion-
ate increase in the average attendance; more schools last year made an average
attendance of more than eighty per centum of their enrollment than ever before
in the history of the county; all these facts give evidence of an increased
interest in educational matters.

As above stated, there is a very marked increase in the enrollment and
attendance of white youth, on the other hand, there is a noticeable decrease
in the enrollment of the nagro youth. There are fewer negro children enrolled
in our public schools now than were enrolled fifteen years ago, yet the negro
population of the county today is not less than five times what it was ten
years since, Apparently in this county and in this section of Florida the
negro population is decreasing.

Practically all the youth of this race attend our public schools. The next
invitation to Booker"T. Washington should not be to address County Superintendents
of Public Instruction on how td educate the Senegambian, but to have Washington
talk to his race in some appropriate place on philoprogenitiveness of his race.
Our increased negro population has not come to us as have Broward's or Roosevelt's
descendants to the paternal homes. If all other sections of Florida and our
Southland have the same conditions of race decrease we have, there wiLl be at
some future day no necessity for the colonization of the negro, and exaggerated
reports of lynchings will appear only in old files of Northern papers.

Santa Rosa, joined by other counties of this section, is now trying to have
State pay what it has promised teachers, and it is devoutly hoped that, if
necessary to go that far, the highest courts will sustain this just and righteous
contention. I believe that the State should have an institution of learning of



the highest possible order for those who have completed high school courses, but
it is sad to contemplate the expenditure of more than forty thousand dollars on
a Stage College for Women, thousands for incidental purposes alone on an insti-
tution for young men, not mentioning the thousand of dollars paid for furniture
for the Governor's mansfian, hundreds of,dollars for electric wiring and nearly
as much for screen doors and windows and the poor teachers of rural schools
going unpaid. A common school education comes before collegiate and university
courses of ins-truction. The principal'of the greatest good to the greatest
number should prevail in educational as well as in other matters of public
concern, I insist that the State of Florida should pay for the instruction of
thousands of children in our common schools before building, equipping and main-
taining two institutions, matriculating no students from some counties, a few from
others and having' quite a large enrollment from counties in which these institutions
are located.
I believe that all of our educational institutions should be free from political
environments; we have sufficiently suffered from these abuses; in many instances
in the past it is an indisputable fact, appointments to chairs in some of our
State schools were made for selfish motives and personal or political aggrandize-
ment, Conditions are improving and I'-am glad to note them. If the proposed amend-
ment to our Constitution for a levy of a one-mill tax for the educational insti-
tutions of the State fails, I will not be surprised. The masses have proven.in
past elections that they are, for the most part, opposed to constitutional amend-
ments, and when the State fails to pay the teachers of the common schools, many
who are favorably inclined to State schools will not support the amendment next
November. The defeat of the .amendment will prove a blow to our higher educational
institutions and at the same time a rebuke to some persons vested with power to
,prolong the term and otherwise elevate the standard of the common schools.
In- Conclusion.--1 desire to thank the present Honorable State Superintendent, and
his predecessor-also, for the many encouragements and co-operation in my humble
efforts to do what I thought best for the great cause of education; I feel grate-
ful not only to you but to the intelligent members of the School Boards with whom
it has been a genuine pleasure to have been associated; I am indebted to many
interested fathers and mothers who have nobly stood by me"in my labors; I feel
that after I vacate this office I shall still be a co-laborer with many loyal
teachers without whom but little would have been accomplished; and to the youth
of my county--I 'scarcely know what to say--were I called upon to speak now I
could say nothing, but here I write with eye bedimmed with tears--God bless you
all, and may you, each of you've liberally educated, become useful men and women
-and exert an influence for good that may be felt for many generations.
Very truly yours,
County Supt. Pub. Inst.

Sumterville, Fla., September 21, 1908.
Hon.,' W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., T'alahaassee, Fla.
Dear Sir:--In compliance with-your request, I submit this, my report of the
condition of the public, schools' in Suimcr Cou'nty.
Buildings.--During the past two years we have completed a two-story concrete build-
ing at BushnelL, at a cost of more than $5,000.00., This building has been well
furnished throughout.



The five-room school building at Linden has been completed and nicely painted.

The two-thousand-dollar building at Oxford has just received a new coat of

Four new schools have been established and buildings nicely furnished.

The above buildings, together with repairs, have cost $1,000.00.

As a rule, the Board furnishes all material for the building of school houses,
while patrons do the work.

This applies to small schools. In better buildings the Board has given one-
third of the entire cost.

Financial.--Our finances are in good shape. All school warrants are cashed
anywhere at par.

Our Board has arranged with our county bank to cash all school warrants whether
we have funds or not, the bank charging 64 per cent, on daily balances, which
usually amounts to about $150.00 per year.

Spe1cia1l Tax Districts.--We have eight Special Tax Districts, all of which have
given satisfaction. We receive from these districts annually about $3,000.00,
which goes to supplement the salaires of'our teachers in our largest schools,
and to assist in building school houses and meeting incidentals of schools, etc.

They have been of considerable help in furthering educational interest in this
county. This fund has enabled us to procure the services of better teachers.
Where Special Tax districts have been established we not only have better
teachers but longer terms.

Teachers.--The character and qualifications of our teachers are gradually
improving. We persistently encourage the true teacher; we continue to reject
the teachers (who know much) but teach little.

There is a growing demand in this county for better teachers. Teachers of
little experience and low grade certificates are not much sought after.
Graduates of Normal schools are in great demand. Many communities supple-
ment the salary of the beat teachers.

Grading Committees --I do not favor our present system of grading. In my
county, there are times when it is very hard to secure the services of teachers,
whose qualifications are in keeping with the requirements of the letter of the
law. I do not believe in placing teachers on that committee who have prepared
teachers for the examination,

I favor a State Grading Committee. This would give uniformity to the grading,
which is impossible under the present system.

No'change, however, is necessary if the law regulating examinations were strictly
carried out. As it is, a second grade certificate in one county is often
equivalent to a first grade in another county.



Consolidation.--This is the only solution of the problem of educating the children
in rural districts. Good graded schools further apart should take the place of the
little neighborhood schools, This, of course, would necessitate pupils walking
much further to schools, but would more than compensate for this, by their rapid
advancement under better facilities made possible by such concentration.

Most attempts, however, in this direction are met by the most stubborn resistance
of short-sighted parents who study their children's present convenience.rather
than their permanent improvement.

Transportation. o-We have made only the initial step in transporting pupils. In
some cases we have furnished transportation to other schools rather than to
establish new schools. I believe at no distant day our people Will favor such.

State Aid--'80% Act.--This aid has enabled us to lengthen term of many of our
schools to seven months and has done a great deal to encourage attendance; but
since the State has failed to pay its obligations the law is fast meeting with
disfavor. In the future it will not be regarded in our county except at the
teachers' responsibility. If such State aid has been paid at proper time as
the law does imply, the same would have done more in the way of stimulating
educational interest than any other aid yet advanced.

We hope the next Legislature will take such action in the matter as may seem
best that will bring about immediate settlement on thsa part of the State.
Respectfully submitted,

County Supt. Pub. Inst.

Live Oak, Fla., November 10, 1908.
Ron. W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request for a special report of the schools
of Suwannee Coupty I have the honor to submit the following:

School Buildings.--Eight years ago when we took hold of the educational system
of Suwannee County, there were but few comfortable school buildings in the
county. About the first thing that I resolved to accomplish during my term of
office, was to erect better school buildings in the entire county, and to make
them comfortable by seating them with patent desks. We had not built more than
two or three nice school houses before I saw that the demand for them would be
sa great, and the Board with limited capital, that'there was but one of two
things to do. either of which would prove satisfactory. First, we could build
only a very limited number of houses and furnish them each year,.which would
take so long to get the entire county supplied that the demand would be so
great that we could not very well stand the pressure which would be brought to
bear by the citizens. However, this plan, in my judgment, would have ultimately
proven the better plan, as by so doing we would have paid for the work as it was
done and no debt would have been made.


The second way was to adhere to the increased demands for better school
lA:,T 1,rngs,, better teachers, better f'rnisrThei b,'u*iIi.igs, etc. And to do
this meant an expenditure of more moirney than could be raised with a low
tax valuation on property, and c-nly a fi-.re-mill school levy ....~r be made
to meet those demands. As the demand for improved school conditions was
so .grea., we .yi.l-did and borrowed money and began the gr.'ati'it r.;cr-m
ever known in the history of Suwannee County. New school buildings have
been erected all over the cIunt'~/. At -,'ery n-Sarl y every school site there
has been a new school house built. Between fifty and sixty new school
b,,il ding i have been ,constructed during my eight-y.e.ar 'trm of :-tfL.6.
Many of these new houses have been ceiled and painted, seated with patent
desks, and furnished with Hyl.ptiate blackboards, and heaters,

Restiult From Thesi.e Improvemenca.--The results derived froxm this ipritpti"ed
z.adition of school houses have been far-reaching. There is a growing
educational spirit in the ci'uintvy the p : le seem to have awakened to a
sense of the'great responsibility devolving upon them as parents and
their duty in educating their child-ren. .r e.., they are .ta-lIg. more
interest in schools and are lending their assistance to us in every way
possible. t .-scriy the B~oar:l purchased a :a~.~~la of patent desks. We
had only to notify the patrons of the various schools that the desks were
received and trady for distriburt..:n, and we had more I .ple in town with
wagons than were needed to haul them out, The patrons then turned out
and put. the seats up. This shows how the pa!tr,..n,, of the schools of
Suwannee County take hold to improve their schools.

With the taxes received up to date on 1907, we have outstanding school-
warrants of 1906-1907 amounting to only $5,114.29 against the general
school fund. Of course, this does not include warrants issued on this
scholastic year which have been provided for in the b-'..dg.-.t of 1,"'l8.

.?chos.~^--The schools have been well attended. Many of them made the
required 80 per cent. average which entitles them to receive State aid.
However, there has been some di aFppinimort on account i-tf the State's
not being able to pay those obligations when the conditions have been
f',-.'ly met by the schools. The Board of Fut ii Instruction and teachers
Iel that they can hardly afford to wait so long before receiving the
r)n.P-.- from he Stare: nil rh.a f-.elin, of distrust, or a lack of
confidence has been overcome we cannot hope to get the best results.
We 'b ,p- the next State Lgis i cuR, will make adi ',q i C ....i-ic, by which
all .:nf the State's obligations to the school system can be promptly met.
We feel sure that the State wi! look into this matter c -.aflh'17.,
r-si~ziing as it does, that it mustlook to its p't.hIc school system in
the State for a larg. number of its la.dilni citizens in the tutr .

A cio *oigh g 'lh --We have only' one Senior JHighii school. This school
has grown quite rapidly. Eight years ago when I took hold of the work
there were only five teachers and an eni.'im-r nt. of less than 200 i.upil.~
Now we enroll more' than 500 and have thirteen teachers The present
. 'eI,,., ca. has been with us about ten years, and has done much to .iF g~'. -
'he school conditions. it, has very greatly endeared himself to the town
by his able slage..t of the school.



Value of School Property.--Eight years ago, in 1900, when I took.,carge of the
schc~l affair in Suwannee. County, the total valuation of all school property
was estimated at: $17,860. A.t the close of my second administration in 1908,
the estimated value .cf all school property is $56,021.00., The value placed on
the property eight years ago was a fair valuation, and the values placed on the
proTpe.riy now are very reta:sonable. In fact, ifqmany instances I believe the
values are too i ma1. 'But admitting that the values of each are correct, then
by subatracting the valuation of all sc.hc.'cl property in 1900 from its value in
1908, we have a difference of $37,161 increase in eight years. This is an
-increase annually of $4,645.

Eight years ago there were only two painted school houses in the county, now
there are fifty., Eight years ago there were only three white school buildings
partly seated with patent school desks, now there are thirty-eight. Eight years
ago there were ,only 174 patent school desks in the county, now there are 1,401
patent school desks in the county.

Financial Report.--At the close of the scholastic year, June 30, 1908, there
wereou scandtng sch lwarzants against the general school fund amounting to
$15,244.99, but since then the taxes collected on 1907 have reduced this
amount to $5,114.29. As previously stated, this amount does not include.school
warrants issued since July, 1908, which have been provided for by a tax levy
for 1908. Neither does ,this include some small indebtedness carried over by
the several Special Tax school districts.

Teachers' Salaries.-Eight years ago the teachers of the county were paid on
grade of certificate as follows: a teacher holding a third grade certificate
received a monthly salary of $20,00, and a second grade a monthly salary of
$25.000 a first grade a monthly salary of $35.00. Now teachers are not paid
according to grade of certificate, but rather according to their real worth.
No inexperienced white teacher receives less than $30.00 per month, and,
experienced white teachers receive from $35.00 to $60.00 per month in the
rural schools. The colored teachers receive from $20.00 to $35.00 per month,
Eight years ago school warrants were at a discount of not less than 5 per
cent., while many teachers had to pay more, For the past six years all school
warrants have been paid promptly at face value, which was been a great saving
to the teachers of the county., This has been done by the Board of Public In-
struction's arranging with the First National Bank and the'Citizens Bank of
Live Oak to cash the warrants at face value when presented and the Board issuing
an interest warrant in favor of the bank to pay same.

Teachers of the county.--The teachers of the county have been loyal to the
administration, and have done all in their power to carry out all rules and
regulations of the Board of Public Instruction. Very nearly all of my teachers
have either a college diploma or have attended summer training schools. Hence
we believe the teachers of the county will compare favorably with the teachers
of other sections of the State.

Conclusion.--While much good has been accomplished during my two administrations,
yet there lies out before the incoming administration much more that should be
done, vizs To finish building and seating new houses already constructed, furnish-
ing the buildings with teacher's 'desks, here they have not already been furnished,
putting in additional mapq, reading charts, globes, and when t at is done, a good


working library, with books suitable for each grade of pupils in the school,
with a nice bookcase and a register to keep a record of all books in the library.

Course of Study.--A carefully prepared course of study with suggestions suita-
ble for each grade of pupils has just been prepared and will add greatly to
the systematic work of the teachers another year. It has been my aim to do
this for some time, but pressure along other lines has prevented me from
preparing this much-needed guide for teachers.

Respectfully submitted,

County Supt. Pub. Inst.

Perry, Fla., Sept. 25, 1908.
Hon. W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sir:--I hereby submit a report of educational progress in Taylor County
for the past two years, with a retrospective glance at former conditions.

The historian may truly say "We are heirs of the past". In giving a brief
account of what has been accomplished in the educational work of Taylor County
for the past two years, we will not forget that we are, to a great extent,
indebted to those who have preceded us, their work helping to make our own
accomplishment possible.

Only about twenty years ago we should have found the schools of our county
in a very backward state, indeed. School houses were roughly built of logs;
seats were very often backless benches; such desks as could be found were
made of planks, or perhaps of white pine boxes; charts, globes and maps
were conspicuous by their absence; and it is quite likely that there were
more schools without blackboards than that had them. This condition is not
an overdrawn picture, but gives things about as they existed. Much property
which we now have on the tax books was not then assessed. The amount of
school taxes collected would now be considered small. These things being
true, it is not surprising to find the state of things above mentioned.

The teachers of those times often knew but little themselves, and necessarily
did poor work. There were some exceptions, however, even at this time, and
good teachers were to be found. The Uniform Examinations have done much to
improve the scholarship of teachers. Soon improvement began along other lines,
and while we may have made occasional halts, the trend has been forward since
the establishment of this system.

In taking this backward glance let it not be understood that we are criticising
the educational leaders of the period under consideration. As we said in the
beginning, what they did has to a great extent made the advancement of the past
few years possible. We must remember that they had many obstacles to overcome.

At the beginning of the administration previous to mine, things were in much
better shape, yet we were still backward in many things. More than half of
the schc1ll houses were still log structures, furniture was some better, but


ilW, W


there were not more than forty or fifty patent school desks ia the county, and
these were in the school building at Perry, There was still a pretty general
absence of school apparatus. Salaries ran from $20.00 to $30.00 per month with
the exception of our school that paid $50.00 per month.

The improvements during this administration, may be summed up asa allows: the
building of a few fram school houses, one costing over $3,000; the purchase of
a number of school desks and some school furniture; an increase in teachers'
salaries; the establishment of one Special Tax district; and a considerable
improvement in the quality of work done by teachers.

Nearly four years ago my administration began. Sihce that time I have made an
earnest endeavor to improve the educational work of our county. I am glad to
be. able to,state that as a general rule, I have had the hearty co-operation of
the School Board. The table given below will tell more eloquently than words
what has been accomplished. The reader will note that a great part of this
advancement has been made during the past two years.
14N 1906 1908
Number patent desks 120 420 .i,020
Number outline maps 30
Number charts 15 15 27
Number globes 25
Value school property $6,500 $13,000 $16,000
Salaries of teachers $25 to $40 $35 to $55 $35 to $60
(One school (Co. High (High schools
paid $80) school $75) $75 to $125)
1904 1906 1908
', Average length of term in days 80 102
No. Special Tax districts 1 4 6
No. transportation lines 1 3 9
No. classed as Rural Graded schools 1 -
No. classed as Junior High schools -
3 last year.

The.present value of school property given above would be considerably larger
but for the loss of ,the Perry school building by fire. Another building to cost
$14,400,00'has been contracted,for to replace it.

The above table shows that much money has been spent during the past two years,
and the question may be asked "Has the general advancement of your school interests
kept pace with the increased expenditure of money?" It would hardly be correct
to say that it has from the fact that the time has been too short,' and it is too
early to expect to reap the harvest.

There has been advancement, however. The reader will note from the table the
increase in high schools. Besides there is a general forward movement. Quite
recently a Special Tax district was established in one of the backwoods sections
of the county, and a high grade teacher has been secured to teach the school.
Our teachers are striving more and more to increase their knowledge, and we think
we may alo :say their professional qualifications. During the past two years
quite a number of our teachers have attended training schools, and perhaps half
of them read one or more school journals.


Are the people f'Tni.irng the schools as they .Iul, No, rh y never will
do that until a compulsory law is enacted, However, ::..n iE.~~j ng that the
., iag.I_ l "ei of our school teras has in ri. a .l, and also the g.;. ~~gg 'Pal.
features of our county, the attendance does not show up so bad, especially
when :II.wid-i with other parts of our own State. In some n. igb..rh,.ds:.
there is at times considerable water to be crossed; parts of the county are
still thinly settled, making distance to go in some cases :c..nsidrabl' All
of these things operate to keep down our average attendance,

ir'..--. you any suggestions for the improvement of '.c.nd i.ions for effective
school work? Yes, First, I should recommend a consolidation of our smaller
schools, ohis should increase the attendance by -i-r:oming some of the
conditions mentioned above. It seems hard, too, to develop much enthusiasm
in a small school on the part of eintbh- teacher or pcll.o 'Then, too, it is
not unusual even in a small backwoods school to find six or seven grades to
teach, By combining four or five such schools you can readily see where two
teachers :...-ld do the work and yet do it more efficiently.

Another need is school libraries, I would ,:.-,*ir~',,r,,i, E that the School .:,,rd
help schools that do something for themselves along this line, and if State
aid is to be continued, let the State give each rural school as much as it
expends up to a certain amount, of course, in the p,' ,"rT,-.au. of books for
school libraries,

We need a compulsory school law. This should not be too drastic, but a
: _'mpi.'s...: ry law moderate ought to be enacted and rtnf.Pw ir: eI would recommend
that each parent be forced to keep his children in school at least three
consecutive months of each term u7eia ss.. Tri n' --'t ,d- by sickness, There are
many people who can not be made to see the need of educating their children.

The children are helpless in the matter, but as the State is interested in
the development of its citizens, it should take the matter in hand and see
that all get a fairly good education in the common branches at least.

Last, but not least, we need to make inducements such as will cause teachers
to take up teaching as a pr:f-:-'i. -.r,. and not as a trade. In other words,
teachers who will make *ta.Rhing a life :.:.'.i,.n. As long as men and women
use it.:hih~. as a stepping-stone to something else, our schools will suffer
thereby. I could make several -"'gges;:.-i, r:. on this line, such as ii..ri .g
teachers a I T~.i.r-g wage, giving them vacations at certain intervals with pay,
and tph-..!i-,ig those who have gr.wn. old in the work. I am sure that sactrbin-gAg
i*.:, Id be done to make '.ar:hig. more arttircari -e as a p.r.:t.= i ..-': and that our
schools would be the gainers thereby,

Conditions for the f,,irc seem promising. My term will shortly be cc..mtiil.t d
and I shall re~tir.e. feeling that I have tried to do my duty as I saw it,' and
with a feeling of pardonable prid. in the achievements of my administration,

Ss I ll y submitted,

A. E. ~O HA,

..n' p" pt Pub. Inst.



DeLand, Fla., September 28, 1908.
Hon. W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub, Inst., Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, t respectfully submit the following
bt-ennial report:

The schools in this county are better housed, better equipped, and better taught
than ever before. It is our purpose to attain to the highest possible success
every year and to make each succeeding year better than the last. In the past
two years, our schools have made material progress in many ways.

We have thirty-five white schools in the county, and eighteen colored. The
real estate of our county schools is valued at more than $75,000 and the equip-
ment at about $14,000. For our white schools, the average value of each school
house and lot in the county is about $1,800, During the past two years, we have
expended over $17,000 for new buildings, additions and repairs. Every white
school house in' the county is painted and all but three are either ceiled or
plastered. Our colored school houses are in good repair, nearly all being ceiled
and painted. While the number of our schools has not increased, the enrollment'
has' increased fully 10 per cent, and the teaching force more than 20 per cent.

During the last bi-ennium, we have expended about $3,000 for furniture and apparatus.
All of our .white schools and nearly all of our colored schools are supplied with
patent desks for the pupils and office desks and chairs ,for the teachers. An
abundance of gqod blackboards is provided, principally Hyloplate, although some
of the best schools have elate ond others composition. blackboards. Last year
we supplied all of our schools wikh "Superior Complete Charts," unabridged dic-
tionaries, spring rolled haps (in cases), and 12-inch globes. Also about $500
worth of laboratory equipment for our.High schools.

I am glad to report that the Board has been very liberal in regard to teachers'
salaries. Within the last two years, the average monthly salary of our teachers
has been increased over 30 per cent. The average monthly sAlary of our white
teachers this year is about $63.00 per month. Yet we have it distinctly under-
stood that we do not propose to pay $60.00 per month for $40.00 teachers. We
consider hiring cheap teachers as the pborest kind of economy.

The minimum term for white schools, in this county, is six months, and four
months for colored schools. Nearly all of our white schools run eight months
and many of our colored schools run six and eight months. The 80 per cent.
State aid is of great assistance to us. We do not consider the required average
attendance too high. If our schools really wish a longer term, very few of them
have any trouble in keeping the average above the required 80 per cent., and many
go above 90 per cent. We believe in doing all we can to arouse and maintain an
interest in education and theti jn making our schools worth going to. Our average
attendance will compare favorably with those States having compulsory education,
and our average term is practically as long as theirs.

Volusia County has two Senior and two Junior High schools. The four schools
together employ thirty-four teachers. Three of the principals hold State Certifi-
cates and the other is thoroughly qualified, but has not taught in the State the
required length of time to procure one, We believe the work done in these schools


will .,mpr ifaabiy with that of any similar schools in the State. We have
ir.'*'~.f vr '.~'!* examinations in the sixth, .r;..nth and eighth grade, and issue
?- .':, j iplomas of graduation from the Grammar schools. The examination papers
irf.'ri all over 'te :.:..nty are graded by the same committee, In this way, we try
to secure approximate uniformity in the work of the various schools, and also
to prevent indiscreet promotions. Pupils must have attained to a reasonable
..r.f i;ie.n.y in the Grammar school subjects and secured their diplomas, before
they are admitted to the High schools, and so we are ;nabl.id to keep up the
standard of our High school work.

There are nineteen Special Tax districts in this county, having an annual income
of about $12,000. This makes them, in a measure, independent of the County
Board, and the trustees take great pride isn -.fien'jing irh-.ir funds in ways that
will "be of distinctive benefit to their ri.p.-ictiv.e sch-. We en.c.-urage them
in their efforts to improve and be0'uitify the school surroundings, and in
introducing elements of culture and refinements. Many of the sc-h..1is have
libraries and several have organs or n.n: : All of. the' Spec: ia Tax districts
vote the full three-mill tax.

The school finances are in excellent : ndiri.n, We started on the present
school year with a balance .c-.f about $18,000 in the general fuihn. and $9,000 in
the Special Tax district funds. This 'c*laTlm; ha since been :O.i'd ib ly
reduced, however. We have been hampered in our work this year by not being
able to get the State aid that is due us. For the past two' years, we have
advanced the money from the general fund that we should have received from
the State jnder Chap.5654, and one year under Cbhap,5657. The total amount
is over $8,000. The delay in getting these funds has been very detrimental
to our schools.

We trust that at the next meeting of the Legislature our school laws will be
carefully revised by practical public school men'. The laws h,~lid be so plain
and, definite that there would be no doubt as to their meaning. We approve of
the present examination laws, but think there should be a Stare. vra.ifng
committee. Some one should be given greater power in the a.ppi~ndm.e.nt of
teachers, and shc.uld then be held rieponsibt for results. At .i .in, the
Superintendent has very little p.,swer, but gets all the blame for mis-fitso
The members ..f our 3 tae Eca-rd of Education should be practical and
:-ri:.1.i;Id educators. We favor some general .1'gir.aOr, in re gari to
'*-L ..: L' ., fai.: n, but think a.-:.runy Eg.:a.-*i should be given considerable
discretionary powers as to details. Laws that are suited to manufacturing
centers and places having a large foreign :.:pu.I*ton a r would not be suited to
more ,ar _.5ly populated communities, We would welcome State uniformity of
text books, provided the selection of the books 'is delegated to strictly
public school men, We do not think that our public school p.:'li.U i.A,should
be in any way dominated by men specially interested in higher education,
The public s.ch:..;[l are, .primarily, for the good of those who will go into
the great business of life with very limited educational capital and we must
fit them for the highest success j..:-.:b to t,irl,, colleges deal with men
and women who willhave much larger educational capital to invest and hence
need a i .c0.i., training in order to make the most of life, The r- is no '
conflict, but a somewhat different field of labor.

.:* .; l,,- ,- ,,,,, y ,

A. 0. E.i':T' ,
County Supt, Pub, Inst.

P, ^ "....... 11 '",


Sopchoppy, Fla., October 1st, 1908.
Hon. W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sir:--Complying with your request, I herewith submit a brief report of the
operation of public schools in Wakulla County for the past two years. All things
considered, the past scholastic year has been one of unusual prosperity.

Buildings and School Grounds.--For the past twoyears our people have been very
active in improving their school buildings and grounds, and making them more
comfortable for teachers and children.' Several new buildings have been erected,
others repaired, We have but two school houses in the county for white pupils
unpainted, and most of them furnished with patent desks--we are buying nothing
but single patent desks. Out school grounds are also cared for in,a satisfactory

Schools.--Our county maintains twenty-one white schools and ten negro schools,
all successfully taught by competent teachers. Our white teachers received last
year $4,580.00, and negro teachers $920.00.

We have in operation now three rural graded schools in the county, and they seem
to be in a flourishing condition. We had only two white schools that received
State aid under the 80 per cent. Act the past year, and no negro school made the
required percentage. We'are pleased with the result of the State appropriation
under Chapters 5381 and 5383, although our county's share was small. We can
further say that there seems .to be a marked improvement in the schools of'our
county during the past two years.

Financial Conditions.--We have no trouble to meet all demands and still have a
surplus of between two and three thousand dollars balance on hand, June 30th, 1908.

Teachers.--Our teachers are doing fine work, and have done for the past two years.
We pay them in cash each month every cent we promise them, and expect them to give
us good service for every dollar they .receive, Our teachers are progressive,
and we have made every effort possible to encourage them in their work. ,We believe
in preserving and raising, if possible, the standard of education in our county.

County Boards.--The members of our Board of County Commissioners and Board of
Public Instruction are a congenial set of gentlemen, and mean well for the county
at large, and stand ready and willing at all'times to promote every interest of
education. We have been fortunate in having men to serve on our Board of Public
Instruction who are possessed with broad and liberal views on all matters pertain-
ing to the welfare of our public schools, and who almost at all times co-operate
with the County Superintendent in his plans and recommendations. While all has
not been accomplished that was hoped for, yet we have cause for gratification over
the amount of good accomplished in the past two years. We feel that we may look
forward for better results in the near future in the general upbuilding of the
cause of education in our county,

Respectfully submitted,

County Supt. Pub. Inst.



DeFuniak Springs, Fla., October 10, 1908.
Hon. W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request for a report from this county, I
submit the following:

Finances.--For the past two years we have paid our teachers promptly, and as
we have closed each year with a comfortable balance, our warrants have been
practically equal to cash. This statement applies to the county school funds.
It cannot be said that the funds of all the Special Tax districts have been
in as good condition.

Enrollment.--The enrollment in our schools for this bi-ennium as compared with
the preceding, shows an increase of six per cent. in enrollment and twelve per
cent, in average attendance.

Teachers,--There has been an increase in the salaries of teachers. In this
matter of salary, although grade of certificate is a factor in its determination,
it is not the sole factor. Postulating due care in conducting examinations, and
competency and conscientiousness in grading, the certificate is the measure of
scholarship. But scholarship, although highly important, is not sufficient.
All teachers of the same grade are not entitled to the same compensation.

Buildings.--Among the duties of Boards of Public Instruction is that of
providing suitable sites and erecting suitable buildings thereon. But common
sense, which has been said to be the most uncommon kind of sense, finds no
difficulty in interpreting that requirement as conditioned on having;ithe
money to do these things with. Until very recently, it was held that the
levy for school purposes came within the purview of the powers of the County
Commissioners, and not of the Board of Public Instruction. Not having means
to build for all schools, the Board of Public Instruction has proffered to
furnish patent desks, seats, etc., to communities on condition that commodious,
comfortable and presentable buildings were erected and deeded to the Board of
Public Instruction. Under the stimulus of this proffer, there has been quite
an improvement in the character of the buildings in quite a number of communities;
and other communities are expecting to avail themselves of the opportunity.

Special Tax Districts.--It is not creditable to our county that we have only
four Special Tax school districts; but these are exhibiting a commendable
interest intheir schools, and there is prospect that, as object lessons,,,
they will be educational and stimulating. Our High School, located in
DeFuniak Springs, with a corps of twelve teachers and a large attendance, has
done some excellent work. Whoever creditably completes the curriculum of this
school is equipped for teaching our other schools.

Recommendations.--It seems that our school laws, with some admitted excellences,
might be improved by some amendments, as

1st. By providing for one grading committee for the whole State, instead of a
separate one for each county. This will conduce to uniformity of scholastic
attainments in those holding the same certificates. We do act have this



uniformity now because we have varying degrees of competency in the various
grading committees. As it is now, if any county has poor material for a grading
committee, it is almost hopelessly condemned to poor teaching at the public
expense. But in the selection of State Grading committee, the whole State is
the field from which to select the committee, and the more backward communities
may profit by the attainments of the more advanced. Moreover, local influences
will not play so powerfully on a State committee as on a county committee.

2nd. Compulsory school attendance. Our school law taxes the man without children
to educateother children. And to Justify this procedure, it is urged first and
principally, that it is indispensable to a successful popular government; and
second, that the childless tax payer gets his remuneration in the increase of
property values, incident.to popular education. Such a taxpayer would seem to
have a right to insist that, if he is forced, on these grounds, to pay for the
education of his neighbor's children, that neighbor should be forced to send his
children, 6fr, otherwise, he is cheated out of the consideration alleged to justify
the taxation. If it is right to tax A to educate B's children, it seems right to
compel B to send his children to school, that A may get the good government and
enhanced property values.,

3rd. The law ought to be so amended as to allow teachers from other States to
teach in this State. It may need to be guarded from abuse, but since the schools
are for the education of children, they are entitled to the best teaching pro-
curable, let the teacher come from where he may.

4th. It may be well to require a certificate of scholarship as a condition of
holding the office of County Superintendent of Public Instruction. A First Grade,
or higher certificate, unless he has been graduated from a High school or college,

Respectfully submitted,

County Supt. Pub. Inst.

Vernon, Fla., September 29, 1908.
Hon. W. M. Holloway,
State Supt. Pub. Inst., Tallahassee, Fla.

My Dear Sir:--I have the honor to submit to you a brief report of school operations
in Washington County for the years 1906-07, and 1907-08. .

Since January the first, 1905, I have given almost my entire time and effort to
the advancement of school work in the County of Washington, and in spite of many
discouragements I can not but feel hopeful at the outlook for our future success
as well as gratified over the results thus far obtained.

Schools.-- The length of the public school term in this county for the year 1906
was fixed by the Board of Education at five months, or one hundred days, to be
taught during those months determined by the Board to be the most advisable and
satisfactory. As there is no appropriation made for repairs, one month's salary
of the teacher is taken where needed and the term shortened to only four months.



We had eighty-four schools in operation during the year 1906, sixty-two white
and twenty-two colored. We had 2,554 white children enrolled, and 995 colored.
The average attendance of white was 1,604 and of colored 658. We had eighty-
nine schools in operation during the year 1907, sixty-five white and twenty-four
colored. We had 2,605"white children enrolled and 942 colored, with an average
attendance of white, 1,553; and of colored, 666.

Of the above-mentioned schools there is one Senior High school located at
Chipley. The Vernon, St. Andrews, Millville, and Pleasant Grove schools are
classed as Rural Graded schools, all having met the requirements under Chapter
5382 School laws. Application having been made for each of the above,
respectively, $360.00 and $200.00 for each of the Rural Graded schools, all
of which it appears were filed by the State Board, but as yet none of these
amounts have been paid.

Our enrollment grows.larger each year on account of an increase in population,
but while the enrollment of this year was some larger than any previous year
the average attendance was not so good. It appears that the year 1907 was an
off-year in which we had to encounter some adversities. An epidemic of measles,
sickness, and floods which have caused a falling off in the attendance in many

Our High school building at Vbrnbn Oas destroyed by fire during the year 1906.
We have now erected on the same site, an excellent new building, large and
convenient, with two rooms well equipped with double patent desks, and a good
school is in operation with an enrollment of seventy pupils.

We now have seven Special Tax districts, two of which were established in the
year 1907. The most of them have buildings with two rooms and maintain schools
under the supervision of two teachers.

Every effort I have made to consolidate and strengthen two schools in every
instance has been a failure, as generally a few of the patrons are like the
bee, hard to wean away from the old hive, while in many instances it could
be done and go a long way toward meeting the demand for fewer and better

A few of our teachers have tried to beautify the school grounds, but few of
the school houses are enclosed, ~,n~sqantly it is useless, though in many
localities nature has provided us with some very inviting groves of oak and
and pine trees which add much to the appearance of some of our school sites.

The crowded condition of our five-room brick building at Chipley is evidence
of a rapidly increased attendance. The building at the present is very much
inadequate to meet the demand for room, but we hope to enlarge the same in
the near future. Aside from its crowded condition we claim for Washington
County a High school second to none in the State.

Teachers. Teachers are still scarse, and our annual examination does not
turn out enough to supply this demand. In our last examination only ten
applicants passed out of an enrollment of twenty-three. Still I am glad to
note that in these examinations' several of our students under fifteen years
of age passed, getting third grade certificates, all of which go to show
that our common schools are doing better work and are more progressive.



Some of our teachers are energetic and are preparing themselves for better work,
while the most of -them are careless and do not seem to take the interest that
they should; they seem to have the work in hand only for a time.

The greatest barrier that I have found in all my school work and experience to
the success of our schools, is that unpardondable indifference on the part of
the patrons. They fail to take such interest as they should in their teacher
and school. There are too many cotton patches between the boys and girls of
our country and the school house.

As our county is large, and settled only in sections several miles apart, we
find it difficult to assemble teachers in a body, therefore we have no institutes.
The plan of dividing my county into four-districts and hold four quarterly
meetings a year has occurred to me and I am going to try it this year. This plan
will, I think, get all the teachers in the county together by sections and
encourage them to make' greater effort to do more efficient work.

Since I have failed in many of my efforts to.procure the services of a Senior
High grade teacher I am not so favorable to this requirement of the law, as
such ,teachers are scarce. This law gives them the opportunity to monopolize
these schools and demand exorbAitant salaries. I believe this law should be

Finances.--We are still ahead with our funds; we have the money to meet all
demands of school work and generally use what is appropriated for school purposes
within the year or until the tax of the county comes in, which has so far been
in time to meet all emergencies.

I am glad to see Agriculture added to our list of text books for our next
examination. I am glad to know that Agriculture is no longer looked upon as
a mere occupation; it is a science and universally recognized; and surely the
State should make special efforts to encourage, develop, and build up such
vast interest as three-fourths of her manhood.is engaged in, and to which all
look for the sustenance of life. The average business wants a paying venture
and we often hear the'inquiry, "Does education pay'" As business men we
believe that education and prosperity go hand in hand.
Respectfully submitted,


County Supt. Pub, Inst.



Gainesville, Fla., November 5, 1910.

Hon. W. M. Holloway, State Supt. Pub. Inst.,
Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sir:--The common school term of Alachua County is six months, the high schools
eight, and the Special Tax District schools from seven to ten months. We main-
tained 112 schools, employed 179 teachers, and expended $66,483.73 in school work
last term.

The schools have made gratifying progress during the past two years. This is
especially true of the town and city schools. In the latter the attendance has
been splendid. The Gainesville Senior High School has averaged 92 per cent, for
the last term of eight months. The attendance of some of the rural schools is
good, but as a whole very poor.

Most of the rural schools are in agricultural communities, where the children are
worked on farms. We had a total enrollment in the county for the term of 1909-10
of whites 3,532, with an average attendance of 71 per cent; and for blacks 3,736,
with an average attendance of 83 per cent. A comparison of the enrollment and
average attendance of the two past years shows an increase in enrollment of whites
of 5 per cent, and an average attendance of 6 per cent; of colored, 3 per cent in
enrollment and 12 per cent, in average attendance. The average attendance is en-
tirely too low. It is a humiliating fact that the average of the whites is much
less than that of the colored. A law authorizing compulsory attendance is greatly
needed, and if the voters of Alachua County had an opportunity to vote upon the
same it would be adopted by an overwhelming majority, realizing, as they do, that
small averages bespeak a low grade of progress and are evidence of neglected oppor-
tunities, and that it is fully as equitable to say to the parent or guardian, "Thou
shalt send thy child to school," as it is to say to the property owner, "Thou
shalt pay taxes to support the public schools."

This year I had the school census taken with a great deal of care, having note
made other than those of the census blanks. This census shows total whites of
school age, 4,572; of these, 534 are over 18 years of age; 3,532 were enrolled
last term in the public school and 175 in private schools and colleges, leaving
331, or about 8 per cent, of those under 18 years who are not enrolled in any
school. It was impossible to obtain the same kind of information pertaining to
the colored population. There are 6,173 negroes of school age, or 1,601 more
negroes than whites. Seven hundred and eleven are over 18 years of age; 3,736
were enrolled last term in the public schools. There are about 200 in private
schools. The census demonstrated the fact that there are only 26 whites between
the ages of 10 and 21 years who cannot read, and 35 who cannot write, and only
207 colored of the same age who cannot read, and 221 who cannot write.

High Schools-- We maintain two Senior and nine Junior High Schools, with an eight
months' term. Thqee schools are located so as to be of easy access to all rural
communities, and children from other schools above the eighth grade are admitted.
Very few rural schools can be run longer than six months. In almost every
community there are patrons who are not satisfied with a short term. They either
furnish a conveyance or board their children and send them to a nearby high school.
Our high schools supply the opportunity and are unquestionably an incentive to



higher education, and may justly be designated "the people's college." The
work in these schools is very gratifying. The course of study is arranged so
as to enable a graduate of the Senior High Schools to enter the University or
Florida State College for Women without condition. The Senior High Schools
have been accepted for affiliation with the University of Florida and the
Florida State College for Women by the Professor of Secondary Education and
State High School Inspector. This affiliation has proved an incentive to
boys and girls pursuing work in the high schools. We are especially proud of
this affiliation, because we know it was offered after a frequent and thorough
inspection of the classroom instruction, equipment, course of study and the
teaching force by G. M. Lynch, Professor of Secondary Education, University of
Florida. You are to be congratulated on the establishment of this office in
the school system of the State.

AeriuleturM--We are earnestly endeavoring to instruct our young people in
agriculture, its value and respectability. We found a prejudice among many
of the farming class, due to ignorance, against teaching agriculture to their
childrenin the school. Believing I could overcome the opposition only through
the child, I instituted a corn-growing and judging contest among the' school
children of this county between the ages of 10 and 18 years. In this work I
have been greatly aided by Profs. Rolfs, McQuarrie and Vernon, of the Department
of Agriculture of the University of Florida. We offered forty prizes, aggre-
gating $175, mostly farming implements, for the best ten ears grown from seed
furnished by us, under rules prescribed, and selected in accordance with the
score card of the Department of Agriculture of the University of Florida. We
also offered two gold medals and three cash prizes, aggregating $100, for the
best judges of corn among the contestants. The knowledge as to how to judge
is to be gleaned from the Agricultural score card. In the spring, Profs.
Vernon, McQuarrie and myself made appointments at the principal schools in the
county, having the nearby schools to meet with us, and inviting the public, who
responded to a surprising degree. We in turn impressed upon our hearers the
benefit the child would receive from a study of agriculture in the schools,
the importance of knowing how to select good seed corn, the thorough preparation
and fertilization of the soil and cultivation of corn. We aroused great interest
among pupils and patrons, and 450 boys and girls entered the contest, received
seed corn and have grown the corn, made their selections and sent the same to
the judges. The judging contest will come off November 26th, and the prizes
will be awarded. The contest has accomplished great good; more, perhaps,
with the father than the child, as indirectly he has received some valuable

School Buildings--Within the past two years we have spent $10,193.90 in en-
larging, painting and other repairs on school buildings. We have erected
and equipped at Trenton a four-room,two-story building at a cost of $2,000.00,
and a four-room, two-story brick building at Newberry at a cost of $6,500.00,
this making the sixth brick school building in the county. The school
buildings of the county are generally in good repair, are furnished with
patent desks and a bountiful supply of blackboards and a considerable number
of maps, charts, globes and other apparatus.

Secial Tax School Districts--There are thirty-seven Special Tax School
Districts in Alachua County, all levying three mills, with a single exception,
with an income the past year of $15,070.00. We are advised by the Tax
Assessor that the increased property valuation will give us, for the present
year, an income of $ 17,456.30. The special district system is popular in



our county and is very helpful in supplementing salaries, lengthening school term,
erecting and repairing school buildings and furnishing apparatus.

Financial Condition--On June 30th of the present year we had outstanding warrants
of $4,107.91, with cash on hand of $11,127.71, leaving a net cash balance of

Since the first of July we have issued $ 19,680.58 for school expenses, including
the October issue, and these with warrants antedating July 1st have all been paid,
and we have cash on hand $ 12,047.01. This condition is rather unique for Alachua
County, and is very gratifying.

Respectfully submitted,

J. L. Kelley,
Supt. Public Instruction.

Macclenny, Fla., October 4, 1910
Hon. Wm. M. Holloway, State Supt. of Pub. Inst.
Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I herewith, in brief, submit a report
touching the condition and progress of the schools in this county during the past
two years.

Buildings--We are beginning to point, with much pride, to our school buildings, and
every year finds us with more buildings and others under contemplation of construction
All our buildings are, of course, built of wood. We have several large two-story
buildings, and our buildings range in cost from $25.00 to $2,000.00. Since my last
report, we have erected two handsome buildings, one at Sanderson and the other at
Cuiler. Yes, as a whole, we are very much pleased with the class of buildings we
have, and the spirit which seems to call for still better ones.

Finances-The school fund is in very good condition. In fact, this county has
always enjoyed the pleasure of having sufficient funds with which to operate its
schools. I may safely state that our expenditures are just about double that of
two years ago. We have from seven to nine months' school in our Special Tax
Districts, and in our rural districts the schools run from four to five months.
Last year 90 per cent of the full terms of all the schools were taught, with an
attendance of 90 per cent. This speaks well for this county.

Schools--We are entering Senior High School work, and expect to have a Senior High
School very shortly. We have one Junior High School, although there is one other
school which is fully doing Junior High School work. There are five Rural Graded
Schools, and quite a number of rural district schools. The high schools are doing
very good work. To my mind, the teachers of Senior High Schools--that is, the
principals--should hold State Certificates or Life Certificates, it being a manifest
fact that the work in these particular schools is most important, and, as a rule,
pupils from high school work down to primary are in attendance, thus making the
principal's work not confined to any one department, but throughout the entire



County Levy--It has occurred to me that it would be well for a law to be passed
allowing the School Board of each county to make its own levy for school pur-
poses. If the Legislature should enact a law delegating to the several School
Boards power to make their levy, of course limiting the millage, it would result
in greater good to the entire school system. There being no class of men in
the counties as familiar with the immediate needs of the schools as the School
Board. The educational campaign which has been conducted throughout the State
was a wise move. This campaign advocated a 1 mill tax for school purposes. If
this be done, the entire school system in Floridawould soon be on a higher and
better basis. It has long been a lamented fact that the school teacher has
received inadequate compensation for the wondrous good he has done. It is
the most underpaid profession there is today, and it is a fact that the future
of every county and State of this Union depends largely upon the successful
work of the school teacher. Raise their salaries, and reap greater results
still. Notwithstanding this, it is with quite a degree of pleasure that I am
able to point with pride to the teachers in this county. We are pleased with
them, and they are doing good work. Our teachers compare most favorably with
any teachers in the State. Just one word touching compulsory education: Ever
since I knew what this meant I have favored it, and the more I contemplate its
good the more I favor it. Of course, such an undertaking should be local, as
environment must govern such a move. Where compulsory education can be inau-
gurated, it should be. If young boys and young girls were given their pref-
erence, they certainly would not attend, and parents are too often inclined to
humor the child and find a good excuse for its non-attendance.

All of which it is my pleasure to respectfully submit for your Biennial Report.
W. R. Simmons,
County Supt. of Pub. Inst.

Starke, Fla., September 21, 1910

Ron. W. M. Holloway, State Superintendent of Public Instruction
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I herewith submit the following
brief report from this county:

School Buildings--We now have forty frame buildings for white children, three
others under construction, and twelve for negro children. We have one
$10,000.00 brick building. These are all provided with water and heat. About
75 per cent of these are provided with patent furniture, and twenty-five have

Financial Condition--Our financial condition is very good. Our teachers'
salaries run from $30.00 to $125.00 per month. The teachers receive their
money once each month, and their warrants are good for 100 cents on the dollar.
Our teaching talent is improving, as many of our teachers attend the Teachers'
Training Schools and read more largely professional books.

Special Tax Districts--We have now twenty-two Special Tax Districts, paying
annually $5,500.00. They are highly appreciated and are very beneficial in



many ways. The fund from these districts is used for teachers' salaries, repairs
on buildings and all necessary supplies.

Respectfully submitted,

J. C. Poppell,
County Supt. of Pub. Inst.

Blountstown, Fla., September 30, 1910
Hon. Wm. M. Holloway, State Supt. of Pub. Inst.
Tallahassee, Florida.

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request of September 7th, 1910, I respectfully
submit the following report from Calhoun County, including calendar years 1909-10:

Financial Condition--Our financial condition is better than it has been in several
years past. We are in debt a little over $2,600.00; said indebtedness will be paid
by April 1, 1911. Notwithstanding the above indebtedness, we have a balance carried
over of over $5,000.00 in all funds and can and do pay our teachers their salaries
every month in warrants worth 100 cents on the dollar.

Buildings--We have some very fair school buildings, among which I might mention
Blountstown, Altha, Wewahitchka and Frink. Our school buildings are well taken
care of, all repairs necessary being made in due time. We have twelve Special
Tax School Districts, and each of these districts has voted the full 3-mills levy.
So you see the awakening of the people in public education.

Schools--We have thirty-five white schools--three new districts formed in the last
year--and ten negro schools. Our school work during the last two years has,
generally speaking, been very good, especially in the Junior High and best rural
schools. Blountstown stands first on our list, with an enrollment of 202 pupils,
and we are justly proud of the advance and progress of this school under the able
and efficient management of the principal for the last four years to the upbuilding
of this school, and has, I am pleased to say, been very successful.

Our next best school is Altha, with an enrollment'of 183 pupils. This school has
done excellent work in the last two years, with better promise for this term. All
teachers in this school hold First Grade Certificates.

We have also several smaller schools which are pretty well imbued with the spirit
of progress.

School Term, Teachers' Salaries--Our school term is generally five months for rural
schools and eight months for Junior High Schools.

Teachers' salaries range from $25.00 per month to $100.00 per month, depending on
grade and ability.

General--Our people of Old Calhoun are awakening fast in the cause of public edu-
cation. A few years ago patrons in the rural districts were satisfied with any
teacher they could get, and now they don't want anything under Second Grade. If



they keep on awakening, Third Grade teachers will have to find employment some-
where else.

I must say that "The Conference for Education in Florida" has done a great deal
toward awakening the people to the needs of higher education, and much credit
should be given to our State Superintendent of Public Instruction for his
patriotic work in this matter.

Yours very truly,

P. F. Fisher,
County Supt. of Pub. Inst.

Inverness, Fla., October 15, 1910

Hon. Wm. M. Holloway, Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sir:--In reply to your request, permit me to submit the following as my
special report:

Our school affairs are in a very satisfactory condition and we are able finan-
cially to keep them up to the present high standing.

We now have in operation twenty-two white schools, employing thirty-eight
teachers, and five colored schools, employing five teachers.

The attendance thus far this term shows a considerable increase over previous

In the way of betterment, we have within the last year erected four comfortable
school buildings at a total cost of $2,250.00. These buildings reflect credit
on the respective communities.

Besides, we have made many other necessary and appreciated improvements, aggre-
gating a cost of $1,250.00. We are now arranging to erect a two-story building
at Hernando, to cost not less than $2,000.00, which will be a great stimulus
to the cause at that point.

Our High School Department at this place has recently been seated with single
patent desks, and this adds much to the appearance and comfort of our County
High School.

Our teachers deserve special mention in this report, as all are honestly and
faithfully discharging their duty.

Our schools are good. We have a judicious and wise County Board and they are
loyal and true, as well as conservative, in the building up of our schools.
We have sixteen local Boards, composed of representative school men, and they,
too, are active in the betterment of our school conditions. School patrons,
as well as the public, throughout the county appear to be in sympathy with our
efforts and are truly cooperating with the administration.

I am glad to report that our county papers are doing everything possible for



the advancement of our public schools.

I believe the people of the county generally are interested in the work for the good
of the cause.

Wishing the public school system of the State great success, very truly yours,

R. L. Turner,
County Supt. of Pub. Inst.

Green Cove Springs, Fla. Sept 30, 1910

Hon. W. M. Holloway, State Supt.of Pub. Inst.
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Sir: I take pleasure in complying with your request for data pertaining to the
public schools of Clay County.

Buildings--The Board of Public Instruction of Clay County, in the last two years,
spent $3,000.00 exclusive of donations, for new buildings. The new building at
Orange Park cost $2,100.00; is furnished with patent single desks, and all the avail-
able space in the completed rooms is covered with Hyloplate blackboards. The lower
floor only is complete, but the building is planned along symmetrical and sanitary
lines and is an addition to the town. The Orange Park Special Tax District paid and
assumed one fourth of the cost of the building. The other new buildings are: Pine
Grove, Oypas, Lake Geneva and Highland. The last two, as all recent purchases, are
furnished with single desks. The purchase of heart lumber for school house building
in Clay County is a thing of the past. We buy as best we can and paint at once. We
are now building at Belmore, Montezuma and Russell. The Board of Public Instruction
spent $750.00 repairing such buildings as were worth repairing. A resolution of a
School Board thirty years ago to pay $100.00 for any school house 20 x 30 feet, with
eight windows, was responsible for a lot of shacks that seldom rot and never burn.
As population shifts, these blots on the landscape are supplanted by well-lighted
sanitary buildings. None but carpenters are now allowed to contract new work. A
new High School building in Green Cove Springs is now the long-felt want.

Graded Schools--We have only five regular graded schools. A regular course of study
is attempted throughout the county. The curriculum conforms to the State Advisory
Course of Study. The abolition of State aid to Graded Schools removes the temp-
tation to promote students prematurely to fill up the higher grades, and was a
blessing in disguise. Green Cove Springs has been declared a County High School by
the present Board of Public Instruction, to run eight months, with a two months'
normal in April and May. The time of starting this school has been fixed for the
first week in October, so as to continue until the June examination. Our school
terms are six and eight months.

Teachers--Twenty per cent of our resident teachers married last year. "We have a
supply of Third Grade teachers. The demand for Third Grades is less each year, as
nearly all schools have one or more advanced scholars. We have to import in part,
for First Grades and the higher Second.Grade teachers. We hope to improve this
condition with our Spring Normal, which was run for the first time last spring.
Salaries are gradually raised, a small bonus being paid for out-of-the-way places.



We reserve the right to close a school for a low average, but allow all schools
with a reasonable patronage and an efficient teacher to run regardless of

Finances--We carried a small cash balance in the General Fund and a larger one
in the Special Tax District Fund, after returning $1,500.00 borrowed by a former
Board. The county levy is 6h mills. The Special Tax Districts, which embrace
the entire county, levy 3 mills. As a rule, the schools are run four months
from the county fund and two months by the Special Tax Districts, but some dis-
tricts run three months and the County High School eight months. Highland
voted out its Special Tax District in 1908 and re-established the same in 1910.
This voluntary tax voted by the people biennially aggregates over $4,000.00
and speaks well for the school interest.

Transportation--The lands of Clay County are in a great part held by large
holders for naval stores, and colonization schemes, rendering extensive conso-
lidation of schools an impracticability. We transport when it is in the interest
of economy. To transport one neighborhood to another at a cost equal to a
teacher's salary, over-running a hardworked teacher, is not economy.

Board Members--The members of the School Board in Clay County a re all good busi-
ness men, and conduct the affairs of the county on a business basis. The chair-
man refused to stand for re-election, but his successor will be an able one.

Text Books--Our five-year contract for text-books expires in June, 1911. We
use Kellogg's first and second book in physiology. This book treats the temper-
ance question scientifically, which I thinkl]is the proper solution of the problem.
Duggar's Agriculture is also taught throughout the county. We have no place for
a book on sanitation this scholastic year. We think the counties can make as
advantageous deals with book sellers as the State, and adhere to the county unit.

Respectfully submitted,

W. H. Biggs,
County Supt. of Pub. Inst.

Lake City, Fla., September 27, 1910

Hon. W. M. Holloway, State Superintendent of Public Instruction
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Sir: In compliance with your request for a report from Columbia County, I
beg to submit the following brief report concerning the conditions of school

School Buildings-- During the past two scholastic years, we have built three
frame school houses, one for white children and two for negro children.

We have now eighty-two schools, fifty whites and thirty-two negro schools. The
Board owns all of the buildings used for white schools and all but seven used
by the negroes. The most of our schools are furnished with patent desks, pro-
perly heated, and furnished with charts and maps.



Schools--The Columbia High School at Lake City is a handsome brick building, well
furnished in every particular for high school work, and a splendid two-story frame
building, with eight rooms, for the primary and grammar grades. Both buildings are
well located in a beautiful pine grove and surrounded by many liveoaks. In this
school we employ twelve teachers and maintain the full twelve grades. The graduates
of our High School are recognized by all the leading colleges of the South.

We have one Junior High School at Fort White, with an enrollment of 105 pupils,
employing three teachers.

We have five other schools, well graded, and employing two teachers each, which may
be properly classed as rural graded.

We have forty-three district schools, employing one teacher each, which are acting
well their part in laying the foundation for higher education.

Revenue--We have been levying the maximum limit of 7 mills for school purposes,
which gives us annually about $20,000.00, which, with about $ 3,000.00 from the
Special Tax Districts, the State apportionments of $5,500.00 and poll taxes of about
$1,500.00, gives us approximately $30,000.00 for school purposes.

Special Tax Districts--We have seven Special Tax Districts, which are beneficial in
many ways, especially in creating interest on the part of the patrons of the schools
in extending their terms, supplementing salaries of teachers and enabling them to
make such other improvements as they desire without having to wait on the school
funds for help.

Financial--At the close of the scholastic year, June 30th, 1910, our total indebted-
ness was $14,177.12. Notwithstanding this indebtedness, our warrants are worth the
full face value.

Teachers--Our teachers are very much interested in their work and are energetic, pro-
gressive and enthusiastic, and we are giving them all the'encouragement possible in
the way of salary and equipment for their schools.

Salaries--We operate all of our schools from four to eight months each year, and pay
our white teachers $30.00 to $ 175.00 per month, and negro teachers from $20.00 to
$50.00 per month.

School Board--The members of the Board of Public Instruction of Columbia County
are men of broad business experience. They are competent and just in all matters
pertaining to the educational interest of the county.

Conclusion--In conclusion, I wish to express my sincere appreciation to all the county
officials for their cooperation and support given us in our educational work, and to
all the citizens of this county at large who have aided us in maintaining their re-
spective schools to the present high standard. We congratulate the State Superin-
tendent and other members of the State Board of the Conference for Education in
Florida upon their campaign rallies. We feel sure that they have been beneficial in
many ways.

It is my earnest desire to see every educational endeavor in the State prosper.



Respectfully submitted,

J. W. Burns,
County Supt. of Pub. Inst.

Miami, Fla., October 1, 1910

Hon. W. M. Holloway, State Supt. of Pub. Inst.
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Sir: Since the publication of your last Biennial Report, Dade "County
has been divided by legislative enactment, the same having gone into effect
July 1, 1909. This has reduced the territory over which I have supervision
about 50 per cent, and the number of schools and pupils enrolled has been
reduced about 25 per cent from the number in the county before division went
into effect. Dade County now has twenty-two white and eight colored schools,
with a total enrollment of about 1,700 pupils, which employs fifty-two white
and seventeen colored teachers.

All of the white schools, except five, now are in Special Tax School Districts,
and have full eight months' terms, and we expect within a year to have all
schools in the county levying the maximum special tax and enjoying eight months'
terms. Two of the new Special Tax School Districts were created this year as
a result of the educational campaign rallies last winter. The special tax
funds thus obtained enable us to employ better teachers and give two additional
months to the schools. This is especially beneficial in the matter of grading
and keeping the course of study uniform throughout the county, it being im-
possible to do eight months' work in six. In the Miami District the special
tax amounts to over $5,000.00 per annum, and the total special tax levied in
the county for the year 1910 aggregates $ 10,516.00.

The County Board of Public Instruction has recently let the contract for a
splendid school building in Miami, to cost $65,000.00, to be built of reinforced
concrete and fireproof throughout. This building will be large enough to
accommodate all pupils from kindergarten through high school grades, and with
the system of ward schools already established this building will be ample for
the city's needs for many years to come. It is proposed to have the high
school occupy the entire third floor, which will have a large study hall,
ample class rooms, laboratories, domestic science and commercial departments.
When the high school department outgrows these quarters in a few years, a
separate building will then be provided, and the present room turned over to
the lower grades. At Fort Lauderdale a neat and substantial concrete building
has just been complete, at a cost of about $6,000.00.

The Miami schools now employ twenty-five teachers in the various departments,
which include special instructors in vocal music, drawing and domestic science.
The high school department employs eight teachers, including domestic science
and commercial departments. The physical and chemical equipment are well
selected and the work being done in these departments is very satisfactory. In
fact, I am pleased to report that the whole system is now well organized and
will compare favorably with that of any city of the same size in the country.



The rural schools are well organized, and the pupils passing into the county high
school are able to go on with the work, showing that the system is effectively

A large school wagon is run from Little River to Miami, a distance of seven miles, /
which brings about twenty pupils to the high school department at a cost of $80.09/
per month, which is much cheaper than the operation of a high school course at /
Little River, and the pupils have the advantage of the best equipment and teachers
that can be secured and at a small cost.

The teachers now employed are as good as can be found anywhere, and it is te policy
of myself and the Dade County School Board to keep the standard up to the highestt
possible plane of efficiency. Such rules and regulations are passed as will insure
the employment of the best, and at the same time to cause those already employed to
keep in the forefront of professional preparation and improvement. A'regulation
was recently adopted which tends to prevent teachers with Second and Third Grade
Certificates from getting in a "rut"; namely, "No teacher holding a Third Grade
Certificate will be employed in Dade County longer than two years; and no teacher
holding a Second Grade Certificate longer than three years." Along the same line,
the Trustees of Miami District do not nominate teachers holding certificates lower
than First Grade, or who have not had at least four years' experience in teaching
or two years' training in an accredited normal school.

Since county division, as hinted at in the outset, Dade County proper is now com-
pelled to provide school facilities for nearly 75 per cent of the children of Old
Dade, with a little less than half of the funds, and this places a problem before
my Board that is hard to solve; but I confidently believe that notwithstanding the
above stated fact, and the fact that people are moving into this county in great
numbers, and taxing our school houses to their utmost capacity, that the Board has
the situation well in hand and that they will give the people of this county as
good schools as can be found anywhere in the country.

Yours very truly,

R. E. Hall,
County Supt. of Pub. Inst.

Arcadia, Fla., October 15, 1910

Hon. W. M. Holloway, State Supt. of Pub. Inst.
Tallahassee, Florida.

Sir: I have your recent request for a special report, showing the school conditions
of the DeSoto County schools. My annual report was sent you some months ago.

Recently Apointed--I was only recently appointed County Superintendent to serve out
the unexpired term of Hon. J. S. Carlton, resigned. Owing to this fact, you will
please accept some general remarks in place of the special report usually made.

Finances--DeSoto County levies the maximum 7 mills for county school purposes. This
enables us to run all the schools for five months out of county funds. By the de-
cision of the State Supreme Court, made during the biennium just closed, DeSoto, in
common with other counties, suffered. Several thousand dollars were due teachers



for extended terms, contracted for under the statutes giving State aid to high
schools, rural graded schools and to those making the "80 per cent attendance."
However, I am glad to report that the County Board made good all these con-
tracts, paying the extra amount out of the county funds. No teacher lost a
dollar becuase of the court decision that was such a blow to the school interests
of the State. As will be seen by my reference to my annual report, this Board
has every year to borrow a considerable sum in order to meet the monthly payroll
of teachers and other claims. There seems to be no other course, under our
present system of collecting taxes. The policy of the Board is to make our
appropriations always come within our income.

Special j gSchgoMI Districts--DeSoto now has thirty-four special school districts.
These all levy the extra 3-mill district tax except one, that has 2 mills. The
funds so collected are used to supplement teachers' salary, extend the length of
the term, and for other local school purposes. So popular has this special
district idea become, under the wise policy of the County Board and Trustees
and my predecessor, that it seems probable every school in the county will soon
be in a Special Tax District. Some difficulty prevails at places to secure
Trustees who have the time to actively attend to the duties of the position.

Buildings and Improvements--Because of the court decision, and the unexpected
debts already referred to, not so many buildings have been erected during the
last two years as was hoped. However, the Board is constantly helping to repair
and to build. The policy now is generally to furnish the money to pay for the
material, with the understanding that the patrons will meet the expense of
labor, out of the special funds or private means. Most of our schools now
have frame houses and are supplied with patent desks, charts and blackboards.
During the coming biennium we hope to see good school houses, properly equipped,
in every district.

agih Schools--DeSoto is a large county. In territory it exceeds all others, but
the population is largely in the western portion of the county, within a short
distance of our two railroads. It has been thought best, for the school in-
terests, to maintain three Senior High Schools, located respectively at Punta
Gorda, Arcadia and Wauchula, These are open eight months to any pupil from
the county who can enter the seventh grade. Wauchula has a fine modern house.
Arcadia has so overgrown its modern stone building that the town has voted
bonds for another building, to cost $15,000,00. Punta Gorda is completing a
splendid stone house. These schools are well graded; the graduates readily
enter the college classes at the University and the Woman's College and any
other reputable institution for higher learning. Wauchula has the largest
enrollment, and the principal has been in charge for more than a half-dozen
years. At the other two points the principals are serving their third and
fourth years. Prior to the recent court decision, from which so many counties
will date their period of greatest handicap, DeSoto maintained Junior High
Schools at Nocatee and Bowling Green. These schools and three or four others
are still doing some high school work, but are not required to do so, and are
not carrying the course of study formerly prescribed for Junior High Schools.

Length of Term--As already stated, all the schools of the county are open five
months. The three Senior High Schools get eight months. A number of the other
schools have six and seven months through the help of the special tax funds.
We are glad, also, to report that a few localities have private terms of four
to eight weeks, after the close of the public schools. The needs of the children
to help on the farm, in the truck patches and during the orange shipping season
greatly militates against long terms and good average attendance.



Course of Study--This county, as required by the State Board, has a printed course of
study for all the schools. It was prepared by a committee of leading teachers
several years ago. How to get the outline followed strictly, so as to slight no
branch and secure just and satisfactory advancement of the pupils, is the great pro-
blem. Who can solve it, with our frequent changes of teachers? Many of our best
teachers lament their lack of time to give the proper instruction in English, so as
to enable the children to understand the textbooks. Some, however, are asked to
teach high school branches, even when so crowded for time in the grammar schools.

Our Xeates Need--After a few months' experience in this county, I do not hesitate
to say that DeSoto's corps of teachers compare well with those of any other county.
They are trying to render good service. But our greatest need yet is trained
teachers, who will or can remain in a county or in certain schools long enough to
accomplish more satisfactory work. An examination of the registers and records of
this county will show that the great majority of ourlschools have a new teacher
every year. Of course, there are exceptions. No teacher feels that he can do his
best in the short space of five or six months. We pay from $25.00 to $125,00 pay
month. Our average salary places DeSoto ahead of many other counties. Still, we
find it difficult to secure and retain a sufficient number of teachers to supply the
demand. Our strongest men drop out of the work. The low salary, short term and
fickleness of patrons tend to discourage those who desire to make teaching their
life work. Our County Board has maintained for five or six years a county normal
every summer. The greater number of our teachers have gladly availed themselves
of this opportunity to obtain a certificate or raise the grade of the one they
already hold, The gra4ation sheets in this office show few failures at the exam-
inations. All this has done much to help the teachers and schools. Others of the
DeSoto boys .and girls hive attended the Madison and Dade City Normal Schools. Some
have had the benefit of the State Summer Training Schools. Judging by what I have
seen, our County Normal and these other short-term schools have not had the time
to do much real normal work. The instruction is largely to prepare for the teachers'
examination; only a minimum amount of the time is given to methods and actual normal
work. How to induce strong men and women to prepare and remain in the teaching pro-
fession is the question of the hour. The increased cost of living bears hard upon
all who work for salaries, especially teachers who have employment for only a part
of the year.

T Outlook--DeSoto County is increasing in population. So far our school popu-
lation has grown faster than our available income. With the bright outlook of
increased assessment from recent investment and development, we confidently hope
for great improvement along all lines. Our people are progressive. They cheer-
fully pay the school tax of 7 mills, and also the extra special district local tax.
Our teachers are willing and anxious to cooperate with the powers that be in all
efforts to advance the cause of education. We look to the future in confidence. It
shall be our constant aim to bring about an active sympathy and cooperation with the
teachers on the part of patrons and citizens. A number of the School Improvement
Clubs have been organized. The county press is a unit in advocacy of the great
community interest of our public schools. We have a splendid County Board of Public
Instruction. All the members have served years, and will be re-elected without
opposition at the coming election. Two of the members are former teachers of the
county. As County Superintendent, I count myself fortunate in having over me, and
behind me, gentlemen so familiar with the local conditions, and so actively in-
terested in the work of public education. All acting together, someday DeSoto
County will show many districts giving free board or greatly supplementing the



teachers' salaries,

Very respectfully submitted,

W. B. Hare,
County Supt. of Pub. Inst.

Jacksonville, Florida

Hon. W. M. Holloway, State Superintendent of Pub. Inst.
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Sirs In compliance with your request of recent date for a report from
Duval County covering the past two years, I beg to submit the following:

Enrollment an, Buildings--The present enrollment for the entire County of Duval
has increased 940 pupils since the end of the 1908 school year. Of this in-
crease, 746 are white pupils and the balance colored. This large increase has
necessitated the erection of new buildings near the city limits of Jacksonville,
two new etght-room brick buildings having been completed in December, 1909,
and the third was completed in October of this year. For the rural districts
we have erected during the past two years three one-room buildings and two
two-room buildings; a third new two-room building will be completed by November
1st, 1910.

In addition to the above, the Board has also erected a four-room brick addition
to one of the city schools and has purchased property in another of the sub-
urbs of the city with a view of building thereon in the near future.

Transportation--It is our policy to do away with the transportation of pupils
as far as possible, and this, to a certain extent, has been responsible for
the number of small buildings that have been put into operation during the
past two years. In this manner we have decreased our expenses of transpor-
tation approximately $5,600.000, while our total expenditures for new buildings
has only been $4,800.00 for the same period of time. This comparison will
show that it is not only cheaper to have more and smaller schools, but it will
increase the financial standing of the county by having real estate and
buildings to show for the expenditure of this amount of money.

The wagon system of transportation has been tried extensively in this county
for about twelve years, and in some respects has proven a success; but, taken
as a whole, the consolidation of smaller schools into one large school by
means of this system will, in the majority of cases, prove not only unsatis-
factory, but also an expense which few, if any, of the counties o.f this State
can afford to assume.

Teachers--The large increase in the enrollment has naturally necessitated an
increase in the teaching force of the county, and at this time we have sixty
more teachers employed than at the close of the 1908 term. On this account
it has been found necessary to change the method of fixing salaries, and at
the present time a permanent salary scale is in effect.



During the past summer a free summer institute was conducted by the Board of Public
Instruction, under the supervision of Prof. R. B. Rutherford, of this county, and
Miss Carrie A. Bartlett, of the University of Chicago. This was done mainly for
the benefit of the younger teachers who have not had any special training in the
normal schools, and a great many of the older teachers were also in attendance.

Supervision--The supervision of the schools in this county has been made into two
divisions, the city and suburban schools, and the rural schools, a supervising prin-
cipal being in charge of each division. In this manner an appropriate course of
study can be closely followed, and each school, no matter how small nor how remote,
receives the same amount of supervision. In the city and suburban schools the work
of each grade has been outlined and designated for each month during the school
year, and at the close of every month uniform examinations are sent out from the
Superintendent's office, insuring in this way the absolute uniformity of all the
grades in these schools.

Finances--The total or net indebtedness of the county at the close of the fiscal
year amounted to $ 120,723.97, divided as follows:

Outstanding indebtedness for lots, new buildings, repairs, fuel, rent, transpor-
tation, salaries, etc., $65,888.60; outstanding Duval High School building time
warrants, $49,153.62, and outstanding warrants in judgment, $5,680.25.

This amount shows an increase over the indebtedness of 1908 of approximately
$23,000.00. This, however, can easily be accounted for by the large increase in
the teaching force and the new buildings just completed. At the present time the
actual running expenses, eliminating the expenses for lots and new buildings, is
approximately $20,000.00 less than the actual receipts.

If the pressing demand for new buildings could be met outside of the present tax
receipts, the Board of Public Instruction of Duval County would undoubtedly be
free from debt within five years. New buildings are needed in practically all of
the city districts, and there is a movement on foot to make an effort to raise -the
necessary amount to replace the old frame buildings now in use with modern, fi~e-
proof structures. If we are successful in this undertaking, the schools of Jackson-
ville and Duval County will soon be on a par with any school system in the United

Respectfully submitted,

James Q. Palmer,
County Supt. of Pub. Inst.

Pensacola, Fla., Oct 1, 1910;i,

Hon. Wm. M. Holloway, State Supt. of Pub. Inst.
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Sir: In compliance with your request for a statement of school operations in
Escambia County for the calendar years of 1909 and 1910, I submit herewith a syn=
opsis of same. .M



In enrollment and average attendance of pupils in our schools for these last
two years, there has been some increase, but it has, I will freely admit, not
come up to my expectations or wishes in either case.

The growth in enrollment and average attendance in our city schools has been
steady and continuous, but Escambia County for the last few years has gone
extensively into growing cotton, add while cotton growing on the rich lands
of Escambia County is a money-making business, it is a bad crop for public
schools to buck against.

Buildin--During the year 1909, we erected in the country districts five
comfortable one-room buildings, and one nice three-room building. Size of
rooms in three of the one-room buildings and the three-room building is 26
x 32, and 12 feet between joists. Two of the one-room buildings are 20 x
26 x 12 feet. All of' these buildings are well lighted, ventilated, heated,
and seated with patent desks, and while they are not costly buildings, they
are comfortable and well adapted for school purposes.

So far this year (1910), we have erected one nice two-room building in the
country, the rooms of which are,26 x 32 feet, and in the city one handsome
four-room building; rooms 26 x 32 feet, with large hall. We have also added
two large rooms to old school building No. 40, making this a fine six-room
building. Last, but not least, we have just completed a fine fire-proof,
reinforced concrete High School building, outside dimensions of which are
80 x 90 feet, and three stories high, counting the basement, eight class
rooms 28 x 28 feet, one study hall 32 x 80 feet, cloak rooms, principal's
room, toilet rooms, etc. The laboratory and'heating rooms are in the basement,
also a room 60 A. 80 feet in which I hope within a short time to have inaugurated
a first-class equipment for an industrial and domestic arts school.

This building is an ornament to our city, and while there may be larger school
buildings in the State, I doubt very much whether one can be shown that is a
handsomer building, or better adapted for school purposes than our new
Pensacola High School building.

I will furnish you a cut of this building, and also of the new four-room
building as soon as I can get them made.

For white children the Board now owns fifty different school buildings, with
one hundred and fifteen large well lighted and ventilated class rooms, and
we are using two private buildings with one room each.

For negro children the Board owns ten school buildings with twenty-nine class
rooms, and have fifteen buildings with sixteen rooms rented. All of the build-
ings owned by the Board are seatedwith modern desks, and are well lighted,
ventilated and heated.

The Educational Propaganda--We were certainly in bad luck last year in our
attempts at public meetings in this county. Two appointments were made by
the distinguished educators of this State engaged in this work of arousing a
livelier interest in educational matters throughout the State, but owing to
unfortunate mishaps, the first meeting was but poorly attended, and the last
was recalled owing to serious sickness in the family of your humble servant.



We certainly look for better results another year, and we will try and conduct a
number of live meetings in various sections of the county to make up for lost time.

Finaance--It seems to be a waste of effort to try and get our State Legislature to
enact a revenue law on strict business methods, and our School Boards will still
have to continue in paying large sums for interest, thus reducing the actual amount
of cash that would otherwise be available for school purposes.

Under the present system our pay rolls are about three-fourths completed for the
year before 20 per cent of the annual taxes are paid in.

The State holds in trust for the counties large sums of money belonging to the
schools, and this money is loaned out to outsiders at from 3 to 34 per cent
interest per annum, while School Boards are forced to borrow money and pay 8 per
cent for same. Could not this money be loaned to those counties wishing to borrow
at, say 5 per cent? The non-borrowing counties would realize much.more from an
annual interest of 5 per cent on this State fund than they do now at 3 per cent,
and the borrowing counties could much better afford to pay 5 per cent than the rate
of 8 per cent which they now pay.

The State would be amply secured, for it would have in its hands each county's
share in this interest fund in addition to each county's share of the State 1-mill
school tax. The State being absolutely safe, and each one of the counties being
better off, pray tell us why this plan should not be adopted and carried out?

Yours truly,

N. B. Cook,
County Supt. of Pub. Inst.

Apalachicola, Fla., October 13, 1910

Hon. W. M. Holloway, State Superintendent of Public Instruction
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Sir: In conformity with your request for data of the public schools of
Franklin County for your Biennial Report, I beg to thank you for the privilege and
I heartily embrace this, my first opportunity, to say something relative to the
schools and school work of my county.

School Buildinga--While our Senior and Junior High School buildings are kept in
good state of repair, owing to the increase of enrollment for the past two years
in the primary grades we need larger and more adequate buildings to accommodate
these grades. We have built one new rural school house this past year. It will
be neatly painted and furnished with patent desks.

All the school buildings are well ventilated and furnished with maps and globes.
All schools are taught in buildings owned by the School Board, with one exception.

The grounds are generally well kept, and there is a growing interest among the
people to beautify and make attractive the school grounds; this is especially
true in Apalachicola.



Finances--On making up the estimate two years ago of the money necessary for the
maintenance of our schools, it was found that the amount then being levied was
insufficient to meet the demands. The Board of Public Instruction, therefore,
asked the County Commissioners to grant the schools the maximum school levy. The
Commissioners refused to grant the 7 mills, and the School Board found it to be
necessary to take legal steps in the matter. The Board won its claim by a writ
of mandamus. Since then we have been receiving 7 mills, and the amounts derived
from this levy have enabled us to run our schools and pay up all outstanding
indebtedness. All of our white schools, with one exception, are run eight months
in the year. The negro schools are run six and seven months.

Last year, the patrons and friends of Dunbar negro graded school, of Apalachi-
cola, donated one hundred and seventy dollars, the amount necessary to run the
school one month, which made eight months' term for that school.

Lgoas--Our School Board has to borrow money with which to run the schools,
paying 8 per cent interest. If the taxes could be collected promptly, we
could avoid borrowing so much money, and thus save approximately $300.00 in-
terest, Last year the time for closing the tax books was extended. This plan
may accommodate a few taxpayers and prevent a few acres of land from going to
the State, which possibly would have happened had the tax books been closed in
conformity with the law. But, on the other hand, such a plan does not work to
the best interest of the people, for as a consequence of this particular case
our Board had to borrow money that it would not have had to borrow, and extend
previous loans.

It seems to me that in all fairness the School JBoard, the only men who know
the real needs of the public schools, should have a voice in such matters as
above stated.

Poll Taxes--The poll tax law should be amended, I believe, that every man from
21 years of age up to 55 should be assessed a poll tax of $ 1.00 per year and
measures legislated upon by which these assessments can be collected.

As the law now stands, a property owner, though he does not pay but a few cents
personal or real tax, must pay his poll tax, and there is no grounds for ob-
jections to this, but the man who does not own any property, nor cares nothing
for his privileges as an elector, and there is quite a number of such men, can
go a lifetime without paying one cent of poll taxes and, at the same time,
enjoy the privileges of sending to school if he desires to do so.

Compulsory Education-'For a long time, I have favored compulsory education. Now
I am firmer than ever in my views on this subject; every day I see something
that strengthens my belief in a compulsory school law.

There has been in my mind, heretofore, one objection to such a law. I have
thought that, in exceptional cases, an extreme hardship might be worked upon
some poor widow, who absolutely must have the wages that her boy might be able
to earn.

Such cases are very rare. But even this can be overcome by making a provision
in the law for such cases. Where such cases should exist, let the State pay
to the unfortunate the wages of the boys and compel them to go to school.



Special ;aA School District--We have but one Special Tax School District in this
county. This special district was created in Carrabelle by an election held on the
14th day of June, 1910. We expect to realize a great change for the better in the
schools of the Carrabelle Special Tax School District from now on.

We hope, before another year passes away, to see the entire county divided into
Special Tax School Districts.

Philaco GCub--I wish to mention the fact that the Senior High School of Apalachicola
has a true friend in the Philaco Club of this city.

I will not attempt now(as I think I have already intruded upon the space that may
be allowed me in your report) to mention the many benefits that our Senior High
School has received from the Philaco Club. But wish to say that this club has been
a very strong factor in making Apalachicola High School what it is today, for which
the Board of Public Instruction desires to express their thanks.

Conclusion--In conclusion, I wish to thank you for the consideration you have shown
me for the time I have been in the office of County Superintendent, and to express
my appreciation for the good you are doing for the cause of education in Florida.

Yours very truly,

A. A. Core,
County Supt. of Pub. Inst.

Quincy, Fla., October 6, 1910

Hon. W. M. Holloway, Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sir: In compliance with your request for a summary of the school workings in
our county (Gadsden) for the past two years, 1909 and 1910, I submit the following:

To begin, I will make the statement that we are making advances in the right direc-
tion in school matters. Our Board of Public Instruction is composed of practical,
progressive, though conservative, men, and is making every effort to keep pace in
school matters with the best up-to-date views.

We have at last succeeded in our efforts to secure a high school building at our
county seat, of which both Quincy and Gadsden County are justly proud. The Gadsden
County High School building of itself tells the tale that we are looking ahead. It
has thirteen or fourteen rooms, with all the modern conveniences, and cost the city
of Quincy and the Board of Public Instruction about $25,000.00. This school building
has been furnished in modern style mainly by the efforts of the principal and the
Ladies' School Improvement Association. The lot, structure and school fixtures cost,
all told, about $30,000.00. The principal, with ten able assistants, has the
school in charge ; and with such an active, efficient and up-to-date principal of our
high school, backed by an intelligntllgt community, our county will not loiter on the

One good thing always leads to another, and Havana, our East Gadsden town, is also
on the warpath and is right now laying the foundation of an academy building that,



with its fixtures, will cost upward of $6,000.00. The good people over there
have been making an effort for several years to have a first-class school house
for their town and Special Tax District; and the one now being built, which
will be*ready for school purposes on the 1st of January, 1911, will be an
ornament to the town and of great benefit to the people of that Special Tax

Since the issuing of your last Biennial Report, we have erected two rural
school houses, at a cost-to the Board and patrons of about $500.00 each. We
have also established two more Special Tax School Districts, one at Greensboro,
on the Apalachicola Northern Railway, and the other at Chattahoochee; and one
or two more are in contemplation. In two or three neighborhoods, we have
consolidated two, and in one place three schools, with a principal and assistant
for each in lieu of the one-teacher schools abolished.

Our teachers are gradually securing the higher certificates. Out of fifty or
more white teachers we have only two or three holding Third Grade Certificates.
Our patrons are averse to having teachers with Third Grade Certificates, and
they will have to go higher up or drop out of the work, While speaking of
teachers, let me say that our salaries are all higher than they have ever been
before. Our finances are also on a solid basis, and our teachers are all paid
off with cash warrants at the end of the month. For two or three years, we
have gone to the maximum tax limit in making our levy (7 mills), and the
Special Tax School Districts all have an additional levy of three (3) mills.

In addition to the above, the terms of our schools are gradually being lengthened.
Our schools used to be mostly of four months' duration, while we now have them
running five, six, seven, eight and even nine months.

Most of our white children of school age attend the schools; and under existing
circumstances our county prefers no action in the direction of a compulsory
attendance law, and we hope that no radical change will be made on that point,
We also trust that no radical changes will be made in the direction of uniformity
of textbooks. We incline to the county unit in school matters.

As the high school is the only college that forty-nine fiftieths of our boys
and girls ever have an opportunity of attending, think that every advantage
possible ought to be extended to them, and egpe" ally those advantages that
will give them practical knowledge alxlng industrial lines, so that when the
boys and girls leave school and start out to make homes for themselves they
will have some knowledge of real life, and will know how to do something, and
not be practically ignoramuses when they start out on life's journey. A great
many couples actually do start out in that discouraging and pitiable condition.

I see that you have selected a committee to revise the School Laws of the
State of Florida. We are always uneasy when the School Laws are being tampered
with and pulled to pieces. The committeeman selected from our county, Prof.
A. B. Clark, is thoroughly practical, and I hope that the other members of the
committee are all right on practical working lines. We would like to eliminate
politics and too much theory from our schr.c-l affairs.

Yours very truly,
J. R. Key,
County Supt. of Pub. Inst.



SJasper, :la.., oSept 30, 1910

Hon W M. Holloway, State Supt. of Pub. Inst.
Tallahassee, Fla.

Dear Sir: I take pleasure in complying with your request of recent date relative
to the school work in Hamilton County for the past two years.

Buildings--During the past two years the School Board of Hamilton County has
erected ten new school buildings at a cost of $ 3,500.00. It has spent $1,500.00
more in repair of school buildings and $600.00 for furniture. With a few more
hundred dollars spent in repairing we will have a good school house in every white
school district in the county. Our schools are furnished with patent desks and
Hyloplate blackboard.

Hih Schools--We have one Senior High School at Jasper. There are two Junior High
Schools, one at Jennings, and one at White Springs. These schools are well attended,
and they are doing good work. The length of term is eight months, and tuition is
free to all pupils residing in Hamilton County. The failure of the State to meet
its obligation in paying the State aid promised to High Schools for the two years
1908 and 1909, was a hard blow to the High School, but the County Board of Public
Instruction and the Special Tax Districts assumed the obligation and paid every
cent of it. At Jennings the patrons raised $ 360 by private subscription in order
that their school should continue eight months.

Schools--There are forty-four white and sixteen colored schools in the county. Last
year we employed sixty white teachers at salaries from $35.00 to $120.00 per month.
We also employed eighteen colored teachers at salaries from $ 15.00 to $40.00 per
month, and every school in the county was taught last year except one. The length
of the term has recently been extended to five months. The schools are well attended
and much good is being accomplished. Patrons are interested in educating their
children, and they are wanting longer terms, and better schools. Our teachers are
the very best that can be secured for the salaries that we pay.

Special Ta Districts--There are four Special Tax Districts in this county. About
$2,500.00 special tax districts funds are collected annually. It extends the term
from five to eight months. I have made great efforts to have other Special Tax
Districts established, but I have failed. With a five months' school term it if a
hard matter to get the people of the rural districts to vote for a Special Tax

Fnancial--The county is in very good condition financially. At the close of the
last scholastic year there was a balance on hand of $ 1,416.07 to the credit of the
county school fund while the Special Tax Districts were in debt more than $ 1,400.

Our school warrants are worth their face value at the banks. When we have no money
in the treasury, we borrow from the -bank, and pay our teachers promptly. I find
that everybody likes this plan better than the old way of paying in scrip which
could be discounted at from 5 to 35 per cent, or held until taxes were collected.

State Uniformity of Text Books--I favor State uniformity of text books. In States



where they have State uniformity of text books, the books are much cheaper than
they are where there is no State uniformity. State officials can enforce the
provision of contracts with book companies better than county officials. State
officials as a rule are better qualified to select text books than are county
officials. Some of our County Boards of Public Instruction are composed of
men who have not a common school education, yet every five years they are allowed
to select and adopt text books for their counties.

One Nill 1a for tHiae Eddcational Institutions--I am opposed to a 1-mill tax
for the support of our four higher educational institutions because only a
small per cent of the children of the State are enrolled in those colleges.
If there is to be an additional one mill tax, let it be appropriated to the
rural schools where the great majority of the children are enrolled.

Examination 6LJ--The present examination law is a good one. There could be
some changes made which would make it better. Instead of having a grading
committee in each county, there should be one grading committee appointed by
the State Superintendent for the State, then the grading would be uniform
throughout the State.

Compulsrv Education--I am opposed to a compulsory school law. I do not
believe that parents should be forced to send their children to school. A
man should not be forced by law to have interest enough in his children to
educate them. I believe that if good schools and good teachers are provided,
the parents will send their children to school.
Respectfully submitted,

J. A. Jackson
County Superintendent Pub. Inst,

Brooksville, Fla,, Oct 4, 1910

Hon. W. M. Holloway, State Supt. of Pub. Inst.
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Sir: In compliance with your request for a report as to the condition of
the schools of Hernando County, I beg to submit the following statement:

Buildings d GronLuds--All school buildings are well cared for and kept in
good repair, and with only two or three exceptions are ceiled and painted.
Grounds, none of which are less than one acre in extent, are enclosed with good
substantial wire fences, or fencing has been authorized by the County Board of
Public Instruction, many are adorned with trees and shrubs planted and cared
for by pupils.

All schools are supplied with chairs and desks for teachers, patent school
desks for pupils, maps, globes, charts, blackboards and other necessary equip-

During the last year a portion of the Hernando High School buildings was re-
placed by a substantial brick building, at an expense of $3,500.00. We are now
planning to replace the remainder of the frame building with a brick structure



during the coming summer. This improvement will call for the expenditure of about
$6,000.00. We have just completed a rural school building costing $250.00.

inancia Condition--School finances are in healthy condition, although somewhat
crippled, and greatly inconvenienced by the loss of State aid, by close and rigid
economy, we have kept all white schools in operation for full term of eight months,
and the negro schools for terms of four to six months. We expended some $4,500.00
for new buildings and repairs, and still managed to carry over a cash balance of
$2,600.00 from June 30th, 1910.

We have reached the legal limit in the matter of school taxation, as with the
exception of one Special Tax District which is levying 2 mills special school tax,
we are levying and collecting 7 mills general and 3 mills special tax for school

Teachers' Salaries--We have encountered considerable difficulty in securing competent
teachers for our rural schools at salaries formerly paid, and have been forced to
increase salaries in some instances. All schools are now supplied with earnest and
efficient teachers, a large majority of whom hold first grade: certificates. We
have been materially assisted in securing desirable teachers by the splendid Normal
Schools of the State.

Free Text Books--As the years go by our system of supplying free text books to all
pupils grows in popularity and takes firmer hold upon the affections of our people.
With this system in vogue there is absolutely no excuse for a normal child to grow
up in ignorance, except the criminal indifference of the parent. To this system
we attribute the extreme rarity of illiteracy in this county.

General Conditions--Schools are generally in splendid condition, enrollments in-
creasing steadily, from year to year. Average attendance showing steady growth,
monthly reports for first month of present term show an actual attendance of over
90 per cent of enrollment. Parents almost without exception show an earnest ir'tresit
in educational affairs, and a commendable disposition to assist teachers and sch~i.c.l
officials in the discharge of their duties.

In conclusion, I must say that the members of the present School Board of Public
Instruction of Hernando County are heartily in sympathy with the best educa.ionial
interest of the county, and are always ready to cooperate with, and assist the
Superintendent in any effort to advance the cause of better education. We trust,
that with the assistance and cooperation of our School Board, and an interested
people, we may be able to make our schools such as will meet the approval of the
most exacting.

Respectfully submitted,

W. A. Thaxton,
County Superintendent Pub. Inst.



Tampa, Fla., October 4, 1910

Hon. W. Mo Holloway, State Superintendent of Pub. Inst.
Tallahassee, Florida

Sir: In compliance with your request of September 7th, I have the honor to
make the following report:

I Rortance of ScBho Supervision--Realizing that the most important duty of a
superintendent of schools does not consist in attending to the routine work of
the office, essential though this may be, but in inspecting the work of teachers
and ascertaining the actual results accomplished, and in encouraging and in-
spiring teachers and pupils to renewed efforts, I, immediately on entering
upon the duties of the highest and most important office in the county, began
with the inspection of schools, endeavoring to learn their condition, so as to
plan intelligently for their improvement. In this work I was guided by time-
honored principles underlying the work of supervising and inspecting schools
and, therefore, did not simply observe the condition of school houses and
grounds, the manner in which the teachers managed the schools, the methods of
teaching employed, or inquire as to the number of visits made by trustees and
patrons, but I aimed, in addition, to find out the actual results accomplished
in the several studies by the methods in use, and the progress of pupils in
acquiring those essential habits of industry, accuracy, rapidity in mental and
written arithmetic and in dictations, writing legibly, reading understandingly
and fluently, applying readily the knowledge gained, standing erect, moving
gracefully, and, above all, the progress made in politeness.

Visits Made--From January 6th, 1909, until May, 1909, I made fifty-one official
visits to schools, inspecting the work of one hundred fifty teachers. From
August, 1909, until May, 1910, I made one hundred fifty-eight visits and
thoroughly examined into the work of two hundred twenty-two white and forty
colored teachers; and class rooms that needed special attention I inspected
two and three times.

After carefully comparing the results accomplished by the various methods em-
ployed in the conduction of schools, I am now more convinced than ever that
mere assigning of lessons and hearing recitations does not constitute teaching,
but is largely a waste of the pupils' time and energy, and will, as a rule,
result in bad habits of study and eventually cause many pupils to become dis-
couraged and disgusted with school life. I heartily agree with Dr. Prince that
"repugnance to study, waste'of application, idleness, defective observation and
memory, unreliable judgment and reasoning, and moral turpitude, may all result,
in part at least, from wrong methods or no methods of teaching and affect the
whole future life of the boy and girl."

Teachers' Institutes--To bring about improvement in the methods of teaching
and in the management of schools, under the direction of the Board of Public
Instruction, I have conducted three teachers' institutes of eighteen, twenty
and six days' duration, respectively; and I have held during 1909 and 1910
fifteen teachers' meetings, two district institutes and seven general school



Course of Study--To give teachers further aid and to bring about a certain degree of
uniformity in the work of the schools of the county, a course of study, with out-
lines of the work, rules and regulations for principals, teachers, pupils, super-
visors and trustees has been prepared and printed in the form of an attractive pamphle
containing sixty-two pages, and teachers and school officials have been supplied with:
copies. A new course of study has also been adopted for the Junior and Senior High
Schools of the county, offering three courses namely, an English-scientific, a
classical, and a commercial course.

Libraries--My observation has led me to believe that many of our boys and girls
cannot cultivate a taste for good reading because they have not access to good books;.
and if they acquire the habit of reading good literature during school life, and
are given an opportunity of getting it, they are comparatively safe for life,
intellectually and morally.

I have addressed letters to trustees urging them to appropriate money for school"
libraries, and, as a result of this, sixteen rural schools have been furnished with'
carefully selected books, which are being read with great interest and profit by
pupils of the several grades. Rules and regulations for the management of libraries
have been prepared.

Industrial Instruction--Manual training for boys and domestic art and science for
girls are successfully taught in the St. Petersburg schools, and in two schools in
the city of Tampa.

A beginning is being made this year in teaching the elements of agriculture. Since
teachers received a practical course in this important branch of learning at the
institute last summer, I expect to find encouraging results.

New Buildings--During the past two years there have been erected seven frame build-
ings, costing from three hundred to one thousand dollars, and three buildings
costing less, and one brick building in West Tampa costing fourteen thousand

In St. Petersburg there is now in course of construction a high -:hocl building
which will cost thirty thousand dollars, the town of St. Petersburg having voted
and sold bonds for that purpose.

The Board of Public Instruction will let the contract for a county high school
building this month, which will cost about fifty thousand dollars.

With the exception of a few country schools, the schools are all supplied with
patent desks and good blackboards. I am glad to report that teachers are beginning
to ornament the walls with pictures and make the school grounds attractive.

Special Tax Districts--Since January, 1909, there have been established four Special
Tax Districts; there are now fifty-eight such districts in the county. All districts
have voted a 3-mill levy except one. The taxes collected last year from the districts
amounted to $34,869.98.

Transportation Abolished--After a careful investigation, it was found that the
practice of transporting pupils in the rural districts, in order to reduce the
number of small schools and establish graded schools, did not result in the benefits
claimed by its advocates, and the present Board of Public Instruction, therefore,


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