• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 Philosophy and objectives
 Curriculum
 Organization and operation
 Appendix














Title: Project plan for distributive education programs in Florida's high schools
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Title: Project plan for distributive education programs in Florida's high schools
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Florida. Distributive Education Section.
Publisher: Division of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education,
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1971
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Volume ID: VID00002
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Preface
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Philosophy and objectives
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Curriculum
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Organization and operation
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Appendix
        Page 41a
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
Full Text


U OF F LIBRARIES


DIVISION OF
VOCATIONAL TECHNICAL
AND ADULT EDUCATION


U OF F LIBRA


THE PROJECT PLAN
FOR DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION
IN FLORIDA'S
HIGH SCHOOLS


3754009c759

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DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
TALL AH.ASSEE. FLORIDA
FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN, Commissioner































UNIVERSITY

OF FLORIDA

LIBRARIES





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1855 2.








BULLETIN 74H-6 (Revised)


THE PROJECT PLAN FOR

DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION

PROGRAMS IN FLORIDA'S

HIGH SCHOOLS


DIVISION OF VOCATIONAL,
TECHNICAL, AND ADULT EDUCATION
Carl W. Proehl, Director


DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION SECTION
John E. Frazier, Administrator


SEPTEMBER, 1971


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375. oo 7sq


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(9171















PREFACE


This publication has been prepared to assist administrators and
distributive education personnel in successfully establishing and operating
Distributive Education programs through the utilization of the project plan
of instruction in Florida high schools. The publication represents an
expansion and further development of the initial guide written by Wendell
G. Gingrich in 1965, then a student in distributive education at the
University of South Florida.
Appreciation is expressed to the distributive education programs from
a number of states and to the United States Office of Education, Division
of Vocational and Technical Education for materials which have been included.
Also acknowledged are the services of Mrs. Kay Brown, former teacher-
educator of distributive education at Richmond Professional Institute,
Richmond, Virginia, who served as chief consultant for a special workshop
committee which developed the first edition of this publication at the
University of South Florida in June, 1966. The efforts and contributions
of the workshop members are sincerely appreciated.
Those participating were:
Percy Clement W. J. Cooney
Leto High School Brandon High School
Tampa, Florida Brandon, Florida
Wendell Gingrich Charles Kraemer
Seminole High School Melbourne High School
Largo, Florida Melbourne, Florida
David Lockwood Wayne Logan
University of South Florida Key West High School
Tampa, Florida Key West, Florida
Jim Middleton Richard Powell
Choctawhatchee High School Blake High School
Shalimar, Florida Tampa, Florida








Larry Puckett
Mount Dora High School
Mount Dora, Florida
Josephine Wetzel
Mid-Florida Technical School
Orlando, Florida


Fred Sibert
Evans High School
Orlando, Florida
Floyd Yoder
Leto High School
Tampa, Florida


Congressional legislation of 1968 and a rapidly expanding Distributive
Education program in Florida necessitated the further revision of this publi-
cation.
It is hoped that this guide will be helpful to distributive education
personnel and school administrators in their job of preparing high school
students for future careers in marketing and distribution through utilization
and implementation of the project plan as an organizational pattern and
method of instruction.











TABLE OF CONTENTS


PREFACE i

PHILOSOPHY AND OBJECTIVES 1
Marketing in the American Economy
Distributive Education
The Project Plan in Distributive Education
Comparison of Cooperative and Project Plans in
Distributive Education
Anticipated Learning Outcomes
Summary

CURRICULUM 10
Curriculums for Distributive Education Programs
Principles for Development of a Project Plan Curriculum
Occupational Competencies Required for
Distributive Employment
The Project Method and Techniques of Instruction
Distributive Education Clubs of America

ORGANIZATION 32
Organizational Plans Available
Procedures for Developing a Project Plan
Distributive Education Program
Advisory Committees
Program Personnel
Facilities and Equipment
Conditions for a Quality Program

APPENDIX 42
Glossary
Student Application for Distributive Education
Survey for New Program
Survey of Distributive Job Opportunities
Survey of Student Interest in Distributive Education
Bibliography












PHILOSOPHY AND OBJECTIVES


Marketing In The American Economy
Production, exchange, distribution, and consumption form the four major
processes in the American economy. Within these economic processes, four
kinds of utilities must be created: form, time, place, and possession
utility. Marketing serves to create three of these utilities: namely,
time, place and possession. Marketing ties production, exchange, distri-
bution, and consumption together through a continuous process of determining
consumer need and demand for a product or service, and directing the flow
of those products and services from the producer to the consumer.
Until the turn of the twentieth century, over three-fourths of our
labor force were employed in agriculture, the extractive industries,
construction, and manufacturing, with less than one-fourth employed in
all other industries. This employment pattern reflected a basically
agrarian economy. The movement of goods from producer to consumer was
relatively simple, and the limited variety of goods required modest effort
by the distributive segment of the economy.
With the advent of the Industrial Revolution and the introduction of
mass production in this country, the distributive segment grew in importance
and complexity. Today, distribution and marketing represents the largest
single segment of our economy as more than fifty per cent of the labor
force are employed in the broad field of marketing and distribution.
The marketing component in retail prices today represents over fifty
per cent of the price and an equivalent amount in value added. There is
every indication that this trend will continue as our capacity to produce
has far exceeded our capacity to distribute. The importance of distribution
and marketing in our economy is further emphasized in that each of America's
more than four million business firms has a product or service to sell.
The security of the investment, stability of employment, and profitability
and success of each business is dependent upon the effectiveness of the
marketing process.









Distributive Education
Distributive Education is a program of vocational instruction in the
field of marketing and distribution. It is designed to prepare individuals
to enter, to progress, or to improve competencies in distributive occupations.
Emphasis is placed on the development of attitudes, skills, and understandings
related to marketing, merchandising, and management.
Distributive Education is a cooperative effort whose participants are
educators, students, and businessmen in the field of distribution. Improved
skills and understanding enhance the value of the Distributive Education
trained employee and subsequently enlarge his scope of endeavor in the
field of distribution. This increased efficiency and enlightenment through
education results in mutual benefit to employee and employer as well as
reflecting professional dignity and status to the profession of marketing.
Distributive occupations are those followed by proprietors, managers, or
employees engaged primarily in marketing or merchandising goods or services.
These occupations are found in such businesses as retail and wholesale trade;
finance, insurance, and real estate; marketing services; manufacturing;
transportation, storage, utilities, and communications.
The objectives of the Distributive Education program are:
1. To develop an understanding of the social and economic responsibilities
which accompany the right to engage in distribution in a free compe-
titive society.
2. To provide continuous assistance in securing the knowledge, skills,
and attitudes needed in making adequate choices, plans and interpre-
tations essential to satisfactory adjustment in the distributive
occupations.
3. To strengthen the employment competencies of the student, thereby
increasing the efficiency of marketing techniques and practices.
4. To prepare distributive employees to satisfy the needs of consumers
intelligently, efficiently and pleasantly.
5. To create an awareness of social, economic, and educational develop-
ments affecting changes in marketing practices.
The Project Plan in Distributive Education
Before the passage of the Vocational Education Act of 1963 (Morse-
Perkin's Bill: Public Law 88-210), Cooperative Distributive Education in








Florida was daily contijuu,,. of practical on-the-job training, individualized
study related to the student's job, and group instruction related to distribu-
tive businesses for those students sixteen years of age or older. Instruction,
therefore, was limited to employed persons.
Public Law 88-210 revitalized this concept by providing that any amounts
allotted (or apportioned) under such titles, Act, or Acts for distributive
occupations may be used for vocational education for any person over fourteen
years of age who has entered upon or is preparing to enter upon a distributive
occupation, and such education need not be provided in part-time or evening
schools. This statement indicated that it was possible to have a program,
that for all practical purposes, could be called a total in-school distribu-
tive education program, as the projects performed in the community would be
directed and supervised by the school.
In October of 1968, Public Law 90-576 was passed by the 90th Congress.
The age stipulation of 14 was removed "... so that persons of all ages in
all communities of the State... will have ready access to vocational
training or retraining..." This legislation provided for the expansion of
the distributive education program through the utilization of an organiza-
tional pattern referred to as the project plan. The project plan involves
a regularly scheduled series of individually designed learning activities
that give students an opportunity to apply theory in practice while
developing competencies through projects related to their distributive
occupational objectives.
This plan employs the project method of instruction rather than the
cooperative method. The project method extends classroom instruction into
a laboratory environment. The activities provided in the laboratory
classroom may be individual or group projects which are directed towards
the gainful employment of the student and/or towards the development of
new levels of individual job performance.
Emphasis should be placed on the fact that project distributive
education is a part of vocational education. Vocationally directed
education differs troin general education in that it is:
1. Job orient,.i. It endeavors to make students competent in skills,
knowledge, and practices of the individual student's occupational
objective.







2. Student oriented. The classroom is a place of instruction,
where students participate individually or in large or small
groups in various projects in the field of distribution. The
individual student's many needs are of importance in vocational
education.
3. Community conscious. The vocational education teacher must be
aware of the needs of the community. His program should reflect
those needs so that students, upon graduation, will have skills
and competencies required by local businesses.
4. Flexible. Rigid schedules or teaching units are adjusted as
necessary to meet the needs of the student. The organization
should not be an obstacle to education. When dealing with human
beings, certain interests are shown at various times. This interest
is a motivating force for learning. In order to capitalize on this
interest, plans must be flexible to permit necessary change.
5. Learning by doing. Participation activities, projects, laboratories,
program solving, and other similar activities are primary means to
learning.
6. Broad in scope and yet specialized. Individual study by the
student constitutes the particulars of his specific career objective
in the field of distribution. At the same time, however, general
concepts applicable to the broad field of marketing and distribution
are studied as well.
Since the project plan is an integral part of distributive education, its
primary objective is to meet the needs of more students by providing learning
experiences individualized according to occupational objectives and student
differences.
The project method is designed to provide the following advantages and
objectives:
For the Student:
1. Provides vocational education for more students and on an individual
basis.
2. Combines obtaining business "know-how" with high school credit.
3. Increases sound principles, discoveries, and judgments before
entering employment.









4. Fosters deisrable work habits through social and business
adjustments.
5. Directs the student's learning outcomes to the student's interests
and career objectives.
6. Increases career development and job proficiency.
7. Develops understandings of the student's role in our society and
economic system.
For the School:
1. Broadens educational opportunities to meet the needs of more
students.
2. Offers distributive education where cooperative programs are not
feasible.
3. Extends and improves existing cooperative distributive education
programs because of its flexibility.
4. Promotes cooperation between business and schools by improving
public relations.
5. Broadens curriculum in elective areas.
6. Qualifies for Federal funds.
For the Community:
1. Fosters participation in the national, state, and local effort to
increase the proficiency of the nation's working force.
2. Aids in the development of responsible citizens and stimulates
community growth.
3. Assists in educating personnel to meet the employers' needs and
requirements, which, inturn, improves the local economy.
4. Discovers new areas of cooperation with the local school system.

As the distributive occupations encompass 30 to 50% of all the jobs in
the nation, the present demand for trained personnel in these occupations is
increasing rapidly. The demand will be even greater in the future.
Distributive education helps to meet this great need. With the project
olan, many more students will have the opportunity to be trained for careers
in distribution. The project plan is especially designed for the following
groups of students:
1. Students living in geographical or economic areas where part-time
employment is scarce or not available, thereby precluding the
establishment of a cooperative program.








2. Students unable to be in the cooperative distributive education
program because of home conditions, conflicting schedules in the
school, and/or those whose handicaps prevent them from having the
personal employability requisite to part-time employment at the
time of enrollment.
3. Students planning to enter the cooperative distributive education
program but who desire and need preparatory instruction prior to
enrollment.
4. Students, particularly college-bound students, who want distributive
education knowledge, but whose schedules are limited in elective
subjects.
5. Students fourteen years of age and older whose distributive occupa-
tional objective is real, but not primary at the time of counseling,
and who desire to sharpen this objective through a basic job curriculum
in distributive education.

Comparison of Cooperative and Project Plans in Distributive Education
For a better understanding of the project plan, a comparison between
it and the cooperative plan should prove helpful.

Similarities
1. Both include school approval and involvement in vocational
learning experiences.
2. Both have clearly defined instructional goals with the major goal
being preparation for gainful employment in a distributive occupation,
according to individual career goals.
3. Both provide credit recognition for progress and proficiency in the
vocational learning experiences of either project or cooperative
training.
4. Both provide adequate time needed by the teacher-coordinator to
relate classroom instruction to either project or cooperative
training.
5. Both provide adequate time needed for student participation in
either project or cooperative training.
6. The learning experiences of both project and cooperative training
are related to the student's occupational objective.









7. Individual project training plans or individual cooperative
training plans are recommended for both.
8. Both involve some occupational experience. (It is the primary
avenue for the vocational approach in the cooperative plan.)
9. Both are enriched and supplemented by DECA chapter activities
which provide an opportunity for students to demonstrate and
refine the competencies needed in distributive employment.
10. Both are plans of vocational instruction to assure application
to employment requirements.
11. For both, teaching techniques utilizing student participation
enable the coordinator to relate classroom instruction to either
project or cooperative training.

Differences
1. Greater school involvement and responsibility in the project plan.
2. Greater necessity for the individual training plan in the project
plan. These plans are used to document the projects assigned to
and completed by the students.
3. Occupational experience is the primary avenue of vocational
application in the cooperative plan. It is one type of project
in the project plan.
4. DECA chapter activities serve additionally in the project method
as types of projects.

Anticipated Learning Outcomes
The merits of any education program are measured, in part, by the
degree of constructive and desirable change in the student's character
and attitude, plus the amount of increased proficiency of his manual and
rental skills and knowledge. Measuring knowledge is a difficult under-
standing at best, but it has been demonstrated, especially in vocational
education, that sound objectives and a carefully planned program to
accomplish specific learning outcomes, make the task of evaluation easier
and more meaningful.
What, then, are the anticipated learning outcomes of project distributive
education? There are four basic areas of competencies which should be
mastered:
1. Competency in marketing, including competency in economic concepts







2. Competency in social skills
3. Competency in basic skills
4. Competency in a technology (product or service)
These four competency areas represent the performance standards for
employability in a particular distributive occupation. The degree of
instruction in each area varies in depth according to the level of the job
objective to be served.
It is also intended that the project plan will accomplish for each
student, learning outcomes comparable to those which are accomplished in
the cooperative plan. These include:
1. Understanding of how distributive occupations support a healthy
economy.
2. Integration of theory and practice.
3. Appreciation of the meaning of work to an individual.
4. Evaluation of aptitudes and abilities in connection with job
situations.
5. Maturity in vocational information and occupational choice.
6. Constructive relationships with mixed age groups.
7. Greater confidence in one's own judgments.
8. Acceptance of responsibility for one's own efforts.

Summary
Since the project is an extension of distributive education, it provides
many of the same opportunities as cooperative distributive education programs.
Graduates of project and cooperative distributive education may seek full-
time employment, enroll in junior college distributive education (Mid-
Management) programs, or gain full-time employment supplemented by adult
distributive education courses.
The essence of the project plan is that it is vocational education and
encourages vocationally-centered learning. Individual as well as group
projects will be directed towards the gainful employment of the individual
and advancement in his chosen occupational field. The success of the project
plan in distributive education is dependent upon the utilization of the
vocational approach in all aspects of the program.









The field of distribution is demanding highly trained people. Expansion
of this field will be more pronounced as further mechanization, automation,
and future implementations are utilized. Project distributive education,
as part of the vocational education, will aid students in preparing for
this expanding field and for their life goals.










CURRICULUM


Curri-culums for Distributive Education Programs
At the middle school or junior high school level, pre-vocational offerings
in Distributive Education are provided to give the student the opportunity to
explore the scope of career opportunities available to him in the broad field
of marketing. The instructional program is laboratory oriented, and includes
a wide variety of learning experiences to assist the student in making an
informed and meaningful occupational choice.
At the secondary level, preparatory instruction is organized for three
levels of development: basic job, career development job, and specialist
job.
The basic job curriculum emphasizes fundamental techniques in sales and
sales-supporting services; essential marketing concepts, qualifying social
competencies, and basic skills in computations and communications. The
primary purpose of this curriculum is to prepare the student for the
elementary or basic level distributive occupations, involving minimal employ-
ment responsibility. The basic job curriculum utilizes the project or
cooperative plan of instruction and may be offered in secondary schools and/or
area vocational-technical education centers.
The career development job curriculum emphasizes the functions of
marketing, merchandising, and management within the discipline of distribution.
The major purpose is to prepare students for the career development job level,
which involves competencies and responsibilities beyond those required for
the basic job level and less advanced than those needed by a specialist in
distribution. This curriculum may utilize either the project or cooperative
plan of instruction, and may be offered in secondary schools, junior colleges,
and/or area vocational-technical education centers.
Graduates of the career development curriculum may then advance to the
specialist job curriculum which is offered in many of the senior high schools
and in the junior colleges. This curriculum emphasizes specific functions,
product areas or service fields usually at mid-levels of employment









responsibility. The major purpose is to prepare students for distributive
specializations in functions, product areas, or service fields.
In addition to the preparatory curriculums, vocational education in
marketing and distribution is provided in supplementary programs on a part-
time basis for adults who wish to refresh and update competencies needed in
their employment, and/or for those who seek new and specialized competencies
necessary to continuing employment or advancement in responsibility.
Each of these curriculums is correlated with the various job levels to
assure a progression of learning and a continuity of purpose. The illustration
on the following page depicts this progression.





INSTRUCTIONAL DEVELOPMENT
IN
DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION










Principles for Development of a Project Plan Curriculum
The manner in which the instructional areas are applied to a particular
curriculum is dependent upon such factors as students' job goals, the purpose
of the curriculum, where the curriculum is available, the method of instruction,
and the sequence of training available in a school or community. These factors
suggest the following principles for development of a preparatory curriculum:
1. The curriculum should be identified with the students'
occupational objectives.
2. The curriculum should be planned so that the proportion of time
devoted to the various areas of instruction is related to the
competencies required for the particular job level basic jobs,
career development jobs, or specialist jobs.
3. The curriculum should be consistent with the type of school in
which it is located -- comprehensive or technical high school;
junior college, technical, or area vocational school; or other
vocational training facility.
4. The curriculum should be planned in relation to the total
sequence of job preparation available to students in the school,
community, area, or state so that students may participate in a
continuum of training involving advancement through the areas
of instruction.

Occupational Competencies Required for Distributive Employment
In order to qualify for employment opportunities in distribution, it is
necessary that the person possess specific competencies. The occupational
competencies provide the bases for curricula development in distribution and
may be enumerated as follows:
1. Social competency. A person engaged in distribution has a set
of personal characteristics which are vocationally relevant.
Distribution is characterized as being people-oriented, not
machine-oriented and as such human relationships are of paramount
importance. Personal appearance, traits, and attitudes comprise
this social competency which becomes a qualifying factor in
employment.







2. Basic skill competency. The person engaged in distribution makes
constant application of the basic skills of communications and
mathematics to his employment situation. The whole field of
distribution revolves around communications. This fact places a
premium of one's facility with these tool subjects as a basis for
employment in distribution.
3. Technology competency. One engaged in distribution is intimately
associated with a specialty, typically a product or service. The
degree of success is dependent upon the knowledge he possesses of
this specialty which, in view of the growing complexity of products
and services being produced in the economy, is referred to as his
technology. A functioning knowledge of this technology, whether
it be furniture, insurance, fabrics, automobiles, petroleum or
data processing equipment becomes the focal point upon which other
knowledge and skills are applied.
4. Marketing competency. The person engaged in distribution has
demonstrated accomplishment in the performance of one or more
of the functions of distribution, which are, in summarized form,
selling, sales promotion, buying, operations, market research,
and management. While the immediate job responsibility is generally
centered on one of these functions, an accomplished worker has
understandings and appreciations of all the functions operating
within the business enterprise. Out of these functions and supple-
mental understandings about distribution come the body of knowledge
which we call the discipline of distribution.*

These competencies constitute the basis for the areas of instruction, each
of which is interrelated with each other. These interrelationships are depicted
in graphic form on the following pages.







*Edwin L. Nelson, Bases for Curricula Development in Distribution,
speech presented to National Clinic on Distributive Education, October, 1963.







COMPETENCIES AND THEIR INTERRELATIONSHIPS


Marketing
(The Discipline)


Marketing, the discipline, is the
specialized subject matter unique to
vocational instruction in distribution
and marketing. It is the body of
knowledge common to all distributive
occupations.


Product or
Service Technology


Product or Service Technology relates
to the discipline in that the focal
point in the performance of the
distributive functions is the product
or service.


Social Skills
relate to the
discipline and Soci
to Product or
Service
Technology in
that proficienc
in personal
attributes,
attitudes, and
standards of service
facilitates the
performance of the
distributive functions
and enables the worker to
use his product or service
knowledge and techniques
effectively.








COMPETENCIES AND THEIR INTERRELATIONSHIPS
(Continued)


/

/ I
/

Social Skills \


S/
s'^ /-


I


Marketing
(The Discipline)
Basic Skills/


S Basic Skills


/\


/t '
/


Product or
Service


ogy


S Technol


//


Basic skills relate to the discipline, Product or Service Technology,
and Social Skills in that one engaged in distribution must make constant
application of the basic skills of communications and mathematics in
performing the marketing functions, in using product or service
knowledge and techniques, and in demonstrating proficiency in social
skills.


/






COMPETENCIES AND THEIR INTERRELATIONSHIPS
(Continued)









Distribution in
Distribution in


I




/
/
/
/
/


the Economy


Distribution in the Economy relates to the discipline, Product or
Service Technology, Social Skills, and Basic Skills in that economic
understandings serve as bases for decisions concerning distributive
functions and the product or service; and those understandings provide
motivation for the worker to apply his social and basic skills.







Five major units of instruction are included in each curriculum in
order to develop these competencies. The five units of instruction
include: (1) orientation, (2) merchandising, (3) distribution in our
economy, (4) organization, location, and finance, (5) marketing management.
These areas of study are arranged in a sequential order, whereby a
progression of learning continues through all levels of instruction. The
term "Drogression of learning" classifies the curriculum according to a
plan for continuous student development brought about by increasing the
extent and depth of instruction through advancing stages.
In developing these areas of study whereby a progression of learning is
maintained, attention and emphasis is given to "what is it" and "how" in the
Basic Job Curriculum, and "how" and "why" in the second year of the Career
Development Curriculum.
This progression is developed as vocationally oriented students are
initially interested in the "what" and "how" of a subject. Their interest
in the "why" of that subject is then developed after the students feel a
personal sense of involvement through performance of job oriented activities
and projects.
The curriculum outline for each level of instruction is organized to
encompass thirty weeks of each school year. This allows two weeks for testing
and other school activities, and four weeks for the inclusion of additional
units of instruction which the teacher-coordinator may deem appropriate for
that particular class.*

The Project Method and Techniques of Instruction
The project method is defined as the "coordination of classroom instruction
with a series of individually selected activities or projects related to students'
occupational objectives." This method extends classroom instruction into a
laboratory environment. The activities provided in the laboratory are used
to enrich and implement the understandings and skills developed during the
regular classroom sessions.


*Vivian King Ely, "Development of an Expanded Distributive Education
Curriculum Concept in Virginia High Schools," Business Education Forum,
April, 1966.
*For further information concerning the curriculum outlines, contact
the Program Administrator, Distributive Education, State Department of Education,
Tallahassee, Florida.







Learning experiences are individualized according to the occupational
objective and needs of each student. To qualify for admission into the
program, the student must have a career objective in the field of marketing
and distribution. Initially, this may be a vague field of interest, but as
he progresses through the program, this interest and objective becomes more
sharply defined. To enable the student to sharpen this interest, a series
of individually selected learning experiences is planned in order that he
may progress to the level of competencies required by his occupational
goal.
"The project method in action, then, helps each student maintain
his motivation, personalize the integration of theory and practice,
and develop himself according to his potential for his occupational
objective."

The project method gives the teacher-coordinator direct control
of the pace and nature of laboratory activities assigned individual
students. Unlike the cooperative situation, where the student is
employed and his training supervised by a department head or manager,
the project laboratory relies upon the teacher-coordinator to plan
and supervise trainee participation experiences. The teacher-
coordinator assumes the role of training sponsor. He represents
a future employer as he provides learning activities that increase
the productivity potential of his trainee."*
These learning activities take the form of projects. A project is an
assigned student activity of relatively short duration in which the student,
using directed techniques, is influenced to become familiar with a specific
facet of a distributive occupation or activity. Successful completion of a
series of projects enables the student to assimilate vicariously the knowledge,
understandings, and a measure of the skills of his chosen distributive
occupation.
Individual project training records are used to document the projects
assigned to and completed by the students. These records are comparable to
the training plan or training profile used in cooperative training.
The teacher-coordinator, in cooperation with the student, businessmen,
guidance counselors, parents, and other teachers, plans project assignments


*Mary V. Marks, The Proiect Method in Action, a speech presented to a
meeting of the National Association of Distributive Education Teachers,
December, 1965, Miami, Florida.








appropriate for the student at the level of his occupational objective.
Included in the assignment should be the purpose or objective of the
assignment, a description of the project and what the student is supposed
to do, the time span allowed for completion, and an evaluation made by
the student and the teacher-coordinator. An illustration of a project
training record is given on the following page.










PROJECT TRAINING RECORD


Student Participation Activities


Name of Student


Occupational Objective


Project Objective_


Curriculum Unit


I. Project Description


II. Dates
A. Assignment Dates
B. Performance Dates
Task
I.
2.
3.


5.
Individual Progress Reports
Student Final Report


(Attached)


Date


III. Sunmary (Student Comments)







IV. Teacher Evaluation and Comments


Date


--








It is suggested that each project involve one or more of the following
categories or classifications of projects which will be completed during a
regularly scheduled period of time.


Classification of Projects
A. Directed Observation
1. Viewing selected films and televised programs
2. Street or floor counts
3. Trade exhibits and museum visits
4. Non-paid schedules of "over-the-shoulder" observations
of personnel in distributive occupations in the employment
situation
5. Trips with management representatives to resources
(Preferably those in close proximity)
6. Customer calls with sales representatives or with delivery
services
7. Attendance at shows and sales rallies
8. Attendance at Distributive Education Clubs of America
district or State competitions
For example, one project of a student with a career development
objective in general merchandise might be to observe the
coordination of sales promotion activities in relation to
newspaper advertisements, interior and window display, stock
arrangement and quantity, personal selling staff, and
department traffic. A student planning a career in home
furnishings might be assigned to a project to observe in a
shop specializing in re-upholstering and furniture refinishing
in order to gain an understanding of woods and fabrics.
B. Analysis and Evaluation (of appropriate situations and materials)
1. Case studies
2. Creative marketing problems
3. Interviews and surveys
4. Trade journal reading
5. Listening to tapes and records
6. Comparing profit and loss statements
7. Business games
For example, the student whose occupational objective is a basic job
in gasoline service station might conduct a survey of selling effort
in relation to products maintained on the shelves of station offices.






The project objective could be to develop the ability to recognize
slow turnover items, or to develop awareness of suggestions that
close the gap between car service and product availability.
C. Discussion small group projects
1. Panel presentations and discussions
2. Buzz sessions
3. Committee work
4. Conference discussions
5. Brainstorming
A group of students preparing for the grocery field might undert-ke
a project related to self-selection, present their findings in oral
reports, and lead a group discussion focusing on management decisions
about customer traffic patterns, shopping convenience, automation,
pilferage, and suggestion sales. Students needing to gain facility
in communications might be assigned projects utilizing buzz groupings
to discuss such topics as characteristics of the trade area, customer
differences, product values in relation to the standard of living,
wage payment plans, uses of credit, and job ethics.
D. Practice
1. Review of arithmetical processes
2. Role playing job indicents with playback by a recording device
3. Completing programmed materials developed in cooperation with
trade associations or training departments of distributive
organizations
4. Role playing decision-making by means of business games
5. Participating in employment interviews
6. Independent study in a product area
A student with limited social skills might be given a project
involving interviews with members of the advisory committee and
thus develop his ease in adapting to others. Another student
with a job objective in food service might be given practice
projects in memorizing prices or suggesting entrees.
In developing project assignments for the individual student. the
teacher-coordinator must be sure that the project is appropriate for
that student's particular level of preparation and occupational interest.
The following is a suggested list of projects which may be used at various
levels of preparation according to particular units of study.








A. Selling
1. 10th Grade -





2. 11th Grade -



3. 12th Grade -


What is required in selling responsibilities?
(Preparing a report for class of the
differences between selling responsibilities
of a self-service grocery employee and those
of a salesperson in the special foods depart-
ment of a department store)
What is required in the sales process?
(Viewing a film on handling objections
and applying principles observed to the
furniture business)
What is required of the sales advisor?
(Interview with a professional salesperson
of high fashion clothing to determine what
is involved in building a clientele.)


B. Sales Promotion
1. 10th Grade What is required to participate in sales
promotion activities?
(Checking quantities of advertised
merchandise in a stationery store)
2. 11th Grade What is required to coordinate display with
personal selling?
(Preparing interior displays of sporting
goods for a month and keeping salespeople
informed on merchandise involved in displays
and quantities on hand; involves arrange-
ment with manager of sporting goods department)
3. 12th Grade What is required to coordinate advertising with
personal selling?
(Suggesting special advertised service of a
dry cleaning finn while working there on
Saturday and keeping a record of how many
people bought the service and the sales
increase as a result of the suggestion)
C. Buying


1. 10th Grade -


2. 11th Grade -


3. 12th Grade -


What is required to support the buying process?
(Participating in a physical inventory in a
wholesale firm)
What is required to implement buying activities?
(Preparing a diagram of arrangement of hardware
merchandise in advance of a physical inventory)
What sources of information are available to assist
in the buying process?
(Reading Women's Wear Daily throughout the year
and reporting on significant trends as influences
of the buying decision)








D. Operations.
1. 10th Grade What is required to identify and use sales-
supporting activities?
(Receiving, checking, and marking the
merchandise for the school book store)
2. 11th Grade What is required to be discerning in the use
of delivery, credit, gift wrapping and other
customer services?
(Spending a day with a delivery driver and
preparing a report on factors such as number
of C.O.D's, mileage, problems encountered,
etc.)
3. 12th Grade What is required to be discerning in the use of
operations procedures, such as safety policies
and obtaining merchandise from warehouse?
(Determining safety features in a warehouse
operation through an interview with a ware-
house supervisor and a tour of the warehouse.)


E. Market Research
1. 10th Grade -




2. 11th Grade -



3. 12th Grade -


F. Management
1. 10th Grade -



2. 11th Grade -




3. 12th Grade -


What is required to recognize where improvements
can be made?
(Doing a traffic count in a supermarket during
various periods of the day and week to determine
peak periods)
What is required to identify problems requiring
research?
(Attending a Retail Merchants Association meeting
to determine areas of concern)
What is required to study problems?
(Studying a problem of concern to a hotel
manager according to a systematic plan)


What is required to respond to management decisions?
(Working at a service station to determine
decisions of the petroleum company which are
carried out by the local manager.)
What is required to implement management policies
and organizational decisions?
(Participating in a panel discussion on the deci-
sion to remain open every night for a discount
operation)
What is required to implement management personnel
and financing decisions?
(Studying legislation affecting personnel
decisions for a report to the class)








G. Product or Service Technology
1. 10th Grade What is required in the manipulative skills of
the technology?
(Learning the stock system in a shoe store)
2. 11th Grade What is required in the substantive knowledge of
the technology?
(Participating in beginning level programmed
instruction in insurance information)
3. 12th Grade What is required to interpret the substantive
knowledge of the technology to customers?
(Preparing a fact-benefit analysis on an
automobile to be incorporated into a
merchandise presentation for a club meeting)
Other projects which may be adapted to particular levels of
instruction include:
Social Behavior
Survey of other students to determine desirable qualities
in others.
Individual student selects and interviews Personnel Director
from a local firm to determine desirable employable traits.
Case studies by students
Psychology and Business Behavior
Show pictures of various people and ask students to write and
describe their lives and occupations.
Importance of Distribution in our Economy
Have students make list of distributive jobs.
Research on Consumer Price Index; emphasis placed on factors
that enter into computation
Research on gross national product:
What is it?
How is it used?
What factors compose GNP?
The Kinds of Distributive Businesses
Research in use of transportation in distributive occupations
Make a traffic count of a particular store location.
Determine feasibility of opening a new establishment.
Research on types of ownership (single owner, partnerships, etc.)
of local stores in community








Kinds of Employment in Distribution
Interview local department store manager to determine training program
within store.
Survey and report on documents used in shipping. (Bill of Lading.
Purchase orders, invoices)
Survey and report on shipping techniques.
Determine how damage claims on damaged merchandise are filed.
Practice making change
Operate a cash register
Practice telephone selling
Direct observation of various salesmen rate them
Direct observation of a master salesman
Work in school store
Listen to sale recordings
Use film viewer sales films
Perform a sales demonstration record for evaluation
Choose item of merchandise and list the selling features
Determine history, uses, manufacturing processes relating
to specific product
How Distributive Businesses are Organized

Survey on equipment used in storing merchandise
Develop organization chart showing organizational patterns
of a local store
Survey and describe how merchandise is sent from a local
store's warehouse to the main store.
Visit operations personnel of a warehouse and determine safety
precautions used in the warehouse. (Oral or written reports.)
Communications

Spelling "Bee" emphasizing business terms.
Write business letter to a business firm asking for certain
information.
Prepare and give a speech on career opportunities in a specialized
field of marketing.







The Customer's Viewpoint in Selling
Visit store and interview customer service manager and list number
of complaints received and how the store handles various complaints.
Descriptive report on nature of road service in department stores
Schedule of service charges
How department store gets credit for guaranteed
products which are returned by customers
Make a survey of a Customer Service Department and determine whether
they make a profit, a loss, or break-even.
Participate as a salesman in a fund raising campaign.
Advertising
Construct an advertisement.
Visit local advertising agency.
Research and compile terminology of advertising business.
Research purpose and use of color in advertising.
Research advertising type faces.
Compile list
Identify type face in local newspaper
Compile schedules of type sizes.
Write description of the "Life of an Advertisement."
Report on how an advertising circular is created.
Report on the processes used in creating a newspaper
advertisement.
Interview advertising manager of a local distributive store
and observe process of constructing an advertisement and how
advertising is used and developed within the particular store.
Interview a local store representative and report on how
special promotion plans are put into effect.
Survey and report on advertising media rates.
Merchandising Techniques
Merchandising manual
Packaging research
Describe "deluxing" techniques of appliances
Interview head shipper and determine how merchandise
is prepared before it goes on sale.
Interview local representative to find information on control
of maintenance of delivery trucks.







Planning Occupational Goals in Distribution
Interview three people in a chosen occupation
Determine:
Employable traits
Training requirements
Outlook for future
Current needs in organization
Experience required
Do text research in chosen occupation.

Securing Employment
Dress appropriately for a job interview.
Role play by practicing job interview techniques.
Fill out an actual employment application.
Send out applicant for application and interview
by local business representative. Student should
report back to class.
Compile Personal Data Sheet.
Write letter of application.

Self Evaluation and Critique
Write self-analysis
Abilities
How do you feel about your chosen profession?
How do you plan to reach your goal?
Critique of program
Comments about what was learned from program
The list presented below includes techniques or guidelines which may
be used by the teacher-coordinator for classroom instruction.
Role playing
Guest speakers
Business games
Phonograph recordings
Demonstrations
Field trips
Conferences
Brainstorming
Case studies
Panel discussions








Films and film-strips
Use of audio-visual equipment
Although this list is by no means complete, it should serve as a
"springboard" for ideas in developing and utilizing effective and stimulating
techniques for instruction. The success and degree of effectiveness of any
of these techniques and project assignments is dependent upon the enthusiasm
and creativeness of the individual teacher-coordinator.

Distributive Education Clubs of America
DECA identifies the program of youth activity relating to the Distributive
Education Program. The Distributive Education Clubs of America is the only
national youth organization operating through the public schools to attract
young people to careers in marketing and distribution. The tagline for the
organization is "Developing Future Leaders for Marketing and Distribution."
The major purposes of this youth program are:
... To develop a respect for education in marketing and distribution
which will contribute to occupational competence.
... To promote understanding and appreciation for the responsibilities
of citizenship in our free, competitive enterprise system.
A co-curricular activity is one which enhances and enriches an
instructional program rather than an extra-curricular activity which is
conducted outside the realm of the classroom. The purpose and aims of
DECA parallel the purposes and aims of the Distributive Education program
itself. DECA, therefore, becomes an integral part of classroom instruction
and project training, and provides a greater scope and depth of the total
instructional program.
The project competitions program in DECA is designed primarily to
stimulate student interest in improving career-related knowledge and skills.
The competitions emphasize the importance of learning preparation and partic-
ipation. Individual achievement is recognized in a sequence of local, state,
and national eliminations. Each competition in the program has a specific
relationship and value toward enriching a particular area of study within
the Distributive Education curriculum.







The value of the project competitions program stems from each student
having the opportunity to participate. The preparation of individual students
for a competition when the subject matter has not been covered in the class
and/or through the occupational experience defeats the co-curricular value
of DECA. The important factor is not to have a participant in every com-
petition each year, but to provide tools and techniques for strengthening
the curriculum directed toward all students. For further information,
refer to the Florida DECA Handbook which explains the DECA program of which
explains the DECA program of activities in detail.











ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION


The expansion of the Distributive Education program is existing schools
and its extension into many new schools in urban and rural areas present
administrative challenges which require imaginative attention. As described
previously, the Vocational Education Act of 1963 and the subsequent amendments
of 1968, lifted the restriction of required employment in Distributive
Education programs as well as the age restriction, thus broadening the scope
of the program to include individuals and schools formerly deprived of such
vocational offerings.
Included in this section are guidelines for the organization and
operation of Distributive Education programs which utilize the project plan
as a method of instruction.

Organizational Plans Available
Decisions concerning the organization of the Distributive Education program
in a local school are based on such factors as the following:
1. Opportunity to serve a broad spectrum of students of high school age.
2. Employment opportunities in the distributive occupations.
3. Number of prospective enrollees who have an interest in and who
can profit from instruction in Distributive Education.
4. Requirements for graduation.
5. Utilization of the project and cooperative methods of instruction in
the total school program.
6. Total length of instructional program to be offered (number of years).

Plan I: A Three-Year Distributive Education Program
This plan permits a student to enroll in the Distributive Education
program in his sophomore year and attend class one or two hours daily for
three years. The curriculum for the first year is the "basic job curriculum."
An average of one regular class period per day is provided in addition to a
scheduled time or period for project training throughout the year. This
time or period for project training may be scheduled either immediately
following the regular class period, thereby constituting a two-hour block,







as the last class period of instruction of the school day, or as one or two
of the regularly scheduled periods of instruction per week. When two periods
per day are designated for the program, one of these periods is thereby
designated for classroom instruction and the other period for project
training.
The curriculum for the second year of the program is the "career
development curriculum" and may be implemented either through the project
or cooperative method of instruction. If the project method is utilized
for a second year, the same organizational pattern as previously described
will be maintained. Should the cooperative method of instruction be
initiated at that time, the student would attend class an average of one
or two periods daily and be placed in a distributive occupation for a
minimum of 15 hours per week.
The curriculum for the third year of the program may be either a con-
tinuation of the "career development curriculum" or the "specialist
curriculum." The specialized curriculum should be implemented if the
school district has provided a comprehensive pre-vocational program
including Distributive Education offerings at the middle school or junior
high school level. During this third year, the cooperative method of
instruction should be utilized to provide actual occupational experience
to supplement and strengthen the classroom instructional program.

Plan 2: A Two-Year Distributive Education Program
Under this plan, the student starts the program in his junior year, and
attends class for one or two periods daily for two years. The curriculum for
the first year is the "basic job curriculum" and is implemented through the
project method of instruction. The curriculum for the second year of the
program is the "career development curriculum" which may be implemented
either through the project or cooperative method of instruction.

Plan 3: A One-Year Distributive Education Program
The student begins the program in his senior year and attends class for
two hours daily for one school year. An exception may be made in the
Distributive Education programs offered in area vocational-technical
education centers where the student may be enrolled for a three-hour block








of instruction daily. The project method of instruction is utilized
wherein the student is enrolled for classroom instruction for an average
of one period per day in addition to one period per day in project training.
The curriculum for this program is the "career development curriculum."
In schools which utilize both the project and the cooperative methods
of instruction, it is not a desirable practice to place both cooperative
and project students in the same class. The cooperative student has a
second teacher in his "downtown training sponsor," but the project student
must rely on the classroom teacher to fulfill the dual role of employer
and teacher in the class/laboratory. If the class is combined, any
individual time devoted to the cooperative students is given at the
expense of the project students. If this practice is unavoidable, the
class should be organized under the project method of instruction. The
regularly scheduled part-time employment is then considered a continuing
project with multiple objectives, noted and evaluated on the project
training record.
These organizational plans suggest a sequence of instruction designed
to allow flexibility and are tailored to fit individual needs. Organizational
decisions should be based upon the types of plans and patterns of scheduling
which are adaptable to a particular school and which best meets the needs of
the students and the purposes of the curriculums. Regardless of the plan
adopted for implementation in the local school, it is important that the
total enrollment in the Distributive Education program be divided by year
of instruction rather than by grade level. For example, juniors and seniors
may be grouped together in a single class provided all of the students are
either first year students or all of the class is composed of second year
students.

Procedures for Developing a Project Plan Distributive Education Program
The procedure for developing a project plan program in Distributive
Education may be summl;arized as follows:
1. Analyze the area employment data available from the employment
service, Lrade associations, and local press. Further information
may be obtained by conducting a community survey to determine
opportunities for project training experiences. The establishment






of such a program should be based upon statistical evidence
showing the immediate and projected needs for employment in
the distributive occupations and mobility patterns of the
population in the community or area served by the program.
This principle is set forth in regulations governing
expenditures under the Act which state:
In establishing a program of vocational instruction,
consideration will be given to the need and opportunity
in the employment market for the occupational skills
and knowledge for which instruction is being provided.
2. Conduct a student survey to determine the interests, needs, and
abilities of prospective enrollees, utilizing:
a. Student records
b. Applications for admission to distributive education programs
c. Advisory committee composed of school personnel
d. Vocational guidance through individual conferences
e. Conferences with parents
f. Listing of categories of students to be served by
project plan program
Gathering and studying data about the school population will provide
information required to implement a further provision of the regulations:
In establishing a program of vocational instruction,
consideration will be given to the interests, needs,
and abilities of all persons in the community or
area who have need for, desire, and can benefit from
the instruction.
Eligibility for enrollment for the large majority of students should
be based upon such factors as age, maturity, interests, general ability,
specific aptitudes, physical condition, and work motivation.
Persons who have academic, socio-economic, or other handicaps which
prevent them from succeeding in the cooperative distributive education program
may require special grouping. Instruction for these students should strengthen
weaknesses, identify cultural attributes, focus on known employment opportu-
nities, and be flexible in permitting individual attention.
Full-time students whose occupational objectives involve limited
knowledge and skills and for whom speed of preparation is important may
be served best through separate grouping.
3. Submit through the county school superintendent's office the unit
request form to the State Department of Education for the anticipated
number of special vocational Minimum Foundation Units desired for
project distributive education.










4. Make organizational decisions concerning:
a. Job levels to be served
b. Organizational plan to be implemented
c. Designation of curriculum offerings
5. Determine teacher personnel needs, including:
a. Number and type of teachers
b. Qualifications
c. Responsibilities
d. Schedules
6. Determine the pattern of student scheduling, considering:
a. Flexibility in prerequisites
b. Time arrangement for laboratory experiences and project
training
c. Level of school learners
7. Determine facilities and instructional materials needed.
8. Make budgetary decisions.
The budget should include provision for instructional materials, reference
materials, needed classroom supplies, and funds for the program coordinator to
attend at least one out-of-county meeting called by the Department of Education
each year. If funds are not provided through state or federal monies, local
funds should be made available.

Advisory Committees
Vocational Advisory Committees, a publication of the American Vocational
Association states, "Vocational education, more than any other type of
education, needs close cooperation with the community. It trains workers
for specific jobs and productive lives. It needs the periodic help and
criticism of the real workaday world to be sure that its training courses
are up-to-date and that its preparation for a life-work are useful. Advisory
committees provide this necessary communicating link."
Advisory Committees assume a vital role in the Distributive Education
program as the instruction of the student is the joint responsibility of the
teacher-coordinator and the distributive business leaders in the community.
The use of school personnel on advisory committees becomes increasingly
important with the implementation of the project plan. Their contributions
are particularly significant in planning projects of simulated occupational
experience and in certain assignments involving practice and independent







study. The advisory services of distributive personnel are essential in
identifying, implementing, and evaluating projects. Their assistance may
make the difference between receiving cooperation in project training and
being prevented from conducting meaningful projects.
A Distributive Education Advisory Committee can provide:
... a working relationship between school and business.
... recommendations for types of training needed for specific occupations.
... promotion for the total program within the community.
... opportunities for explaining the program to interested parties.
... a sounding board for new innovations.
... material vital to up-dating the curriculum in the classroom.
... classroom equipment and materials.
... continual evaluation of the Distributive Education program.
... support and cooperation in developing and implementing individual
and group project assignments.
The composition of the advisory committee should represent a cross-
section of distributive businesses in the community in addition to various
school personnel. The number of committee members will vary, but usually
the group will range from five to eight. The rotation of members should
be planned in advance to allow for new ideas each year as well as provide
a means for replacing a non-participating committee member.
Once the committee is selected and letters have been sent by the
district superintendent requesting their participation, the teacher-coordinator
should follow through with a personal visit to explain the purpose and impor-
tance of the committee and to remind the members of the first meeting.
The advisory committee will be most effective when:
... The reason for organizing the committee is well understood by its
members and school officials. The committee is to serve as an
advisory, not administrative, capacity; but should be assured
that their recommendations will receive serious consideration.
... The committee has been given clearly defined
functions and understand what is needed.
... The committee is competent to perform.
... The committee is desired by the school administration and the staff
is willing to give time, energy and support towards its success.








An active and participating advisory committee becomes the sounding
board for the teacher-coordinator and his plans for the total program.
Each committee member needs to feel a responsibility towards the Distri-
butive Education program and should be consulted when necessary. It is
only through the joint cooperation of the school and business community
that the objectives of the Distributive Education program can be met and
the needs of the student fulfilled.

Program Personnel
The effectiveness of the project plan program is directly dependent upon
the qualifications of the teacher-coordinator. The quality of instruction
and its vocational direction require teacher-coordinators capable by education
and occupational experience to plan and manage the instructional program.
The Distributive Education teacher-coordinator is a regular member of
the school staff who is responsible for the operation and administration of
the Distributive Education program in the local school. The title, teacher-
coordinator, designated the combining of classroom instruction, project
training, and co-curricular DECA youth activities in a coordinated manner
to meet the needs of the individual student. The teacher-coordinator is a
certified teacher who, through education and experience, has gained the
special skills and knowledge necessary to counsel students towards the
development and realization of a career objective in distribution.
It can be said that a Distributive Education Program is no stronger than
the teacher-coordinator in charge of that program. The personal attributes
necessary to qualify are:
... The ability to work successfully with people.
... A thorough educational preparation for teaching in this field.
... A belief and understanding of the philosophy of vocational education.
... The ability to participate in school, civic, and educational
organizations.
... The potential for leadership and the ability and willingness to
follow.
... The ability to gain the confidence of the business and school personnel.
... The ability to provide group and individual instruction to students.
... A willingness to adjust to change.







... The ability to maintain good business procedures at all times
and to counsel students in the same.
An individual who holds a bachelor's or master's degree from standard
institution of higher learning may receive a certificate covering teacher-
coordinator of Distributive Education when he meets the requirements as
outlined in the Bulletin, Florida Requirements for Teacher Certification.
The teacher-coordinator should work with the total school personnel
as all other coordinators and faculty members. This involves attending
faculty and departmental meetings, keeping accurate school records,
participating in teacher and coordinator professional groups, working with
community and civic groups, and contributing to professional organizations.
The teacher-coordinator should work with the guidance counselor and
other faculty members in selecting students for the program, and assisting
the students in the determination and realization of their career objectives.
He should work closely with persons employed in distributive occupations,
and seek their active participation and support in the established advisory
committees.
As the program encompasses participation in the Distributive Education
Clubs of America, the teacher-coordinator should assume the role of chapter
advisor for this co-curricular youth activity.

Facilities and Equipment
The facilities for the Distributive Education program which utilizes
the project method of instruction should simulate business conditions as
closely as possible. A class/laboratory should be provided which will
effectively accommodate the various program activities and support functions
such as class discussions, individual, group and committee work, use of
various types of audio-visual aids, demonstrations and role playing, storage,
reference, work, office, and conference activities. Equipment appropriate
to the specialty of the program offered must be provided.
The actual size of the class/laboratory will vary; however, it should
be adequate to accommodate an optimum class size of 25-30 students per class.
According to the Elementary and Secondary Accreditation Standards, the total
minimum amount of floor area should be equal to the sum of 85 square feet
per student times the number of students to be accommodated any one time
as a level two standard. The level three standard requires:









"A set of different identifiable areas arranged into a contiguous
manner, capable of accommodating class and laboratory oriented
activities including storage, reference, work, office, and con-
ference functions is provided. Total minimum amount of floor
area is equal to the sum of 120 square feet per student times
the number of students to be accommodated by any one time."
When equipment is purchased, it should be justified by the educational
service provided the students. All material in the class/laboratory should
be of.equal quality of that being used in the actual business firms. Each
school should be exemplary in the service ability and manner of maintenance
of its equipment.

Conditions for a Quality Program
In accepting the project plan as an effective vocational approach to
Distributive Education, three conditions for quality programs are essential:
1. Project training plans showing participation activities for
individual students. Similar to on-the-job training plans agreed
to by the employer and the teacher-coordinator of a cooperative
training program, a project training plan for participation
activities should be made for each individual student. These
plans will be based on instructional objectives stated as
learning outcomes, starting with each individual at his level
of employability. They will provide a variety of selected
learning experiences that will lead the individual through a
series of achievement levels related to his occupational goal.
2. Adequate time for individual involvement in participation activities.
Individually developed project training plans require adequate time
in the individual's schedule to permit involvement in participation
activities. Time provided may vary according to the complexity of
the activity.
3. Adequate time for coordination activities. The instructor must have
time as part of the regular school day to develop and utilize community
and school resources for occupationally directed learning experiences.
Coordination as to technique for identifying and evaluating participation
activities will need to be developed to a high degree. Adequate coor-
dination time must be provided to bring the class, project training,
and DECA activities together to provide sound vocational training.









4. A qualified teacher-coordinator. The teacher-coordinator must have
the educational background and the practical experience to provide
the proper meaning to the curriculum.
5. Suitable classroom facilities and instructional materials. These
are the vital elements needed by the teacher-coordinator if the
instructional program is to be truly effective. A field such as
distribution is constantly changing and the teacher-coordinator
should have the necessary equipment and materials to keep his
curriculum and program up to date.
The final test of any educational program is if the program has met its
objectives. The primary objectives of educational programs supported by
public funds must be the social and economic betterment of society. A
program of Distributive Education under public supervision and control can
be justified only when it provides training which enables those engaged in
the distributive field to give better, more economical, and more efficient
services. This social and economic benefit will be shared by distributive
employees, by distributive businesses, by producers, and by consumers.































APPENDIX










EXHIBIT I: GLOSSARY


Advancement curriculums









Areas of instruction






Basic job curriculums








Career development job
curriculums





Club activities


- Supplementary instruction planned for
long-range development of employed
adults which emphasize those functions
of marketing, merchandising, and manage-
ment that enrich current employment
qualifications or are necessary to qualify
for a specific promotional opportunity;
divided into short units so that
attendance may be adjusted according
to individual employment schedules.

- Classification of instructional areas
in the preparatory curriculum identified
with competencies needed in distributive
employment: marketing, product or
service technology, social skills, applied
mathematics and English, and economic
understandings.

- Types of curriculums which prepare
students for elementary or basic
distributive occupations, involving
minimal employment responsibility,
and emphasize fundamental techniques
in sales and sales-supporting services,
simple marketing concepts, qualifying
social competencies, and basic skills
in computations and communications.

- Types of curriculums which prepare
students for career development jobs,
involving competencies and responsi-
bilities necessary for self-direction,
and emphasize the functions of marketing,
merchandising, and management within the
discipline of distribution.

- Program of work of the Distributive
Education Clubs of America which
provide opportunities to demonstrate
and to refine the competencies required
in employment.








Control class


Cooperative method




Cooperative plan







Cooperative training



Coordination


DECA


Distribution


Distributive education


- An arrangement for group instruction
in which all areas of appropriate
subject matter are provided, and a review
is given of experiences which will be
extended in on-the-job training or project
training. Teaching and learning in this
class are vocationally directed and
supported by teaching techniques
utilizing student participation and
by co-curricular activities of DECA.

-Coordination of classroom instruction
with a series of on-the-job learning
experiences related to each student's
occupational objective.

-Organizational pattern for preparatory
instruction which involves regularly
scheduled part-time employment that gives
students an opportunity to experience
theory in practice while developing
competencies through training on a job
related to their distributive occupational
objective.

-Learning experiences encountered in
on-the-job instruction and application
during regular part-time employment.

- A combination of activities having
administrative, organizational, and
instructional goals.

-Distributive Education Clubs of America,
a youth organization providing a program
of work which complements and enriches
distributive curriculums.

-The second step in a series of economic
processes which bring goods and services
from those who make them to those who use
them; includes all the methods by which
goods are sent from producers to
consumers.

- A program of vocational instruction in
distribution and marketing designed to
qualify those enrolled for gainful
employment in distributive occupations
or in occupations in which a distributive
function appears, according to their
individual occupational objectives; a
vocational program offering instruction












Distributive occupation


Marketing


Occupational mix


Occupational objective






Preparatory instruction





Project


Project method


in mnarketirig, merchandising, and
related management to full-time or
part-tire studFn'ts; includes preparatory
and supplement, / instruction.

-An occupation that is followed by
proprietors, managers, or employees
engaged primarily in marketing or
merchandising of goods or services.
These occupations are commonly found
in various business establishments,
such as retailing, wholesaling, manu-
facturing, storing, transporting, financing,
and risk bearing.

- The performance of business activities
which help determine the need, demand,
and design for a product or service,
and the activities which direct the
flow of goods and services from producer
to consumer.

-Tendency for a specific occupation to
require competencies which overlap
normally accepted areas of vocational
education.

- A specific recognized occupation
or cluster of closely related
occupations in distribution, selected
by the student, the attainment of which
is the purpose for his vocational
instruction in distribution and
marketing.

- Pre-einployment instruction in distribution
and marketing generally provided on a
full-time basis to prepare youth and adults
over fourteen years of age for distributive
employment in classes organized under the
cooperative plan or the project plan.

- Any significant, practical learning
activity that has a behavioral's
objective related to an individual's
distributive occupational goal and is
to be accomplished in a specified length
of time.

-Coordination of classroom instruction with
a series of individually designed learning
activities or projects related to
students' occupational objectives.







Project plan


-Organizational pattern for preparatory
instruction which involves a regularly
scheduled series of individually designed
learning activities that give students
an opportunity to apply theory in
practice while developing competencies
through projects related to their
distributive occupational objectives.


- Learning experiences involved in
carrying out project related to
individual occupational goals.


Specialist job curriculums






Supplementary instruction












Teacher-coordinator


-Types of curriculums which prepare
students for distributive specializa-
tions in functions, product areas, or
service fields involving leadership
competencies and management responsi-
bilities in relation to personnel,
profits, and merchandise or service.

-Vocational instruction in distribution
and marketing generally provided on a
part-time basis for employed adults
wishing to refresh, update, or upgrade
competencies needed in their employment
and for those seeking new and specialized
competencies necessary to continuing
employment or advancement in responsibility;
includes updating courses and advancement
curriculums; offered in short-term units
and in certificate curriculums for
employed adults who attend day or evening
classes generally on a part-time schedule.

-Distributive education teacher who is
responsible for vocationally directed
teaching in the classroom and the applica-
tion of instruction to employment require-
ments through the cooperative method or
the project method; duties may include
operational activities, such as community
relations, publicity, counseling, curriculum
planning, and organization for instruction;
a member of the school staff who teaches
distributive and related subject matter
to students preparing for employment,
coordinates classroom instruction with
on-the-job training or individually
designed learning activities, and is
responsible for administering the school's
program, including the sponsorship of the
local chapter of the Distributive Education
Clubs of America.


Project training









Updating courses


- Supplementary instruction emphasizing
current practices in the employment
situation of adults, courses may be
part of an advancement curriculum but
usually are more limited in purpose;
units of instruction are of a length
appropriate to part-time study.









EXHIBIT II: STUDENT APPLICATION FOR PROJECT DISTRIBUTIVE EDUt~ TTON

Personal Information


Name


Date


Home Address Phone

Explain any physical handicaps, such as weak eyes, poor hearing, etc.


Family Doctor

Date of Birth


Height


Father's Name


Present Homeroom Teacher and Room No.

Weight General Health

Occupation Where Working


Mother's Name

Guardian's Name


Occupation

Occupation


Where Working

Where Working


School Information
Are you financially able to remain in school until graduation?

Is it necessary for you to contribute to your own support while in high
school?

Number of brothers Number of sisters

What prompted your interest in this program?

How do you spend your leisure time?


What school subject do you like best?


Why?










What high school subject do you like least? Why?

In what subject do you make your best record?

Do you intend to go to college?

How many days were you absent last year?

What subjects do you need to graduate?

Have you discussed this program with your parents?

Will you have to work your way through college?


Subjects and Grades Last Year


Subjects You are Now Taking

Subject Grade Instructor's Name Room No.










Subjects To Be Taken Next Semester
(Do not fill in)


Occupational Information


Are you interested in (a) getting a job?
future work?


___ or (b) training for


If you have ever been employed, fill in the following; if not, list one
or more persons other than relatives for character references.


Employer or Character Reference


Address


Date Type of Work


In what type of occupation do you desire training? Ist choice


2nd choice


3rd choice


I shall do my part in assisting my son/daughter to fulfill all obligations
to the program, including regularity of attendance and maintaining of a
satisfactory scholastic standing.


Parent's Signature


Student's Signature










EXHIBIT III: SURVEY FOR NEW PROGRAM


1. Upon explanation to the student body, how many upcoming sophomores,
juniors and upcoming seniors have you found who express an interest
in the program for next year?

Sophomores Juniors Seniors

2. Attach hereto or describe on reverse side information gathered from
the business community and others relative to the employment
opportunities and the interest of business and civic groups in the
initiation of the program in the high school curriculum.

3. Do you have a person who possesses the educational and work
experience requirements for initial certification?
Name

4. Do you wish the State Department of Education to refer to you names
of potential teacher-coordinators?

5. Will a classroom be available throughout the day for the use of the
teacher-coordinator?

6. List the amount available for purchase of instructional materials.
($10.00 per student per year recommended for
new programs. $5.00 per student per year thereafter.)

7. List subjects, if any, outside the DE curriculum that the teacher-
coordinator will be expected to teach.

8. Could the teacher-coordinator report for duty on August 1 and attend
the Annual Coordinators' Summer Conference?

9. Will financial provision be made for the reimbursement of the
teacher-coordinator's (1) local travel expense, (2) travel to State
Department of Education called In-Service Training Conferences
(not to exceed two annually)?

School

Signature of Principal

Signature of Director of Vocational Education

or County Superintendent

Date










EXHIBIT IV: SURVEY OF DISTRIBUTIVE EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES


Kind of Business

Name of Firm

Person Contacted


How

How

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.


Address


Phone


many full-time employees do you have?_ Part-time?

many in each of the following categories?

Sales: Full-time Part-time

Shipping & Receiving: Full-time_ Part-time

Stock, Marking: Full-time Part-time

Department Heads: Full-time Part-time

Others: (Designate)


: Full-time Part-time

: Full-time Part-time

3. How many replacements do you estimate you will need in the next year?

In which categories?



4. Would you be interested in learning more about a program designed to

to train employees for your type of business? Yes No

5. Would you be interested in learning more about the availability of

instruction for your present employees? Yes No













EXHIBIT V: SURVEY OF STUDENT INTEREST IrN PROJECT DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION

(Explanation of program including purposes,
curriculum, and opportunities afforded)


1. Would you like to enroll in the PDE program? Yes No

2. Name

3. Birth date: Month Day Year Age

4. How many units will you have earned by the end of this school year?



5. List extra curricular activities such as band, football, chorus, etc.,

you plan to pursue next year:



6. List occupations in which you are interested in receiving instruction:

1st choice 2nd Choice











BIBLIOGRAPHY


Ely, Viven King, "Development of an Expanded Distributive Education Curriculum
Concept in Virginia High Schools," Business Education Forum, April, 1966.
Florida State Department of Education, A Guide: Cooperative Distributive
Education in Florida High Schools, Bulletin 74H-4, Tallahassee, Florida,
November, 1963.
Florida State Department of Education, The Job Entry Curriculum, Bulletin 74F-7,
Tallahassee, Florida, July, 1965.
Marks, Mary V., The Project Method in Action, a speech presented to a meeting
of the National Association of Distributive Education Teachers,
December, 1965.
Meyer, Warren G., "Patterns for Distributive Occupations Curriculum Organization,"
Business Education Forum, April, 1966.

Nelson, Edwin L., Bases for Curricula Development in Distribution, a speech
presented at the National Clinic on Distributive Education, Washington,
D.C., October, 1963.
Nelson, Edwin L., "A Conceptual Framework for Curriculum Development in
Distributive Education," Business Education Forum, April, 1966.
Oregon State Department of Education, Suggestions For Curriculum Development
in Distributive Education in Oregon High Schools, Salem, Oregon,
January, 1966.
United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Handbook:
Employment Information on Major Occupations for Use in Guidance,
U. S. Government Printing Office.
United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Distributive
Education in the High School, U. S. Office of Education, Washington, D.C.,
1965.
University of Texas, Basic Instruction Series, First and second year manuals:
School and Business Relationships, Basic Selling, Communications in
Distribution, Mathematics of Distribution, Basic Organization of
Distribution, Advanced Selling, Sales Promotion, Retail Credit,
Merchandising, marketingg in Our Economy, Austin, Texas, 1962.
Virginia State Department of Education, Distributive Education Series: Store
Operation and Management, Retail Advertising, Service Selling in
Distribution, Stockkeeping on the selling Floor, Richmond, Virginia.
Warmke, Poman F., "Toward a Theory of Distributive Education," Business
Education Forumi, April, 1966.




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