• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Foreword
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 Main
 African area
 Asian area
 Latin American area
 Middle Eastern area
 Worldwide area
 Back Cover














Title: USDA international technical assistance activities
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00082744/00001
 Material Information
Title: USDA international technical assistance activities
Alternate Title: United States Department of Agriculture international technical assistance activities
Abbreviated Title: USDA int. tech. assist. act.
Physical Description: v. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Office of International Cooperation and Development. -- Technical Assistance Division
Publisher: USDA, Office of International Cooperation and Development, Technical Assistance Division
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Publication Date: 1984
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agricultural assistance, American -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Numbering Peculiarities: Report covers fiscal year.
General Note: Description based on: 1983; title from cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00082744
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 11536760
lccn - 85642334
issn - 0884-2507

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Foreword
        Foreword
    Acknowledgement
        Acknowledgement
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    African area
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Asian area
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Latin American area
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Middle Eastern area
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Worldwide area
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Back Cover
        Page 67
Full Text

S United States
,'i&j,) Department of
'' Agriculture
Office of
International Cooperation
and Development
Technical
Assistance
Division
Washington, D.C. 20250


USDA International


rqI|,0'


Technical Assistance

Activities, 1984


PETER E. HILDEBRAND


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Foreword


Our report on OICD's 1984 technical assistance activities covers some of
the past year's highlights and gives a broad overview of the many types
of assistance provided through our division.

We'd like to take this opportunity to thank the many dedicated people
whose efforts have made our programs successful. We commend the fine
work done by our technicians overseas and our U.S.-based personnel.

There are many success stories here. Not only have farmers and land-
owners in other countries benefited from our international programs
but the American farmer has as well. Studies have shown that a
country's demand for protein foods rises as the standard of living goes
up. So, by helping to strengthen the economies of less developed and
developing countries, we are creating additional income, which in turn
enables them to purchase more U.S. agricultural products. Ultimately,
both sides benefit from technical assistance.

We hope you will find this report of interest.




William S. Hoofnagle
Director
Technical Assistance Division
























Acknowledgment


Our thanks to Gregory Garbinsky, an employee of USDA's
Office of International Cooperation and Development, for
his work in designing and drawing the cover and illustrations
used in this publication.








CONTENTS





Fiscal 1984 Technical Assistance Activities . . . .

Technical Assistance in AID Countries . . . . .

Technical Assistance in Non-AID Countries . . . .

Management Initiatives . . . . . . . .

Public Law 480 Title I and Title III Programs . . .

OICD Technical Assistance Agreements, By Area . . .

OICD Technical Assistance Assignments, By Area . . .

Technical Assistance Personnel by Participating USDA and
Agencies, Fiscal 1984 . . . . . . . .

Staff Months of U.S. Technical Assistance, 1984 (Chart)


African Area
Staff Years of Technical Assistance Provided (Map). .
Technical Assistance Personnel, By Country and Project.
A Synopsis of African Projects in Progress . . .

Asian Area
Staff Years of Technical Assistance Provided (Map)..
Technical Assistance Personnel, By Country and Project.
A Synopsis of Asian Projects in Progress . . . .

Latin American Area
Staff Years of Technical Assistance Provided (Map). .
Technical Assistance Personnel, By Country and Project.
A Synopsis of Latin American Projects in Progress . .

Middle Eastern Area
Staff Years of Technical Assistance Provided (Map). .
Technical Assistance Personnel, By Country and Project.
A Synopsis of Middle Eastern Projects in Progress . .

Worldwide Area
Technical Assistance Personnel, By Country and Project.
A Synopsis of Worldwide Projects in Progress . . .


Page

. . 1

. 2

5

. 6

. . 6

S . 7

. 7


Non-


. .


USDA


November 1984


. .
* . .








USDA INTERNATIONAL TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES, 1984


The Technical Assistance Division (TAD) of the Office of International
Cooperation and Development (OICD) coordinates the efforts of the U.S.
Department of Agriculture's (USDA) 1/ employees and universities to
assist developing nations and international organizations. OICD gives
assistance at the request of the Agency for International Development
(AID), individual nations, and international organizations.

The greatest challenge of our times is to harness existing intellectual
and physical resources to create an acceptable standard of living for
all peoples. We already possess complex and powerful methodologies and
technologies; our challenge is to apply these tools efficiently in the
solution of global problems. OICD's specific mandate is to identify and
apply the most appropriate solutions to international agricultural
problems.

It is very seldom enough to simply provide technical assistance. Within
the past decade, TAD had learned that long-term considerations must be
carefully studied. We must strive to create and leave behind a capabil-
ity for those we assist to assist themselves. With this in mind, TAD
plans, coordinates, and evaluates policies and programs related to agri-
cultural cooperation and development throughout the world. To fulfill
this responsibility, OICD provides technical assistance, training, and
analysis of agricultural policy issues related to other USDA agencies,
the university community, and the private sector to help in these
endeavors. The guiding objective behind USDA policies and programs in
the area of international agricultural development is the establishment
of an efficient world agriculture that produces, markets, and trades at
levels sufficient in quality and quantity to provide adequate food and
fiber for all people.

Utilizing the wealth of agricultural expertise found in USDA, OICD
shares this knowledge with other nations to help them grow more food,
improve the quality of rural life, and contribute to economic growth and
development. By helping to solve agricultural problems abroad, the
United States can increase food production, reduce hunger and malnutri-
tion, foster economic and rural progress in both developing and devel-
oped nations, raise income levels, expand trade, and ensure security
for world food supplies.



1/ Cooperating USDA agencies are the Agricultural Marketing Service
(AMS), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS),
Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Cooperative State Research
Service (CSRS), Economic Research Service (ERS), Extension Service
(ES), Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (FCIC), Food and Nutrition
Service (FNS), Forest Service (FS), Food Safety and Inspection
Service (FSIS), National Agricultural Library (NAL), Office of
Information Resources Management (OIRM), Office of Transportation
(OT), Sotl Conservation Service (SCS), and Statistical Reporting
Service (SRS).











FISCAL 1984 TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES

The demand for technical assistance from both developing and developed
countries continued at a high level in 1984. During the past year, OICD
had 175 agreements with AID, international organizations, selected
developing nations, and the Organization of Petroleum Exporting
Countries (OPEC). Technical assistance personnel traveled to 86
countries to perform work requested under these agreements.

With the cooperation of 16 other USDA agencies, universities, and the
private sector, OICD provided 887 technicians for 143 resident overseas
assignments, 128 long-term assignments on projects in the United States,
and 616 short-term assignments supporting resident projects or to carry
out specific projects. USDA scientists and technicians provided 64
percent of the assistance (23 percent from OICD staff). The remaining
36 percent was provided by universities and other sources arranged for
and monitored by OICD. USDA provided personnel for 20 projects
requested by international organizations.

USDA is continuing its close involvement with the university community
and is increasing emphasis on working with universities through the
International Science and Education Council (ISEC). Private firms and
individuals played a great part in USDA programs providing technical
assistance to the developing world.


EXAMPLES OF RECENT PROGRESS



TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE IN AID COUNTRIES

Cameroon Management and Planning. Since 1979, the USDA has been the
implementing agency for a project in Cameroon designed to develop an
agricultural economics and planning unit within the Ministry of
Agriculture's Directorate of Studies and Projects. The work has
involved two principal components: statistical operations aimed at
accomplishing and interpreting a detailed agricultural census and
economic responsibilities to build stronger capabilities in sector
analysis and in planning, designing, carrying out, monitoring, and
evaluating projects. The project has now completed much of the skills
building and training components. It is also generating survey data and
interpreting them through automated data processing (ADP). Results
should provide an important tool for sector planning in future crop
years and leave behind a trained cadre of local staff.











Indian Farming in the Highlands of Guatemala. The thrust of this
project is to introduce the raising of deciduous fruits and vegetables
to Indian farmers with very small acreage. Historically, the Indian
farmers have grown beans and corn to meet the basic food needs of their
own families. OICD has five resident technicians helping to introduce
fruit and vegetable farming that can provide the Indian farmers with
cash income and improve their dietary intake through the addition of
leafy green and yellow vegetables.

Jamaican Food Stamp Program. Two consultants, one from OICD and the
other from USDA's Food and Nutrition Service, worked with the Government
of Jamaica to help design its newly announced food stamp program and to
provide technical assistance to the various ministries involved in
carrying out the program. The Government's decision to start a food
stamp and school lunch program was a direct result of its agreement with
the International Monetary Fund to reduce and/or eliminate its general
food subsidies and to replace them with a more targeted and time-limited
program. Such a program was judged to be necessary to cushion various
at-risk groups within Jamaican society from the effects of increased
food prices.

Jordan Biological Control Program. TAD organized and mobilized
appropriate USDA expertise to design and carry out a biological control
program of the spherical mealybug infesting the citrus groves of the
Jordan River Valley. TAD mobilized Agricultural Research Service
entomologists to assess the problem incountry and make recommendations
for control. USDA personnel have trained employees of the Jordanian
Ministry of Agriculture in various aspects of biological control and are
planning to undertake a series of exploration trips throughout the world
to identify and collect natural enemies of the spherical mealybug and
import them to Jordan for release. Benefits to American agriculture are
expected as the result of the participation of American scientists in
identifying natural enemies of the mealybug in other parts of the world.

Mali Animal Health. An animal health project was initiated in Mali to
improve Tie7i-ii-nd sanitation in the livestock industry. Currently,
there are several resident USDA technicians in Mali, including
veterinarians and maintenance and administrative personnel.

The project is being carried out in concert with the Animal and Plant
Health Inspection Service along with two universities, Michigan and West
Virginia. As part of the project, USDA is operating a veterinary
laboratory that produces certain vaccines. It is anticipated that USDA
veterinarians will gain significant knowledge of bovine diseases that
are not present in the United States, while developing vaccines to
control those diseases and to guard against their entry into the United
States.











Morocco Planning, Economics, and Statistics. TAD has recently begun
coordinating a new project designed to establish a crop-estimating
system for Morocco and to build statistics and economic capabilities
within the Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform. It will include
components involving the interpretation of aerial photographs, the
construction and implementation of an area sample frame, crop yields
modeling, statistical reporting and interpretation, and economic
analysis. Moroccans trained in these areas can significantly enhance
their country's policy decisions. A trained cadre of Moroccans will be
able to continue the work, once the USDA staff has left the country.

Near East Technical Services. A comprehensive study of horticultural
markets in Europe and the g-ulf States was done to identify acceptable
products for these markets. To accomplish this, surveys were conducted
in Jordan, Morocco, and Egypt. Following completion of these surveys, a
team of economists and horticulturists visited these countries to
complete an assessment of the potential for these countries to export
horticultural products. Benefits to the United States include a better
understanding of Middle Eastern market dynamics and potential for U.S.
export involvement.

Portugal Agricultural Production. The Agricultural Production Project
has-been under way in Portugal for about 3 years. The objective of the
work is to: (1) increase the capacity of the land, particularly in the
northeastern part of Portugal, to produce more food and forage crops and
(2) to strengthen institutions, especially those for extension and
research. Literally thousands of small farms in Portugal have received
subsidized lime designed to reduce soil acidity and make the land more
acceptable for producing food and forages.

Sahel Regional Financial Management Program. This project is designed
to improve financial management of Sahelian countries receiving funds
from the U.S. Agency for International Development. Joint U.S.--
Sahelian teams in six Sahelian countries (Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso,
The Gambia, Niger, and Chad) provide learning-by-doing training in
workshops and followup consultations, create financial systems to meet
program needs, and promote the creation of country institutions that
will sustain effective financial management activities.

The first priority is to help host-country project personnel to
systematically account for U.S. funds. When this is achieved, further
improvements in financial management are generated through workshops on
more general management topics, such as inventory control and other
specialized accounting systems to meet specific project financial
requirements. Similar efforts are provided to two smaller Sahelian
countries (Mauritania and Cape Verde') using U.S. personnel on temporary
duty assignments (TDY's). Efforts to meet needs common to the region
have been organized to facilitate benefiting from successful experiences
in other countries of the region.











Worldwide--Nutritious Food Supplements. TAD, in cooperation with
Colorado State and Texas A&M Universities, has adapted a U.S. farming
technology for soybean processing to help supply low-cost nutritious
food supplements to children in developing countries. The technology
utilizes a simple extrusion-cooking machine developed for American
farmers to cook soybeans on the farm. TAD found the machine suitable
for precooking mixtures of cereals and legumes to make inexpensive food
products. Factories using this technology have been installed with
OICD's assistance in Costa Rica, Guyana, Tanzania, and Sri Lanka, where
650,000 preschool children and pregnant and lactating women consume the
food daily. Several other countries have adapted the technology, and
its use has expanded to include Thailand, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Mexico.
Results have been meaningful in helping improve the nutrition of
targeted groups within the population.

Worldwide--Soil Moisture Management Support. Water is a limited natural
resource over vast areas of agricultural land in the developing world.
This project is aimed at devising and spreading appropriate technologies
for effectively conserving and utilizing the available soil moisture in
the dryland farming regions predominant in developing countries. OICD
is working with USDA's Agricultural Research Service to establish
research linkages among developing country and U.S. scientists working
on problems of dryland farming. During fiscal year 1984, discussions on
potential collaborative research were held with national scientists and
staff members of international research centers in South and Southeast
Asia, North Africa, the Middle East, and Sub-Saharan Africa.

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE IN NON-AID COUNTRIES

Saudi Arabia. The computer center for the Ministry of Agriculture and
Water, developed by TAD, now handles analysis and data management for
the ministry and performs other data processing functions. Also, a team
from USDA Soil Conservation Service is just completing an atlas of the
soils of the Kingdom. During the past 4 years, the team virtually
covered the entire Kingdom, traversing transects 30 miles apart. This
compilation will permit Saudi Arabia to identify and plan utilization of
arable land.

A U.S. Department of Interior team has completed a hydrological analysis
of the Kingdom. A forthcoming atlas of water resources, combined with
the soils atlas mentioned above, will for the first time give Saudi
Arabia a basis for water resource management at the national level.

Mexico. USDA's Soil Conservation Service is cooperating on a rural
development program related to drainage, water control, flood protec-
tion, and soil management planning to increase the productivity of
Mexican farmers by improving their technological and managerial skills.











MANAGEMENT INITIATIVES


Improving Technical Assistance Performance. USDA has developed two
promising methodologies that enhance the performance of technical
assistance teams on overseas development assignments. The first
methodology is for systematic candidate recruitment, assessment, and
selection. The multistage process of targeted advertisement, applica-
tion screening, interviewing, and evaluation through an assessment
center has proven very successful in getting the right people on board
and preparing them for successful performance. The second methodology,
the Team Planning Meeting (TPM), is a systematic, organized procedure by
which a group of persons responsible for an assignment come together to
define, plan for, and mobilize their resources to accomplish the work.
TPM covers two dimensions: (1) what is to be done and how, and (2)
melding members who do not normally work together into an effective
temporary organization.

PL 480 TITLE I AND TITLE III PROGRAMS

OICD shares with the Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) responsibility
for reviewing and evaluating the self-help measures contained in about
28 Public Law (PL) 480 Title I and III agreements each year. Self-help
measures provide an incentive to recipient countries to improve their
production, storage, and distribution of agricultural commodities, and
to undertake necessary policy reforms to improve the overall rate of
economic development to ensure that the needy people of the recipient
country will be the major beneficiaries of the program.

OICD also shares responsibility with FAS for the review and evaluation
of multi-year PL 480 Title III--Food for Development Agreements--and
ensures that USDA program interests are represented in their design,
negotiation, and implementation.












OICD TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE AGREEMENTS, BY AREA, 1979-84


Area


FY 79


Africa
Asia
Latin America
Middle East
Worldwide


FY 80

39
13
32
16
25


FY 81 FY 82


FY 83 FY 84


TOTAL


OICD TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE ASSIGNMENTS, BY


AREA, 1979-84


FY 79 FY 80 FY 81 FY 82 FY 83 FY 84


Africa
Asia
Latin America
Middle East
Worldwide

TOTAL




Long-term assignments
Short-term assignments


TOTAL


153
49
179
143
242


200
51
169
66
360


214
89
170
80
334


766 775 846 832 974 887




209 215 226 209 248 271
557 560 620 623 726 616


Area


--------


- -L------ I----------------------


- -










TEHICLASITNC ERONL YPATCIAIG SA N ONUDAAENIS FSAL18


Number of Technician Assignments


Latin
Africa Asia America


AMS
APHIS
ARS
CSRS
ERS
ES
FCIC
FNS
FS
FSIS
NAL
OICD
OIRM
OT
SCS
SRS
Universities
Other Non-USDA 1/

TOTAL


31


5
8
22
102

214


Person Months of Technical Assistance Provided


AMS
APHIS
ARS
CSRS
ERS
ES
FCIC
FNS
FS
FSIS
NAL
OICD
OIRM
OT
SCS
SRS
Universities
Other Non-USDA

TOTAL


77.8
3.7
.5
33.0
146.9


13.9


146.0


32.1
28.4
152.1
1/ 179.0

813.4


1.4

1.7

2.6
36.0


6.1


35.1


56.9
5.3
29.1
42.1

216.3


7.6
2.2

7.0
99.4
3.0

33.4


54.4

1.0
53.3
7.2
37.0
36.3

341.8


.8

3.0
1.6
18.5
6.0


8.8
85.0

71.2
12.0


.5
86.7
.7
24.0
198.1 233.9
12.0

116.8 65.5
9.5 1.5
150.7 344.7
5.9 96.5


522.9 1,031.0 2,925.4


1/ Includes other U.S. Government agencies, international organizations, and
contract personnel.


Middle
East

1


1
14
8
16
5

80


World-
wide


1
30

12
1

2
23
1
2
38


22
4
100
98

334


TOTAL

2
18
44
3
37
33
1
2
47
1
2
119
1
2
66
36
169
305

887


2.2
94.2
95.6
2.1
132.3
300.3
3.0
.5
140.1
.7
24.0
667.5
12.0
1.0
324.6
51.9
713.6
359.8


TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PERSONNEL BY


PARTICIPATING USDA AND NON-USDA AGENCIES, FISCAL 1984










Staff Months of U.S. Technical Assistance, 1984

5% 2%
/ Other USDA








*Staff Years of Technical Assistance Provided During Fiscal Year 1984 Africa Area


Morocco .8

Western
Sahara

Cape


Algeria


Libya


.(Egypt included in
Middle East Area)


Djibouti


Verde Buil lina







SIerra LeOne Centr a I BAfricanuana
Caeo N er 2.6
The Mali 9.1L s.3 in Sn yue*rban .
Gambi6M b
2.6
Guine to o.ui yearsX.-^^i
GuineaLesotho 3
Bi na 1.1 Ivory Ngeria.8 Ethiopia
Sierra Leone u central Africanto five years:
Libeaeria 1.8 Ghana Togo Benin
OverZaire 1.five ye












*includes assignments and TY'S performed by OICD's Worldwide Program Area.
Cameroon 4.8assistance of three months or less is not shown.
Equatorialtive.abo Rwan S
Guinea Cong en.2.1.







.Less than one yearT Namibia 2m6

SOne to two years .B

~ Two to three years
SSwaziland
I Three to four years Africa .3
Africa. .Lesotho 3
Four to five years

Over five years




*Includes assignments and TDY's performed by OICD's Worldwide Program Area.
aTime in countries which received technical assistance of three months or less is not shown.
Boundary representation is not necessarily authoritative.


ornalla 1.7










AFRICA: USDA TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PERSONNEL, BY COUNTRY AND PROJECT, FISCAL 1984


Country


No. of Technician Assignments
Long-Term Short-Term Total


Project Title


Bot

Bur

Bur

Cam

Cap
Gam
Ken



Les
Lib
Mal

Mor


Nig
Rwa

Som

Sud

Tan
Tog
Tun
Zai
Zim
Mul


U.S
It


swana Agricultural College Expansion
" Agricultural Planning
kina Faso Forestry Education and Development
" Semiarid Food Grain Research and Development
undi Basic Food Crops
I" Forestry
ieroon Agricultural Management and Planning
" Agricultural Officer
e Verde Watershed Management
ibia Soil and Water Management
ya Agricultural Economist (REDSO)
Agricultural Systems Support
Dryland Cropping Systems Research
Management of Government Organizations
otho Land Conservation Evaluation
eria Sector Analysis Planning
i Livestock
" Regional Livestock Advisor
occo Range Management Improvement
1" Statistics
" Tomato Production (FAO)
eria Soil Survey
nda Agricultural Survey and Analysis
" Deputy Agricultural Officer
alia Forestry
" Poultry Development
an Agricultural Planning and Statistics
Plant Physiologist (IAEA)
zania Rural Development Training
o Manpower Development
isia Small Farmer Supervised Credit
re Development Manpower Training
babwe Seed Analyst
ticountry African Regional Organizations Support
" Sahel Regional Food Crop Protection
" West Africa Rice Dev. Association (WARDA)
.-Based Africa Development Resources
Africa Food Grain Research
Africa Technical Services
Strengthening African Agr'l Research (SAAR)


5

II
1
3
7


TOTAL


1/ Individual technicians may have performed more than one assignment.

2/ In addition, U.S.-based personnel performed 45 international TDY's to
33 countries.
-11-


2

9
8
9
1
3




1

2
1
1
5

1
5
1





4
1
4
2
5
16
1
4
15
5
10

13
7


2
2
15
10
9
1
8
1
2
1
1
1
7
2
1
3
12
1

6
1
3
1
1
1
1
7
1
6
2
6
16
1
4
20
5
21
1
16
14

214 2/









A SYNOPSIS OF AFRICAN TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROJECTS
IN PROGRESS DURING FISCAL 1984


Botswana Agricultural College Expansion
BAF-OOOO-P-AG-3201


October November 1983


An agricultural specialist helped evaluate the Botswana Agricultural
College Expansion Project. Following the review and evaluation, a plan
for proper development of a degree program was provided to AID
officials.


Botswana Agricultural Planning
IBW-0067-P-AG-2258


October 1978 September 1985


Resident technicians assisted by short-term specialists continued to
serve as experts in the Ministry of Agriculture's Planning and
Statistical Unit. They are advising the Government on rural development
needs, while training Botswanan officials to assume their
responsibilities in this area. The surveys and analyses prepared under
the project are enabling the Government of Botswana to improve
agricultural sector productivity and total agricultural production.


-12-









Burkina Faso Forestry Education and Development
IHV-0235-P-AG-2165 January 1981 November 1984

Six USDA technicians were working in the classified forest at
Dinderesso, near Bobo-Dioulasso, on a variety of short-term assignments.
Three served as instructors at the school for forestry agents, two as
forest managers, and one as team leader. The project is expected to
provide a model for forest management of national forests throughout the
Sahel.


Burkina Faso Semi-Arid Food Grain Research and Development (SAFGRAD)
IVO-0393-P-AG-2017 August 1981 March 1985

A USDA resident technician serves as development specialist under this
project. He will coordinate and plan the project for the various
participating groups and provide technical backstopping as needed.


Burundi Basic Food Crops
IBI-O101-P-AG-4242 July 1984 October 1986

Two resident USDA technicians will serve as farm manager and mechanics
advisor on a seed multiplication farm. Plans include several short-term
assignments by agronomists, seed experts, and harvest experts. The
object is to produce high-quality seed to distribute to farmers to
enhance yields of the basic food crops.


Burundi Forestry
IBI-0105-P-AG-3016 December 1982 December 1986

A short-term specialist is helping the National Institute of
Conservation of Natural Resources and the Department of Water and
Forestry establish a tropical highland nursery. The nursery should
produce a wide variety of species of seedlings for multiple use (erosion
control, fuelwood, charcoal, timber, etc.) to enhance the forestry
sector in Burundi. The specialist will advise Burundi on:

o Nursery layout,
o Selection of Species,
o Planting techniques,
o Postplanting care and maintenance,
o Access road layout and construction, and
o Planting trails and educational activities.

The project will be completed when a resident technician is assigned for
the life of the project.


-13-








Cameroon Agricultural Management and Planning
ICM-0008-P-AG-2167 September 1979 June 1986

Three resident specialists and supporting consultants are developing an
agricultural economics and planning unit. The unit should be capable of
planning, designing, and carrying out agricultural development projects
in the Ministry of Agriculture's Directorate of Studies and Projects and
the Statistical Unit. Project strategy is to use a multidonor
collaborative approach to technical assistance. The project should
develop local expertise in agricultural sector analysis and in planning,
designing, carrying out, monitoring, and evaluating projects for the
rural sector. In fiscal year 1984, the automatic data processing (ADP)
capabilities of the project were greatly improved. A major incountry
and U.S. training program has also been developed.


Cameroon Agricultural Officer
ICM-OOOO-P-AG-2019 March 1982 March 1986

An Office of International Cooperation and Development (OICD) technician
is serving as the agricultural officer at the Agency for International
Development (AID) mission in Yaounde, Cameroon. In this position, he
has overall responsibility for coordinating the AID agricultural program
in Cameroon. He also is the principal agricultural advisor to the AID
mission director.


Cape Verde Watershed Management
ICV-0006-P-AG-3171 March 1981 March 1985

A USDA agricultural extension specialist and a soil conservationist are
working with Cape Verde counterparts and technical teams to develop an
appropriate technology infrastructure to preserve and manage a watershed
area in Cape Verde. The processes developed are expected to serve as a
model for other portions of the islands and elsewhere in the Sahel.


Gambia Soil and Water Management
IGA-0202-P-AG-2195 July 1978 March 1986

Earlier in the project, a resident conservation and management
specialist helped establish a soil and water management unit in the
civil service structure of the Gambia Department of Agriculture.
Another resident conservationist is now on duty to emphasize applied
technology and extension methodology until the project is completed in
1986.


-14-








Kenya Agricultural Economist
IKE-5102-P-AG-4204 December 1983 September 1985

An OICD technician is assigned as an agricultural economist in the AID
Regional Economic Development Services Office (REDSO) in Nairobi, Kenya.
He provides technical support to missions throughout the region.


Kenya Agricultural Systems Support
IKE-0169-P-AG-4091 March May 1984

A training specialist presented a course in "The Training of Trainers
for Agricultural and Rural Development" for Kenyan training
professionals. Counterparts came from diverse ministries in the
Government.


Kenya Dryland Cropping Systems Research
IKE-OOOO-P-AG-2260 November 1979 December 1985

USDA resident technicians have been working with the Kenya Agricultural
Research Institute (KARI) to develop research and extension packages to
demonstrate the most productive use of marginal lands. Field trials are
being conducted through farmer cooperators. A maize geneticist is now
the only USDA staff member on this project.


Kenya Management of Government Organizations
IKE-O169-P-AG-3173 September November 1983

This comprehensive 4-week course was designed to improve the managerial
skills of mid-level employees of the Kenyan Ministry of Agriculture.
The course covered budgeting, accounting, organizational principles,
personnel management, and organizational behavior.


Lesotho Land Conservation Evaluation
ILS-0215-P-AG-4096 June 1984

A Soil Conservation Service (SCS) expert participated in the mid-term
evaluation of this AID project. The project will assist the rural poor
engaged in crop and livestock production by introducing conservation
measures, land use and cropping plans, and land management practices and
strengthening the Ministry of Agriculture.


Liberia Sector Analysis Planning
ILR-0137-P-AG-2208 October 1977 September 1986

A USDA agricultural economist continues to assist and train staff of the
Liberian Ministry of Agriculture's Planning Division in sector analysis
and planning. Duties include improving capabilities for statistical
gathering and interpretation and developing a capacity for microeconomic


-15-








analysis. These
sector analysis.
staff in January


activities will be integrated through an agricultural
An agricultural statistician was added to the resident
1984.


Mali Livestock
IML-0218-P-AG-3066


October 1982 September 1987


USDA, AID, and the Government of Mali are cooperating on a major project
to improve production in the country's critical livestock sector.
Vaccine production, already developed under the Central Veterinary
Laboratory project, will continue with new emphasis on diagnostics,
vaccine delivery, counterpart training, and project management. Seven
USDA resident technicians are participating. Numerous short-term
assignments are planned during project implementation.


Mali Regional Livestock Advisor
IML-OOOO-P-AG-2210


October 1979 November 1984


A livestock advisor from the USDA Extension Service (ES) has served on
resident assignment helping the Sahel Development Regional Officer
(SDRO) to coordinate and provide technical input for long-range planning
of the U.S.-Sahel Development Program. The livestock advisor is AID's
technical liaison with the Club du Sahel and contributes expert advice
for the formulation of AID strategy for assistance in the Sahel.


Morocco Range Management Improvement
IMO-O145-P-AG-4040


January February 1984


Dr. William Furtick, an agronomist from Oregon State University now
working on the Near East Technical Services Resources Support Services
Agreement (RSSA) served as team leader on the mid-term evaluation of the
Range Management Improvement Project (608-0145) in Morocco. The
evaluation report states that the project is being thoroughly revised in
response to rapid and dynamic change in the rural sector.


Morocco Statistics
TIA- 01 -P-AG-42T7


July 1984 September 1993


USDA technicians will assist in the development of a broad statistics
capability within the Ministry of Agriculture. Components include
aerial photography, area frame sampling, and crop yield modeling. The
Statistical Reporting Service (SRS) is taking a lead role, and the
private sector will provide much of the basic technical advice.


Morocco Tomato Production (FAO)


September 1984


The Agricultural Research Service of USDA (ARS) provided a
horticulturist to advise local research specialists in Morocco on the


-16-








identification of tomato diseases and breeding targets and to recommend
a breeding strategy.


Nigeria Soil Survey
607 Funds


August 1981 May 1984


Working with Nigerian soil survey counterparts and technical teams, USDA
technicians have helped prepare a comprehensive soil survey map of
Nigeria. The project has provided on-the-job training and equipment
necessary to enable the Nigerian Ministry of Agriculture to continue
with the soil survey. The Government of Nigeria has reimbursed all
costs of the project.


Rwanda Agricultural Survey and Analysis
IRW-0115-P-AG-3096


May 1983 May 1985


USDA is providing the services of an agricultural economist for a 2-year
period to help the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock strengthen its
capability in data collection and processing, economic analyses,
planning, and management. Institution building, training, and
documentation are areas to be stressed by this activity.


Rwanda Deputy Agricultural Officer
IRW-OOOO-P-AG-3180


October 1983 September 1985


A USDA specialist is serving as a deputy to the principal AID
agricultural officer in Rwanda. He is responsible for major
agricultural projects in the AID program.


Somalia Forestry
ISO-0122-P-AG-3087


March 1983 March 1985


The Extension Service of USDA (ES) is providing a forestry technician to
advise the Forestry Department in the National Range Agency. The
technician will monitor implementation, further design, and coordination
of Somalia's forestry programs, particularly in refugee areas.


Somalia Poultry Development
ISO-0410-P-AG-2176


September 1982 January 1984


A resident USDA specialist helped provide the equipment and expertise to
set up a chick-rearing facility and give on-the-job training to facility
managers and Extension agents.


-17-








Sudan Agricultural Planning and Statistics
SUD-0047-P-AG-2037 April 1982 April 1987

The Sudan Agricultural Planning and Statistics Project is designed to:

o Develop a reliable agricultural data base and reporting system;

o Strengthen the capability of the Ministry of Agriculture to
identify, establish priorities, and analyze critical economic
trade, and marketing problems and issues; and

o Develop methodologies for identifying, appraising, and planning
agricultural projects.

Two USDA technicians, an agricultural economist, and a statistician are
now in residence.


Sudan Plant Physiologist
International Atomic Energy Agency November 1983 March 1984

The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) sent a research
physiologist to Wad Medani, Sudan, to conduct preliminary experiments to
study the metabolism and residue of insecticides applied to vegetables,
particularly tomatoes. The technician also trained some of the local
staff in the general area of using radium-labeled pesticides.


Tanzania Rural Development Training
ITZ-0161-P-AG-2020 November 1979 December 1985

This training and rural development project should strengthen the
managerial and technical capacities of decentralized rural development
institutions. It should also contribute to agricultural growth,
expanded rural services, and enhanced self-help activities. The project
has begun phase II with a second resident technician and a number of
technicians on short-term assignments.


Togo Manpower Development
ITG-0433-P-AG-4022 August 1983 September 1985

USDA provided a training program for 18 directors of regional or local
offices of Togo's National Agriculture Credit Bank (CNCA). The purpose
of the training program was to reinforce the ability of CNCA to deal
effectively with the challenge of wide-scale agricultural credit in Togo
and to provide a professional career development opportunity for the
directors. An additional course is in the planning stage.


-18-








Tunisia Small Farmer Supervised Credit
ITN-0302-P-AG-4021 July 1978 March 1986

Resident and short-term advisors continued to assist the Government of
Tunisia in carrying out a supervised credit program. The project will
improve agricultural production inputs and technical know-how to
increase the level of production technology used by a significant number
of operators of small- and medium-size farms.


Zaire Development Manpower Training
IZR-0068-P-AG-3065 September 1982 September 1985

The project consisted of designing and presenting six courses in French
in Zaire to train about 150 cadres at various levels to perform
technical and managerial functions in the agricultural sector. In
fiscal year 1983, the project designed and presented the following
courses:

o Planning, analysis, and implementation of agricultural
projects--Phases I and II;

o Basic agricultural statistics;

o Management of agricultural research; and

o Regional agricultural resource development.

The sixth course, "Grain Storage/Determination and Prevention of
Postharvest Food Losses," will be presented in the near future.


Zimbabwe Seed Analyst
Scientific and Technical Exchange October 1982 December 1983

Under a USDA memorandum of understanding with Western Illinois
University, a senior seed analyst was assigned to work for 15 months
with the Zimbabwe Ministry of Agriculture. The technician worked with
counterparts to develop new methodology, conduct on-the-job training,
and improve seed testing apparatus.


African Regional Organizations Support
BAF-O413-P-AG-3152 August 1983 March 1985

USDA provided one training administrator to work with the Regional
Economic Development Services Office (REDSO) and the Eastern and
Southern African Management Institute (ESAMI) to design a program to
develop a capacity in ESAMI for training in agricultural statistics,
analysis, planning, and management.


-19-








Sahel Regional Food Crop Protection
ISE-0928-P-AG-2227 September 1975 February 1985

Crop protection specialists from USDA's Animal and Health Inspection
Service (APHIS) continue to assist the Sahelian countries of Senegal,
Mali, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, and The Gambia. The objective is to
develop effective measures to protect crops from the ravages of insects
and disease and to increase food crop production. Technicians from
APHIS and other agencies have also provided short-term assistance. The
technicians worked with participants from each country to improve the
capabilities of national crop protection departments throughout the
region.

In fiscal year 1984, the project emphasized integrated pest management
and extension.


West Africa Rice Development Association (WARDA
BAF-0429-P-AG-3139 September December 1983

The West Africa Rice Development Association (WARDA) is a $12 million
project funded by AID's Regional Affairs Office and other donors to
support a number of research, training, and Extension liaison
activities. These activities include:

o Deep Water/Floating Rice Research at Mopti, Mali;

o Mangrove Swamp Rice Research at Rokupr, Sierra Leone;

o WARDA Training Center at Fendell, Liberia; and

o A Technology Assessment and Transfer (TAT) unit
directed by WARDA headquarters in Monrovia, Liberia.

WARDA is a 5-year project, now in its third year of operation, requiring
mid-project evaluation. USDA/OICD was asked to provide four of the six
members on the evaluation team. In addition to a team leader, OICD
provided an administrative management specialist, a rice agronomist, and
an Extension education specialist to carry out the 4-week evaluation of
the project.


Africa Development Resources
BAF-0135-R-AG-2200 October 1980 Ongoing

This project is funded through a Resources Support Services Agreement
(RSSA) designed to provide a wide variety of assistance to AID in
Washington and in the field. The project is staffed by long-term USDA
employees, short-term employees on travel status, contractors, and
university staff. Recent activities have included design of Public Law
(PL) 480 Title III Food Aid Development programs, preparation of project
papers, and development of programs to assist Zimbabwe.


-20-








Africa Food Grain Research
AFR-0393-P-AG-2096 January 1980 March 1985

An OICD agricultural economist is assisting the regional affairs staff,
AID/Washington, and AID missions with food grain projects and related
activities. The economist will give advice on training, Extension,
marketing, storage, and intermediate technology.


Africa Technical Services
ISE-0929-R-AG-2220 December 1976 Ongoing

USDA is providing technical services to both the overseas missions and
AID/Washington to meet requirements of project and policy formulation,
design, implementation, and evaluation in the Sahel. Technicians assist
in preparing documents in evaluating appropriate program-related
activities for loan and grant projects. Typical experts who helped the
Sahelian countries in 1984 include a forester who worked with the AID
mission in Niamey, an agricultural economist who helped AID/Washington
review projects on a long-term basis, and members of the ERS Food Sector
Assessment Team for Africa who visited Mali.


Strengthening African Agricultural Research (SAAR)
BAF-0435-R-AG-3138 August 1983 Ongoing

The Strengthening of African Agricultural Research (SAAR) Project is a
multidonor, multirecipient project to strengthen the capacity of
regional and national agricultural research institutions throughout
Africa. The aim is to identify and address constraints on food
production throughout the continent in a systematic, collaborative
fashion. This project is the chief U.S. contribution to the Cooperation
for Development in Africa (CDA) agricultural research initiative. The
U.S. Department of Agriculture is providing various short-term
specialists and three long-term specialists on 2-year assignments. They
will provide technical support for:

o Coordinating the overall CDA initiative,

o Planning and designing CDA long-term zonal agricultural
research programs, and

o Designing and managing SAAR subprojects and other
CDA-related agricultural research projects and activities.


-21-








*Staff Years of Technical Assistance Provided During Fiscal Year 1984 Asia Area


Western
Samoa
Fiji--.


Wm Less than one year Indonesia

W" One to two years I

E3 Four to five years

Over five years


*Includes assignments and TDY's performed by OICD's Worldwide Program Area.
&Time in countries which technical assistance of three months or less is not shown.
Boundary representation is not necessarily authoritative.










ASIA: USDA TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PERSONNEL, BY COUNTRY AND PROJECT, FISCAL 1984


No. of Technician Assignments
Long-Term Short-Term Total


Project Title


Indonesia
II
11
It
Nepal
II

Pakistan
II
I"
II

II
"I

Sri Lanka
II II
Thailand
"1
Western Samoa
Multicountry
II
U.S. Based


Professional Resources Development 2
Repelita Review
Rural Development (Sederhana) 1
Soil Conservation (Citanduy II) 1
Data Processing (FAO)
Resources Conservation and Utilization 2
Western Hills Road Evaluation
Agricultural Research 1
Agricultural Research Management Course
Agricultural Technology Research & Devlpmt. -
Forestry Planning and Development
Integrated Control of Fruit Flies (IAEA)
Onfarm Water Management
Project Design 1
Tribal Areas Development 3
Marketing Research and Data Sampling
Small Marketing Research 1
Agricultural Planning (FAO)
Community Development 1
Land Evaluation (FAO)
ASEAN Plant Quarantine
Southeast Asia Sugarcane Research (FAO)
Asia Technical Services

TOTAL 13


1/ Individual technicians may have performed more than one assignment.

2/ Technicians on U.S.-based and multi-country projects performed 19 international
TDY's to nine countries: Burma, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Saipan, Singapore,
Sri Lanka, The Philippines and Thailand.


-23-


Country


1


1

2

2
3
1
1
5
19

1

1

1
1
1
36


2
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
3
1
1
5
20
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
36

89 2/








A SYNOPSIS OF ASIAN TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROJECTS
IN PROGRESS DURING FISCAL YEAR 1984


Indonesia Professional Resources Development II
IID-0275-P-AG-2105 September


1980 October 1984


This project was designed to upgrade the management and training skills
of officers in the Indonesian Department of Agriculture and the
Department of Education and Culture. Comprehensive staff training plans
for the two departments included incountry management training and both
long- and short-term specialized training in the United States and other
countries. Two resident technicians completed 4-year tours in Jakarta
in October 1984, as the project came to an end. About 8,000 Indonesians
received training through this project.


Indonesia Repelita Review
IID-0205-P-AG-4241


July August 1984


An agricultural research and planning specialist from the East-West
Center in Hawaii went to Jakarta to help develop the agricultural sector
assessment portion of this project. Emphasis was on medium- and long-
range prospects for major agricultural commodities.


Indonesia Rural Development (Sederhana)
IND-0252-P-AG-2022


June 1982 December 1985


A resident rural development specialist is helping carry out the
agricultural aspects of this project. The specialist is developing
techniques to increase production, improve water management efficiency,
and generate data to use in planning and evaluation.


-24-








Indonesia Soil Conservation (Citanduy II)
IID-0281-P-AG-3008 March 1983 March 1984

A conservation specialist from the USDA Soil Conservation Service spent
a year in Jakarta to advise on soil conservation systems and strategies
in the Citanduy project. The successful conclusion of this project
strengthened relationships between the Indonesian Government and the
USDA. As a consequence, negotiations are underway to develop a
memorandum of understanding between Indonesia and the USDA to continue
to expand collaborative development activities.


Nepal Data Processing (FAO) June 1984

USDA's Statistical Reporting Service provided a mathematical
statistician for a 2-week assignment in Nepal. The consultant
demonstrated the practical uses for the Survey Data Processing System
Software (SUDS) package developed by USDA. Before he traveled to Nepal,
the consultant briefed officials at the FAO headquarters in Rome.


Nepal Resources Conservation and Utilization Project (RCUP)
Western Carolina University March 1983 February 1985

The Soil Conservation Service sent a soil scientist to serve as team
leader of the Resources Conservation and Utilization Project with
Western Carolina University. The scientist is providing technical
assistance and training in protecting and restoring soil, water, and
plant resources. For a brief period during 1984, the USDA Forest
Service provided a senior forester to assist on this project.


Nepal Western Hills Road Evaluation
INP-0249-P-AG-3169 October December 1983

Two senior Forest Service personnel evaluated the landslide control
measures on this project. Their findings will be incorporated into a
revised plan for landslide prevention and control.


Pakistan Agricultural Research
IPK-0296-P-AG-2054 March 1975 December 1984

This project began in 1975 to assist the Pakistan Agricultural Research
Council (PARC) to formulate and carry out a national multidisciplinary
research program. During this period, a resident technician assisted
PARC for 2 years, and several short-term technicians reviewed the
agricultural research program to better integrate new goals and
directives into the existing system. During fiscal year 1982, an
additional 13 short-term consultancies took place in architecture,
station development, mechanical engineering, and structural engineering.


-25-








A resident station development and operations engineer arrived in August
1982 for a 2-year assignment and has made substantial progress in
upgrading the research station's capabilities. (This assignment has
been extended through the end of 1984).


Pakistan Agricultural Research Management Course
IPK-0474-P-AG-4010 January March 1984

This highly successful course was presented by a trainer from OICD's
International Training Division and a faculty member from Howard
University. The course emphasized managing time and establishing
priorities and was conducted at the National Agricultural Research
Center (NARC) in Islamabad.


Pakistan Agricultural Technology Research and Development
TPK-0470-P-AG-3195 October 1983 March 1984

OICD provided an agricultural mechanization specialist from the
International Rice Research Institute, and an agricultural engineer and
an agricultural economist, both from the private sector, to prepare a
study of agricultural mechanization in Pakistan. The study focused on
the potential for importing U.S. farm machinery.


Pakistan Forestry Planning and Development
TPK-0481-P-AG-4245 August 1984 November 1985

For this assignment, a professional forester was contracted to travel to
Pakistan to help design a forestry planning project. The project has
since been approved and will commence as a Participating Agency Service
Agreement (PASA) activity in fiscal year 1985.


Pakistan Integrated Control of Fruit Flies
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) February March 1984

USDA's Agricultural Research Service provided a research entomologist
for a 4-week assignment at the Atomic Energy Agricultural Research
Center in Tandojam, Pakistan. The consultancy dealt with eradicating
fruit flies through sterilization and other methods.


Pakistan Onfarm Water Management
IPK-0OO0-P-AG-4015 February October 1984

The USDA Soil Conservation Service conducted two sessions of a course
developed to stress on-farm water management. The course was presented
by national experts from SCS, including engineers, hydrologists, and
irrigation specialists.


-26-








Pakistan Project Design
IPK-0470-P-AG-2133 April 1982 October 1984

This project was started in 1982 to develop designs for major
agricultural projects in Pakistan. A USDA resident advisor arrived in
August 1982 and was named Chief of Party. During fiscal year 1983, OICD
sent 77 short-term consultants to Pakistan to examine a wide array of
agricultural systems. These included the edible oilseed sector,
agricultural data collection, agricultural policy, management of
technology, and food security. During fiscal year 1984, we continued
activities involved with data collection, economic policy, and
commodities brokering strategies.


Pakistan Tribal Areas Development
IPK-0471-P-AG-3156 August 1983 September 1987

A multiyear PASA was signed to put three resident advisors in the tribal
areas of Pakistan. The advisors come from the Soil Conservation Service
of USDA and will assist in irrigation management and hydrogeological
studies. They were selected in late fiscal year 1983 and traveled to
Peshawar, Pakistan, in early fiscal year 1984. In mid-1984, an SCS
deputy chief visited the project to conduct a field assessment. Several
recommendations arising from this assessment have been adopted.


Sri Lanka Marketing Research and Data Sampling
ISL-0OO0-P-AG-4046 April May 1984

The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) of the USDA supplied a senior
marketing analyst to travel to Sri Lanka for a 6-week assignment. The
analyst worked with the Marketing and Food Policy Division of the Sri
Lanka Agrarian Research and Training Institute (ARTI) to outline
strategies for marketing research. The study resulted in
recommendations designed to promote a better price reporting system for
local agricultural markets.


Sri Lanka Small Marketing Research
ILK-0044-P-AG-3010 December 1982 June 1984

An agricultural economist worked as a resident advisor with the Small
Market Research Unit of the Agricultural Research Training Institute
(ARTI) of Sri Lanka. Before the conclusion of his assignment, he
initiated several training programs, developed and participated in a
national workshop on marketing data analysis, and assisted in the study
described under "Sri Lanka Marketing Research and Data Sampling."


-27-








Thailand Agricultural Planning (FAO)


USDA's Economic Research Service (ERS) provided an agricultural
economist for a 3-month assignment in Thailand. The economist reviewed
how reorganization of the Royal Thai Government's Office of Agricultural
Economics affects research operations.


Thailand Community Development
THA-OOOO-P-AG-1038 April 1982 December 1984

A resident specialist is helping the AID Mission in agricultural project
planning and evaluation of USAID/Thailand activities. He will advise
agricultural development officers on policy matters and on designing and
carrying out the project. His overall advice will focus on management
and improved production of field crops.


Western Samoa Land Evaluation (FAO) March October 1983

An ecologist from the Forest Service combined photogrammetry and
cartography to develop topographic maps of selected areas in western
Samoa. This project lasted for 4 months, followed by a 1-week
debriefing at FAO headquarters in Rome.


Association of South East Asia Nations (ASEAN) Plant Quarantine
BAS-0258-P-AG-1034 July 1981 June 1984

The University of Idaho provided a bacteriologist for a 3-week
assignment to Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and Singapore. The
consultant:

o Taught a short course at Planti on bacterial seed-borne
diseases of vegetables;

o Examined and evaluated the transfer of pathogens in seed
trade among the ASEAN countries;

o Recommended control measures for minimizing introduction
of seed-borne pathogens;

o Reviewed laboratory back-stop support services being provided
for interception and detection of bacterial pathogens at main
entry points; and

o Suggested measures for strengthening laboratory support
services.


-28-


April July 1984








Southeast Asia Sugarcane Research (FAO) October 1983

USDA's Agricultural Research Service provided a plant physiologist for a
3-week assignment in Indonesia and Thailand. The purpose of the
assignment was to review and advise research needs for these Southeast
Asian countries. A briefing and debriefing followed at the FAO
headquarters in Rome.


Asia Technical Services
BAS-0249-R-AG-1078 July 1981 Ongoing

This agreement provides for the technical services of agricultural
and/or rural development specialists to assist in:

o Formulating, designing, and preparing documentation of
proposed projects;

o Carrying out and evaluating ongoing projects, and

o Participating in other appropriate program-related
activities of AID's Asia Bureau.


Short-term technical assistance included work in:

o Burma to design an edible oil processing project,

o Sri Lanka to evaluate a paddy storage and processing project,

o Pakistan to assess water management,

o Burma to evaluate agricultural research,

o The Philippines to evaluate the Philippine Mission's
agricultural research project,

o Thailand to assess agricultural technology diffusion,

o The Philippines to help review the Management Implementation
Study of the Food and Feed Processing Centers, and

o Saipan to assist with a study of utility pole production.


-29-







*Staff Years of Technical Assistance Provided During Fiscal Year 1984 Latin America Area


Cuba


El Salvadorr
Costa Rica .4
Panama .9
Colec
Ecuador .7



Peru








Chilel

W ] Less than one year ^

D One to two years

Two to three years

Three to four years

Four to five years 1


laiti 2.0 4Y3
a Dominican Rep. 1.7

Puerto s <"Other" Caribbean sl.
Rico (Antigua, Barbados,
Grenada, St. Lucia,
---Trinidad St. Vincent)
Guyana
Venezuela Suriname
ihm, d r^ French Guiana


IUruguay


*Includes assignments and TDY's performed by OICD's Worldwide Program Area.
*Portugal is included in Latin America Programs for administrative purposes.
ATime in countries which received technical assistance of three months or less is not shown.
Boundary representation is not necessarily authoritative.










LATIN AMERICA: USDA TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PERSONNEL, BY COUNTRY AND PROJECT, FISCAL 1984


Country
Bel i ze
11


Bolivia
Brazil

Colombia
Dominican Rep


"i
II
II
Ecuador
Grenada

ii
Guatemala
Haiti
It
I"
Honduras
II


if
II
II

II

Jamaica
if

ii
"I
II
Mexico
"


Project Title
Acting Agricultural Development Officer
Livestock
Livestock Judging
Price Policy
Agricultural Statistics
Forest Protection (FAO)
Poultry Pathology (FAO)
Micro-computer (FAO)
Agricultural Extension PID
Impact Evaluation
NARMA Project Evaluation
Natural Resource Management
Natural Resources
Price Policy
Forestry
Agricultural Engineering
Agricultural Sector Development
Disaster Assistance
Small Farmer Diversification
Agricultural Economic Support
Integrated Agricultural Development
Solar Fruit Drying
Agricultural Cooperatives
Agricultural Credit
Area Frame Sampling
Forestry
Land Base Report (CRIES)
Natural Resources Development
Region III Sample Design
Sample Design Frame
Agricultural Markets
Economic Forecasting
Food Consumption Analysis
Fumigation/Certification
Hydrology (FAO)
Natural Resources Assessment (CRIES)
Loan Review (World Bank)
Soil Conservation (World Bank)


No. of Technician Assignments 1/
Long-Term Short-Term Total
1 1
3 3
2 2
1 1
S1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
4 4
3 3
1 1
3 3
1 1
1 1
1 1
3 3
4 11 15
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
2 2
1 1
1 1
1 1
2 2
1 1
3 3
3 3
2 2
1 1
1 1
3 3
2 2
3 5 8


(Continued next page)




1/ Individual technicians may have performed more than one assignment.


-31-











CONTINUED--LATIN AMERICA: USDA TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PERSONNEL,
BY COUNTRY AND PROJECT, FISCAL 1984


No.
ntry Project Title Lo
ama Agricultural Technology Transfer
" Environmental Management Systems (Mangrove)
aguay Minifundia Crop Intensification
*u Agricultural Statistics
u Area Sample Frame
" Soil Conservation
tugal 2/ Agricultural Production
ticountry Caribbean Forestry
Caribbean Fruit Fly
" ROCAP Program Development and Support
.-Based Latin America Sector Assessment
" Latin America/Caribbean Crop Credit
Insurance Systems


TOTAL


of Technician Assignments 1/
ng-Term Short-Term Total
1 1
4 4
1 1
2 2


46
17
1
1
1


138


1
32


1
50
17
1
1
8

1
170 3/


1/ Individual technicians may have performed more than one assignment.

2/ This project is handled by the Latin America program area since Technical
Assistance Division does not have a Western European area.

3/ In addition, U.S.-based personnel performed 14 international TDY's to
10 countries.


-32-


Cou
Pan

Par
Per
Per

Por
Mul


U.S








A SYNOPSIS OF LATIN AMERICAN TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROJECTS
IN PROGRESS DURING FISCAL 1984


Belize Acting Agricultural Development Officer
Mission Funded September -


October 1984


USDA's Economic Research Service (ERS) is providing an agricultural
economist to serve as the acting agricultural development officer and to
assist in supervising the agricultural sector assessment being carried
out by Mid-Western Universities Consortia for International Agriculture
(MUCIA).


Belize Livestock
Mission Funded October 1983 March 1984

USDA's Extension Service (ES) provided a livestock specialist to assist
in writing a Project Implementation Order/Technical Services (PIO/T) to
implement the Livestock Development Project in Belize. Two additional
trips followed to review the Request for Technical Proposal (RFTP).


Belize Livestock Judging
Mission Funded


May 1984


USDA's Office of International Cooperation and Development (OICD)
provided two livestock advisors to serve as judges at the Belize Annual
Agricultural Fair. They also presented livestock-judging seminars at
agricultural stations throughout the country.


-33-








Belize Price Policy
Mission Funded April 1984

USDA's Economic Research Service (ERS) provided an agricultural
economist to prepare a statement of the scope of work needed for an
agricultural sector study for the upcoming Small Farmer Diversification
Project in Belize.


Bolivia Agricultural Statistics
IBO-0059-P-AG-4020 December 1983

USDA's Statistical Reporting Service (SRS) provided an agricultural
statistician for a 2-week assignment to advise the Government of Bolivia
on survey questionnaire design and to code the generalized editing
system parameters for the crop production estimate survey.


Brazil Forest Protection (FAO) November 1983 January 1984

USDA's Forest Service (FS) provided a plant pathologist to prepare a
plan of forest protection for the northeast region of Brazil. The plant
pathologist will visit forest plantations and trials in that area,
analyze the phytopathological aspects of exotic species, and identify
potential problems.


Brazil Poultry Pathology (FAO) October November 1983

USDA's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) provided the services of a
poultry pathologist to the Swine and Poultry Research Center in
Concordia, St. Caterina, Brazil. He is responsible for offering
seminars on poultry diseases caused by viruses and training researchers
in serological techniques, preparation of antiserum and antigens, and
setting out the lineage of lymphoid cells.


Colombia Micro-computer (FAO) January 1984

USDA's Office of International Cooperation and Development (OICD) and
Statistical Reporting Service (SRS) provided short-term technical
assistance of a mathematical statistician to install the Survey Data
Processing System on a microcomputer. Local personnel were trained in
its use.


Dominican Republic Agricultural Extension PID
IDR-0000-P-AG-5010 September October 1984

USDA's Office of International Cooperating and Development (OICD)
provided the services of an agricultural economist to lead a three-man
team in developing a project identification document (PID) on
agricultural research and extension.


-34-








Dominican Republic Impact Evaluation
TPP-OOO-P-AG-3193 September November 1983

USDA's Office of International Cooperation and Development (OICD)
provided an Extension specialist to participate in an evaluation of the
effects of agricultural services activities in the Dominican Republic.
Specifically, the evaluation assessed the rate of technology transfer of
agricultural inputs and the changes in agricultural production in the
country over the past 10 years.


Dominican Republi NARMA Project Evaluation
IDR-0126-P-AG-4247 July 1984

A four-person team evaluated the Natural Resources Management Project
(NARMA). The team was expected to determine overall project management
effectiveness, particularly emphasizing field work in the Ocoa
watershed, and to assess farmer response to the incentive package. Team
members include a natural resource management specialist as team leader,
a rural sociologist, a soil and water conservation evaluator, and an
institutional economist.


Dominican Republic Natural Resource Management
IDO-0126-P-AG-3046* April 1983 July 1986

USDA's Soil Conservation Service (SCS) is providing ongoing, short-term
technical assistance to the Dominican Republic's soil and water
conservation program. Soil conservationists and training specialists
continue to help the Dominican Republic's natural resource managers
upgrade their soils laboratory, review soil survey techniques, and
conduct workshops.


Dominican Republic Natural Resources
IDO-OOOO-P-AG-2243 October 1980 July 1986

USDA's Extension Service (ES) is providing the long-term services of a
natural resource economist to assist USAID and the Ministry of
Agriculture in the Dominican Republic in planning and designing
technologically sound, administratively viable, and economically
feasible natural resources management activities.


Dominican Republic Price Policy
IDR-0000-P-AG-4267 May 1984

USDA's Office of International Cooperation and Development (OICD)
provided three agricultural economists as part of a five-person team to
help the AID Mission prepare a price policy project paper.


-35-








Ecuador Forestry
IEC-0023-P-AG-4087 September 1984 March 1988

USDA's Forest Service (FS) will provide the Ecuadorean National Forestry
Program with technical experts in the following areas:

o Pathology
o Extension,
o Training,
o Watershed management,
o Dryland forestry,
o Tropical forestry,
o Anthropology,
o Computer science, and
o Forest harvesting.

The objective of the project is to strengthen the capacity of the
forestry program to mobilize, coordinate, and supply technical
assistance to other institutions in the forestry sector; carry out a
program of applied silvicultural research and field demonstrations; and
increase the Government of Ecuador's capability to develop and carry out
plans to delineate and manage forest areas within critical watersheds.


Grenada Agricultural Engineering
IGD-0006-P-AG-4094 June 1984 December 1985

USDA's Forest Service (FS) is providing the long-term services of a
civil engineer for the Point Salinas project in Grenada.


Grenada Agricultural Sector Development
IRD-OOOO-P-AG-4059 February March 1984

USDA's Office of International Cooperation and Development (OICD)
provided the short-term services of a management analyst to help prepare
a project paper for a proposal to develop the agricultural sector of
Grenada.


Grenada Disaster Assistance
IGR-OOOO-P-AG-4018 November 1983 March 1984

As a part of the U.S. Government's Disaster Assistance Program for
Grenada, AID requested that USDA/OICD provide a senior agricultural
development expert to assess the agricultural situation and potential
for developing the agricultural sector. This work began in late
November 1983 and ended in mid-March 1984. Also, USDA provided the
short-term services of an institutions analyst as part of team effort to
develop a project implementation document (PID).


-36-








Guatemala Small Farmer Diversification
IGT-0255-P-AG-3132 November 1983 March 1987

USDA is providing technical assistance to support small farm crop and
livestock diversification in the western highlands of Guatemala. The
objective is to increase crop yields and to diversify farming away from
the more traditional crops, to improve local diets, and to produce a
marketable surplus to improve incomes. An intensive Extension program
effort through demonstration and education is planned. Working on the
project is a long-term team comprised of a team leader, livestock
specialist, vegetable specialist, fruit specialist, a farm management
advisor, and numerous short-term advisors.


Haiti Agricultural Economic Support
IHT-OOOO-P-AG-2215 October 1982 March 1984

USDA's Economic Research Service (ERS) provided an agricultural
economist on a long-term assignment to the AID mission in Port au
Prince. A careful analysis of the major constraints and disincentives
to food and agricultural production is being made in support of the
mission's agricultural development strategy. Information on crop
production is being collected and evaluated, along with statistics on
marketing and transportation, to aid in making policy decisions.


Haiti Integrated Agricultural Development
IHT-0078-P-AG-4013 November December 1983

USDA's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) provided the services of a
research horticulturist to participate as the tropical roots and tuber
crop specialist on the evaluation team of the research/Extension
component of the Haiti Integrated Agricultural Development Project.


Haiti Solar Fruit Drying
IHT-OOOO-P-AG-4019 April 1984

USDA's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) provided the short-term
support of a research chemist to install, demonstrate, and train
Haitians in the various techniques of solar drying for fruits of
economic importance to Haiti. The Haitians involved were personnel of
the Fruit Tree Crop Development Project of the Haitian Association for
the Study and Execution of Agricultural Products (SHEEPA).


Honduras Agricultural Cooperatives
IHN-00OO-P-AG-3148 March 1983 July 1987

USDA's Extension Service (ES) is providing a cooperatives advisor to
serve as the agrarian reform and land/landless projects specialist
helping the Honduran Instituto Nacional Agrario (INA). The cooperatives
advisor is the principal liaison officer for agrarian reform matters


-37-








among USAID/Tegucigalpa, INA, and other Honduran Government agencies.
He also manages the Small Farmer Titling Project.


Honduras Agricultural Credit
IHN-0178-P-AG-3115 March 1981 July 1987

USDA's Extension Service (ES) is giving long-term technical assistance
in agricultural credit to USAID/Tegucigalpa and to the National
Agricultural Development Bank (BANADESA) to improve its management of
national credit programs. Through this assistance, USAID hopes small
farmers will be provided with timely and properly managed credit
resources.


Honduras Area Frame Sampling
IHN-9103-P-AG-4057 February March 1984

USDA's Statistical Reporting Service (SRS) provided two short-term
technicians to investigate the possibility of establishing a system for
area frame sampling in Honduras.


Honduras Forestry
IHN-0000-P-AG-3045 November 1982 September 1986

USDA's Forest Service (FS) is providing the long-term services of a
rural roads engineer to advise the USAID mission on all AID-funded rural
roads projects. The engineer will help host Government officials on
procedures and techniques of constructing and maintaining rural and
secondary roads in Honduras.


Honduras Land Base Report (CRIES)
HON-034-P-AG-1004 November 1980 August 1984

In cooperation with Michigan State University, USDA continued to work in
Honduras on the Comprehensive Resources and Evaluation System (CRIES)
project for USAID and the Government of Honduras. The project had an
integrated approach for addressing agricultural and natural resource
issues. It included a multidisciplinary staff and established automated
systems for storing and managing information.


Honduras Natural Resources Development
IHN-OOO00-P-AG-3060 April 1982 July 1987

USDA's Extension Service (ES) is providing a natural resources scientist
on a long-term basis to assist the Honduran Office of Environment and
Technology in managing natural resources and watersheds. Recent
emphasis has been placed on improving the management of soils, water,
and forests in the Choluteca River Watershed.


-38-








Honduras Region IIISample Design
IHN-0150-P-AG-4202


June 1984


USDA's Statistical Reporting Service (SRS) provided two statisticians to
assist the General Directorate of Statistics and Census (DGEC) of the
Honduran Government in the preliminary work for the National
Agricultural Survey. Work included reviewing the final draft of the
questionnaire to be used in the survey, installing and training people
to use the DGEC computer, and building the sample design for region III.


Honduras Sample Design Frame
IHN-0150-P-AG-4269


September 1984 February 1985


USDA's Statistical Reporting Service (SRS) is providing the services of
two mathematical statisticians to assist the General Directorate of
Statistics and Census of the Government of Honduras in conducting the
National Agricultural Survey.


Jamaica Agricultural Markets
IJA-0060-P-AG-4258


September October 1984


USDA's Office of International Cooperation and Develor ient (OICD)
provided two instructors to present the USDA short course, "Developing
Markets for Agricultural Production."


Jamaica Economic Forecasting
IJA-0060-P-AG-4044


May June 1984


USDA's Office of International Cooperation and Development (OICD) sent
two instructors to Kingston to conduct a short course entitled "Economic
Forecasting for Agricultural Policymaking and Planning."


Jamaica Food Consumption Analysis
IJA-0OO0-P-AG-4041


February 1984


USDA's Economic Research Service (ERS) provided the short-term services
of two agricultural economists to help the Jamaican Government assess
computer facilities as well as plan for, conduct, and analyze data
summarizing the Household Food Consumption Survey.


Jamaica Fumigation/Certification
IJM-0079-P-AG-3049


March 1983 February 1985


USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is providing
technical assistance in designing and building a fumigation facility to
initiate Jamaica's program for fumigating produce before clearance for
export.


-39-








Jamaica Hydrology (FAO)


USDA's Forest Service (FS) provided the short-term services of a
supervisory hydrologist to consult with FAO and Jamaican officials on a
forest hydrology program.


Jamaica Natural Resources Assessment (CRIES)
IJM-0O79-P-AG-3094 October 1981 June 1985

USDA's Soil Conservation Service (SCS) and Michigan State University's
Comprehensive Resource Inventory and Evaluation System (CRIES) are
helping refine the computer-based information system in the Jamaican
Ministry of Agriculture's Rural Physical Planning Unit. The project
provides critical information to evaluate development alternatives and
gives related guidelines for policy development.


Mexico Loan Review (World Bank) December 1983 March 1984

USDA's Soil Conservation Service (SCS) provided the services of a
national drainage engineer to assist the World Bank in a field review of
loan applications for its project in the Chapiz State of Mexico.


Mexico Soil Conservation (World Bank) January 1983 December 1984

USDA's Office of International Cooperation and Development (OICD) is
carrying out a long-term soil conservation project in Mexico under a
reimbursable agreement with the World Bank. USDA's Soil Conservation
Service (SCS) is providing a civil engineer, a soil
conservationist/agronomist, and a plant materials specialist on a long-
term basis, as well as various short-term technicians. The project is a
part of the Tropical Agriculture Project funded by the World Bank and
the Integrated Rural Development Program in the Humid Tropics
(PRODERITH) of the Mexican Ministry of Agriculture. The overall goal of
the project is to increase productivity by improving the technological
and managerial capacity of Mexican technicians and farmers.
Demonstration project sites have been set up for erosion control system
trials.


Panama Agricultural Technology Transfer
IPA-OOOO-P-AG-3128 May 1982 May 1984

USDA's Extension Service (ES) provided a long-term community development
specialist and several short-term consultants to help plan, design, and
monitor rural development activities in Panama. The long-term advisor
served as the project manager responsible for coordinating, supervising,
and monitoring project activities in agricultural Extension and
cooperative development.


-40-


October 1983








Panama Environmental Management Systems (Mangrove)
BLA-0605-P-AG-4239 September December 1984

USDA's Forest Service (FS) is providing a team of agricultural experts
to help improve the capability of the Government of Panama to manage its
mangrove resources for multiple, sustainable use. Effective management
should lead to a reduction in the exploitation of mangrove forests and
associated wetlands, and to a resolution of conflicts in the use of
these resources.


Paraguay Minifundia Crop Intensification
IPY-0118-P-AG-3035 January 1983 December 1984

USDA's Extension Service (ES) is providing the long-term technical
services of a marketing economist to assist the produce marketing
program of CREDICOOP, the Paraguayan national credit union organization.
The initial focus is on developing the domestic market for tomatoes and
bananas. Officials hope to open an export market for tomatoes in
Argentina.


Peru Agricultural Statistics
IPE-0238-P-AG-4203 July 1984 July 1987

USDA's Statistical Reporting Service (SRS) has recently embarked on a
long-term project for a continual system of area and production
statistics as part of USAID's Agricultural Planning and Institutional
Development Project. A resident agricultural statistician and a
sampling frame technician will provide technical assistance for a 3-year
period beginning July 1984. The continuous system will collect and
summarize data every 6 months until a fully operational data collection
system is installed by the end of the second year. The initial data to
be provided will fulfill the priority needs of the Ministry of
Agriculture. The project's overall objective is to furnish information
support to manage agricultural policy and planning.


Peru Area Sample Frame
IPE-0166-P-AG-3199 October November 1983

USDA's Statistical Reporting Service (SRS) provided two area frame
sample specialists to help construct an area sample frame for the
information support component of the Agricultural Planning and
Institutional Development Project.


-41-









Peru Soil Conservation
PER-O220-P-AG-1066 January 1982 January 1985

USDA's Soil Conservation Service (SCS) is providing long-term technical
assistance to the Government of Peru in strengthening and
institutionalizing a soil and water conservation system within the
Directorate of Water and Soils of the Ministry of Agriculture (DGASI).
The project established the first comprehensive farm-level soil
conservation project for the Sierra. Technical assistance is being
provided to the DGASI Project Unit in soil conservation practices and
methods of getting farmers to put those practices to use on their farms.
The project has increased the number of technicians and trained farmers
and has established administrative and financial procedures required to
support field agents. The project has been rated as a major success in
Peru's agricultural development.


Portugal Agricultural Production
IPT-0023-P-AG-1028 February 1982 June 1986

USDA's Office of International Cooperation and Development (OICD) is
providing three resident specialists to the Portuguese Ministry of
Agriculture, Commerce, and Fisheries, as well as numerous short-term
consultants, with an eye to (1) improving agricultural production in
Portugal through increased limestone and fertilizer usage, particularly
in forage crops in northern Portugal; and (2) improving the agricultural
policy decisionmaking processes in preparation for accession into the
European Economic Community (EEC). To further these goals, technical
assistance is being provided in the areas of agricultural policy,
agricultural research, small farmer credit, project management, raising
small ruminants, farming systems research, agricultural marketing,
training, Extension, and limestone production/distribution studies.


Caribbean Forestry
BLA-0605-P-AG-2235 August 1983 Ongoing

USDA's Office of International Cooperation and Development (OICD) and
the Forest Service's Institute of Tropical Forestry in Puerto Rico is
continuing to provide short-term support under the Development of
Environmental Management Systems Project. This program is designed to
assist the Caribbean islands of Barbados, St. Vincent, Dominica,
Antigua, and St. Lucia in planning and assuming their role in
development and their response to human and natural ecological
disturbances. Emphasis has been placed on wildlife and watershed
management.


-42-









Caribbean Fruit Fly
IRO-000-P-AG-4236 July 1984

USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service provided a senior
staff officer for a 2-week assignment to Barbados, Grenada, St. Vincent,
St. Lucia, Dominica, and other eastern Caribbean Islands as necessary to
design methodology for determining the presence of the Anastrepha
Suspensa (Caribbean Fruit Fly), Obliqua (West Indian Fruit Fly), and
Toxotrypana Curvicauda (Papaya Fruit Fly) in the eastern Caribbean area.


Regional Office for Central American Programs (ROCAP) Program
Development and Support
IRC-OOOO-R-AG-4219 May 1984

USDA's Office of International Cooperation and Development (OICD)
provided the services of an agricultural development specialist to
identify options and priorities for a regional program in crop
diversification for export. Of particular concern was the type of
service mechanism in market analysis and production technologies that
could support national programs.


Latin America Sector Assessment
BLA-00O-R-AG-3167 September 1976 September 1985

Long- and short-term analytical support is being provided to
AID/Washington and overseas missions in designing, carrying out, and
evaluating rural development projects. Support focuses on the goals of
upgrading diets and improving agricultural production and living
standards for rural populations in Latin America.


Latin America/Caribbean Crop Credit Insurance Systems
BLA-0579-R-AG-2093 March 1979 September 1985

USDA's Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (FCIC) is providing short- and
long-term technical assistance over a 5-year period to enable small
farmers throughout Latin America to obtain crop credit insurance. USDA
is supporting the efforts of individual countries to initiate, maintain,
and sustain their crop insurance programs.


-43-








*Staff Years of Technical Assistance Provided During Fiscal Year 1984 Middle East Area


WI Less than one yearA
One to two years

SITwo to three years

Over five years


ATime in countries which received technical assistance of three months or less is not shown.
*Includes assignments and TDY's performed by OICD's Worldwide Program Area.
Boundary representation is not necessarily authoritative.









MIDDLE EAST: USDA TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PERSONNEL, BY COUNTRY AND PROJECT, FISCAL 1984


No. of Technician Assignments
-Long-Term- ShForT Term TotaR


Project Title


Egypt
II
II
II
Jordan
II
II


Turkey
U.S.-Based


Agricultural Engineering Advisor
Data Collection and Analysis
Cotton Mechanization (FAO)
Water Quality (FAO)
Highland Project Design
Marketing
Prefeasibility Study Stony Lands
Project Manager
River Valley Agricultural Services
Data Collection (FAO)
Near East Technical Services


Joint Commission

Saudi Arabia Agricultural Affairs (Lands)
Agricultural Research and Development
Data Processing and Information System
Project Development & Management
Regional Agr and Water Research Center

TOTAL


9
2
7
4
18


1/ Individual technicians may have performed more than one assignment.

2/ In addition, U.S.-based personnel performed 3 international TDY's to
3 countries.


-45-


Country.


4
18


80 2/








A SYNOPSIS OF MIDDLE EASTERN TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROJECTS
IN PROGRESS DURING FISCAL 1984



Egypt Agricultural Engineering Advisor
IEG-OOOO-P-AG-2259 July 1983 July 1986

An agricultural engineer from the Soil Conservation Service specializing
in irrigation arrived in September 1983 to serve as advisor to the AID
Mission's Office of Irrigation and Land Development. The engineer will
interpret and analyze both technological and economic factors
influencing the development of improved irrigation systems in Egypt and
design and carry out projects aimed at developing Egypt's land and water
resources.


Egypt Data Collection and Analysis
EGY-0142-P-AG-1060 May 1981 August 1985

Under a 5-year agreement with the Cairo Mission of the Agency for
International Development, USDA economists and statisticians are
assisting the Agricultural Economics Research Institute of the Ministry
of Agriculture. The objective of this project is to work with Egyptian
counterparts to develop the staff and institutional capacity to generate
timely, reliable agricultural statistics to use in planning and
decisionmaking for economic research.


Egypt Cotton Mechanization (FAO) October 1983

Two agricultural engineers traveled to Egypt for 3 weeks to train the
staff of the General Organization for Cotton Arbitration and Testing of
the Egyptian Ministry of Trade on operating and maintaining cotton fiber
testing equipment and cotton gins.


Egypt Water Quality (FAO) October 1983

A soil scientist spent 2 weeks with officials of the FAO Mission in
Cairo to help solve problems related to the quality of water for
irrigating areas with deteriorated soils.


Jordan Highland Project Design
mission Funded July September 1984

Dr. Boyd Post, a forest biologist from USDA's Cooperative State Research
Service (CSRS) participated as team leader of the Jordan Highland
Project Design Team which looked at ways to improve the agricultural
sector in the highland region of Jordan. More specifically, the team
was requested to conduct a detailed analysis of the project's
beneficiaries, evaluate the probable effects of the project on rural
women, and evaluate the adequacy of pesticide regulations and controls.


-46-









Jordan Marketing
Mission Funded July September 1984

In response to a request received by AID/Amman from the Jordanian
National Planning Council, OICD arranged for the services of two
agricultural economists, Dr. Marshall Godwin, ERS, and
Mr. Robert Enochian. Dr. Godwin assisted in a study to relocate the
Amman wholesale fruit and vegetable market. Mr. Enochian prepared a
scope of work statement for a study of Jordan's agricultural marketing
system. In addition, Mr. Enochian proposed setting up a new directorate
of market research, information, and services within the Ministry of
Agriculture. This new directorate would he responsible for market
research, quality control and regulatory matters, market information,
and marketing extension. This proposal has been presented to the
National Planning Council for consideration.


Jordan Pre-feasibility Study for Stony Lands
Mission Funded September 1984

Dr. Klaus Flach, special assistant for science and technology in USDA's
Soil Conseration Service (SCS) assisted AID/Amman in developing a pre-
feasibility study for stony lands. The study will be incorporated into
the overall farm program in Jordan.


Jordan Project Manager
IJO-OOOO-P-AG-2234 August 1981-September 1985

USDA has recently assigned a resident agronomist to assist the Central
Development Office in planning, carrying out, and evaluating
agricultural projects in Jordan, and to manage specific agricultural
projects and activities assigned by USAID/Jordan. This agronomist
replaced an agricultural economist who returned to OICD on completion of
his 2-year tour in September 1984.

OICD has helped prepare feasibility studies for projects involving rain-
fed agriculture and pre-feasibility studies for projects on stony land
reclamation. OICD furnished consultants from USDA, the university
community, and the private sector for the Jordan Valley Agricultural
Services Project which is establishing a viable center capable of
developing and disseminating appropriate agricultural technology for
vegetable and fruit production in the region.


Jordan River Valley Agricultural Services
IJO-0000-P-AG-4017 December 1983 September 1985

A research entomologist and an insect specialist made several trips to
Jordan to design and carry out a classic biological control program to
stop an infestation of spherical mealybugs in the citrus groves of the
Jordan River Valley. The scientists went to Guam to collect parasitoids
of the mealybug and take them to Jordan to rear and release.


-47-









Turkey Data Collection (FAO_ January 1983 March 1984

An agricultural statistician made several visits to Turkey to help the
Ministry of Agriculture establish a crop and livestock data collection
system and arrange training in the United States for ministry personnel.


Near East Technical Services
BNE-0035-R-AG-2237 October 1982 Ongoing

This Resources Support Services Agreement (RSSA) has provided three
full-time agricultural consultants in agronomy and agricultural
economics and part-time specialists in other areas of agriculture.
Through the efforts of RSSA staff, one university has provided an
additional part-time economist at no cost.

RSSA consultants have provided technical services to Egypt, Yemen,
Jordan, Syria, Oman, Morocco, Cyprus, England, Germany, Spain, Rome, and
Tunisia.

These services include collecting and disseminating agricultural
information; designing livestock facilities; training people in various
agricultural disciplines; designing and evaluating projects; conducting
studies in horticultural production and marketing; preparing feasibility
studies for reclaiming stoney lands; and conducting studies on market
location, grain storage, agricultural census surveys, small ruminants;
and range and watershed management.

A significant accomplishment was the formation of a 4-person team that
developed the proposed $29 million Highland Agricultural Development
Project for Jordan.


-48-









Saudi Arabia Joint Commission
(Technical Assistance is Provided by USDA on a Reimbursable Basis)

June 1974 Ongoing



Agricultural Affairs (Lands)

The Soil Conservation Service (SCS) of USDA maintained a professional
staff of eight soil scientists this year to accelerate the completion of
a generalized soil map for the Kingdom. Current planning calls for an
atlas of soil maps of the entire Kingdom to be published in English and
Arabic in late 1985 or early 1986.


Agricultural Research and Development

U.S. specialists in civil, mechanical, and agricultural engineering and
irrigation technology are working on special development projects
requested by the Saudi Arabian Ministry of Agriculture and Water. They
are reviewing proposals presented by contractors and advising on
planning and monitoring projects. OICD activity in this area will he
phased out due to budgetary constraints.


Data Processing and Information System

USDA automated data processing personnel and contractors from the
University of Beirut are helping the Ministry of Agriculture and Water
establish and operate an Automated Data Processing Center and
Information System. The project has led to extremely user-friendly
applications that are available in both English and Arabic.


Project Development and Management

USDA is providing a team leader and an administrative officer to help
coordinate the other activities within the Saudi Arabian Ministry of
Agriculture and Water. This year OICD also added a contract officer to
the management staff because of the heavy volume of activity in this
area.


Regional Agriculture and Water Research Center

U.S. research scientists, along with those from the American University
of Beirut, are helping develop the research center. They are paying
particular attention to developing agriculture on arid and semiarid
land. The staff includes administrative personnel and specialists in
crops, livestock, food science, soil and water, and chemistry. Land has
been acquired for field research to further test laboratory results.
Soil and water samples from various parts of the Kingdom are being
analyzed.


-49-










WORLDWIDE: USDA TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PERSONNEL, BY PROJECT, FISCAL 1984



No. of Technician Assignments 1/
Project Long-Term Short-Term Total

A. AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND NUTRITION
Agricultural Production Technical Assistance 5 24 29
Agricultural Research Support Services 1 1 2
Corn Adoption Study 2 2
Scientific Liaison Officers 12 12
Food and Nutrition Technical Services 11 12 23
Indo-U.S. Nitrogen Fixation Research 4 4
Plant and Seed Materials 4 4
Scientific Research: Prosopis 1 1
Scientific Research: Science and Technology Support 2 2
Scientific Research: Tsetse Fly Diet 1 1
Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation 2/
Technology of Soil Moisture Management 1 6 7
World Rhizobium Collection 4 4

B. NATURAL RESOURCES
Asia Forestry Research Planning Workshop 3/
Climatic Zones Forestry Assessment (FAO) 1 1
Energy Expansion Through Biomass Production 4 4
Forestry Support Program 7 41 48
Multi-Use Forest Management Survey (FAO) -1 1
Research Networks in Forestry -3 3
ROCAP Fuelwood -1 1
Scientific Research: Caribbean Pine 1 1 2
Soil Management Support 8 28 36

C. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS
Agricultural Policy and Research Support 1 1
Economic Analysis Support 2 7 9
Economic Evaluation (FAO) 1 1
Nutrition Economics 7 13 20
Ecuador Data Analysis 1 1
Ecuador Scientific and Technical Planning Support 2 2
Indonesia Agriculture and Nutrition 1 1
Production Indices 2 2
Remote Sensing for Agriculture 3 3
Services to BIFAD 2 2


(Continued next page)




1T Individual technicians may have performed more than one assignment.
2/ Consists primarily of research grants to State Experiment Stations.
3/ A grant was provided to partially fund this workshop.


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CONTINUED--WORLDWIDE: USDA TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PERSONNEL, BY PROJECT, FISCAL 1984



No. of Technician Assignments 1/
Long-Te rm Short-Term TotaT

D. MANAGEMENT AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT
Agr'l Planning and Support Services (Agribusiness) 1 1
Development Project Management Center 10 24 34
Barbados Cardi Farming Systems Research & Devlpmt 3 3
Development Management Evaluation 3 3
Haiti Technical Consultant Training 1 5 6
Indonesia Training of Trainers 4 4
Malawi Project Development and Support -2 2
Mali Livestock Sector Program 4 4
Sahel Financial Management 13 17 30
Project Development Support 3 3
Rural Development Support 1 1

E. SPECIAL SERVICES
Information and Technical Inquiries 9 9
Interagency Liaison Services 3 1 4
North American Liaison Office Study (FAO) 1- 1

TOTAL 102 232 334 2/

1/ Individual technicians may have performed more than one assignment.

2/ This includes 104 technicians assigned to 50 countries; in addition, U.S.-based
personnel performed 118 international TDY's to 48 countries.


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A SYNOPSIS OF WORLDWIDE TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROJECTS
IN PROGRESS DURING FISCAL 1984


A. AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND NUTRITION


Agricultural Production Technical Assistance
BST-4109-R-AG-1085 August 1981 Ongoing

(Incorporating BST-1149-R-AG-3075, Livestock Production Capability, and
BST-4071-P-AG-2152, Pest Management Capability.)

This Resources Support Services Agreement (RSSA) supports USDA
specialists in assisting AID, Bureau for Science and Technology, Office
of Agriculture (S&T/AGR), and overseas missions to plan and implement
projects that increase production and improve utilization of cereal
grains, legumes, oilseed crops, and livestock.

The full-time RSSA staff during fiscal 1984 were an animal nutritionist
from the Extension Service (ES) and a plant pathologist from the Animal
and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). A plant physiologist from
the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) served on the RSSA part time
during the year.

The RSSA also provided nearly a person year of short-term technical
assistance to less developed countries (LDC's). It also sponsored the
National Agricultural Library's (NAL) implementation of the Agricultural
Information Exchange System (AGIES), which provides current research
literature citations to AID specialists in Washington and overseas.


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Other FY 1984 activities included:


o Partial funding of a study of pesticide-pricing policies in
LDC's,

o Preliminary development of a project to build an international
soybean research network.

o Partial funding of the Third World Soybean Research Conference
at Iowa State University.

o Technical contribution to the design of a project in integrated
pest management.

o A benefit-cost review of the AID Board for International Food
and Agricultural Development (BIFAD) Collaborative Research
Support Program.

o A study of biological control of pests in habitat management
for cassava production.


Agricultural Research Support Services
BST-OO60-R-AG-2214 December 1974 Ongoing

An OICD agricultural economist serves as chief staff officer for the
International Agricultural Research Centers (IARC) in S&T/AGR. The
IARC's include 12 centers sponsored by the Consultative Group on
International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) plus the Asian Vegetable
Research and Development Center and several other research programs.
The economist is responsible for budget, administration, and policy work
involved in AID support of individual centers and its participation in
the CGIAR system. He also coordinates AID monitoring and review of the
centers and their programs and fosters linkages between centers, AID
regional bureaus, missions, USDA, and U.S. universities. He represents
AID at certain center board and program meetings and twice yearly
meetings of the Technical Advisory Committee of the CGIAR.

Two projects associated with this RSSA are:

Corn Adoption Study
BST-4111-R-AG-4070 July 1984 July 1985

Two maize breeders are carrying out a historical study of the
development and spread of high-yielding varieties of maize in the
LDCs.


Scientific Liaison Officers
BST-4111-P-AG-4053 June 1984 Ongoing

Twelve prominent U.S. scientists, two of which are with ARS, act as
liaison between the IARCs and the U.S. scientific community.


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Food and Nutrition Technical Services
BST-0831-R-AG-4207 January 1974 Ongoing

OICD food technologists are assisting the Office of Nutrition in AID's
Bureau for Science and Technology (S&T/N), USAID missions, and private
voluntary agencies (PVO's) in identifying, developing, and promoting the
use of low-cost, nutritious foods to improve the nutritional status of
malnourished populations in less developed countries. Primary focus of
the project is on:

o Nutritionally improved and fortified staple foods,
o Utilization of locally produced processed foods,
o Production of improved weaning food, and
o Village-level processing technology.

Among its 1984 activities, the project:

o Assisted USAID and the Government of Egypt in planning and
carrying out a workshop that produced a strategy for reducing
anemia in Egypt and helped develop a national program for the
iron fortification of wheat flour as a major intervention in
that strategy.

o Promoted the development of a technology for fortifying monoso-
dium glutamate (MSG) with vitamin A and helped the Government
of Indonesia and Helen Keller International plan a project to
use fortified MSG to alleviate vitamin A deficiency.

o Developed a national program with USAID and the Government of
Jamaica for the iron fortification of wheat flour and cornmeal.

o Developed a program in the Philippines for a field trial for
extrusion stabilization of rice bran plus extraction, refining,
and marketing of the rice bran oil.

o Provided continued technical assistance to USAID and the
Government of Egypt for final planning of a project for the
production and distribution of a weaning food supplement.


Indo-U.S. Nitrogen Fixation Research
BST-1406-P-AG-4228 July 1984 September 1985

This project supports the Indo-U.S. Science and Technology Initiative by
partially funding the collaboration of USDA scientists with their Indian
colleagues in nitrogen fixation studies.


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Plant and Seed Materials
BST-0829-R-AG-2216 February 1974 Ongoing

This RSSA, sponsored by S&T/AGR, partially funds a USDA Agricultural
Research Service core staff at Beltsville, Md., to research and
distribute seed and plant materials to research centers in LDC's. At
the request of USAID missions, technical assistance is provided to
increase food production in these countries. Progress is achieved
through agricultural research by use of experimental seed and plant
materials and by broadening the germplasm base available to research
plant breeders in LDC's.

In 1983, 776 plant or seed materials were sent in 125 shipments to 49
AID-assisted countries. Slightly over a third of the items were
cereals. Inoculum was provided for most of the leguminous species.


Scientific Research: Prosopis
BST-OOOO-P-AG-3202 May 1984 May 1987

Western Regional Research Center, Berkley Ca., is conducting research to
develop Prosopis, a leguminous tree species, as an agricultural crop.
The project's objectives are to measure the food and feed values of the
foliage, fruit, seeds, and other components of various Prosopis species
and relate them to ecological parameters. Prosopis is a potentially
valuable multipurpose tree for semiarid land.


Scientific Research: Science and Technology Support
BST-5543-P-AG-3086 May 1983 Ongoing

Under this agreement, funded by AID's Office of the Science Advisor,
USDA scientists assist colleagues in developing countries who have
submitted proposals for funding under AID's Competitive Research Grants
Program. The assistance is aimed at refining promising proposals to the
standards of the U.S. scientific community. In fiscal year 1984, two
ARS scientists worked with a researcher in Thailand on a proposal for
the utilization of weeds in fiber production.

The PASA also funded the work of an ARS plant pathologist collaborating
with the Fruit Experiment Station for the Caribbean in a project to
enhance citrus fruit production.


Scientific Research: Tsetse Fly Diet
BST-5542-P-AG-2218 August 1982 December 1985

Under this agreement funded by AID's Office of the Science Advisor, the
U.S. Livestock Insects Laboratory (ARS) at College Station, Tex., is
conducting research to develop a defined artificial diet for in vitro
mass rearing of the tsetse fly. The artificial diet will eventually
replace fresh or freeze-dried blood, which is impossible to maintain or
even obtain in LDC's where the need is greatest. The diet will permit


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mass rearing of tsetse flies for use in suppression programs using
sterile males of the species. One Zambian scientist is in training at
the Insects Laboratory at College Station under the guidance of OICD's
International Training Division.


Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation
BST-0610-P-AG-2170 April 1976 Ongoing

S&T/AGR provides funding for Cooperative State Research Service's (CSRS)
subagreements with small and scattered groups of scientific experts on
Rhizobia and biological nitrogen fixation. Grants are for conducting
research on various factors limiting symbiotic nitrogen fixation and
developing a method to overcome these factors in the effort to maximize
world food production. In fiscal year 1984, a total of 63 grants were
awarded to 45 scientists at 25 universities or research institutions.


Technology of Soil Moisture Management
'(formerly Dryland and Irrigation Support)
BST-4021-P-AG-1080 July 1981 Ongoing

Soil and water management technicians and scientists, primarily from
ARS, are working with S&T/AGR to develop a worldwide capability to
support dryland (minimum rainfall) agriculture and irrigation projects
planned and carried out in less developed countries. Project activities
during 1984 were aimed at establishing research linkages between
agricultural scientists in developing countries and the United States
who are examining the problems of soil moisture management in dryland
agriculture. Discussions have been held with national researchers and
staff of the international research centers in Africa, the Middle East,
and South and Southeast Asia. ARS has appointed a senior scientist as
full-time project leader.


World Rhizobium Collection
BST-4109-R-AG-3164 September 1976 Ongoing

Recognizing the need by LDC's for a ready source of viable Rhizobia,
S&T/AGR provides funding for a small team of ARS agrobacteriologists to
staff the World Rhizobium Collection Center. The center provides a
safe, perpetual depository for rhizobium cultures. The source materials
are available to researchers worldwide to upgrade plant production
beneficial to less developed countries in their efforts to increase food
production. During 1983, RSSA staff distributed 786 cultures of
rhizobium for 127 requests from 22 countries. There were 11 requests
from biotechnology companies. There were 40 rhizobium strains added to
the collection. A 5-year extension of the project began in fiscal year
1984.


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B. NATURAL RESOURCES


Asia Forestry Research Planning Workshop
BAS-0249-P-AG-3160 October 1983 September 1984

OICD arranged with the U.S. Forest Service to provide partial funding
for this Asia regional workshop. The workshop entitled, "Increasing
Productivity of Multipurpose Species for Fuelwood and Other Uses,"
coordinated by the International Union of Forestry Research
Organizations (IUFRO), was held in the Philippines in April 1984.


Climatic Zones Forestry Assessment (FAO)
September December 1983

A Forest Service economist assisted the FAO Committee on Forestry in
Rome in analyzing the impact of political, societal, and physical trends
on resource and industrial use of forests in temperate and tropical
zones of the world.


Energy Expansion Through Biomass Production
BST-4709-P-AG-3013 October 1979 December 1984

Through a cooperative agreement with the Georgetown University Center
for Strategic and International Studies, this Participating Agency
Service Agreement (PASA) is carrying oit a study of bioenergy
development programs and strategies in developing countries. The 5-year
project, sponsored by the Office of Energy in AID's Bureau for Science
and Technology, terminates upon completion of this study.


Forestry Support Program (FSP)
BST-5519-R-AG-2188 November 1980 September 1988

FSP provides the Office of Forestry, Environment, and Natural Resources
(S&T/FNR) with international forestry expertise to implement a worldwide
forest resource management program. Seven full-time professional U.S.
Forest Service personnel conduct the Washington program, utilizing
technically and socially relevant skills in forestry and related natural
resources. In fiscal year 1984, RSSA staff and short-term experts
furnished about 2.3 person years of technical assistance to 22 LDC's.
Short- and long-term consultants or USDA technicians are recruited by
use of a computerized roster of over 1,900 forestry and natural
resources experts from U.S. Government, university, and private sector
sources. FSP's development and maintenance of this roster is a major
contribution to the mobilization of technical assistance resources in
forestry.


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Multi-Use Forest Management Survey (FAO)
October 1983 April 1984

A Forest Service statistician assisted FAO in developing a conceptual
framework for integrating forest resource surveys for multiple-use
forest management.


Research Networks in Forestry
BST-OOOO-R-AG-3162 July 1983 July 1984

In assisting AID to develop a 10-year, $40 million forestry research and
development project, OICD arranged for the services of three
specialists, one from the U.S. Forest Service, the second from a
university, and the third from the private sector, to design this
project. The specialists provided expertise in global research,
collaborative research and development, and technical backstopping
(country-level forestry research program development). This
S&T/FNR-funded RSSA also provided partial support to two regional IUFRO
workshops, one in Asia (see Asia Forestry Research Planning Workshop
above) and one in Africa.


ROCAP Fuelwood
IRO-O000-P-AG-4055 March 1984

At the request of ROCAP, OICD provided the services of a forest
economics consultant to assist the Cento Agronomics Tropical de
Investigation y Ensenaza (CATIE) and ROCAP in the identification and
review of development options and level of effort for a followup project
of applied forestry research and development in the Central American
region.


Scientific Research: Caribbean Pine
BST-5542-P-AG-2229 August 1982 September 1985

Under this agreement funded by AID's Office of the Science Advisor, the
Forest Service Institute of Tropical Forestry is conducting research on
soil, topographical, and climatic variables that exert an influence on
the growth and yield of the Caribbean Pine (P. caribbea). This 3-year
project has made considerable progress toward its goal of developing
information for four Caribbean countries (plus Puerto Rico), so that
forestry management guidelines can be prepared for commercial-level
harvesting of Caribbean Pine, the most widely planted tropical pine in
the world.


Soil Management Support
BST-1229-P-AG-2178 August 1979 Ongoing

Through this PASA, S&T/AGR funds an International Soils Program Staff in
USDA's Soil Conservation Service (SCS) to assist in programming and








coordinating the survey, classification, interpretation, and management
of soils in the less developed countries. The project provides
technical assistance upon request from USAID missions, host countries,
and international organizations. Seven international soil
classification committees have been established to refine the
international system of Soil Taxonomy, the SCS-developed system of soils
classification, particularly with respect to classifying soils of the
topics. During fiscal year 1984, regional soil taxonomy forums or
workshops for LDC soil scientists were held in Chile, Ecuador, Guam,
Thailand, and Jordan. Thirty-one U.S. soil scientists provided short-
term assistance in 18 developing countries during the year.



C. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS


Agricultural Policy and Research Support
BPC-OOOO-P-AG-1070 May December 1984

An agricultural economist from the Economic Research Service (ERS) is
working with AID's Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination (PPC) to
carry out analyses of AID programs in agriculture and rural development
and to design policy-oriented research activities in these areas.


Economic Analysis Support
BST-0060-R-AG-2158 October 1975 Ongoing

An ERS agricultural economist is assigned to S&T/AGR to assist that
office in:

o Country program evaluations,

o Field mission program evaluations,

o Field mission support in economic analysis, and

o The development of centrally funded research and technical
services projects in agricultural economics.


A study of AID's utilization of U.S. scientific and technical expertise
was completed during fiscal year 1984. Short-term economic analysis
services are also provided through this RSSA.


Economic Evaluation (FAO) July November 1983

An ERS agricultural economist worked with FAO in Rome to implement
planning and economic analyses preparatory to the Fifth World Food
Survey.


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Nutrition Economics
BST-1191-R-AG-3125 July 1977 Ongoing

A small staff of USDA agricultural economists is providing assistance to
developing countries in integrating food consumption and nutrition
concerns into their agricultural planning, programming, and policymaking
processes through a program of applied research, technical assistance,
and other information dissemination activities. This group has also
provided field support to over 10 AID missions during fiscal year 1984
and provides continuous staff support to its sponsoring AID office,
S&T/N.

Studies of the consumption effects of agricultural policies have been
undertaken under the auspices of the Nutrition Economics Group in nine
countries in Africa and Latin America--Cameroon, Senegal, Sierra Leone,
Sudan, Tanzania, Honduras, Jamaica, Panama, and Peru. A major review of
this applied research program was successfully completed early in fiscal
year 1984. Over 40 people participated in this review representing
AID/Washington, AID field missions, governments of seven of the
countries participating in the first round of studies, contractors that
undertook the studies, and the U.S. academic community. The review
confirmed the success of the activities to date and provided guidelines
for the group's second phase of activities.

Additional efforts were made during fiscal year 1984 to disseminate
results from the group's applied research program. Results from the
analysis of Egypt's food ration and subsidy system were disseminated
within Egypt as well as to the development assistance community through
task reports and special seminars. A special report was prepared and
widely distributed in the United States and overseas summarizing the
results of the African consumption effects studies. The group also
distributed 132 copies of its report entitled "Intra-Family Food
Distribution" and 141 copies of its annotated bibliography entitled
"Food Consumption and Nutrition Effects of International Development
Projects and Programs" to government officials and other development
professionals in the United States and over 40 other, primarily
developing, countries.

Technical assistance was also provided during fiscal year 1984 to the
Government of Jamaica with the design and implementation of a food stamp
program and to the Government of Ecuador with the analysis of an income
and expenditure data set (see below).

Ecuador Data Analysis
IEC-0013-P-AG-3181 November 1983 May .984

This project provided additional funding for a consumption
economist to assist the Nutrition Unit of Ecuador's National
Development Council with the editing and analysis of data on food
and health expenditures made by urban and rural households in
Ecuador during the midseventies.


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Ecuador Scientific and Technical Planning Support
BST-0262-P-AG-4235 August 1984

A USDA anthropologist spent 4 weeks in Ecuador assisting the
Government's Agriculture Research Institute to design a method to
assess the impact of its farming system project on the food
consumption patterns and nutritional status of project
beneficiaries. A microcomputer specialist provided an additional
week of assistance training Ecuadorian personnel in the use of
microcomputers for data processing and analysis.


Indonesia Agriculture and Nutrition
IID-0249-P-AG-4220 June July 1984

An economics consultant spent 4 weeks in Indonesia reviewing
USAID's agricultural portfolio and advising on ways to improve the
nutritional benefits of projects, including recommending methods
which AID and the Indonesian Government can use to measure the
extent of the projects' consumption/nutrition effects.


Production Indices
BST-0064-R-AG-3030 January 1974 September 1984

USDA's Economic Research Service (ERS) staff resources are assisting the
Development Information Unit (DIU) in AID's Bureau of Program and Policy
Coordination by:

o Providing indices of agricultural production in developing
countries,

o Analyzing food availabilities and needs in AID-assisted
countries, and

o Carrying out agricultural situation assessments in selected
developing countries.

Discussions are under way with AID concerning an extension of this RSSA
for 5 years.


Remote Sensing for Agriculture
BST-0000-P-AG-3032 October 1977 -* December 1983

Through this PASA sponsored by S&T/FNR, experts from the Statistical
Reporting Service (SRS) provided technical assistance in implementing
remote-sensing area frame sampling in 13 developing countries. The
technicians develop area frame samples by remote-sensing techniques and
specific LANDSAT imagery and aerial photography. This enables less
developed countries to improve the accuracy and timeliness of crop
production estimates. Fiscal year 1984 activity was devoted to wrapping
up work in the project countries. The project was extremely successful


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in Morocco, the Philippines, Ecuador, and Jamaica. These countries are
expanding or have already expanded this pilot area frame project to full
country implementation with their own funding.


Services to BIFAD
BBI-OOOO-P-AG-4011 September 1982 Ongoing

This PASA provides USDA staff support and special expertise to the Board
for International Food and Agricultural Development, (BIFAD). An ERS
agricultural economist is serving with the BIFAD staff to develop a
strategy for training agriculturalists from developing countries. A
program specialist from the International Training Division is assisting
part time with this work.



D. MANAGEMENT AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT


Agricultural Planning and Support Services (Agribusiness)
BST-1096-P-AG-2194 August 1978 Ongoing

OICD and the Organization of American States (OAS) are cooperating to
provide a rural finance specialist to work with the Bureau for Science
and Technology, Office of Rural and Institutional Development (ST/RD),
in implementing a Rural Savings and Capital Mobilization project in
LDC's. During FY 1984, project activities were carried out in West
Africa and South Asia.


Development Project Management Center (DPMC)
BST-5317-P-AG-2250 March 1976 Ongoing

This project, sponsored by ST/RD, gives partial support to DPMC for
technical assistance in project development and for research and
development of approaches to project management improvement. DPMC:

o Is completing a technical paper on promising approaches to
implementation suggested by DPMC experiences in Jamaica,
Portugal, Indonesia, Thailand, Barbados, Kenya, and Sahelian
countries like Mali.

o Has completed a handbook for preparing technical assistance
teams before they go overseas through team planning meetings.
The handbook is designed as a guide for facilitators of team
planning meetings. It also meets a need for other development
agencies that are interested in initiating team planning
meetings.

o Performed research on how data can be collected during
technical assistance efforts culminating in country assistance
reports that provide lessons learned from a collection of such
reports.


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o Prepared a reference handbook providing guidance to multi-
disciplinary technical assistance teams on how they can help
the host country achieve project goals and foster sustained
host country capability.

o Initiated a case study on microcomputers as a tool in
management with a special focus on human and organizational
effects.

o Published a paper on "An Organizational Change Strategy for
Developing Countries," which was presented at the
26th International Meeting of the Institute of Management
Science.

o Is preparing a handbook of monitoring and evaluation case
studies which will form the foundation of an evaluation
workshop.


During fiscal year 1984, OICD's Development Project Management Center
(DPMC) had major responsibility for leadership and technical input in
the six projects summarized below:

Barbados Cardi Farming Systems Research and Development
IBB-0099-P-AG-4024 January February 1984

DPMC provided a two-phased project implementation management
workshop for the Farming Systems Research and Development Project,
a 5-year, $12 million project jointly funded by the Caribbean
Agricultural Research and Development Institute and AID's Regional
Development Office for the Caribbean.


Development Management Evaluation
BPC--0-85-AG-G-T424TO August October 1984

DPMC provided consultant services to AID's Bureau for Program and
Policy Coordination (PPC) on the evaluation of development
management, focusing on financial management and the analytical
framework for evaluating management enhancement.


Haiti Technical Consultant Training
IHT-0167-P-AG-3157 October 1983 September 1985

Resident and short-term technical assistance was provided to the
Direction of Evaluation and Control (DEC) of the Ministry of
Planning to improve the project-monitoring and evaluation systems
for donor-sponsored projects using DPMC's action-training approach
and intervention methodologies.


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Indonesia Training of Trainers
IID-0308-P-AG-3150 August December 1983

Under this PASA sponsored by USAID Indonesia, one consultancy in
fiscal year 1983 and four in fiscal year 1984, were provided by
DPMC to create action-training materials and an approach for
project-implementation training in Bidan Diklat for the Local
Government Training Project, DPMC also trained 20-25 trainers in
implementation techniques and action training.


Malawi Project Development and Support
BST-5317-X-AG-4268 April May 1984

DPMC is working with USAID Malawi and the Malawian government (GOM)
to create a project management system that permits USAID Malawi to
expand its project portfolio without a corresponding expansion of
USAID staff. Sixteen weeks of technical assistance were provided
to reach agreements between USAID, the Ministry of Finance, and
other project-related ministries on an approach to project
management systems and on the roles of USAID and GOM agencies.
This project is to become part of DPMC's core PASA.


Mali Livestock Sector Program
IML-0218-P-AG-3066 August 1983 September 1987

This 5-year, $17 million livestock project is the first of its kind
in Mali to have a management component as part of the design. DPMC
has been asked to provide consultation as part of this management
component. Two technical assistance temporary duty assignments
during FY 1984 started the process of collaboration among project
personnel to develop work plans and budgets and make other
management decisions. The major actors in this project have
expressed great satisfaction with the management improvements
resulting from DPMC consultations. The management component
innovation in Mali represents a pilot effort that may be duplicated
in other projects.


Sahel Financial Management
ISE-0950-P-AG-2217 September 1982 December 1986

DPMC is working with Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State
University and AID Sahel Regional Office to provide resident and
short-term technical assistance to improve financial management in
six Sahelian countries. This assistance is helping these countries
to maintain certification of accounting systems in host countries,
which are managing local currency project funds. They are also
helping to develop and carry out learning-by-doing
(action-training) and consultancy operations to improve accounting
and financial management capabilities.


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Project Development Support
BST-5300-P-AG-3070 August 1977 Ongoing

A public finance economist from the University of North Carolina and an
ERS rural sociologist carried out an evaluation of the AID-sponsored
Local Revenue Generation and Administration project.


Rural Development Support
BST-1096-R-AG-3164 May 1977 Ongoing

OICD is sponsoring a cooperative agreement with the University of
Wisconsin to study the organization and functioning of rural land
markets in developing countries.



E. SPECIAL SERVICES


Information and Technical Inquiries
BPC-0064-R-AG-3076 March 1974 Ongoing

Under the RSSA sponsored by the Development Information Unit of AID's
Bureau of Program and Policy Coordination, OICD's Technical Inquiries
Group provides technical agricultural information on demand to
professional agronomists, horticulturists, agricultural economists, and
livestock production experts on overseas assignment with AID in
developing countries. The staff receives inquiries for current and
retrospective research and extension literature in all areas of the
agricultural sciences and performs systematic, comprehensive, exhaustive
searches for literature derived from USDA and worldwide sources.
Information resources of the Department, National Agricultural Library,
land-grant universities, other government agencies, and agricultural
institutions throughout the world are utilized, in addition to
bibliographic data base files. Experts in the subject fields are called
on for technical input and information.


Interagency Liaison Services
BCM-0000-R-AG-2153 July 1982 November 1984

This AID-USDA Agreement, sponsored by the Office of Contract Management
in AID's Directorate for Program and Management Services, provides for
USDA assistance in implementing technical assistance programs funded by
AID and carried out under the Participating Agency Program. During
fiscal year 1984, an ERS contract specialist has been responsible for:

o Handling day-to-day relations with assigned participating
agencies,

o Negotiating agreements for services, and


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o Administering each service provided under PASA/RSSA agreements
with participating agencies on behalf of AID's substantive and
geographic bureaus and missions.

The technician is also responsible for the negotiation and
administration of contract and grant actions as required.


North American Liaison Office Study (FAO)


November December 1983


A telecommunications officer from the Soil Conservation Service advised
FAO's North American Liaison Office on the design and installation of a
word processing system.










































*II.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 19b5 0-460-939/UICD-?0131
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United States
Department of Agriculture


Washington, D.C.
20250
OFFICIAL BUSINESS
Penalty for Private Use, $300


DR. PETER HILDEBRAND
FOOD AND RESOURCE ECONOMICS
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1125 MCCARTY HALL
GAINESVILLE, FL 32611


Postage and Fees Paid
United States
Department of Agriculture
AGR-101
Third Class Bulk


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