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This Handbook of Ghana, planned as an annual
publication, is published for the first time this year. It
provides a continuous record of development and progress
in Ghana during the past year. But readers will no doubt
find useful the preceding chapters on the physical back-
ground and history of the country as well as that on the
structure and functions of our parliament.
Other equally useful works of reference are: the
Economic Survey, Quarterly Digest of Statistics, A Brief
Guide to Ghana, Tema-Ghana's new town and harbour,
and the Handbook of Commerce and Trade. A comprehen-
sive bibliography will be included in the next issue.
Ministry of Information and Broadcasting,
P.O. Box M.41,
31st March, 1962
On page 63, delete paragraph five and substitute the following :
Ghana maintains Missions in Ethiopia, Yugoslavia, the Federal
Republic of Germany, United Arab Republic, Sierra Leone, Geneva,
the Federation of Nigeria, the United Kingdom, Liberia, U.S.S.R.,
India, Canada, the People's Republic of China, Italy, Israel, Japan,
France, Sudan, Congo, Tunisia, United States, Ivory Coast, Ceylon,
Senegal, Somalia, Niger, Upper Volta, Morocco and Libya. In addition
to this, on account of the Ghana-Guinea-Mali Union, the Government
has exchanged Resident Ministers with Guinea and Mali. Ghana also
maintains a permanent Mission at the United Nations in addition to
a Trade Mission and an Information Centre in New York,
THE LAND AND THE PEOPLE
History of Ghana
Electoral System ..
MINISTRIES AND DEPARTMENTS
PRESIDENT'S OFFICE ..
MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE
The Fisheries Division
Animal Health Division ..
MINISTRY OF CONSTRUCTION AND COMMUNICATIONS
Division of Public Construction
Town and Country Planning Division ..
Water Supplies Division ..
The Department of Civil Aviation
Railway and Harbours Administration
The Government Transport Department
The Meteorological Department
The National Shipping Line
The Nautical College
MINISTRY OF DEFENCE
The Army ..
The Navy ..
The Air Force
Workers Brigade ..
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION
MINISTRY OF FINANCE AND TRADE
The Department of Customs and Excise
Income Tax Department
The Department of National Lotteries
The Trade Division
MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS
MINISTRY OF HEALTH ..
MINISTRY OF INFORMATION AND BROADCASTING
The Department of Information Services
The Ghana Broadcasting System
The Government Printing Department
MINISTRY OF THE INTERIOR
Local Government Division
MINISTRY OF JUSTICE
MINISTRY OF LABOUR AND SOCIAL WELFARE
The Labour Department
MINISTRY OF INDUSTRIES
STATUTORY BOARDS AND CORPORATIONS
United Ghana Farmers' Council
Ghana Timber Marketing Board
Ghana Agricultural Produce Marketing Board
The National Co-operative Council
The National Council of Ghana Women
National Research Council of Ghana
The Ghana Academy of Sciences
The Ghana Housing Corporation
Library Services .
Ghana Film Production Corporation ..
Arts Council of Ghana ..
Culture and Traditions ..
The Press .. ..
The Ghana News Agency
School of Journalism
Ghana Press Club
Ghana Young Pioneers ..
The Ghana Trades Union Congress
The Volta River Project ...
Ghana Museum and Monuments Board
The Forts and Castles of Ghana
Immigration Formalities ..
Ashanti Gold Weights and Accessories
The History of Kente
Sports in Ghana ...
The southern coast of Ghana extends between latitude 41 degrees
North at Cape Three Points and 61 degrees North in the extreme east,
and is thus not far from the equator. From the coast the country extends
inland to about latitude 11 degrees North, thus covering a distance of
some 420 miles from south to north. The distance across the widest part
from east to west is rather less, measuring about 334 miles between
longitude 11 degrees East and longitude 31 degrees West. The Meridian
of Greenwich, which passes through eastern England, also runs through
the eastern half of Ghana, cutting the coast exactly at the new port of
Tema, where there is a rock jutting out in the sea known as the Meridian
Ghana has not got many mountains though there are several hills
which rise to a maximum height of 3,000 feet. Standing out clearly against
the sky are the Akwapim-Togo ranges which extend from Pokoasi, a
few miles north of Accra, to the boundary of Togoland at Dutukpene
and even beyond into Togoland.
These ranges which have average heights of 1,500 feet but rise to
3,000 feet at some places are composed of complex folds of volcanic
rocks, mostly basalt. They have generally deep and narrow valleys.
North of these ranges lies the Kwahu plateau, 1,500 ft. and stretches
for some 120 miles between Koforidua and Wenchi in north-western
Ashanti. This plateau perpetually clothed in hazy blue is composed
largely of slightly folded sandstone of Voltaian rock.
Ghana has a tropical climate: scorching heat and heavy rainfall
almost the whole year round. The climate is largely influenced by the hot,
dry dust-laden north-east trade winds or Harmattan blowing from the
Sahara and the cool, moisture-laden monsoon or south-west trade winds
blowing from across the Atlantic towards the Guinea Coast.
The north-east trades or Harmattan having had a long passage over
the hot, dry Sahara have the effect of decreasing the temperature and
making the air very dry. The relative humidity remains low at all levels
but increases above about 1,500 feet. This harmattan which prevails in
early January has the much undesirable effect of leaving the skin dry and
the lips parched.
The monsoon or south-west trade winds blowing on-shore after a
long passage over the sea bring coolness and moisture to the land making
the relative humidity remain constant up to a height of 6,000 feet, though
it falls off rapidly after this.
This tropical climate makes for only two seasons-the wet and the
dry. The wet season occurs between May and September when there are
heavy rains averaging 80 inches. The ground becomes easily workable
for cultivation, plants and trees look verdant and lush and rivers overflow
With the advent of the dry season between October and February
during which period there is little or no rain, green tinted vegetation is
replaced by brown, the ground becomes hard and dusty, wells dry up and
everything looks parched and bare.
A land of warmth and sunshine, the annual mean temperature
ranges from 79 F to 84* F. The lower figures occurring near the coast
and the higher further inland to the North.
Inland in the north where the country is open and undulating, the
climate is hot and dry with rainfall occurring intermittently between May
and September. Further South, in the forest lands of Ashanti and in the
south-west coastal areas, it is hot and humid. The flat eastern coastal belt
is warm and fairly dry.
In this land of over a dozen rivers, the river Volta stands out. The
river has a total length of some 1,000 miles and drains an area of 150,000
square miles of which 61,000 lie within Ghana.
It takes its source from a low range of hills, a few miles west of Bobo
Dioulasso in Upper Volta from where it makes its tortuous way south-east-
wards to form the boundary between Northern Ghana and Ivory Coast
before finally entering Ghana to run southwards to empty itself into the
sea at Ada.
The Volta, though it possesses the common West African characteristic
of being interrupted by rapids at several points, has on the whole a
gentle gradient: one foot per mile for the last 290 miles of its journey.
Apart from its great length, the Volta is very wide. At Yeji it is
600 yards wide and at its mouth at Ada it is a mile wide. But its sandbars
and constant shifting make navigation difficult. Steam launches and
small boats can, however, ply its length almost all the year round as
far as to its tidal limit at Akuse. During the rainy season, navigation
can be continued further even up to the Senchi rapids five miles north
of Kpong, but beyond this only canoe traffic is possible on account of
the numerous rapids of which the most dangerous are at Kete-Krachi.
The regime of the Volta depends on the rainfall of its basin. Being
further north, the seasonof highest floods is comparatively later occurring
between August and December when the banks stand as low as 8-12 feet
above the water level.
The difference in the level of the Volta's water makes its flow vary
from under 1,000 cubic feet per second during the dry season to between
125,000 and 390,000 cubic feet per second during the flood period.
In addition to the Volta, there are other smaller rivers of which
only three are noteworthy: the Pra, Ankobra and Tano. These rivers
are navigable for short stretches of about 50 miles. The Ankobra and
Pra though of little use for navigation assisted greatly in the transportation
of goods during the early part of this century.
Timber from the forest region were floated down the river Pra and
Offin to the coast for export. The river Ankobra too was used in trans-
porting heavy machinery to the Gold Mines at Tarkwa between 1877
Lying placidly in a cavity formed when the top of a volcano blew
off, is Ghana's only real lake, the Bosomtwi. Located 21 miles south-
east of Kumasi, this lake is between 230 and 240 feet deep and occupies
an area of about 18 square miles.
Above the level of the lake the sides rise steeply from 500 feet to
1,400 feet and several small streams flow down into the lake.
All along Ghana's coast line, especially east of Accra and west of
Cape Three Points are lagoons most of which are really the mouths of
rivers ponded back and separated from the sea by low sandbars.
This tropical nature of Ghana's climate incorporating an average
80-inch rainfall makes for profuse growth of vegetation with the result
that where rainfall is highest there are thick forests with thicker under-
growth, the rays of the sun hardly penetrating the thickly inter-woven
canopies formed by the branches and leaves. The trees grow up to the
amazing height of 130 to 200 feet high. These trees, however, have extremely
shallow roots and therefore tend to develop buttresses at their base for
additional support making their economic exploitation both difficult and
This high forest covers an area of 25,000 square miles and occupies
the whole of the south-west part of Ghana south of the northern scrap
of the southern Volta Plateau and west of the eastern edge of the Akwapim
The high humidity and high temperatures make the trees of the
high forest remain evergreen for the most part of the year with only a
few trees showing deciduous characteristics. Even these few which shed
their leaves do so at different times thus effecting very little or no change
in the appearance of the greenness of the forest.
North of the high forest lies the typical savanna-woodlands
characterized by short, widely spaced trees with a more or less continuous
carpet of grass and shrubs. Some of these grasses attain heights of 12 feet.
Most of these areas, some 65,000 square miles, lie within the zone
where rainfall occurs between August and September. Although the
annual rainfall here is between 40 and 50 inches, the dry season is pro-
tracted and intense.
Further south, the savanna and high forest give way to coastal
scrub and grassland which stretch along the coast from near Takoradi
to Accra and widens out towards the east. The vegetation of this region
consists mainly of grassland studded with clumps of bush and patches
of shrubs and trees.
Ghana's soil is on the whole very fertile especially in the high
forest zone of the south-western region where the soil is very rich in
humus. Along the coastal savannas, especially between the port of
Tema and Prampram, is a heavy black clayey soil known as Akuse soil.
At the mouth of the Volta where alluvial deposits produce red,
sandy, well drained soil and also at places where the proportion of quartz
in the rock is not high, the soil is fertile.
The forests produce about 300 species of timber some of which like
Mahogany, Odum, Wawa, Utile and Sapele are exported. Cocoa is
produced on a large scale.
Ghana has considerable wealth in minerals. Deep down in the
bowels of its soil are such minerals as gold and iron ores, bitumen
and asbestos, lime stone and marble. On the surface are diamonds mostly
of the industrial type, salt and building stones. The hilly areas too
contain large deposits of bauxite and manganese.
The Amedzofe scarp
Drumming and dancing-
a popular form of
Ghana has colourful festivals
HISTORY OF GHANA
On 6th March, 1957, the Gold Coast was declared an independent
state and was renamed Ghana after one of the ancient Sudanic Empires
which flourished between the fourth and the tenth centuries.
Historians are of the opinion that the original pattern of the society
in West Africa presented the existence of small groups of people each
claiming descent from a common ancestor.
Conquerors, usually from the north and north east, often succeeded
in imposing some sort of unity upon such groups and thereby created
empires. One of these empires situated north of the forest belt was the
ancient Kingdom of Ghana. There is considerable doubt as to who first
built the kingdom. Arabic writers of the later period referred to its forty-
four kings as white. What is certain, however, is that from about the
seventh century onwards, Ghana was a pure negro kingdom ruled by
The ancient Kingdom of Ghana was important commercially. It
traded with such countries as Spain, and Portugal in gold, ivory, animal
skins, kola-nuts, cotton, and many other commodities. It is reported that
European, Egyptian and Asiatic students flocked to the Universities
that flourished in Ghana during the medieval period. Here they learnt
philosophy, medicine, mathematics and law. A famous Arabic writer
has stated that there was even an exchange of professors between the
University of Santore in Ghana and the University of Cordova in Spain
during this period.
The Ghana Empire, however, soon began to decay. Constant attacks
from nomadic races further north and the dessication of the land shook
the foundations of the Empire. Many of its inhabitants migrated and
those who remained behind were attacked and defeated by Mali in 1240.
Mali seems to have originated as a very small Empire situated in
more fertile lands south of Ghana on the Niger. After conquering Ghana,
it grew to be the largest of the Sudanic kingdoms. Like Ghana, it was
noted for its gold.
Mansa Musa was the greatest of the kings who ruled Mali during this
period. He reigned for 25 years during which time Mali reached the
height of its power and development. He was noted for his justice, piety,
love of learning and wealth. The historic pilgrimage he undertook during
his reign will always be remembered for its ostentatious display of gold.
Accompanied by 60,000 people and 1,200 young slaves, he took with
him something like 50,000 oz. of gold, much of which was given out as
gifts or alms. While he reigned, there was peace and happiness in the
The fame of the Mali Empire reached all corners of the world and
several distinguished travellers like Ibn Batuta visited it. Its university
at Timbucktu was remarkable for the opportunities it afforded students
far and near for higher studies.
But like all the Sudanic kingdoms, Mali rested on weak foundations.
It was founded by the imposition of the military power of a tribe on
small groups of people. Once internal confusion set in, and subject tribes
revolted, it became an easy prey for neighboring countries, like Mosi
and Songhai. The middle part of the 15th century saw its replacement
by the Songhai Empire.
Songhai originated as a small kingdom south of the Niger. It took
advantage of the weakness of Mali, moved its capital to Gao, further
upstream, in order to facilitate trade with the north and was soon able
to conquer Mali. Again, it was no exception to the weaknesses of the
preceding empire. In 1591, on the battle-field of Tondibi, the last of
the great kingdoms of the Niger Bend fell a victim to the Moorish troops
of the Moroccan Prince, El Mansur.
On the basis of archeological, sociological and linguistic evidence, it
is generally believed that the Akans of modern Ghana were closely
associated with the ancient Empire of Ghana, if they did not form part
After the fall of the kingdoms, trade, religious, cultural and other
influences reaching the inhabitants of the forest belt from the north were
slight. On the other hand, there was great intercourse between the forest
people and Europeans who came to West Africa by sea.
The Portuguese were the first to discover the gold producing districts
between the rivers Ankobra and Volta. So much gold was obtained in
this area, that the Portuguese named it Mina meaning Mine and
the French Cote de l'or or the Gold Coast, a name which was later adopted
by the English and applied to the whole country. It was in order to
maintain their exclusive monopoly over this area as well as to obtain an
impregnable trading centre that, in 1482, the Portuguese built the Castle
of Sao Jorge da Mina which is substantially still extant. Europe thus
discovered the Gold Coast in 1471.
In their commercial activities, the Portuguese at first concentrated
on the natural products of the west coast such as gold, pepper, and ivory.
However, with the discovery and colonization of the Americas in the
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and especially with the establishment of
the sugar and cotton plantations in those countries and the consequent
need for a regular supply of slave labour, trade in human beings became,
from its inception in about 1513, even more lucrative and soon largely
eclipsed the trade in the other commodities.
Had the Portuguese been left alone to carry on this ignominious
traffic, the political map of West Africa today would well be different.
But so profitable did this trade in slaves and gold increasingly become
that other European traders could not resist the temptation of breaking
into this Portuguese preserve. Thus from 1598 onwards, first the Dutch
who captured the Elmina Castle from the Portuguese in 1642, then the
English, the French, the Danes, the Swedes and Germans steadily entered
the field. The inevitable outcome of this development was that by the
middle of the eighteenth century, cut-throat competition for the trade
was raging all along the west coast. The forts and castles which still dot
the coastline of Ghana, a lasting monument to the exploitation of the
Gold Coast up to the end of the eighteenth century, are the by-products
of this rivalry. Some of the European powers were eliminated. Hence by
the beginning of the nineteenth century, only the British, the Danes and
the Dutch were actively operating on the Gold Coast with the former
controlling about half of the trade.
It is important to note that until this time Europeans had con-
centrated their activities entirely along the coast and had remained
largely ignorant of the hinterland behind the coastal areas. Nor had
they shown any concern for the welfare or education of the Africans.
The missionary societies, however, aimed at converting and educating
the Africans instead of enslaving and selling them. By the 1870's, con-
siderable success had attended the efforts made by both the African and
European "legitimate" traders as well as the missionaries. Instead of
slaves, palm oil, groundnuts, and cotton had become the main exports.
In the missionary field, the Basel Evangelical Society had, for instance,
firmly established Christianity in the Akwapim and Akim districts, and
had opened the Akropong Training College, the Aburi Girls' School,
and 90 other schools. The Bremen Mission had become firmly entrenched
in Eweland. The Wesleyan Missionary Society had won hundreds of
converts in Fanteland, and was running the Mfantsipim Secondary
School as well as over 40 elementary schools including the first elementary
boarding school in Cape Coast which produced Dr. Kwegyir Aggrey.
In view of the abolition of the slave trade and of the missionary
activities, it is quite clear that a revolutionary change occurred in the
nature and scope of European interests and activities in West Africa in
general and on the Gold Coast in particular in the nineteenth century.
By the middle of the nineteenth century the Europeans now pushed
inland and were educating and converting the Africans. They were now
trading in legitimate articles such as gold, palm oil, rubber and cocoa.
The Africans became educated, christian and even professional-ministers
of religion, school teachers, lawyers, journalists and politicians. Indeed
this new class of educated and professional people steadily increased in
numbers. A profound social and economic revolution occurred in West
Africa in general in the course of the nineteenth century.
Another interesting feature of all these phenomenal developments
is the fact that until the 1870's and 1880's, they were the work of private
individuals, companies and missionary societies. All the various European
Governments remained indifferent, or pursued no consistent policy
with respect to those activities. The Danish and Dutch Governments
withdrew entirely from the Gold Coast in 1850 and 1872 respectively.
The German Government persistently refused to protect the German
traders and missionaries on the West Coast. Though the British Govern-
ment did not adopt either of these attitudes, it did not on the other hand
pursue any consistent policy.
In 1821 for instance, following reports that the merchants were
conniving at the slave trade and not promoting education and civilisation,
the British Government assumed direct control over the forts on the
Gold Coast from the company of merchants that had been administering
them since 1750. But only seven years later, it handed the forts back to
the merchants largely because its reluctance to assume more responsibi-
lities as a result of the Ashanti invasion of the Coast between 1824 and
1826, an invasion in which the Governor, Sir Charles MacCarthy was
The administration of the merchants continued until 1843. Para-
doxically enough, it was the period which witnessed the greatest social
and economic development as well as the greatest extension of British
jurisdiction and influence in the Gold Coast. This was entirely the outcome
of the work of George Maclean who although he had the title of Governor
was responsible to the committee of merchants, and was in charge of the
Gold Coast from 1830 to 1843.
Ignoring the instructions of the British Government that he was
not to interfere in the affairs of the native states and to confine his juris-
diction within the walls of the British forts, Maclean successfully concluded
a peace treaty with the Ashantis, tried cases brought by "natives" to
his court, sat in the native courts to see that justice was properly
administered by the chiefs, and stationed policemen in the main towns
and on the trade routes to see that peace and order prevailed. The result
of Maclean's policy was that peace reigned between Ashanti and the
Coast and trade boomed. All these activities successful as they were,
were illegal and it was in order to give a de jure recognition to this de
facto situation that following the recommendation of the Parliamentary
Commission of Enquiry of 1842, the British Government once more
assumed direct responsibility for the affairs on the Gold Coast in 1843,
and concluded the Bond of 1844 with the coastal chiefs on 6th March,
1844. Between the signing of the Bond of 1844 and 1874, certain changes
occurred which ushered in a further stage in the evolution of Ghana.
Firstly, trade continued to increase; secondly, the Anglo-Dutch exchange
of forts took place in 1868, and four years later the Dutch completely
withdrew from the Gold Coast. This latter action in particular raised
hopes of revenue from increased custom duties to finance the cost of
administration. Thirdly, the early 1870's saw in England the renaissance
of the spirit of imperialism. This is evident from the decision by the
Colonial Office in 1872 not to abandon the. Gold Coast but rather to
convert it into a crown colony on the grounds that in the present tone
and temper of the British mind, no abandonment of territory would be
permitted by Parliament or sanctioned by public opinion". Finally, the
decisive defeat of the Ashantis in 1874 by British troops under Sir Garnet
Wolseley placed the British in a strong position to do whatever they liked
with the country. All these events led to the conversion of the southern
region into the British Crown Colony of the Gold Coast in the teeth of
the opposition of the educated Africans and the chiefs on 24th July, 1874.
However, though the Gold Coast Colony came into existence in
1874, so reluctant was the British Government to increase its responsibi-
lities that in spite of the pressure of the merchants and missionaries,
Ashanti and the areas further north were left untouched. But from 1884
onwards, international trade became exceedingly competitive because
of the spread of the Industrial Revolution to France and Germany.
Secondly, the need for sources for raw materials as well as more
markets which the industrial countries could exclusively control became
more and more acute. Above all, the belief became prevalent throughout
Europe in the 1880's and 1890's that the greatness of any country depended
on the number of colonies she possessed.
These factors rather than the disinterested motive of introducing
light and European civilisation into the so-called "Dark Continent"
precipitated the mad rush for colonies which, in Africa, led to the reckless
partition of the whole continent among the great European powers
from 1884. And it was to forestall both the French and the Germans
that the British exiled the Asantehene on a very flimsy charge in 1896,
finally conquered the Ashanti Empire in 1901, and declared a Protectorate
over the Northern Territories in 1898.
The boundaries of these areas were arbitrarily drawn without any
regard for ethnic and political groupings at meetings held in Europe
among the British, the French and the Germans between 1896 and 1901.
In 1902, three Orders-in-Council constituted the British Colony, the
conquered territory of Ashanti, and the Protectorate of the Northern
Territories. In 1919 as a punishment for losing the war, Germany was
deprived of all her colonies and these were divided among the other
colonial powers as Mandated Territories. It was for this reason that the
British Mandated Territory of Togoland came to be jointly administered
with the other regions of the Gold Coast.
Geopolitically then the British colony of the Gold Coast came into
existence in 1919. The next steps, as far as the Colonial Power was con-
cerned, were to govern this artificial creation by the introduction of a
stable administrative system and to strengthen and benefit from it by
continuing the economic and social developments of the nineteenth
It was as a result of these economic, social and political developments
that certain classes emerged which became increasingly conscious of the
glaring absurdities, oppressiveness and limitations of the colonial regime.
This awareness on the part of the Africans marked the dawn of the rise
of nationalism and nationalist movements which eventually led to the
liquidation of colonialism and the emergence of the independent state of
The first of these activities which were to contribute to the rise of
nationalism and the nationalist movements in the Gold Coast was the
economic development or the economic exploitation of the Gold Coast.
The cultivation of cocoa spread into the Akim and Ashanti Regions.
From 1910, cocoa became the leading cash crop in the Gold Coast, a
position it has not yet lost. This great development of the cocoa industry
was paralleled only by that of the mining industry. By 1910, gold was
the only mineral being exported from this country. However, following
the construction of the Sekondi-Tarkwa-Kumasi and Accra-Kumasi
railways in 1898 to 1903, and 1909 to 1923 respectively, diamonds,
manganese and bauxitejoined the list. In order to facilitate commerce, coins
and currency notes were introduced in 1913 and 1916 respectively in
place of the cowries and the traditional system of barter. As the exports
increased, the demand for imported goods increased and this led to the
steady appearance in the country of a host of European and Syrian
and Indian trading firms and companies.
These phenomenal economic developments led, on the one hand,
to the emergence of a class of African wage earners and labourers, and,
on the other, to a middle class of cocoa farm owners, private businessmen,
importers, contractors, etc. Members of each of these classes tended to
develop grievances which the nationalist leaders could exploit. The
labourers and wage earners complained of low wages and bad housing
and with the emergence of trade unions in the 1940's, they had vehicles
for expressing their grievances. Members of the middle class also chafed
under the competition they had to encounter from expatriate firms.
Finally, since the European firms bought the crops produced by the
Africans at prices fixed by themselves while they also fixed prices for
the imported goods, producers of primary products and consumers of
imported goods became increasingly infuriated at this palpable exploita-
tion. It was such grievances which, for instance, led to the cocoa hold-up
of 1937 and the epoch-making boycott and looting of 1948.
Side by side with this economic development, was the social one.
More elementary and secondary schools as well as training colleges
were opened with the years and this led to a corresponding increase in
the number of educated Africans who as civil servants, school teachers,
etc., became less and less satisfied with their opportunities under the
colonial regime. Moreover, as there were no facilities at all for university
education, until 1948, more and more people went to Britain and the
United States for education. There, not only did they study socialist
and marxist literature which condemned colonialism but they also studied
the techniques of modern party organisation and strategy. Joseph Smith
and J. Hutton Brew, the first Secretary of the Fante Confederation, were
the first of a long line of such people which ended with Dr. J. B. Danquah
and Dr. Kwame Nkrumah, our present President.
The third parallel development was political, and this was the
establishment of the system of Indirect Rule in this country in the 1920's
and 1930's. This system simply meant, in practice, the administration
of the country by British Officials and the predominantly illiterate chiefs
to the total exclusion of the highly educated and well qualified Africans.
Under the system, the entire senior administrative and legal services
became the exclusive preserve of Europeans. Thus, while in 1883, nine
out of 43 senior posts in the administration were held by Gold Coast
Africans, by 1908, only five out of 278 and by 1919 only two were held
by Africans. As late as the 1940's only two Africans held the post of
Assistant District Commissioner in the administrative service. This exclu-
sion of Africans from the Senior Civil Service, a position which was com-
pletely absent in French colonial Africa, provoked the greatest disgust
and anger among the very class best equipped to bring down the whole
It is obvious then that as a result of the successful continuation of
the social, economic and political developments began in this nineteenth
century, grievances were not only accumulating, but people qualified to
channel these grievances into a movement for the liberalisation and later
liquidation of the colonial regime were being produced. These movements
did indeed appear and did so much earlier than is generally known. For
the beginnings of the campaign of Africans to govern themselves, we
have to go as far back as 1868 when the Fante Confederation was formed
partly to resist the Anglo-Dutch exchange of forts and partly to take
over the administration of the country when the British left as recom-
mended by the Parliamentary Select Committee of 1865. However, the
withdrawal of the Dutch and the renaissance of the spirit of imperialism
led to the suppression by the British of the Confederation, the first move-
ment for independence in this country. It was not until 1897 that the
second mass movement against the British emerged. This was the Abori-
gines Rights Protection Society. This society, led by the chiefs and the
educated upper class-barristers, teachers and merchants-was formed
not merely to protest against the acquisition of land by the Government,
but also to carry out a positive and nationalist programme. This included
fostering in the rising generation a knowledge of their historical past,
encouraging the study of laws, customs, and institutions of the country,
promoting a sound educational policy, and above all, achieving a demo-
cratisation of the colonial legislature and the eventual introduction of a
responsible government in which the Executive would not be responsible
to the Governor but to the elected representatives of the Gold Coast
electorate. The society enjoyed high prestige up to 1925. During this
period it defeated the Government's Land Bill of 1898 and the Forest
Lands Bill of 1912. But between 1925 and 1927 this society was deli-
berately destroyed by the Governor, Sir Gordon Guggisberg. He drove
a wedge between the Chiefs and the educated Africans, and won the
former to his side by creating for them the various provincial councils of
But even before the Aborigines Rights Protection Society became
more or less moribund, another distinguished African lawyer, Joseph
Casely Hayford, inaugurated the West African Congress in 1917. This
Congress differed from the two previous movements in two significant
respects. First, it had a middle class attitude and had nothing to do with
the Chiefs. Second, it looked beyond the shores of the Gold Coast to
all the other British Colonies in West Africa. It was thus the first inter-
territorial political movement in British West Africa. Among the resolu-
tions adopted at the inaugural meeting were the granting of self-govern-
ment so that peoples of African descent should participate in the
government of their own country ", the granting of elective franchise
and the abrogation of nomination to the Legislative Council, the establish-
ment of a West African Court of Appeal as well as a University for West
Africa. In October, 1920 the Congress sent a delegation to London to
present these demands to the Secretary of States for the Colonies. Though
the delegates were received, they were told that "The time had not yet
come either for the principle of election or of official majorities on the
West African Legislative Council." The Congress met again in Freetown
in 1923, Bathurst in 1928 and Lagos in 1929. However, when Casely
Hayford accepted a seat in the Legislative Council in 1927, the party
declined and completely disintegrated after his death in 1930.
The period between the collapse of the West African Congress and
the emergence of the United Gold Coast Convention saw the rise of a
number of Youth Movements led by Nnamdi Azikiwe, the present
Governor-General of Nigeria, and Dr. J. B. Danquah. The first Youth
Conference met in 1930, the second in 1938 and the third in 1939 when a
permanent organisation with annual sessions was set up.
These movements did keep alive the political and nationalist demands
but they did not achieve much else. Nor did they become real mass move-
ments until the formation of the United Gold Coast Convention in 1947
and the Convention People's Party in 1949. The agitation of the political
leaders of these parties was greatly assisted by the intensification of the
various grievances already outlined by the impact of the Second World
War. The end of the war also led to the repatriation of thousands of
ex-servicemen who were filled with new ideas of freedom, and new aspira-
tions absorbed in India and elsewhere. Their disillusionment on their
return home caused primarily by lack of employment and inadequate
pensions made them the storm-troopers of these new parties. The propa-
ganda of the United Nations with its emphasis in particular on the
principle of self-determination of all peoples and the equal rights of men
and women and of nations large and small was another catalyst. But
what above all finally led to the completion of the last phase of this long
evolutionary process was the tact, sagacity, oratorical and organising
abilities of one of the greatest Africans now living, Dr. Kwame Nkrumah.
It was under his inspired and inspiring, infectious and infecting, spirited
and enlightened leadership that on the 6th of March, 1957, the process of
evolution was finally brought to its conclusion with the emergence of the
Gold Coast as the first of the colonies of British Africa to become
sovereign and independent under the name of Ghana.
Parliament.-Legislative power was first exercised during the period
1850-1865 when the Gold Coast, becoming for the first time a distinct
dependency of the British Crown, was given its own Legislative Council.
During the period 1866 to 1874 the Gold Coast was re-united with the
West African Settlements, and the Legislative Council was reduced in
size. The steady growth of the legislature began in 1874 when the Gold
Coast again became a separate government; but even quite near the end
of the 19th century, the powers of the legislature were still limited and
its area of authority undefined.
In 1888 the first African unofficial member was nominated to the
Legislative Council. As time went on the African unofficial representation
was increased, but European official members continued to be in the
majority. The first Legislative Council elections ever to be held took
place in 1925, in which year the practice of nominating mercantile and
mining members began.
Under the 1946 Constitution provision was made for an elected
legislature, and Ashanti was for the first time given representation.
In 1949 the Legislative Council was given jurisdiction over Southern
Togoland under United Kingdom Trusteeship. In 1951 the Legislative
Assembly became the legislature for the Northern Territories. Before
these changes, legislative jurisdiction over these areas resided exclusively
in the Governor.
In 1949 the Governor ceased to be ex-officio President of the Legis-
lative Council, and an unofficial member was appointed President. In
1951 the legislature elected its first Speaker under the 1950 Constitution.
The first large scale election to the Legislative Assembly took place
in 1951 when 75 members were elected under the 1950 Constitution. In
addition to that number there were nominated three ex-officio members
and six special members representing commercial and mining interests.
Under the transitional Constitution of 1954, 104 members were
chosen by direct election on the basis of universal adult suffrage. A
National Assembly of 104 members was elected in 1956, and at Indepen-
dence on 6th March, 1957 it became the National Assembly of Ghana.
The same Assembly became on 1st July, 1960 the first National
Assembly of the Republic. Under the Constitution (Consequential
Provisions Act) the Assembly was given a new five-year lease of life
Constitution of Parliament.-Parliament consists of the President of
the Republic and the National Assembly.
Composition of Assembly.-The National Assembly comprises the
Speaker and not less than 104 members, each member representing a
constituency (electoral district). In addition to the 104 members repre-
-~a 0 -
A view of part of Accra, the capital and seat of Government
senting constituencies ten women were in June, 1960 elected to-the
Assembly by the Assembly itself under the Representation of the People
(Women Members) Act. The purpose was to expose women to parliamen-
tary life (all the members of Parliament then being men). It is not intended
to repeat this system of election.
Qualifications for elections.-For a person to become qualified for
election to the Assembly he must be a citizen of Ghana, aged 25 or more
years and able to speak and read English. A person is ineligible for
election if at the time of election he is a holder of a public office. Broadly
speaking, disqualification from practising his profession in Ghana or
criminality or lunacy makes a person ineligible for election.
Vacant Seats.-Whenever there is a vacant seat the Speaker orders
the holding of a bye-election.
Oaths.-All members are required to take and subscribe the oath
of allegiance and the oath of a member of Parliament as prescribed by
the Oaths Act.
Sessions, Meetings and Sittings.-The parliamentary year usually
coincides with the financial year.
A session is summoned by the President who opens it with a sessional
address in which he indicates the policies proposed to be followed by
the Government during that session. Once a session has begun the
Assembly is free to adjourn itself from time to time. There are usually
four meetings in each session, the date of each meeting (except the one
with which a session commences) being fixed by the Speaker in consul-
tation with the Government. The prorogation or dissolution of the
Assembly is a prerogative of the President.
At least seven days before prorogation the President attends the
Assembly and delivers a sessional report. In this he gives the results of the
application of the Government's policies during that session.
A sitting commences at 4 p.m. and ends at 8 p.m. or at such later
time as the Speaker may decide. The President may attend any sitting but
may not take part in debate.
General Procedure.-The procedure of the National Assembly
derives from the procedure of the British House of Commons. It has
however been adapted to suit Ghanaian conditions and reflect Ghanaian
personality. Since Ghana became a Republic the benches in the chamber
have been arranged in a horse-shoe fashion in order to achieve a warm
rather than a belligerent atmosphere. Although political parties are
recognized in the Assembly no official cognizance is taken of a Govern-
ment side and an Opposition side. The nation's representatives are pre-
sented in the chamber as a phalanx without losing their ability to speak
and vote as they wish.
The Leader of the House, who is the Minister responsible for Par-
liamentary Affairs, is assisted by a member called the Parliamentary
Secretary. There are no official party whips. The quorum of the
Assembly is 25.
Question Time.-The day's proceedings begin with Question Time.
Members who have given written notice of Questions and have their
Questions listed for the day put them by reference to the numbers they
bear on the Order Paper. The Minister to whom a Question is addressed
answers it orally and may be asked supplementary Questions for clarifica-
tion of the answer given.
Debate.-During a debate a member may speak only when he is
called by the Speaker. He may not speak more than once to any question
(explanations and replies excepted) unless the question is proposed at
the consideration stage of a Bill. A member speaks standing in his place
unless he is a front bench member, in which case he may speak from a
dispatch box on the table in the middle of the chamber. A member should
always address the Speaker and must not introduce matters which are
outside the scope of the question proposed. He should not read his speech
(except in certain circumstances) but may refresh his memory from notes.
A member who has the floor must not be interrupted, without his consent,
by another member except upon a point of order.
A member may not use offensive, blasphemous or unbecoming
words or make personal allusions. If he misbehaves during a debate he
may be dealt with under rules ranging from a direction for the discon-
tinuance of his speech to suspension from the service of the Assembly
for a specified period.
When a motion has been decided by the collection of voices Aye
and No the Speaker's decision may be challenged by a member claiming
a division. In a division members are counted by tellers (who may them-
selves vote) and their names are recorded by division clerks as they pass
through the division lobbies. As the Speaker is not a member of Par-
liament he does not vote at all.
Bills.-Bills may be initiated either by the Government or by a
private member, but so far only Government Bills have been introduced.
All Bills must go through the following stages: first reading, second
reading, committee stage and third reading. The text of each Bill is pub-
lished in the Gazette before it is taken in the Assembly, but when a Bill is
introduced upon a certificate of urgency signed by the President, such
publication may be dispensed with and all the stages of that Bill may be
taken in the same day.
When a Bill has been read the third time it is deemed to have been
passed by the Assembly. The President may then give his assent to it by
signing specially printed copies authenticated by the Clerk of the
Assembly. The President may give his assent to a Bill wholly or in part.
As soon as the first copy of a Bill is signed by the President or by two
members of a Presidential Commission it becomes an Act of Parliament.
Financial Procedure-The Constitution provides that no taxation
shall be imposed otherwise than under the authority of an Act of Par-
liament. Changes in Customs or Excise duties announced in the budget
statement, which is made soon after the commencement of a session,
have immediate effect under an order which is made on budget day
under the appropriate enabling Act. Changes in income tax and the
introduction of other taxes are given effect in Acts of Parliament.
The Assembly grants moneys by resolution upon the Government
presenting estimates of expenditure. Estimates are in three categories:
provisional, annual and supplementary. The lump sum granted upon
presentation of provisional estimates is called a vote on account and is for
meeting expenditure at the beginning of the financial year while the
annual estimates have not been approved. Moneys may be granted upon
presentation of supplementary estimates if, upon the annual estimates
being approved, it is found that the moneys granted in respect of any
heads of those estimates are likely to be insufficient or expenditure is to
be incurred on a new service. In addition to granting moneys upon pre-
sentation of estimates the Assembly may make extraordinary grants for
the public service.
Select Committees.-Select committees of the Assembly are either
sessional or ad hoc. The sessional ones are the Committee of Privileges,
the House Committee, the Public Accounts Committee, the Business
Committee and the Standing Orders Committee. Ad hoc select committees
are appointed to consider matters outside the scope of sessional com-
mittees. The only select committee that takes decisions on behalf of the
Assembly is the Business Committee which determines the business of
each day and the order in which it should be taken. All other select com-
mittees make recommendations for adoption by the Assembly.
The most active of the sessional select committees is the Public
Accounts Committee. Its duty is to examine the accounts of departments
of Government and statutory bodies to find out whether the moneys
granted to them by the Assembly have been properly applied to the
objects for which they were granted.
Privileges and Immunities.-Members enjoy freedom of speech,
debate and proceedings in the Assembly. No civil or criminal process
may be served on a member while he is attending any proceeding of the
Assembly, except with the Speaker's permission in the case of a criminal
process. Members and officers enjoy immunity from jury service and
witness summons during meetings of the Assembly.
Contempt of Parliament.-Any act which impedes or tends to impede
the Assembly in the exercise of its function or affronts the dignity of the
Assembly is a contempt of Parliament. A member found by the Assembly
to be guilty of contempt may be reprimanded by the Speaker or suspended
from the service of the Assembly or expelled. A stranger found guilty of
contempt may be excluded from the precincts of the Assembly or repri-
manded by the Speaker or have criminal proceedings taken against him
in a court of law.
Standing Orders.-Under the National Assembly Act the Assembly
has power to make rules for the regulation and orderly conduct of its
business. These rules are known as Standing Orders and are subject to
Records.-The official record of proceedings in the Assembly is
called the Minutes which are essentially a record of the decisions come to
by the Assembly. The full record of proceedings is called the Official
Report, commonly known as Hansard. The Official Report is near as
Speaker.-The most important official of the Assembly is the Speaker.
He is the mouthpiece of the Assembly and the representative of its powers
and dignity. He is elected by the Assembly and may be removed from
office upon two-thirds of the total number of members resolving that the
Assembly has no confidence in him. The mace, which is the authority
of the Assembly, is borne before him by the Marshal when he enters
and leaves the Chamber. He is assisted by the Deputy Speaker who is a
member elected by the Assembly at the commencement of each session.
Clerks-at-the-Table.-The Clerk of the Assembly is assisted by the
Deputy Clerk and two Assistant Clerks. The Clerk is the Speaker's
official adviser on procedure and is available for consultation by members
and departmental officials. The Clerk and members of his staff are public
To qualify as a voter, a person, male or female, is entitled to register
as an elector provided he is a citizen of Ghana. He should have attained
twenty-one years of age and must either own immovable property or
must have, for not less than six months, resided within the ward or consti-
tuency in which application is made.
A person is disqualified from registering as an elector if he has been
sentenced to death or imprisonment for a term exceeding twelve months
or convicted of any offence involving dishonesty. If, however, five years
or more have elapsed since the termination of his imprisonment, he is
eligible to vote.
If a person is found to be of unsound mind or detained as a criminal
lunatic under any law for the time being in force in Ghana, he is dis-
qualified from registering.
Left: Osagyefo swears the
oath of office
Right: The new Mace
Left: The State Sword
Below: The State Chair
Whenever a bye-election is to be held, the Minister of the Interior
and Local Government appoints a date and a suitable person who would
not be a candidate to be a Returning Officer for each electoral district. The
Returning Officer puts up notice in his electoral district of the time of elec-
tion and the last date for the delivery of nomination papers and
appoints Assistant Returning Officers.
Every candidate should be nominated in writing by three electors
of the electoral district where he is a candidate, giving these particulars:
his name, address and occupation. Names, addresses, occupation of
nominees, a certificate by the candidate that he is willing and qualified
to stand for election must also be submitted to the Returning Officer.
Nomination papers are delivered to the Returning Officer together
with a deposit of G50 (fifty Ghana pounds) in the case of a Parliamentary
Election not later than twenty-one days before the first day appointed
The Returning Officer then informs the candidates in writing of the
symbol and colour which have been allocated to their ballot boxes, and
publishes a list containing full particulars of the candidates and their
nominees not later than twelve days before the first election day. Where
there is only one candidate, the Returning Officer declares him elected
unopposed on the day appointed for election.
If a candidate dies after delivering his nomination papers and before
the commencement of the voting, the Returning Officer countermands
the election. In this case another convenient day is appointed and the
electoral procedure is commenced afresh.
Each candidate may appoint two or more persons as Polling Agents
to draw attention of the presiding officer to irregularities in procedure at
a polling station.
Every ballot box is so constructed that ballot papers can be put
into it by a voter but cannot be withdrawn by him. Hours of voting
are 7 a.m. to 5 p.m. An elector presents himself to a polling assistant
who delivers to him a ballot paper and takes his thumb print. The elector
immediately goes to the screened compartment in the polling station
containing a ballot box for each candidate and secretly records his vote.
Except with the consent of the Returning Officer, no other person
other than the Returning Officer, his assistants, candidates and their
Counting Agents may be present at the counting of votes. When the
results of the election have been ascertained, the Returning Officer
declares the candidates who had majority of votes to be elected, publishes
details of the results, and reports to the Minister of the Interior and
Local Government who causes it to be published in the Gazette with
the number of votes recorded for each candidate.
THE PRESIDENT'S OFFICE
Osagyefo, the President, has retained responsibility for the Armed
Forces, the Police Service and the Budget Bureau. The Chief of Defence
Staff and the Commissioner of Police are now directly responsible to
him on all matters affecting the Armed Forces and the Police Service.
In addition, a Presidential Secretariat which is responsible for other
Government functions not specially allocated to Ministers has been
created. These are Parliamentary business; Ministerial functions in rela-
tion to the Audit Department; Ministerial functions in respect of the
Administration of the Public Service; Civil Service; Volta River
Authority; Regional Organisation; Universities and Higher Education;
Council for Higher Education and Research; Atomic Energy; The Ghana
Academy of Science; Scholarships; Bureau of Statistics; Technical Assis-
tance; Ghana Supply Commission; Census; Budget Secretariat; State
Functions and African Affairs.
The Volta River Authority.-It has been decided that resettlement of
the people in the area to be flooded by the Volta Lake should be a
government undertaking and the control of the V.R.A. (see p.128)
will provide the requisite services and co-ordination of functions by other
departments. The Bui Hydro-electric project which is another stage of the
integrated hydro-development of the Volta and its main tributaries is
now to be undertaken by a U.S.S.R. technical team under the general
administrative control of the V.R.A.
The Scholarships Secretariat exercises centralised control over the
granting of all scholarships and ensures that scholarships are awarded
in accordance with a defined and approved programme of training for
the Civil Service, Research, Education, Industry and Trade.
2. The main types of scholarships for which the Scholarships
Secretariat is responsible are:-
(a) Government Scholarships awards tenable overseas, Univer-
sity of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science
and Technology and College of Business Administration at
(b) Government Scholarships awards to citizens of other
African States tenable in High Institutions in Ghana.
(c) All existing Ghana Agricultural Produce Marketing Board
scholarship awards tenable overseas. These embrace the
main Agricultural Produce Marketing Board scholarships,
financial assistance, the artisans and technicians and the
Black Star Line training schemes.
(d) All scholarships awards offered to Ghana by Foreign
Governments, Organisations and internal agencies.
(e) Northern Region and Volta Region Scholarships Schemes.
In addition, the Scholarships Secretariat offers advice to private
students who wish to study overseas and assists in placing them in suitable
The Scholarships Secretariat also keeps a record of all students
overseas so that from the manpower point of view there will be valuable
data of the personnel likely to be available in particular fields.
The Bureau of the Budget formerly under the Ministry of Finance
has become one of the Presidential Secretariats. It is responsible for the
co-ordination, examination and preparation of the Annual Estimates of
revenues and expenditures, for the preparation of supplementary and
provisional estimates, and for all work in connection with the Budget.
It is also responsible for budgetary control.
The State Functions Secretariat is responsible for the following:-
(a) All events such as State Dinners, etc., organised on behalf of
the President or the Ghana Government.
(b) All visits to Ghana of Heads of Governments or Heads of
States or their equivalent.
(c) All Government functions of national importance.
(d) Co-ordinating the organisation of Durbars which may be
held for the President in any part of the country.
The Secretariat is also responsible for special duties, including pre-
paration of programmes, rehearsals, etc.
The Establishment Secretariat is a special Department for whose
general efficiency the Secretary to the Cabinet is responsible to the Presi-
dent. It is the function of the Establishment Office to assist the President
in the exercise of his responsibilities in regard to the Civil Service (other
than those in which the Civil Service Act requires the Civil Service Com-
mission to assist him) and in particular to supervise the day-to-day admi-
nistration of the Civil Service, to provide an advisory service on Civil
Service matters for Ministries and Departments, to supervise and co-
ordinate arrangements for the training of Civil Servants and generally
to ensure that the Civil Service is designed and equipped to do its job
efficiently and economically. There are five main branches of the Estab-
lishment Office, namely:-
(a) Establishment Branch which deals with the complements
and salary gradings of all Civil Service posts and is assisted
in this task by Staff Inspection branch.
(b) Staff Inspection Branch which reviews the work of individual
Ministries and Departments or parts of them in order to
determine what staff is needed to enable them to perform
their respective functions effectively.
(c) Personnel Branch which deals with matters affecting the indivi-
dual civil servant.
(d) Training Branch which has the duty imposed by section 22
of the Civil Service Act of supervising and co-ordinating
arrangements for the training of civil servants.
(e) Organisation and Methods Branch which provides advice to
management on office organisation and processes.
The Establishment and Personnel Branches are long established
units of the Establishment Office and its predecessors. The Staff Inspection
branch was formed in 1959 and at present operates with the help of
technical assistance provided by the United Kingdom Government: it is
still moving towards its full development and will eventually merge with
the Establishment branch.
The Training Branch has been reorganised with the help of United
Nations Technical Assistance. Previously known as the Recruitment and
Training Branch it has shed its former recruitment functions (which have
been assumed partly by the Civil Service Commission and partly by the
Personnel Branch) in order to concentrate on training. In addition to co-
ordinating the in-service training arrangements of Civil Service Depart-
ments, the Training Branch is responsible for the Civil Service Training
Centre in Accra, the Technical Supervisors Training School at Weija and
Government Secretarial Schools in Accra, Kumasi, Tamale, Sekondi and
The African Affairs Secretariat is one of the newly created Presiden-
tial Secretariats following the recent re-organisation of the Government.
It is responsible for the formulation and implementation of Government
policy relating to other African countries.
MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE
The Ministry of Agriculture is composed of the following branches
whose co-ordinated efforts are channelled to provide adequate food and
nutrition and agricultural income for this country:-
1. the Ministerial Secretariat
2. the Accounts Division
3. the Works Branch
4. the General Agricultural Services Division
5. the Cocoa Industry Division
6. the Scientific Services Division
7. the Agricultural Economics Division
8. the Produce Inspection Division
9. the Animal Health Division
10. the Forestry Division
11. the Fisheries Division
12. the Reserve Settlement Commission
13. the Transport and Mechanical Workshop Branch
14. the Capsid Control Scheme Division.
In 1959 a Committee was appointed by the Government under the
Chairmanship of the Minister of Agriculture to examine and recommend
such re-organisation as might be necessary to improve efficiency in
relation to general agricultural development, and its co-ordination with
other scientific and agricultural activities and institutions in Ghana.
The Ministry originally consisted of the Departments of Agriculture
and Forestry, the Directors of which were responsible to the Minister
for the implementation of Govermnent policy in their particular specialist
roles. Prior to the appointment of this Committee, however, the four
Departments had been integrated with the Ministry headquarters to
form one administrative unit which was self-accounting and the Depart-
ments had become Divisions of the integrated Ministry.
As a result of the advice of this and another investigating Committee
this policy of integration has been reversed and each Division once
again functions independently within the set-up.
The Committee investigating the organisation of the Ministry was
satisfied that the Divisions of Animal Health, Forestry and Fisheries
had clear-cut and competent views as to targets to be obtained and the
ways and means of attaining them. It recommended, however, that the
Division of Agriculture should be divided into the following four new
Divisions each with its own Chief Officer to ensure a greater degree of
specialisation in the various aspects of the Division's work.
(a) General Agricultural Services Division under a Chief
Agricultural Officer who is responsible for all extension
work connected with the development of all Agricultural
crops other than cocoa and for the diversification of agricul-
(b) The Cocoa Division under a Chief Cocoa Officer who is
responsible for all aspects connected with the development,
production and maintenance of the Cocoa Industry which
constitutes a major item in our national economy.
(c) The Agricultural Scientific Services Division under a Chief
Scientific Officer who is in charge of all soil and land-use
surveys with a view ultimately to produce a soil map which
would indicate areas suitable for the production of specific
crops, and to undertake such specialist research as is con-
ducted by entomologists, plant breeders, agronomists,
pasture research officers, etc.
(d) The Agricultural Economics Division under the Chief
Agricultural Economist is being developed with the assistance
of an Agricultural Economics Adviser appointed by the
Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations.
Among the most important functions of this Division are
agricultural economics surveys, market price statistics and
crop production forecasts including advice on market trends
both at home and abroad for the wide range of primary
agricultural commodities which can be produced in this
It stands to reason that there is no point in encouraging the farmers
of this country to produce more and varied crops unless they can be
assured of an immediate and fair return for their labours.
The former four Divisions of the Ministry are therefore now re-
organised into seven and the Produce Inspection Division has only been
transferred back from the former Ministry of Trade. In addition, there
are the Accounts Division which provides the treasury facilities for the
whole Ministry through its thirteen branch offices and the Works Branch
which undertakes most of the building constructional works of the
Ministry and the Transport and Mechanical Workshops Branch which
operates and maintains the Ministry's Transport System.
The Ministry has given special attention to the food sector of agricul-
ture because of the necessity of improving the nutritional standards of
the people of Ghana and of ensuring adequate foods in all regions. With
this end in view, the Ministry has given active encouragement to proposals
initiated by its F.A.O. adviser for the establishment of a Department
and Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries-to continue and expand
A sow and its litter
4'? t~ S
r I" .S s. ..~h.
:ILa~t_ t~ ~; "-~,--- ---
the good work already done within the Ministry and to provide the
technical background needed for the growth of our fishing industry-
both in the ocean and in inland waters. An important and, indeed, essen-
tial part of the work of these departments will be the training of
Ghanaians for laboratory, industrial and administrative posts. In parti-
cular the University College proposes to establish a B.Sc. Course in
Food Science, which will be unique in Africa.
Our various domestic and foreign commitments require that every
effort should be made to strengthen our economy, and for that reason
Osagyefo the President commanded that the Minister should draw up a
comprehensive programme for agricultural development with a view to
increasing appreciably our agricultural production and to minimizing
the importation of large quantities of food from foreign sources and
thus halt the drain on our foreign exchange earnings. Consequently, the
Minister has prepared the required programme which has been submitted
to the Government.
The main efforts of the Cocoa Industry Division are still directed
towards the control of Swollen Shoot disease. Intensive survey of all
cocoa in the Brong-Ahafo, Ashanti and the Volta Regions is now com-
pleted and during the year the survey was extended to parts of the former
abandoned areas in the Eastern Region and to some of the sparsely culti-
vated cocoa areas in the Western Region.
Some 15 million acres of the country, containing just over 4 million
acres of cocoa, have now been intensively surveyed, and in areas where
the disease is prevalent, frequent re-surveys have been carried out. Nearly
100 million infected trees have now been removed, and although the final
production figures for 1960-61 Cocoa crop are not yet available, it is
already clear that this year's crop which is about 400,000 tons will beat
all previous records.
In April, 1959, the Capsid Control Scheme was launched in order
to assist farmers to fight the menace of capsids in their cocoa farms.
Staff recruited by the United Ghana Farmers' Council have been trained
and seconded to the Cocoa Division and are now teaching the farmers
how to spray their cocoa against capsids. Machines, and insecticides
are provided at highly subsidized prices and a vast organisation has
been created which is now actively engaged in fighting this pest which
constitutes a threat to our cocoa industry, second in seriousness to
that of Swollen Shoot Disease.
Research in the field of control of pests and diseases continues
together with further investigational work into all aspects of cocoa
agronomy. The quest for new and alternative insecticides for use against
capsids and the study of the use of fertilizers on the cocoa crop still
constitutes the major item of research. The work on fertilizers has shown
that yields of Ghana cocoa can be greatly increased by their use and
special emphasis will be laid on the field testing of fertilizers on farmer's
cocoa. In view of the very low price now obtaining in the Cocoa market,
resulting from the unprecedented increase in production, it would not
be very wise to encourage the widespread application of fertilizers which
would further aggravate this very disturbing situation. It may be men-
tioned that the increase in production is due largely to disease and pest
control measures adopted by the Cocoa Division, although favourable
climate conditions have also contributed to this increase.
As a result of successful research and plant breeding work by
W.A.C.R.I. and the Bunso Cocoa Plantation, improved planting material
has been produced and is being made available on an increasing scale to
farmers, and the supplies of Amazon pods are now sufficient to meet the
demands of all. Seed gardens have been established in various places in
the cocoa areas to produce hybrid seed for sale to the farmer. Each
seed will produce a cocoa tree with a higher yielding capacity than any
cocoa yet grown in this country. Since issues of Amazon seeds started,
more than five and half million amazon seedlings and over 5 million
Amazon pods have been sold to farmers.
Increased attention is being given to the training of cocoa farmers
in the new methods derived from the findings of the research programme.
These courses are being conducted at seven permanent hostels. These
hostels, which are situated on cocoa stations, each accommodates
upward of 30 farmers and the variety and number of courses given at
these centres will be increased as rapidly as possible.
At the outset agricultural production in this country can be increased
by the farmer himself provided he will get the necessary incentive. This
incentive must take the form of a ready cash return for his crop which
represents fair payment for his labour. The function of the General
Agricultural Services Division is to show the farmer by direct contact
with its extension staff in the field how this may be done. It is not normally
the function of the Division to produce crops itself except for the purpose
of experimentation and trials and the production of planting material
The Division therefore introduces to farmers improved farming
and planting material or breeding stock with the general objective of
increasing agricultural production in accordance with the needs of the
In future increased emphasis will be placed on the direct approach
to the farmer by the extension staff and to teaching the farmer to under-
stand and test for himself the value of advice given by the Division.
For this purpose this Division runs demonstration farms and conducts
trials in the production of crops. Mention may be made of a few crops
which are rapidly developing as very important economic crops as far as
our natural economy is concerned.
(a) Coffee.-Progress has been achieved in coffee production by
the establishment of processing facilities in the main producing areas
of the Volta Region where three Co-operative Societies have purchased
and established machinery for hulling and grading which will result in
the production of a better quality coffee. About 2,000 tons valued at
G380,000 was produced for export and there are about 50,000 acres
under coffee. The export figure is quite apart from the substantial amount
(b) Rubber.-Development of the rubber industry in the Western
Region has been resumed very vigorously. Four areas have been selected
in which farmers are encouraged to plant high grade material supplied
by the Division and assistance will be given to farmers towards the
maintenance of the crop during the year of establishment. Farmers are
further assisted with a grant of G5 annually for five years for any acre
of rubber grown and maintained according to specified regulations.
A minimum of 25,000 acres of rubber have been planted. Several acres
have already been planted by Farmers' Co-operatives. This Company
have established a nursery from which they are distributing seedlings
to farmers in the surrounding area. In addition, old rubber plantations
are being re-established with Government assistance.
(c) Tobacco.-There has been phenomenal increase in tobacco
growing in the Volta Region where more than 2,000 acres are cultivated
as compared with 700 acres a year and a half ago. Evidence of the extent
to which tobacco production has increased in this country may be seen
from the following figures of tobacco purchases for the local manufacture
1956 .. 100,047
1957 .. 215,766
1958 .. .. 742,797
1959 .. .. 2,182,974
1960 over 3,000,000
In the Northern Region progress has been made in the production
and supply to farmers of improved varieties of groundnuts, rice and
tomatoes developed by the Plant Breeders and demonstrations have been
carried out in the use of fertilizers and crop protection chemicals. At
present mechanical cultivation services are being provided for the
preparation of land for rice and tobacco in Northern Ghana, Ashanti and
Brong-Ahafo and for general cropping on the Accra Plains and it is
proposed to expand these services in order to enable farmers to increase
the production of the crops concerned. For this and other purposes
orders have been placed for the necessary farm machinery.
In the Land Planning Areas of the Northern Region progress has
been made in the dam and contour construction enabling increasing
emphasis to be placed on the development of dry season gardening and
rice cultivation in the vicinity of the dams. In order, however, to have
a plan based on the latest expert advice on land planning which will
result in the profitable and economic use of our land resources in the
Northern and Upper Regions, an application has been submitted to the
United Nations Special Fund for a team of experts to conduct a pre-
investment survey of these Regions. This is to determine their agricultural
potential for further investment into agricultural and land-use produc-
tion. A similar survey is being conducted on the Lower Volta Flood
Plains and it is hoped that this will be expanded to include the Accra
Plains where similar land planning activities have also been initiated
by the commencement of a pilot project at Dawhwenya where a dam
now completed will be used to investigate the possibility of production
of rice and fodder crops and the controlled grazing of cattle. This scheme
has already become popular with the farmers of the area.
Approval has been given by the Government to establish large
scale co-operative mechanised farming projects involving joint participa-
tion of the Government and the United Ghana Farmers' Council.
Detailed examination of these projects is being carried out by the Division
and plans are being prepared for their execution which will cover the
main perennial crops, and arable and vegetable farming, as well as
cattle ranching, pig and other livestock farming. The arable crops to be
produced on large-scale co-operative farms include six 2,000 acre units
which are being set up near Ejura to grow Urena Lobata which will
provide the fibre required for a sack factory to be established soon.
It is the intention of the Ministry to organise the extension services
of the Ministry under an Extension Commissioner who will co-ordinate
the extension functions of all Divisions in the Ministry. A Ghanaian
has now been appointed to this post. In the meantime the extension staff
of the Division of General Agriculture is being increased and facilities
are prepared for the formal training of farmers and farm workers.
Accommodation at Pokoase has been enlarged to improve the facilities
for training in poultry keeping and the first Farm Institute in the country
has been opened in Asuansi. The first 30 young men have just passed out
of it after a year's course in practical farming. Further Farm Institutes
will be opened throughout the country in due course, and one is soon
to be ready in Damongo.
The Scientific Services Division was formed from the Soil and Land-
Use Branch and the specialist research officer from the former Division
of Agriculture. A Ghanaian is now occupying the post of Chief Scientific
Officer and plans for a research programme and proposals for the organi-
sation of this Division are being formulated.
It is the intention of the Government to build up a sound agricul-
tural scientific research service which will compare favourably with those
which exist in other countries.
On the subject of plant sanitation special attention will be given to
phytosamtary regulations and facilities consistent with the obligations
of Ghana to other countries under the auspices of the Inter-African
Phytosanitary Commission. Importation of diseased material can some-
times cause great havoc to crops and it is important to build up an effi-
cient plant quarantine system. During the year the Soil and Land-Use
Survey Branch have been carrying out survey in the land planning areas
of Bawku, Bolgatanga and Navrongo, and of cocoa stations in connection
with fertilizer trials, and in association with the United States Operations
Mission and the Economics Division, they have surveyed the Sene-
Obosom Basin. In addition reconnaissance surveys have been completed
in Lower Densu, Bia and Tain basins. Assistance was also given by the
United States Operations Mission in the survey of the Eastern Dagomba
and Northern Gonja areas.
The Fisheries Division.-The Fisheries Division organisation has
been stepped up to cover a wide range of activities including the mechani-
sation of canoes, the opening and improving of new harbours, increases
in the motor fishing fleet, the development of fresh water fisheries,
improved training facilities for fishermen and staff, and improvement
of the statistical and economic survey services.
Outboard motor experiments for canoes have been continued
satisfactorily and a loan scheme has been introduced. It is estimated
that over 600 canoes are now fitted with motors as compared with 150
in 1960. It is the Government's intention that the supply of outboard
motors to canoe fishermen shall be made on an increasing scale and
supervision of their operations will be continued.
The motor fishing fleet has expanded to over 200 vessels and their
activities have required constant supervision by the Fisheries Division
at the various parts from which they operate from the point of view of
The development of the Tuna industry in association with Star
Kist Inc. and production of new types of motor craft and fishing gear
are encouraging. Surveys completed by Star Kist and Russian fisheries
experts indicate that Ghana waters abound with rich resources of Tuna
and Sardenella and in order to take advantage of this an order has been
placed for 6 fishing vessels.
Again, in order to be able to accommodate a larger use of vessels
including vessels of greater draught that can at present use the existing
Fishing Harbour at Tema it is proposed to make extensions to it.
There is still plenty of scope for improvement in fishing methods.
Although several Ghanaian-owned vessels use purse seine nets and
have obtained extremely good catches there remain some fishermen who
continue with the trawl net fishing method with the result that they
have encountered many difficulties which will continue until they diver-
sify their techniques.
In order to cope with the large volume of fishing production which
will result from our plans for the expansion and improvement of the
Fishing Industry it is necessary that a suitable fish marketing system
should be evolved. For this reason an F.A.O. expert on fish marketing
system attached to the Ministry of Agriculture has made a herring survey
and a canoe count, and on his recommendation a pilot fish market has
been established at Takoradi where cold storage and ice making facilities
are provided in addition to the normal market activities which are
designed to facilitate the development of wholesale fish trading. There is
also under construction a cold storage plant for the handling of fish
The surveys also included the fish marketing system and a better
fish distribution system now being operated by the Agricultural Develop-
ment Corporation for the benefit of the producing fishermen and of the
consumer population throughout the country.
Our fishing industry is thus rapidly becoming an important source
of income for our people and will soon reach the stage where it will con-
siderably reduce our reliance on foreign sources of supply for a substan-
tial portion of our fish requirements, and thus save a substantial drain
on our foreign exchange.
Fresh water fisheries are also being developed in Northern Ghana
where increased staff are now operating at the many dams constructed
for land planning purposes. The same work continues in the southern
savannah land planning area. It is also proposed to explore the possibility
of stocking the Volta lake which will be created when the dam has been
constructed, and to develop the lake into an important source of fresh
Forestry Division.-Although Agriculture continues to form the
main basis of our economy, our national income has in recent years
been appreciably augmented by our timber exports. Government, there-
fore, has continued to pursue a steady forest policy designed to improve
forest management with a view to achieving maximum productivity
while still preserving and maintaining our permanent Forest Reserves
and, in addition, creating new reserves in the Northern Region. Fifteen
areas covering together a total of 1,200 square miles have been designed
under the Protected Timber Land Act and field work continues for the
protection of new areas.
This Act was introduced to protect economically valuable species
of trees lying outside the Reserves from destruction by food farmers
until the valuable timber has been exploited. Farming lands will be
released when this has been done. Again the Forest Improvement Fund
Act has been passed to facilitate the financing of the forest improvement
works and a better accounting for land revenues.
Ghanaian woods are gaining a wide reputation in many countries
of the world and research in timber utilisation continues together with
research into silvicultural and management problems. In addition to
these functions the Forestry Division is co-operating in the land planning
areas by the establishment of new plantations.
The Forestry Division has since 1st September, 1960, taken over
the Timber Inspection Branch of the Ministry of Finance and Trade. Such
regulatory services as are provided by this branch include the control
of cutting, issue of timber property marks, control of transport and
export of Wawa.
Through this service, producers are helped to assess fair prices for
the volume of timber they produce.
In order to preserve the good name of Ghana timber in the world
market, this branch maintains a grading service to check that logs which
are exported conform to the prescribed quality. A monthly average of
19,000 logs has been examined and passed for export during the year. Also
since the imposition of the ban on log transport by road, the services
of the timber branch has more than halved the number of logs unfit
for export previously reaching Takoradi.
The Game Branch has this year settled down to consolidating and
developing facilities in the 900 square-mile Mole Game Reserve in the
Gonja District, providing water holes, salt-lick and observation posts.
With the completion of the planned motel accommodation in the
reserve, this should prove a great tourist attraction as herds of various
wild animals who, now assured of the sanctuary provided in the reserve,
have begun to build up in great numbers. Plans are also being made to
conduct a reconnaissance survey of the Volta Lake area to assess rescue
work of animals that will be necessary when the dam begins to fill up.
A new legislation amendment consolidating the various Game laws
has recently been enacted in the National Assembly and this will give
wider regulatory powers to protect and reserve the country's Game
including the rare species which are fast dying out. This branch has
outside its work in the Game reserve, the tracking and shooting of wild
lions and elephants which have proved a nuisance to man, his farm and
his beasts. A reconnaissance survey has just been completed for the
selection of a Game reserve to be known as the Kujani Bush of the
Afram Plain Sector in the Juaso District.
The Forestry School at Sunyani continues to train the increasing
numbers of staff required for the preservation of our timber resources.
Animal Health Division.-The Division was formerly organised
completely on the basis of centralised direction but over the past three
years a considerable degree of regional devolution has taken place in
order to provide on the spot" supervision of work in the rural areas
where increasing attention is being given to the provision of services to
This has been a successful year in routine disease control. One case
of outbreak of rinderpest occurred (introduced from outside Ghana)
and it was possible to suppress it promptly and with a very low mortality
rate. Foot and mouth diseases occurred on the Accra Plains but was also
Good progress was made with the eradication of bovine pleuro-
pneumonia. This is a very insidious disease which is difficult to eradicate
once it has become established, but the progress made over the past five
years has been considerable, and although the primary sources of infection
is across the frontier it is to be expected that infection within Ghana
will become negligible in the next few years if professional and technical
staff continued to be available. The vaccine used is prepared at
The Division has made considerable effort to popularise cattle
keeping in recent years with some success. Outbreaks of diseases
demonstrate the continued necessity for the control and supervision of
livestock movements within the frontier of Ghana unpopular though the
inevitable restrictions may be.
Wholesale vaccination and movement control are indispensable
weapons in the elimination of epizootic diseases. It is very probable that
the savannah lands along the coast-west of Accra-will assume greater
importance as livestock rearing areas and the framework of a veterinary
service have now been set up there.
Protection inoculation of poultry against Newcastle disease is now
a major activity of the Division in Animal Breeding in the endeavour to
breed new and more productive types of cattle. This is inevitably a slow
process but for the first time in Ghana, progeny of the following crosses
were born during 1959 and this success has been maintained:
1. Calves of the White Fulani-Indian Sahiwal Zebu, to produce
a better milking cow on unimproved grazing. It was done by
artificial insemination with Fulani semen flown from Kenya.
2. White Fulani Zebu-Brown Swiss Cross to these calves have
also been born and give promise of usefulness in beef pro-
duction, provided that they show sufficient disease resistance.
3. N'Dama-Adamawa Gudali Cross. The N'Dama originates
in Senegal although there are now many in Ghana, and the
Adamawa Gudali originates in the Cameroons mountains.
This is the first cross and also gives promise of being a
useful beef type of cow.
4. In order to keep this investigation work going, the pure
parent herds of White Fulani Zebu, N'Dama and Adamawa
Gudali cattle, of course, have to be maintained and improved
by selection from one generation to another. In the case of
the White Fulani this must be for both milk and beef.
Investigation into animal nutrition and related animal productivity
has been launched. For example an exercise has begun to detect whether
or not a deficiency of the mineral cobalt" may be present in Ghana and
be partly responsible for a slow growth rate in cattle and sheep. If this
deficiency is found to exist, its correction is not a difficult matter technically
although there will be several hurdles of an administrative nature to
A new school for training technical staff has been established at
Pong-Tamale and opened in October, 1960. This is a major achievement
and will be one of the foundation stones of the future veterinary service.
It will no longer be necessary to send staff to the training school at Vom
in Nigeria for training. Teaching has begun with the first 15 pupils.
Hitherto emphasis has been placed on the expansion of the Divisional
field services and now that this object has in a large measure been achieved
emphasis will now be placed on building up the supporting investigation
services of the Division so that new knowledge and methods can be
adapted to Ghana conditions and conveyed to the cattle-owning farmer
through the Divisional field staff.
MINISTRY OF CONSTRjUCTION AND COMMUNICATIONS
The Ministry of Construction and Communications is responsible
for exercising overall control over the following Divisions and branches:
Division of Public Construction, Water Supplies, Electricity, Lands, Sur-
veys, Town and Country Planning, Parks and Gardens. Rent Control,
Housing Management and Roof Loans.
Division of Public Construction.-By far the biggest department under
the Ministry is the Division of Public Construction.
The Division performs numerous and important functions of Govern-
ment and, despite their shortcomings, it cannot be denied that the former
Heads of this Division and their officers, men and women workers, have
given very useful services in the past, of which the country is naturally
The Engineer-in-Chief of the Division of Public Construction is
now a Ghanaian and the former expatriate Engineer-in-Chief has since
left Ghana for good.
Two Ghanaians have also been promoted as Deputies to the Engineer-
in-Chief and are co-operating well with their head of department.
The following is the present set-up in all regions:
1. Western and Central Regions are administered together by
an Assistant Engineer-in-Chief who is at Takoradi.
2. Upper and Northern Regions are administered together by
an Assistant Engineer-in-Chief (Substantive) stationed at
3. Volta Region is administered by an Assistant Engineer-in-
Chief (Substantive) stationed at Ho.
4. Eastern Region is administered by an Acting Assistant
Engineer-in-Chief stationed at Koforidua.
5. Ashanti Region is administered by an Acting Assistant
Engineer-in-Chief stationed at Kumasi.
6. Brong-Ahafo Region is administered by an Acting Assistant
Engineer-in-Chief stationed at Sunyani.
7. Eastern Region South is administered by an Assistant
Engineer-in-Chief (Substantive) stationed at Accra.
Re-organisation of the Plant Pool and Central Mechanical Work-
shops branch has been made.
The new organisation has made a successful beginning by reclaiming
or salvaging plant and equipment previously set aside for Board of
Survey, thus saving some thousands of pounds in replacement indent.
Major projects planned or under construction include the expansion
and improvement in the health programme at Korle Bu Hospital. The
0 FW W
m 3LP P,
max A i
Right: Inside a Municipal transport bus
Below: The Volta River Black Star
Line's first boat
A Ghana Airways aircraft and a Ghanaian pilot
1 ert: 4 /-.,.
first contract for the kitchen and laundry is now almost complete and
work has commenced on the Isolation Block. This will be followed in
turn by the tuberculosis wards, mortuary and then children's and mater-
The following Health Centres have been completed:-Agona,
Diaso, Anyinam, New Tafo, Nkyenenkyene, Nkoranza, Joaso and
Chereponi. Health centres under construction: Ayinesi and Daboya.
Consultant Architects have been commissioned to design new Hospitals
at Tamale, Nsawam, Mampong (Ashanti) and Wiawso. Sketch plans
and working drawings have been approved. A firm of Consultant
Architects have been commissioned to design major extensions to the
existing hospitals at Mpraeso, Mampong (Ashanti), Hohoe and Effia
Nkwanta. All drawings are now well in hand.
Planned or under construction include Accra Airport, Cabinet
offices at Government House, Osu, Police College and new buildings for
The detailed design for sewerage and a long sea outfall for Accra
similar to that at Tema is well advanced. The areas to be served by the
first phase are Korle Gonno, Korle Bu Hospital, the Old Town (Ussher
and James Town), the commercial area, Adabraka, the Central Govern-
ment area and North Osu. Engineer-Consultants have been employed for
the design and supervision of the work.
Following the bad floods in June, 1959, the detailed design of measures
necessary to prevent a recurrence of such misfortune has been well
advanced. The measures include the dredging of the Korle Lagoon to
form a deep lake, the construction of a new wider channel for the River
Odaw, and new larger bridges across the channel to carry roads and the
railway. Two of the new bridges over the Odaw Stream, carrying the
twin carriageways of the Ring Road, have already been completed, a
third is in hand over the Nima stream, where it crosses the Ring Road.
A start will be made during 1961-62 financial year on a new 4-lane
Guggisberg bridge, 200 feet in length, to replace the existing causeway
across the Korle Lagoon.
Tenders have been obtained for the dredging of the Korle Lagoon,
and the contract has been awarded. The survey and examination of the
overall storm drainage problem of the Accra area is at the same time
being undertaken. Anti-erosion measures have been taken in Keta, the
main body of the permanent steel sheet piling sea defence wall has been
largely completed, giving protection to a frontage of almost a mile,
covering the centre of Keta town. Provision of a reinforced concrete
capping to the wall is well advanced. During the most part of 1960, Keta
suffered no erosion by the sea, but late in the year it was subjected to
several flooding from the lagoon, due to excessive October rains.
To counter a recurrence of such flooding, measures are now being
planned for the reclamation in the first instance of areas in the town
centre subject to flooding, and later of additional areas in the lagoon, to
provide room for planned expansion of the town. This scheme, which
is under active investigation, will be known as the Keta Lagoon Project.
The development of Elmina harbour, commenced in 1958, designed
to provide a modern base for an improved fishing industry has been
continued, and the construction of a new quay, slipway, wholesale and
retail market buildings, and a new Regional Fisheries Headquarters is
A study of a silting problem which prevents access to the inner
harbour by the larger boats at low tide is being undertaken by means of
a hydraulic model. Associated with this is the study of measures necessary
to maintain the shoreline in the outer harbour, where the old seawall has
been demolished by the sea. The construction of a heavy stone protective
apron on the foreshore at Sekondi is well advanced.
While shortage of staff has prevented any expansion of activities in
Regions other than Western, here considerable consolidation work has
been carried out during the year, and a good basic network of river
gauging stations has been established. Most of these have now been
rated to provide flow figures, and the information obtained is already
proving of valuable assistance to various agencies concerned with develop-
ment project which require information on the regime or rivers and their
Periodic analysis of river waters has been established, to provide
further basic data. A start has been made in an examination of the
relationship between rainfall and river flow in certain area.
It is proposed to improve the alignment between Kokobin and
Adjemansu on the Bekwai-Kumasi road by a new link which will
shorten and straighten the existing section.
The following projects were assigned to Consultants for investiga-
tion, survey and design:
Ring Road Accra, Sections I, II, V and VI
Agona-Half Assini Road
Half Assini-Jewi and Wharf at Jewi
Half Assini Town Roads.
During the year 4,177 miles of trunk road were maintained and
401 miles of regravelling and 355 miles of resealing are scheduled to be
completed in the current programme. One hundred and eighty-nine
miles of town roads were maintained, 25 miles resealed, and 10 miles
of regravelling are due for completion. A number of improvements were
carried out to the trunk roads in the form of replacement of culverts,
re-alignment of dangerous bends, widening and replacement of timber
Investigation branch of Division of Public Construction.-One of the
branches of the public works division which has contributed so much to
the realisation of Government aims in avoiding waste of public funds is
the investigation branch. This division is headed by a senior investigation
officer and assisted by a Police officer of the Criminal Investigation
Department. They are concerned with taking immediate action investi-
gating all cases of fraud, malpractices, alleged thefts, etc. This Division
works in close co-operation with the Police.
It is estimated that the work of the Branch has saved Government
perhaps some G25,000 per annum so that some G100,000 may be said
to have been saved during the past four years. Apart from this the very
existence of the Branch constitutes a great moral deterrent. Cases handled
include those of forgery, embezzlement, theft, falsification of documents,
money lending offences, contract irregularities, illegal carriage of goods,
etc., covering the whole of Ghana.
In addition, suitable personnel have commenced to be trained,
improvements in organisation have been carried out, lectures given to
senior technical officers on security measures to be undertaken, and a
general tightening up has taken place throughout the whole Division.
The Survey Division has played a very useful role in Government's
development plans for the country in the past and continues to contribute
substantially to our second development programme. The following are
some of the survey works undertaken during the year under review.
Field work on Stool Boundary Surveys has now ceased. In the
drawing office work on the Eastern Nzima Stool Boundary plans will be
completed before the end of the year.
The tide guage at Takoradi has been in constant use.
The primary levelling Afienya-Tamatiku was completed and secon-
dary levelling was commenced and completed between Ada and Denu.
Traversing and levelling along the lower Volta were completed and
the calculations finalised in September, 1960.
Traversing and levelling in the Northern and Upper Regions to
provide ground control for aerial mapping continued.
(a) The report of the survey from Bawku to Chereponi was
submitted in August, 1960, and the computations are now
(b) The report of the survey running between Yendi-Kpadjaba-
Bimbilla was submitted in February, 1961, and calculations
will be finalised in April, 1961.
(c) It is anticipated that the survey between Palbusi and Pusiga
will be submitted for checking before the end of the year.
(d) The survey-Wulugu-Fumbusi-Wiasi has been commenced.
Two additional surveys at Accra Airport have been carried out and
The following surveys were approved by the examination branch in
the first 9 months of the year:-
Town Surveys .. .. .. 4
Leases and Acquisitions .. .. 126
Concessions .. .. .. 6
Miscellaneous .. .. .. 15
The usual large demand for data has been experienced and satisfied.
This included data for the irrigation scheme at Akuse and data for various
schemes connected with the Volta River Project. In addition a large
amount of data was supplied to the party measuring height control in
In July, an officer of the Directorate of Overseas Surveys arrived on
secondment under the United Kingdom-Ghana Technical Assistance
Scheme, to take charge of and train a party of surveyors supplied by
this Division to observe close height control for aerial mapping by means
of altimeters in the Northern and Upper Regions. After nine months,
sufficient control for six map sheets has been supplied to the Directorate
of Overseas Surveys. The Directorate is undertaking the contouring of
the sheets north of latitude 71 degrees on a scale of 1:50,000.
Revision of the town survey sheets of Accra, Kumasi and Sekondi-
Takoradi continued; this type of work is perennial. In addition, revision
of new surveys of a number of smaller towns has taken place or is
in course of being undertaken. These included, among others, Wiawso,
Half Assini, Effiduase-Asokore, Tepa, Elmina, Somanya-Odumasi,
Berekum, Techiman, Koforidua, Kintampo, Bechem and Dormaa-
Work on special surveys for the Volta River Project started this year.
Surveys have commenced on the south-eastern bank of the Volta near
the dam site, along the Afram River and along the Oti River. The first
essential is to run control traverses and levels close to the 280 feet contour;
these will provide control in connection with fixing the actual flood
limit, and for surveys in connection with resettlement, for the Public
Works Division, fisheries and other needs.
Considerable work has been done in the Drawing Office in the
preparation of preliminary maps for the Volta River Project. This involved
first the interpolation of the 280 feet contour on 52 sheets of the 1:50,000
air survey sheets. The contour had then to be fairdrawn and is being
published on a new series of the 52 sheets with the flood area tinted blue.
The same has been done on four sheets on scale 1:400,000 to assist in
less detailed planning.
A fair amount of work has been done by the field staff for the census
authorities providing additional information on existing maps. Work is
in progress in the Drawing Office making fairdrawings of 19 new sheets
showing local authority boundaries, enumeration areas and locality
names. These maps will be in five colours and will serve to illustrate the
census report. The work involved is very great and as many as twelve
draughtsmen have been employed on it at one time.
A large area of the Northern and Upper Regions has been re-photo-
graphed from the air and the prints have been received. They cover
about 10,800 square miles.
Photography has also taken place in the Accra and the lower Volta
Maps to the Public .. .. .. .. 13,903
Maps to Government Departments .. 85,434
Maps on official free issue .. .. .. 11,162
Maps Concessions .. .. .. 23,610
Maps Special purpose .. .. 15,821
Maps catalogues .. .. .. 300
Posters .. .. .. 61,000
Forms, Books, etc. .. .. .. .. 31,628
Number of jobs completed .. .. 461
Number of plates made .. .. 710
Number of machine impressions .. 951,977
Number of maps printed .. .. 167,144
Number of photographic films, etc., made 1,498
This Division is headed by a Ghanaian as the Chief Survey Officer
since the former expatriate head left the Service a year ago. Every effort
is being made to promote capable junior officers to senior posts in this
Division and every opportunity is given to the deserving ones.
The Management and Maintenance Division during the year has
applied itself assiduously to improving the standard and condition of the
older Government housing estates by the supply of water and electricity,
construction of additional bath-houses (complete with showers), kitchens,
roads, drains and retaining walls, external and internal decorations and
re-roofing works. In addition to this, over 300 additional rooms have been
provided to the single-room quarters by enclosing the verandahs thus
converting these single-room dwelling houses into two-room units and
relieving overcrowding in these dwellings. Normal maintenance works
have also been carried out to the Government estates generally.
The above works are being carried out to a programme based on the
Second Five-Year Development Plan and will continue.
Care has been taken to ensure that the funds available have been
distributed among the estates in all areas so that grounds for complaints
about discriminatory treatment in this respect have been removed or
reduced to the minimum.
Finally, during the current year the sale of Government two- and
three-roomed houses was extended to the Asawasi estate, Kumasi, where
offers were made to approximately 240 tenants.
Electricity Division.-The steady demand for electricity has been
more than maintained. The increase in units generated being 23 per cent
as compared with the previous calendar year which in itself showed an
increase of 16 per cent over the previous year. The number of consumers
increased by 5,776 a rise by 13 per cent over the previous year. These
increases require new plant to the extent of 4,465 kW.
As before, the main expansion has occurred in the Accra and Tema
areas and in the former case an extra 166 kW set is under erection at
present while in the case of Tema two sets each of 1,660 kW are now in
commission having been completed during the year.
In addition the new Tema B station of 30,000 kW is under construc-
tion, one set now being ready for erection and the second set due to
arrive shortly. The over-head lines between Tema and Accra have not
yet been started but materials are arriving and the scheduled date of
July 1st, 1961, for the first sets to be available for Tema to help the
shortage in Accra, is being kept in view all the time.
Approval has been given to work being started on the Akwapim
ridge electrification which will enable the two small diesel stations at
Aburi and Mampong to be shut down. Other expansions during the year
include the following:-
Kumasi .. 1,250 kW set now being erected.
Cape Coast .. .. one 210 kW set in commission.
Koforidua .. .. one 210 kW set in commission.
Swedru .. .. one 200 kW set in commission.
Tamale .. .. one 168 kW and one 2, 52 kW set ex
Dunkwa .. .. one 95 kW set in commission.
Oda .. .. .. one 95 kW set in commission.
Keta .. .. one 55 kW set in commission.
Bolgatanga .. .. two 35 kW sets ex Tamale in com-
Asamankese .. .. one 35 and one 50 kW Sets in com-
The following new sets are under construction at present:-
Nkawkaw .. .. 214 kW
Obuasi .. .. 480 kW
Sunyani .. .. 200 kW to be increased to 400 kW
The centres approved for rural electrification have been given on
contract to Consultants for surveys and planning, and this work has
been completed. The Consultants have returned to England where they
are now making the final plans and drawing, etc., for the installation
work. So far 46 surveys have been completed. Each centre will be provided
with a generator capable of generating in a radius of 15 or more miles.
The scheme will in future be merged in the general Volta River Electricity
Scheme for Ghana. The following centres have been proposed:-
Eastern Region.-Anyinam, Suhum, Somanya, Akuse, Senchi,
Manso, Big Ada/Ada Foa Local Council site.
Central and Western Regions.-Half Assini, Enchi, Asankragwa,
Wiawso, Foso, Awutu, Agona Junction, Abakrampa, Apam,
Otuam (Ekumfi State), Ajumako.
Ashanti Region.-Agona, Effiduase, Agogo, Sekodumasi,
Brong-Ahafo Region.-Berekum, Dormaa Ahenkro, Teppa,
Volta Region.-Sogakope, Denu-Aflao, Peki-Blengo, Anum,
Dzodze, Abor, Adidome, Battor, Hohoe, Kete-Krachie, Kajebi,
Northern and Upper Regions.-Damongo, Bole, Yendi, Salaga,
Tumu, Lawra, Wa, Bawku, Gambaga, Navrongo and Zebilla.
A special mention should be made of the Denu-Aflao electrification
scheme which has been approved by Government and funds are being
provided; work on this project will soon begin.
Electricity is being extended to Mankesim from Saltpond. Extension
of existing electricity stations to supply towns and villages around such
centres is being carried out.
Nkawkaw.-The second engine is being installed. Two water valves
on order are expected to arrive by air from United Kingdom.
Obuasi.-Distribution lines are completed. Three engines have
since arrived but delay on this project was due to levelling of site and
construction of building which is now in hand.
Sunyani.-The engines are being erected. Distribution lines com-
Akwatia.-An amount of G10,000 was contributed by the Mines
authorities for Electricity supply to Akwatia.
The Generating Engines for this purpose were ordered and they have
since arrived. Due to shortage of Engineers it has not been possible to
erect the engines earlier. A special exercise for an electrification scheme
has already been tried in this constituency and the towns include among
Additional funds have been requested for the installation of two
Generating Engines which were given free of charge for use by the people
of Kumawu and surrounding villages.
Lands Division.-The activities of the Division in regard to the
acquisition of land for public purposes and the leasing of land for various
types of development by the public continued.
The staff position continued to improve: Eight Ghanaian officers
(seven legal and one valuation) joined the Division. Two Ghanaian
Legal Officers have been promoted to the grade of Senior Lands Officer
(Legal). Expatriate recruitment has ceased and 92"5 per cent of senior
posts in the Division are Ghanaianised.
It will be of interest to note that the under-mentioned acquisitions
were dealt with:-
Fadama-Korle Lagoon Area; Marine Drive; Ring Road Sections III
and IV for roads; Sefwi Wiawso-Awaso, Winneba-Mankesim; Cape
Coast by-pass; for the purposes of Civil Aviation, Ho and Sunyani
Airstrips and Tamale Aerodrome extension; and for miscellaneous
purposes, a Fishing Harbour at Elmina. The Ministry has been con-
sidering seriously the possibility of putting a Ghanaian at the head of this
Division as soon as possible.
Town and Country Planning Division.-The Town and Country
Planning Division continues to do very useful work in the implementation
of Government Development Schemes. During the year, four new statu-
tory planning areas which have been declared by the Minister are
Koforidua, Aburi Escarpment, Senchi and Tamale.
An outline statutory town planning scheme for Kumasi has been
prepared together with a written statement and regulations. This scheme
will shortly be deposited to enable the public to comment. A detail
planning scheme has been prepared for Swedru and is presently being
discussed with the local authority.
Outline statutory town planning schemes are almost complete for
Koforidua Urban Council Area and for Bolgatanga and will shortly be
put before the local authority for their comments.
The preparation of detail planning schemes for Kumasi has continued
and two detail schemes have been prepared.
Town Planning schemes have been prepared for ten small towns and
villages throughout Ghana.
A firm of consultants are also preparing a large-scale regional
planning scheme for the Accra-Tema-Akosombo area, which area will
assume vital importance in the economy of the country when Tema
Harbour and the Akosombo dam are in operation.
Vital steps have been taken in the setting up of an Institute for
Community Planning which will train local planning assistants who will
work on planning schemes primarily in the rural area. Not only will this
institute enable an extension of planning activities, but it will bridge the
gap between "junior" and senior" staff and provide prospects for
every candidate to rise right to the top.
Action has been taken for the setting up of a team, under a technical
assistance project, for the preparation of a national physical development
plan within which all detail schemes will in future be planned.
During the year an origin and destination survey of traffic in Kumasi
was completed to enable improvements to be made to the road system
for the town in conjunction with the revision of the Kumasi Plan. A
report has been prepared on the cost of services and roads in relation to
density of residential development as part of the effort to reduce Govern-
ment capital and recurrent costs.
Model building regulations were published in 1960 and have been
distributed to all Municipal and Urban Councils with strong recom-
mendations for their adoption.
Development control continues through the agency of the planning
committees and over 2,000 development applications have been processed.
There are many Ghanaians holding high positions in this Division
and in order to give true interpretation to Osagyefo, the President's
promise that deserving Ghanaians shall be given every opportunity to
rise to the top in the Service of the Nation, the Ministry is proposing to
recommend as soon as possible for the President's approval a deserving
and qualified Ghanaian to be the Head of this Division.
Water Supplies Division:
Accra Region.-The development work in this Region during the
year was as follows:-
Improvements have been carried out to the Densu dam at
Weija which has been heightened to 6 ft. resulting in increased
storage capacity of the impounded reservoir from 240 million
gallons to 1,100 million gallons. This means that the possibility of
water shortage in Accra due to the drying up of the Densu river in a
very dry season is now remote.
At the same time, the output of Weija waterworks has been
increased by 1 m.g.d. As an interim measure contract has been
signed with a firm of Consultants to prepare a design for an increase
as soon as practicable in the supply to Accra.
Concurrently, the Consultants are investigating a larger and
permanent source of supply for the Accra-Tema-Akosombo Region.
The scheme will be implemented in stages and aims at a consumption
rate of 75 gallons per person per day for both domestic and industrial
It is expected that a considerable proportion of Accra's water
will ultimately come from the River Volta, and the capacity of the
Kpong supply is being increased first from 1'5 m.g.d. to 2-2 m.g.d.
then to 4-5 m.g.d. and later to 7-5 m.g.d. Consultants have been
commissioned to design the required extensions to Kpong. The first
of these extensions which is being carried out departmentally is now
almost complete. This will allow for an extra 700,000 gallons per
day to be used at Tema and Accra.
A new 21" main has been completed from Weija to Accra at a
cost of G210,000.
In preparation for the Accra Sewerage Scheme a contract for
a Master Plan of the Accra distribution has already been given to a
firm of Consultants. This will ensure that the necessary reorganisation
or requisite provision is made to the existing system to meet adequate-
ly the requirements of the service.
Work on the Nungua Booster pump station to increase the
Kpong supply to Accra through Tema, from 1 m.g.d. to 1-7 m.g.d.,
has now started.
The new 2 million gallons Reservoir at Tema was completed
and put into use last month. A new 16" main from Tema to Nungua,
and a new 12" main from Nungua to Accra have been completed.
Drilling in the meantime continues in the Bole and Damongo
areas and Pond Digging in the Bimbilla area.
In Upper Ghana the following projects were undertaken:
The extension from Bolgatanga to Zuarungu is almost complete;
and houses in Zuarungu have now been provided with piped water.
Water Supply at Navrongo has been in operation for some
time and the construction of a supply for Bawku from boreholes is
In the Ashanti Region extensions are in progress at Kumawu to
provide water to a number of neighboring villages.
Mampong water supply was opened by the Regional Commis-
sioner, Ashanti in 1960 and is operating satisfactorily. It is hoped
that this supply can be extended to neighboring villages, in the
Drilling is continuing in the Offinso area.
Brong-Ahafo Region.-The Sunyani Water Supply is well on
the way to completion. The construction of this supply has gone
Phase I of the Attebubu water supply is nearly completed. This
will provide raw water from a 25-million gallon pond. It is proposed
to purify this water at a later stage, in the same manner as is being
done in Bimbilla.
Drilling and well-sinking are continuing in the western part of
Eastern Region.-The Abetifi water supply has just been com-
pleted, and the supply will be extended to Pepease as soon as
Work is being carried out on the Aburi Temporary Supply and
water is already being pumped from the new source to Aburi. This is
being extended to as far as the Girls' Secondary School.
Drilling is being carried on in the Oda area and has so far been
successful. A number of very high yielding holes have been obtained
at Oda. One of these is at present being converted to a piped supply
for the hospital.
Tafo water supply was opened in 1960 and consultants have
been engaged to design the extension to Koforidua Water Supply.
Volta Region.-Extensions to the Ho Water Supply are con-
tinuing. This supply which was originally designed for about 50,000
gallons per day is now producing over 150,000. However, as Ho has
grown so quickly, active investigation is being carried out on another
source of supply in order to make long term provision for sufficient
water for Ho. Boreholes will not provide enough water. Drilling is
being carried on at Anloga.
In the Kete Krachi area a number of successful boreholes have
been drilled and drilling continues in that area.
The design for Adina Water Supply has been completed.
Because of the difficulty of recruiting Engineers and Technicians,
especially for Water Supplies, the Division responsible for this service is
finding it increasingly difficult to cope with the increasing volume of
work involved in the expansion programme. Notwithstanding the
resultant effect of the extra burden being carried by the few senior officers
in these departments, they have all responded zealously to the call for
" double action" and are carrying out their duties conscientiously and
The Ministry is responsible for the general administration and for-
mation of policy for the Department of Civil Aviation, the Ghana Railway
and Harbours Authority, Department of Posts and Telecommunications,
the Government Transport and the Meteorological Departments. This
Ministry also controls a national Shipping Agency and a Certifying and
Examining branch of Government Transport, Ghana Airways, the Rail
Allocation Committee and the Ghana Nautical College.
The Department of Civil Aviation ensures the safety of aircraft,
passengers, crew and cargo and is the controlling authority for Ghana
This department operates four aerodromes situated in Accra,
Takoradi, Kumasi, Tamale and four unmanned landing grounds at
Navrongo, Kete-Krachi, Wa and Yendi.
An idea of the amount of aviation carried out in Ghana can be gained
from the following figures for 1959:
Accra Takoradi Kumasi Tamale Total
Aircraft Movements .. 4,968 1,322 1,202 316 7,808
Passengers set down .. 35,090 5,802 4,663 948 46,503
Passengers picked up .. 33,977 5,644 4,795 856 45,272
Passengers transit .. 7,182 434 1,357 8,973
Freight set down (kilos) 441,395 21,200 21,987 6,240 490,822
Freight picked up (kilos) 178,538 19,616 23,749 2,968 224,871
Freight transit (kilos) 178,822 622 7,142 186,586
Mail set down (kilos) .. 199,257 35,086 33,986 9,497 277,826
Mail picked up (kilos) .. 151,297 28,113 21,170 7,498 208,078
Mail transit (kilos) .. 57,745 1,524 13,319 72,588
The Ghana Railway and Harbours Administration have been exporting
from this country to overseas cocoa, logs, sawn timber, manganese and
bauxite. In April, 1960, the tonnage of timber logs hit the record figure
The railway and harbours headquarters at Takoradi constitute one
of the largest single economic establishments in Ghana.
The railway have carried out a steady programme of improvement
and new diesel electric locomotives have been bought to replace existing
coal-steam engines. The 362-mile track from Accra to Sekondi via Kumasi
has been shortened by a 51 mile link connecting Achiase and Kotoku.
In 1960 Ghana railway carried 5,427,727 passengers and 2,098,860
tons of freight. There are daily passenger train services on the triangular
Accra-Kumasi-Takoradi line, and a night sleeper service between Tako-
radi and Kumasi.
Takoradi Harbour linked with the railway, has been the country's
main commercial gateway. Cocoa, manganese and almost all the raw
materials produced in Ghana have found their way out of the country
through this great sea-way.
The harbour operates four tugs, three of which are sea-going and
can be used for towage and salvage work, and has 19 sheds to accommo-
date import and export merchandise. Of the 14 berths in use, 9 can
accommodate large sea-going vessels and 5 take import vessels; 1 berth
is for oil and manganese. There is also a marine slip-way and a small dry
dock for repairing small craft. Apart from Takoradi Harbour, the
Railway and Harbours Administration operate surf ports at Keta, Aczra,
Winneba and Cape Coast.
Tema harbour is one of the largest and most up-to-date artificial
harbours in Africa.
There has been considerable expansion of telecommunication services
in the urban as well as in a large number of rural areas in the country. It is
the policy of the Government to extend telephone facilities to rural areas,
particularly to the headquarters of local authorities.
Telecommunications:-The first automatic Telephone Exchange in the
country was installed in Accra in March, 1953, the second installed in
Kumasi. The third was installed in Sekondi-Takoradi in 1961. Another is
to be installed at Cape Coast.
A new very high frequency multi-channel radio telephone link
between Accra, Winneba, Cape Coast and Takoradi has greatly improved
telecommunications between the various towns it connects.
The telephone system which comprises seven terminal and eight
repeater stations, provides more than 12,000 telephone circuit miles.
Power for the repeater stations is provided by diesel alternators which
require little or no attendance.
The lines of Accra Central Exchange have been increased from
1,000 lines to 5,300 lines. This enables all subscribers' numbers in the
Accra Area to be changed from four to five digits, and provide telephone
facilities for the rapidly expanding industrial, commercial and residential
areas of the city.
Private teleprinter circuits have become increasingly popular and
provide an extensive private teleprinter network for the Ghana News
Agency. An International Telex system provides a point-to-point tele-
printer service for subscribers in Accra and different parts of the world.
Apart from internal services, Ghana maintains communications with
the outside world through cable services provided by Messrs Cable and
Wireless Limited. The company operates under a licence which is valid
until 1962. When this licence expires all international cable and wireless
services to Ghana will be taken over by the Government.
Postal services are expanding rapidly as road, rail and air communi-
cations improve. The Mail Services connect 151 Departmental Post
Offices and 595 postal agencies. Departmental post offices conduct all
classes of business and of the Postal Agencies, 272 provide telephone and
telegraph facilities in addition to the normal sales of stamps and postal
orders and the acceptance and delivery of mail.
During 1960, approximately 112 million letters were dealt with of
which 70 million were in the internal services, and 14 million in the over-
seas air mail and 28 million in the overseas surface mail service.
The Government Transport Department is primarily responsible for
providing the day-to-day transport needs of Government Departments,
with the exception of the Police, the Agriculture and other departments
such as the Public Construction Division, Posts and Telecommunications
and Electricity which have extensive workshops of their own.
The Department also provides transport for several important
personalities, members of world organizations and trade missions who
visit the country and runs a first class inter-town bus service for the
Passenger cars and buses of the department often convey important
government visitors and educational parties on tour to neighboring
West African countries. The department has recently undertaken the
transportation of petroleum products by road to the Republic of Mali.
There is a Traffic Operations branch which controls and operates a
wide range of goods-carrying vehicles mainly for the movement by road
of Government stores and materials required for normal development
projects of Government and other allied institutions. In addition, the
branch also operates a regular daily bus passenger service between Kumasi
and Tamale, Tamale and Navrongo, Accra and Takoradi; a thrice-weekly
service between Kumasi and Wa via Wenchi and Bamboi, and has
extended its network of bus and mail services on routes not served
by rail. This network covers the whole of the Northern Region, about
two-thirds of Ashanti and the Brong-Ahafo Regions and more than a third
of Southern Ghana. New extensions are contemplated in the area beyond
Kadjebi in the Volta Region. Owing to the reliability of these services,
there have been significant improvements in mail deliveries throughout
The Port and Inland Waterways branch is responsible for the handling
and clearance through Customs of all Government imported stores and
materials which are then taken over by the Road Section and delivered to
wherever they are required.
The Ghana Meteorological Department has three main services and
two divisions both of which work for all the three services. The functions
of this department are to supply meteorological data in Ghana for
synoptic, climatological, agricultural and industrial purposes.
Meteorological observations are carried out in close liaison and
co-operation with other departments and International Organisations.
The department collaborates with Government sponsored academic and
research organizations associated with the science of meteorology and
investigation and research in meteorology and allied subjects. It also
participates in the activities of International bodies such as the World
Meteorological Organisation, and the International Civil Aviation
Meteorological services are provided in connection with operation of
aircraft and for the armed forces, and public corporations. Publications
are sent abroad as well as distributed in the country on Weather and
Plans have been prepared to improve the quality and weather report-
ing coverage of climatological information and meteorological advice
disseminated to various interests engaged on various development projects
in the country. The rate of expansion depends upon technical and pro-
fessional personnel that can be recruited, trained and retained.
A new radar-wind-finding equipment at the Accra International
Airport is to offer considerable assistance and relief to forecasters by
providing a continuous series of wind observations. There has been satis-
factory achievement at all levels and the future holds promise of
considerable service to the country with the use of existing manpower,
modern equipment and improved techniques.
The National Shipping Line-the Black Star Line Ltd.--established
after independence, operated jointly with Zim Israel Navigation Co. Ltd.
The Government has bought over the 40 per cent shares held by the Israeli
The Company operates a fleet of 10 vessels, five owned and five
chartered; seven new vessels on order will be delivered in due course. This
addition of modern ships will greatly increase the efficiency of the line and
enable it to expand its services.
A training scheme for Ghanaians, both afloat and ashore, is being
done by the Company. There are Ghanaians holding senior positions in
the Company's offices in Accra and Takoradi.
The Company acts as agents for the Zim Israel Navigation Co. Ltd.,
Gold Star Line Ltd. of Hong Kong and the Seven Stars (Africa) Line,
the latter Line participating with the Black Star Line in a joint service to
Ships of Elder Dempster Lines, Palm Line, Guinea Gulf Line, U.T.C.
Woermann Line, the Scindia Steam Navigation Co. Ltd. of Bombay and
other shipping agencies call at Ghana ports.
The Shipping Section of the Ministry for which a Shipping Commis-
sioner under the United Kingdom-Ghana Technical Aid Scheme has
been appointed is responsible for:
(a) examining existing Merchant Shipping Acts and Ordinance
for incorporating, if suitable, in a consolidated Merchant
Shipping Bill which is to be drawn up in conjunction with
the Attorney-General's Department;
(b) examining forms in use for seamen and registry of ships at the
Mercantile Marine Office, Takoradi, with a view to standardis-
ing such forms and adapting them for use for Ghanaian
(c) providing for the documentation of all Ghanaian seamen
and all foreign seamen employed in Ghanaian ships;
(d) setting up of a Central Registry in Accra for Ghanaian ships
(e) examining the programme for the future manning of
Ghanaian ships and the future selection of Ghanaian sea-
faring personnel when they become qualified, to train as
surveyors of ships and examiners for certificates of com-
(f) dealing with the technical aspect of various maritime
international conventions which have been agreed to by
The activities of this section will be expanded this year by the addition
to the staff of a ship surveyor who will be responsible for the survey
of ships in Ghana for safety equipment, certificates, tonnage measurement,
enquiries into shipping casualties, stowage of dangerous goods, examina-
tion in sight tests for certificates of competency for masters, mates, second
mates and able seamen and generally to perform the duties of a surveyor of
ships under the Merchant Shipping Act.
This section which is headed by the Senior Certifying and Examining
Officer is responsible for conducting driving tests and for the examination
of vehicles for certificates of road worthiness. There has been considerable
expansion of the work in this field due to an increase in the number of
vehicles imported into the country. In order to enable the section to cover
this commitment with a reasonable standard of efficiency and contribute
its fair share to road safety, the duties of Certifying and Examining
Officers have now been split up and are now performed by Certifying
Officers and Driving Examiners. The former is responsible for inspect-
ing vehicles and certifying their road-worthiness and the latter for testing
In addition to co-ordinating the work of Certifying Officers and
Driving Examiners, the Senior Certifying Officer liaises between the
Ghana Police and his section in order to maintain collaboration between
the two units.
The Ghana Nautical College is an educational institution for training
Ghanaians to take up appointments in the Ghana Merchant Navy.
MINISTRY OF DEFENCE
The central administration of the Ministry of Defence works in
close liaison with the Head of the Armed Forces, the Chief of Defence
The Army.-Expansion in the Armed Forces in the past year has
been rapid with increases in the existing units and in the formation of
new units. Training of other Ranks and future Officers of the Armed
Forces has also progressed satisfactorily. The policy of Africanisation
has been vigorously pursued. An Army Volunteer Force has been
established. An extensive building programme is being carried out and
is making satisfactory progress.
The Navy.-The most outstanding progress on the Naval side is the
decision to build a Naval Base at Sekondi. Two Seaward Defence Boats,
in addition to those already in hand, have been provided to the Navy.
Minesweepers of the Navy presented Ghana at the Independence Cele-
brations of Nigeria and Sierra Leone.
The Air Force.-With regard to the Air Force the expansion pro-
gramme is proceeding rapidly. Ghanaian Cadets have returned from the
United Kingdom after qualifying, and the training of ground and air
crew is being vigorously pursued. This training will be concentrated in
Accra, Takoradi and Tamale.
A number of instructors has been seconded from the Royal Air
Force to teach both aircrew and ground crew of the Ghana Air Force.
The pilots will be trained on Chipmunk and Beaver aircraft at the Flying
Training School at Takoradi, while a selected number will be sent to the
United Kingdom for more advanced training on multi-engined aircraft
and on helicopters. The technical tradesmen will undergo training in Accra.
The Ghana Air Force will be mainly logistic support Force and will
operate Beavers, Otters, Caribous and Whirlwind Helicopters. Its duties
will include communications, casualty evacuation, flying doctor service,
air and sea rescue and any operations which may be necessary in case of
Workers Brigade.-One of the most imaginative steps taken by the
Government after independence to check the drift of the youth from the
villages to the urban areas was the establishment of the national Workers
Brigade in 1957. For the purpose of discipline and training it has been
placed under the Army.
The Brigade provides inspiration for pioneering service through
training in agriculture and the running of co-operative farms on
Since the Brigade was formed 30 camps have been set up. These
camps are of varying sizes, depending on agricultural possibilities in the
areas in which they have been established. The smaller ones are called
" Field Units" and larger ones Field Camps ". The total strength of
the Brigade is 12,000.
A leadership training camp is run at Nungua. The object is to pro-
duce a body of physically and mentally fit young men and the building of
character through adventure.
Apart from its agricultural task, the Brigade is called upon to help
the Government in constructional and other projects. Recent jobs under-
taken included clearing a barracks site for the Ghana Army at Sunyani,
laying out pavements in Accra and providing stevedore services at airports
and harbour in connection with the Congo Operation.
The National Organiser who is the head of the Brigade is Mr. J.
Ababio. Under him are a number of Ghanaians, trained in Israel under
the Ghana-Israel technical assistance scheme to be Regional Organisers,
Camp Superintendents and Camp Commandants. Operating at the
Headquarters in Accra is an Israel mission providing expert advice.
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION
There is a General Education Division within the Ministry which is
responsible for all formal education other than technical training and
the statutory bodies, Kumasi College of Technology and the University
College. The Division has five main schedules each under the control
of a Principal Education Officer namely, Secondary Schools, Teacher
Training Colleges, Primary and Middle Schools, Women and Girl's
Education, and a detached schedule housed in Saltpond which is respons-
ible primarily for Schools' syllabuses, text-books and pupil teacher
The Division hopes to fulfil by 1964 the two main objectives contained
in the Second Development Plan namely: universal compulsory primary
and middle school education and the creation of 6,000 secondary school
places in Forms I. Ghana has a fine and enviable record of achievement
over the past ten years. Under the accelerated development plan for
education introduced in 1951, fees for primary schooling were abolished,
a vast school building programme was begun and teacher training facilities
were greatly expanded. In many parts of the country primary and
middle school facilities are available today for a majority of children of
The number of primary schools within the public education system
more than trebled itself between 1951 and 1959. From 1,083 primary
schools in 1951 the number increased to 3,428 in 1959. Enrolments of
pupils have shown similar increases of 154,360 in 1951 to 465,290 in 1959.
The middle school system also continues to expand. In 1951 there
were 539 middle schools with enrolments of 66,175 with 54,340 boys
and 11,835 girls. In 1959 there were 1,118 middle schools with enrolments
of 139,984 with 102,162 boys and 37,822 girls.
Today, though primary and middle schools facilities are still
expanding, increased emphasis is being placed on providing more
secondary schools and technical institutes since they form the necessary
super-structure to the basic primary foundation.
The aim in the Government's First and Consolidation Development
Plans was to cater for the vast expansion in primary and middle school
and to provide facilities for higher education. In the Second Development
Plan period, emphasis has been placed on the expansion of secondary
school places for approximately 10 per cent of the number of pupils in
each of the eight regions, potentially eligible to enter.
The capital cost of secondary schools is extremely high and particular
attention is being paid to evolving economic types of accommodation
and to increasing the numbers of places for day students as much as
possible, but ensuring that in doing so boarding places are not denied in
places where other suitable accommodation is not available,
Before the attainment of Independence, 37 secondary schools existed
in the country. Among them were Mfantsipim School, St. Augustine's
College, Adisadel College, at Cape Coast; Achimota School, Accra
Academy, Odorgonno, St. Andrews College, in Accra; Mawuli Secondary
School, Keta Day Secondary, West Africa Zion College in the Volta
Region. Some were run by Missionary societies or Government or
privately owned institutions.
The Ghana Educational Trust which began life originally in early
1950 as the Ghana Educational Unit was established by Osagyefo Dr.
Kwame Nkrumah, President of the Republic of Ghana. as a co-ordinating
body between the various schools and colleges he founded in early 1950.
As a result of the political disturbances in 1948 many students in existing
secondary schools were suspected of having taken part in the Positive
Action campaign and were subject to all kinds of victimisation cul-
minating in the dismissal of a majority of them.
In sympathy with the dismissed students, Dr. Nkrumah, spearhead
of the positive action campaign, realized that the future of such students
had become uneasy and uncertain, if not entirely undermined.
The Ghana Educational Trust which administers funds provided by
the Cocoa Marketing Board, have planned the most ambitious secondary
school programme. Other schools, already in existence before the establish-
ment of the Trust but since taken over by it, have also been rehoused,
expanded and equipped to bring their standards up to those of grammar
or public secondary schools.
The Trust opened no fewer than 16 secondary schools between
September, 1959 and September, 1960 in modern buildings in the length
and breadth of the country. By the end of the Second Five-year Develop-
ment Plan period, the Trust hopes to have established no less than 40
well-housed and properly equipped secondary schools which have now
been absorbed into the country's general educational system.
Meanwhile, the Ministry of Education is also stepping up plans for
secondary education and co-ordinating its activities with those of the Trust.
There are now 59 secondary schools including one secondary teacher
training school at Tamale which receive Government assistance.
The constant aim of the Ministry of Education now is to increase
the number of secondary school places to provide full sixth form facilities
in established secondary schools and to improve the standards in en-
In view of the new status of Accra as the capital of Ghana and in
view of the increasing number of representatives from the Commonwealth
foreign countries and international organizations based in Accra, an
international secondary school for pupils who, by virtue of their previous
education, enter at the age of eleven or thereabouts has been established
to cater for this growing international population.
There is now in this country a trend towards the engineering trades.
This trend reflects the demand of industry. In September, 1958, Govern-
ment Technical Institutes admitted 268 students, of which 228 were
studying engineering trades.
In 1950 there were 266 enrolments in Government technical and
trade institutions compared with 2,782 in 1959.
A new series of courses include those in mechanical and electrical
engineering and building.
There are Government Technical Institutes at Accra, Takoradi,
Kumasi and Tarkwa and at Asuansi, Kpandu, Mampong Ashanti and
Tamale. As these institutions continue to grow, so have their enrolments
Another branch of the country's education system which has made
progress is teacher training. In 1950 there were 19 Government and
approved Teacher Training Colleges as compared with 31 in 1960.
Important steps have been taken with a view to standardising the
certification of teachers throughout the country and improving the
quality of the intakes of the training colleges.
Difficulty in retaining teachers, have, for some time past, been
matters of a serious concern. There has been a constant drift of teachers
from the teaching service for some years now. From 1956-1960 the service
lost 4,131 certificated teachers. Of this number 896 left on retirement,
245 transferred to other departments, and the remaining 2,990 resigned
to take other jobs. This was by far the highest rate of wastage in any
category of employment in the country. In the light of these facts the
Government introduced new salary scales for teachers on 1st July, 1960
and improved the rate of pensions payable to teachers upon retirement.
The Government has also changed the compulsory retiring age
for teachers from 55 to 60 years as from 15th January, 1961. However,
the voluntary retiring age of 50 years remains unchanged. This decision
is in line with the Government's policy on the retiring age for civil servants.
It will, however, be possible for a teacher, with the prior approval of
the Minister of Education, to continue teaching on a year-to-year basis
after reaching the age of 60 years, subject to medical fitness and mental
In the sphere of higher education, the country's institutions include
the Law School and the College of Business Administration. But the most
important are the University of Ghana and the Kwame Nkrumah Univer-
sity of Science and Technology.
University of Ghana.-The University of Ghana has, since its estab-
lishment in 1948, been preparing Ghana's men and women for their
place in the life of this country. The college has seventeen teaching depart-
ments organised in five faculties of arts, social studies, physical sciences,
biological sciences and agriculture. In addition, there is the department
of archaeology which has been the pioneer in this field in Ghana and was
largely responsible for the founding of the Ghana National Museum.
A very active Institute of Extra-Mural Studies, with resident tutors
and regular tutorial classes spread evenly over the country, and the
Institute and Department of Education, are making a significant contri-
bution to the development of adult education and the training of
The first halls of residence, Legon, Volta, Akuafo, and Common-
wealth, are completed and new buildings are rising rapidly. The halls
have been planned to be colleges rather than hostels, as much like the
separate communities of Oxford and Cambridge.
In each hall there is a dining hall, a senior and junior common room
and a non-denominational chapel.
The University is expanding rapidly and it is expected that its student-
membership will increase from 650 to 1,000 in 1964.
Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology which was
established in 1951 is mainly a technological institute. Its departments
of study include agriculture, commerce, estate management, engineering,
pharmacy, science, architecture and building. There were about 615
residential students in 1959, 15 per cent being non-Ghanaians.
University Commission.-A Commission, appointed by the Govern-
ment to advise the Government on the future development of University
Education in the country, held its first meeting at the Volta Hall, Univer-
sity College of Ghana, Legon, on Monday, 19th December, 1960.
The Chairman of the Commission was Mr. Kojo Botsio. The nine-
member commission was set up to advise the Government on the develop-
ment of University Education in Ghana in connection with the proposed
transformation of the University of Ghana and the Kumasi College of
Technology into one independent constituent University of Ghana.
The new University will award its own degrees and determine its own
academic policy in the light of Ghana's requirements.
The Commission submitted its report to Osagyefo the President,
early in 1961.
MEMBERS OF THE COMMISSION
Mr. Kojo Botsio-Chairman.
Mr. D. A. Chapman, Headmaster of Achimota School--Vice-Chair-
Professor Laura Bornholdt, Dean of Women, University of Pennsyl-
Dr. Horace Mann Bond, Dean of Education, University of Atlanta.
Professor E. Evans-Pritchard, Fellow of All Souls College, University
Professor J. D. Bernal, Brikbeck College, University of London.
Dr. Davidson Nicol, Principal, University College of Sierra Leone.
Professor N. S. Torocheshnikov, Scientist and Educator, Mendeleyev
Institute of Chemical Technology, Moscow.
Mr. Dunstan Skilbeck, Principal, Wye College, University of London.
Nana Kobina Nketsia IV, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Mr.
Thomas Hodgkin, McGill University served as joint secretaries, and
Mr. D. D. Carmichael as the Commissioner's Administrative Secre-
The University of Ghana and the Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology were inaugurated in Accra and Kumasi in
December, 1961, with Osagyefo as Chancellor of the two institutions.
A University College is also to be established at Cape Coast. Interim
Councils for the universities have been appointed.
Rehabilitation of the Destitute and the Handicapped
In all parts of the country, there are institutions run by the Govern-
ment, missionaries and voluntary organizations to promote the welfare
of the destitute and the handicapped.
A special committee has surveyed existing facilities for training and
rehabilitation of handicapped persons, like the blind, the deaf and dumb
and the cripple, and to prepare the way for greater Government participa-
tion in their training and rehabilitation. The chairman of the committee
was Mr. John Wilson, chairman of the Royal Commonwealth Society
for the Blind who is himself a blind man.
To give full effect as soon as possible to the Government's policy of
rehabilitating the destitute and the handicapped, an intensive campaign
to register and classify the disabled was launched. The Northern and
Upper Regions of Ghana have the highest incidence of handicapped
persons and destitutes and the possibility of making Tamale, headquarters
of the Northern Region, a rehabilitation centre for the north, has been
In September, 1959 the Kwame Nkrumah Trust Fund was launched
and it received such tremendous support from the public that the originally
fixed target of G45,000 was very rapidly exceeded by over G30,000,
and a total of G75,000 was realized. The object of the fund which has
been firmly established, is to stage a combined appeal annually for funds
from the public in order to subsidize the work of recognized voluntary
and charitable organizations in the country.
Bureau of National Languages.-The Bureau of National Languages
is charged with the responsibility of disseminating information and the
progressive development of the national languages and literature.
Since 1st July, 1960, when the Bureau was separated from the
Ministry of Information, it has made considerable progress in both
fields. The Bureau now produces vernacular newspapers in eight national
languages and maintains an overall circulation of over 100,000 per issue
of its newspapers.
Documents explaining Government policy or duties of Government
Departments are translated by the Bureau into Ghanaian languages so
as to make the information they contain easily accessible to as many
people as possible. Books for new literates are produced by the Bureau.
By 1963, it will start text-book production for Ghanaian schools.
The Bureau is working on a unified Akan orthography by means of
which all the Akan dialects will have one written orthography. A Dagbani-
Mali orthography committee has been set up and it is contributing
immensely towards easier and wider communication among many
persons in the country and as far north as Mali.
The Bureau also has a plan to teach through its newspapers at least
one French word or phrase in every issue as its contribution towards
making the French language well known to Ghanaians.
MINISTRY OF FINANCE AND TRADE
The Finance section is divided into two main branches: the Control
and Personnel and has responsibility for the following departments,
Accountant-General; Customs and Excise; Income Tax and Lotteries.
The Control branch deals with financial policy and financial control,
banking and currency matters, and relations with the International
Bank and Monetary Fund of which Ghana is a member. During 1960
Ghana joined, as a founder member, the International Development
Association, from which it is hoped loans will be obtained in due course
for development projects. The International Monetary Fund sent their
annual mission to Ghana for consultation and collected much information.
Another mission is expected in the budget year 1961-62. Legislation is
being prepared to revise the Exchange Control Ordinance, introduce a
Banking Act and to replace the Local Treasury Bill Ordinance.
The Personnel branch deals with policy matters concerning retiring
awards, advances, allowances and personnel matters generally that have
financial implications. It controls the vote for Services under the
Authority of the Ministry of Finance and is responsible for Ministerial
functions in relation to departments under the Ministry's control.
In July, 1960, the responsibility for the control of the Statistics
Department (now Central Bureau of Statistics Secretariat) was transferred
from the Ministry of Finance to the President's Office. In the course of
the year the Central Pools Authority was formed and placed directly
under the Minister of Finance, and, following the President's assumption
of direct control over the Budget, the Budget Bureau, one of the three
divisions of the Ministry of Finance was redesignated the Budget
The Accountant-General, the Chief Accounting Officer of the
Government, is responsible for the general management and supervision
of the accounting operations of the Government. Activities of the Depart-
1. Checking of accounts received from Branch Treasuries,
self-accounting departments, Ghana Commercial Bank,
London, Ghana Missions abroad and the production of
the monthly accounts which are published in the Gazette.
2. Maintenance of records relating to the various advances
granted under the Regulations and Inter-territorial claims.
3. Arrangements for payment of salaries and wages.
4. Computation and arrangements for payment of all retiring
awards made under the various Pensions Ordinance and
5. Issue and control of value books (e.g. Licences, counterfoil
6. Continuous on-the-spot verification of all Government
stores by a corps of Stores verifiers.
7. At the Branch Treasuries in Accra, Kumasi, Cape Coast,
Sekondi, Tamale, Ho and Sunyani, documents are accepted
for assessment and stamping under the provisions of the
There are 40 branch Treasury Offices. Subject to the provision of
suitable accommodation, it is proposed during the budget year to open
Branch Offices at Takoradi and Tema to serve the needs of the Depart-
ments in these towns.
The Department of Customs ani Excise is primarily responsible
for the administration of legislation relating to Customs and Excise
matters. There are other functions of non-revenue nature including-
1. the administration of the Light Dues Ordinance, the Mer-
chant Shipping (Transitory Provisions) Act and the Harbour
and Wharfage Dues Ordinance at ports other than Accra
and Takoradi, and
2. the enforcement of import and export licensing requirements
including certain aspects of Exchange Control.
It is estimated that through the rigid enforcement of Customs and
Excise laws, and the prevention and detection of smuggling more revenue
will be collected in the fiscal year 1961-62 than in the past year (assuming
the same tax level is maintained). It is anticipated that when Tema starts
to function as a port the activities of Accra port will diminish and it may
eventually be closed except for the discharge of Bulk Oil by Oil Tankers.
Income Tax:Direct taxation in Ghana is imposed under the following
Ordinances, viz. the Income Tax Ordinance, 1943; the Gold Duty Ordi-
nance, 1948; the Minerals Duty Ordinance, 1952; and the Betting Tax
Ordinance, 1955, for which the Income Tax Department is responsible.
For the administration of these ordinances the Department maintains
a headquarters office and two district offices in Accra, and district offices
in Kumasi, Takoradi and Koforidua. A new district office will be built
at Sunyani to deal with all taxpayers in the Brong-Ahafo Region. An
official representative at the Overseas Territories Income Tax Office in
London assesses and collects Ghana income tax from overseas companies
with head offices in the United Kingdom and from Ghana taxpayers
resident in the United Kingdom. Two Inspectors of taxes have been
attached to this London Office to understudy the official representative
with a view to taking over from him that part of his functions that affect
The total number of cases assessed during the year ended 31st
March, 1959 was 13,035 and tax assessed amounted to G6 233,588.
These show an increase of nearly 3,000 in the number of new cases and
G713,000 tax assessed over the figures for the previous year ended
31st March, 1958. It is quite clear from these details that the work in the
department continues to grow and the need for trained staff to handle
it increases yearly. Hence a steady intake of officers into the professional
grade for training is necessary.
A section of the staff of the Government Statistician's office, which
had hitherto been working on figures supplied by the Income Tax Depart-
ment, will transfer en bloc to the Income Tax office in the financial year
to man the Statistics section. Their duty is to collate income tax figures
for statistical purposes and annual reports.
The Department of National Lotteries is responsible for the adminis-
tration of the legislation relating to lotteries in accordance with the
Lotteries and Betting Act, 1960.
The department, administered centrally from Accra, operates
through the intermediary of National Lottery Agencies, situated through-
out the country. The number of Agents has now reached 350, chiefly
Postmasters, each having ticket sellers under his control.
There are 15,000 sellers who are actively engaged in selling tickets
and, through their combined efforts, the activities of the department are
steadily being intensified.
The unique characteristic of the department is the attraction of
surplus capital through a systematic but effective policy of painless
taxation. Whereas it is primarily a Government Department, it is equally
regarded a business concern, the success of which largely depends, as in
the case of similar institutions, on good advertisement.
With its policy to seek the interest of patrons, the department has
embarked on an intensive programme to instruct the public adequately
in the mechanics of the National Lottery. Cognizant of the fact that the
draws were not organised solely for the benefit of Accra residents, the
department decided in the past year to shift the National Lottery draws
to the Regions with already exceedingly good effect. Draws have already
been held in Kumasi, Tamale, Sekondi-Takoradi, Cape Coast, Koforidua,
Sunyani. This policy of holding draws outside Accra has borne the desired
effect of increasing the number of potential subscribers. If interest in the
draws is thus maintained, it is expected that the prescribed quantity of
tickets of 500,000 for two draws will be disposed of every two months.
The Trade Division is responsible for the following subjects: diamond
marketing; explosives; exports and export control; imports and im-
port control; liaison with chambers of commerce and trade associa-
tions; liquor licensing; marketing; price control; commercial rela-
tions; commonwealth and foreign countries; trade agreements; general
agreements on tariffs and trade; trade correspondence; introduction of
importers and exporters; responsibility for Ghana trade commissioners
abroad; liaison on trade matters with trade commissioners and
commercial attaches of High Commissions and embassies established in
Ghana; national trade and commerce; relations with Commonwealth
Trust Limited; trade marks; designs; company law; companies; trade
representation abroad and commercial immigrants.
The Ministry also takes responsibility for the Commerce Department,
Cocoa Marketing Board, the Diamond Market, the Timber Marketing
Board, Consumer Co-operative and the National Trading Corporation.
In the field of International Trade, Ghana has maintained her
adherence to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the
principles of multilateral trade and most favoured-nation treatment.
However, in line with her political policy of non-alignment and also
in the interest of diversifying both her sources of supply and her export
markets, Ghana has not neglected the socialist group of countries many
of which do not adhere to the G.A.T.T. Thus Ghana has concluded
General Trade Agreement on a most favoured-nation basis with the
People's Republic of Czechoslovakia, the Federal People's Republic of
Yugoslavia, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Polish People's
Republic and the People's Republic of Hungary.
The pre-occupation with Ghana's trade relations overseas does not,
however, mean that Ghana has forgotten the importance of the economic
integration of Africa. Consequently, the Government have been in close
contact with the Governments of Guinea, Mali, the Niger, the Upper
Volta and Dahomey in an effort to further this aim. It is hoped that as a
result of continued efforts, practical ways and means will be found of
forming an economic union in West Africa. To encourage this scheme,
the President of Ghana has announced the possibilities of a Free Port
being established at Tema.
In the context of this policy, the Government of Ghana realise four
chief ways of promoting trade, namely through:
(a) Trade Fairs and Exhibitions,
(b) Trade Advertising,
(c) Trade Missions and
(d) The Maintenance of Commercial Attaches abroad.
On Trade Fairs, the Ministry of Trade with the assistance of the
National Trade Fairs has participated in Trade Fairs abroad. It has
already arranged participation in the United States of America and Japan
and the Cocoa Marketing Board has on its own, taken part in fairs in
Leipzig, Hanover, London and other important centres.
In Ghana, many overseas Governments have held Trade Exhibitions
in Accra. Goods have been exhibited from the German Democratic
Republic, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Yugoslavia and the
People's Republic of Czechoslovakia.
On Trade Advertising, effective advertising has already been carried
out by the statutory boards concerned with the marketing of Ghana's
main export crops and industrial development.
THE MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs comprises two main branches:
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Accra and the Diplomatic Missions
The Ministry in Accra is the headquarters of the Ghana Foreign
Service, the chief executive and adviser to the Ghana Government on its
foreign policy. It is also responsible for the control, direction and co-
ordination of the work of the various Missions. The headquarters is the
training ground for all Ghana-based staff in Ghana Missions abroad.
The Ministry is also the channel of communication between the Ghana
Government and the foreign diplomatic Missions established in Ghana.
The diplomatic Missions abroad are the line of contact of the Ministry
with foreign Governments and international organizations. They are the
direct representatives of the Ghana Government in the countries to which
they have been accredited and execute Ghana Government policy in
these countries. Their consular duties include responsibility for the
welfare of Ghana citizens abroad, looking after Ghana's trade and
other interests abroad, issuing visas and offering advice to travellers and
companies interested in Ghana.
At the beginning of 1961 Ghana had seventeen Missions abroad.
This number has since increased to thirty-four with a few more Missions
yet to be opened and provision was made in the 1961-62 estimates for
the maintenance of a total of 43 Missions and a Consulate.
Ghana maintains Missions in Ethiopia, Yugoslavia, the Federal
Republic of Germany, United Arab Republic, Sierra Leone, Geneva,
the Federation of Nigeria, the United Kingdom, Liberia, U.S.S.R.,
India, Canada, the People's Republic of China, Italy, Israel, Japan,
France, Sudan, Egypt, Congo, Addis Ababa, Tunisia, United States,
Ivory Coast, Ceylon, Senegal, Somalia, Niger, Upper Volta, Morocco,
Libya and Cameroons. In addition to this, on account of the Ghana-
Guinea-Mali Union, the Government has exchanged Resident Ministers
with Guinea and Mali. Ghana also maintains a permanent Mission at
the United Nations in addition to a Trade Mission and an Information
Centre in New York.
The overseas Missions also handle all arrangements in connection
with Ghana's participation in the conferences of international organisa-
tions like W.H.O., G.A.T.T., I.L.O., etc.
The Ministry is responsible for the following subjects: external
affairs policy; Ghana representation abroad; foreign service regulations;
accounting instructions for posting abroad; relations with the United
Nations and specialised agencies; representation of other Governments
in Ghana; immunities and privileges; enquiries and requests from
Consuls; miscellaneous overseas enquiries; external communications;
cyphers; Ghana membership of the United Nations Organisation;
relations with non-African countries; Visitors (including Government
hostel booking); Consular matters abroad; passports policy; International
co-operation; repatriation of destitute Ghana citizens abroad; treaties,
conferences-arrangements at home and abroad; Commonwealth
Institute and Protocol.
With the increasing responsibility arising out of the execution of
Ghana's foreign policy and the administration of the increasing number
of Missions, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has been re-organised to
cope with its much-expanded field of activity.
There are now in the Ministry a number of divisions each headed
by a Principal Assistant Secretary; these include Administration, Political,
United Nations and Economics, Protocol, African Affairs and Legal
A new historical research division is projected; this will be set up
and headed by an experienced officer who is at present on a special
attachment course at the British Foreign Office.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs has taken over passport control
and administration from the Immigration authorities formerly controlled
by the Police.
With the formation of an African Affairs Secretariat, the Foreign
Ministry still has an overall responsibility with regard to the African
continent. Consideration is being given to the setting up of a machinery
by the Ministry and the African Affairs Secretariat which will be res-
ponsible for the day-to-day liaison with the African Affairs Secretariat.
Designs for a new and imposing G250,000 office building complete
with all modern facilities for a Foreign Office are ready.
MINISTRY OF HEALTH
The Ministry of Health is responsible for the administration of
Government health services; curative medicine; hospitals; dispensaries
and clinics; preventive medicine; sanitation and the supervision of non-
Government health services in the country.
Since its creation in 1951, the Ministry of Health has pursued an
ambitious programme which is designed to meet the health needs of the
country. The aim of this programme is ultimately to provide a regional
hospital for each region, plus a sufficiency of district hospitals. These
hospitals are to be staffed with doctors and other medical staff and the
Ministry is endeavouring to obtain the appropriate staff.
At present, the total number of doctors in the country is about 320,
which works out at one doctor to 20,000 people. Some 400 Ghanaians
are studying medicine abroad, and the number of nurses, midwives,
public health nurses and general health workers is being increased.
One aspect of the expansion and improvement of the country's
health services is the modernisation of existing hospitals. Hitherto,
standards in most of our existing hospitals have lagged behind the require-
ments of modern medicine. For example, it was not unusual to go to a
hospital to find that X-ray facilities or dental treatment facilities were
not available. Indeed, there are still a number of hospitals where full
catering for all patients is not provided, and others where the number of
beds are not sufficient to meet the demand. In order to overcome all
these drawbacks the following improvements have been started.
At Korle-Bu, in the main hospital in Accra, a new laundry, boiler
house and kitchen which have been under construction during the
past 15 months have been completed and are awaiting electrical connec-
tions. The construction of a new isolation unit capable of taking 28
patients is also progressing satisfactorily.
Work has started on the construction of a modern surgical unit
and operating theatres and this is expected to be completed in about
30 months' time.
A new hostel is under construction to provide additional accommo-
dation for the increasing number of student nurses needed at the Korle-
Bu Hospital and contracts have been awarded for the building of a new
Maternity Hospital and Children's Hospital.
The first batch of 18 bungalows at Korle-Bu have been completed
and additional funds have been provided for the building of more bunga-
lows and flats some of which have already been started.
X-ray facilities are being extended and work has started on the
construction of X-ray units at Akuse, Saltpond, Damongo, Navrongo,
Kibi and the Ridge Hospital, Accra. Work has begun on extensions
which aim at increasing the bed capacity by 32 more beds each in the
following hospitals: Bolgatanga, Yendi, Wa, Navrongo, Bawku, Oda
and Axim, thus bringing the bed capacity in each case to: Bolgatanga
112 beds, Yendi 142 beds, Wa 96 beds, Navrongo 116 beds, Bawku 105
beds, Oda 105 beds and Axim 82 beds.
In addition to the existing 14 Government hospitals offering full
catering facilities, new kitchens are at present under construction at the
following hospitals: Oda, Kibi, Axim, Yendi, Koforidua, Wa and Ho.
Dental clinics are also under construction in the following hospitals:
Ridge Hospital, Accra, Koforidua, Ho, Sunyani and Wa, and dental
surgeons will be posted to all these stations. The Clinic at Cape Coast
is already completed and is functioning. Dental units are now to be
included in all future Health Centres and outpatients clinics to enable
dental surgeons to extend their services over wider areas of the country.
In pursuit of these objectives attention is being given to the training
and proper use of auxiliary dental personnel to man the dental service.
It has also been decided that the training of dental technicians hitherto
undertaken in Nigeria should now take place in Ghana, and preparation
for the commencement of the course are well advanced and will soon
The World Health Organisation is being requested to provide aid
for the training of dental auxiliaries in Ghana and for post-graduate
fellowships for dental surgeons.
Modern operating theatres are at present under construction at
Sunyani, Salaga, Kete-Krachi, Peki-Blengo, Nandom and New Tafo.
A start has been made on the building of more Nurses Training Schools
and Hostels, each capable of taking 60 pupils. Training has begun at the
following hospitals-Bolgatanga, Oda, Hohoe, Mpraeso, Cape Coast
and Tarkwa and the existing hostel at Sekondi is being extended to cope
with an increased intake.
Work has also started on the construction of 18 Health Centres all
of which will be provided with bungalows for use by the medical officers.
It is now the Ministry's policy to staff all health centres with doctors.
Urban Health Centres are to be built in Accra, Kumasi, and Sekondi
and already work on new district hospitals has commenced with the
construction of the necessary staff bungalows.
The Mental Hospital in Accra which was originally built for 450
patients now has a patient population of 1,750. The incidence of mental
illness shows an annual increase of about 250 patients and it is proposed
to establish five more institutions in the regions in addition to the one at
Ankaful. The plans for the Regional Mental Hospitals are in an advanced
stage and it will not be long before construction work begins.
The drive to recruit more doctors has been successful and 107 doctors
and dentists have assumed duty in the country. This number would
have been greatly exceeded had it not been for lack of suitable accom-
modation. Of those recruited, 24 are specialists in the fields of Medicine,
Surgery, Gynaecology and Paediatrics. In order to increase the number
of Ghanaians taking up medicine or undertaking specialist study, 32
medical and 4 dental scholarships have been awarded and 12 doctors
have been sent abroad to specialise in these various fields. In addition,
arrangements are in hand to send 23 more medical officers abroad
shortly to undertake all sorts of specialist courses, and in connection
with the Volta River Project, other doctors have been sent abroad to
specialise in industrial health.
One important development in recent years is the Government's
decision to build a Medical School in Accra for the training of doctors
locally. Negotiations are still proceeding on the setting up of the proposed
Medical School and the United States Government has donated
G200,000 for the building.
To meet the serious shortage of trained nurses, the Ministry of
Health has introduced a scheme for the engagement of temporary and
part-time nurses to assist in the hospitals. So far, 67 nurses have been
recruited under this scheme and it is hoped to recruit more in due course.
Also by adopting a policy of doubling up nurses who occupy single
cubicles in some of the Nurses Training Hostels, it has been possible to
increase the intake of pupil nurses by 80.
Advanced courses for nurses have continued; 14 nurses who went
to Oxford in 1960 to study more advanced methods of nursing have
returned home and 11 scholarships have also been awarded to serving
Ghanaian nurses for post-graduate courses in Nursing Administration,
Tutors' Diploma, Ward Administration and Sick Children's Nursing.
In the field of curative medicine, there was at one time an acute
shortage of pharmacists but as a result of increases in salaries more
pharmacists are now coming into the Government Service. So far, 32
pharmacists have been attracted into the Service on contract. In addition
the number of scholarships tenable at the Kumasi College of Technology
has been increased from 25 to 40, and there are some 65 trainees for
a new grade of Dispensary Assistant, who will undertake some of the
less technical work so as to enable the pharmacists to serve a greater
number of people more expeditiously.
Staff Welfare is not neglected. Funds are to be made available
for the purchase of buses to be used in conveying hospital staff who are
not accommodated near the hospital to and from their work.
The Ministry is also investigating the possibility of the Ghana
Housing Corporation building estate houses in close proximity to existing
and projected hospitals for the exclusive use of hospital staff.
Mission hospitals provide about one-quarter of the total bed strength
in the country and, although most of them work under very stringent
conditions, they nevertheless play an important role in the health services
of the country. In order to bring them on par with the Government
hospitals, the Ministry is looking into their needs and providing both
money and man-power to extend their facilities to other localities where
such hospitals are being established. The Ministry's intention is to
encourage the Mission hospitals to spread into areas where medical
facilities are at present non-existing owing to lack of staff.
Another significant development is the establishment of a new
grade of Community Health Nurse who will play a vital role with the
health centre services which has now been introduced. Until quite recently,
the only grade of nurses undertaking public health work has been the
Health Visitor. This new grade of nurses will make contact with the
people in their daily lives and advise them on how to achieve higher
standards of living thereby reducing the sickness rate in the rural areas.
A school for the training of these nurses is operating at Tamale and other
training schools, each capable of taking 72 girls, are at present under
construction at Akim Oda and Tarkwa.
Schemes for the complete eradication of mosquitoes also continue.
Two anti-malaria projects which are operating in conjunction with
the W.H.O. are about to be launched. In the Upper Region, around
Zebilla, the distribution of medicated salt is to start within two or three
months; and in the Volta Region the teams will start shortly to plot all
inhabited buildings in the project area, in preparation for the spraying
cycle in October. The launching of these projects is the fruit of much
painstaking research and preparation.
The campaign against endemic diseases is being pursued with vigour.
A campaign against bilharziasis is also being carried on and all known
cases are given adequate treatment.
Despite the world shortage of Tuberculosis Specialists, it has been
possible to recruit three Tuberculosis Specialists for Accra, Kumasi
and Sekondi. The ultimate aim is to have one T.B. Specialist in each
Region. In 1960, the World Health Organisation sent a Consultant to
Ghana on a short term to make an on the spot study of the problem.
The Report produced by this Specialist has been received by the Ministry
and it is being examined.
A "B.C.G." (anti-tuberculosis) vaccine campaign has been started
in Accra, Winneba and the Gomoa District and so far 50,000 schools
have been tested and vaccinated. Control tests later in the year revealed
that the vaccine has been 95 per cent successful. This vaccination campaign
is to be continued and expanded.
Considerable progress has been made in the treatment of Leprosy.
Case finding has now been introduced into the Leprosy Service which
hitherto has provided only treatment facilities for known cases. As a
result, more cases are being detected and treated whilst the disease is
still in its early stages,
The central hospital, Kumasi
Anti-malaria campaign in the
A committee which was set up to work out a scheme for the country-
wide registration of births and deaths is now considering the report of
its sub-committee on this subject and will be submitting its recommenda-
tion to the Cabinet very soon.
In the field of public health education, considerable progress has
been made. In October, 1960, a Health Week aimed at educating the
public on nutrition and what good food does to the human body was
successfully organised throughout the whole country. As this was the
first Health Week of its kind ever to be held in Ghana, certificates were
awarded to the participants and it is hoped to organise more of these
Health Weeks periodically to show people the way to achieve positive
The success of the Government's expanded health programme
depends to a large extent on other trained staff and not only doctors,
nurses and pharmacists. In order to meet the demand, scholarships
have been awarded for the training of:
1 Occupational Therapist,
2 others for a course in Hospital Administration, and
1 on a Meat and Other Food Certificate course.
Arrangements have been made for a course in Hospital Administration
to be started at the Achimota School of Business Administration beginning
from January, 1962. Negotiations are also proceeding with a view to the
Nursing Tutors Diploma being taken at the University College, Legon.
The World Health Organisation has sent a Consultant to Ghana on a
short term loan to study the problem. It is the policy of the Ministry
that as far as it is practicable most of these courses should be undertaken
locally. It is hoped to enact a law which will enable the authorities to
enforce a much stricter control over Public Health and communicable
diseases, and another Bill which will enable the Government to introduce
the compulsory registration of births and deaths; and a new Pharmacy
and Poisons Bill is expected to be presented to Parliament in due course.
The Ministry has started a limited scheme of visiting specialist
services for the rural areas. Hitherto, Specialist services have been provided
only in the Central Hospitals, and patients requiring such attention have
had to travel to the nearest hospital in order to get the necessary treat-
ment. A Surgical Specialist from the Kumasi Central Hospital will now
tour medical institutions in Brong-Ahafo and Ashanti to operate on
cases there, whilst a Gynaecologist from Korle-Bu will do the same in the
Eastern and Volta Regions. It is hoped that the new scheme will ensure
that all patients, no matter where they are, are assured of the best attention
at all times. To achieve this, the Ministry has secured the services of 24
additional Specialists in all fields.
This system, apart from reducing travelling expenses previously
borne by patients, will also provide some in-service training to District
Medical Officers who very often are left on their own without much
supervision. It is hoped also that it will stimulate the interest of Medical
Officers to specialise.
Depending on the success of these two schemes and the availability
of more Specialists, it is intended to extend this scheme to cover all
hospitals in the country.
Nutrition.-The National Food and Nutrition Board was created by
an Act of Parliament in 1959 by Osagyefo Dr. Nkrumah who was himself
the first Chairman of the Board. The problems of Nutrition had risen to
such a level as to take a reasonable position in the problems affecting
the social and economic reconstruction of Ghana.
When Osagyefo conceived the idea of forming the Board to advise
the Minister on the problems of this issue, his aim was not only to solve
the ravages of malnutrition and undernutrition but to further the improve-
ment of the standard of living and to raise our level of population.
The Board has undergone various changes since its birth. It started
in 1959 as a corporate body under the Ministry of Health.
The Board retains its essential independence under the supervision
of the Minister of Agriculture. It is composed of representatives of the
Ministries of Agriculture, Health, Education and Social Welfare (who
act also as liaison officers in their Ministries). Together with the two
members nominated by the Minister: (at present two prominent lady
members of the general public), Dr. Evelyn Amarteifio and Mrs. Esther
Ocloo, formerly Miss Nkulenu; the Board has the power of co-option.
The Board meetings are attended by the F.A.O. Nutrition Officer for
Africa as an observer.
There are three Committees of the Board: these are Food Production
and Supply, Medical Nutrition and Nutrition Education. The members
of the Committees consist of experts and those with specialised knowledge
in the particular field, some as permanent members, and some co-opted
for certain meetings.
The Executive Secretary who is an ex-officio member of the Board,
is responsible for putting the Board's policies into practice under the
guidance of the Minister and the Chairman. The technical work of the
Board comes under two headings: (1) Medical Nutrition and Research
and (2) Education and Information.
Medical Nutrition is the responsibility of the Medical Officer in
Charge. It is concerned with Nutrition Survey and with investigation
into practical methods of improving nutritional standards. The two are
closely linked, and where problems have been pinpointed by the survey,
schemes for their solution are planned and put into operation.
Education and information is the responsibility of the Principal
Nutrition Officer. It has two branches: (1) Home Economics and Nutrition
Extension and (2) Demonstration Institutions, schools, hospitals, etc.
It first of all finds out the facts then gives advice as to improvement,
where this is needed.
Nutrition Education and Extension is concerned with education
of the population in good nutrition. This is done by personal contact,
and discussion. Attention is paid to private catering establishments
such as chop bars. It also devises, tests, and uses new dishes, especially
those which encourage people to use foods which are available in the
country and are nutritious, but little used, such as fruits, and, in the
South groundnuts. Special stress is placed on the needs of children and
of pregnant and lactating women.
The Demonstration Branch augments all this work with cooking
demonstrations, films shows and other media.
At the head of the Board's Regional organizations are the Regional
Nutrition Officers who are responsible for the general execution of the
A survey was commenced in August, 1960. Four teams have now
been organised and have carried out a pilot survey in villages in the
Winneba district. Since January, 1961, the survey teams have been working
on the systematic coverage of the whole country which is to give figures
which statistically can be reasonably said to be applied to the country
as a whole. So far, villages and towns have been visited in every Region
of the country and further coverage of each Region is being undertaken
together with rechecking of places already visited in order to find out
Information has been collected about the foods which are eaten,
some of these foods have been weighed and the exact value of some of
the diets calculated. Information has been collected on some of the
prices of these foods. Some 20,000 people, men, women and children
have so far been weighed and measured and well over half of these have
had a medical examination for signs of malnutrition. Approximately
a quarter have had simple laboratory tests performed on their blood.
Detailed reports of all these investigations are being produced separately.
MINISTRY OF INFORMATION AND BROADCASTING
The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting is responsible for
co-ordinating the work of:-
The Information Services, Broadcasting and Printing Depart-
It is also responsible for the issue of Government statements to the Press
and Radio, the formulation of policy in respect of public relations and
the projection of Ghana abroad in the best possible light. The Ministry
provides day-to-day information on events in Ghana to Ghana Overseas
Missions and advises other Ministries and Departments on public relations
generally and on specific matters relating to the functions of the Depart-
ments under its control. It serves as the Government's link with the Press
and the Public.
The Department of Information Services (Ghana Information
Services) interprets the aims and policies of the Government to the people
of Ghana and to the world at large. It is also responsible for keeping the
Government informed of the reactions of the members of the public to
their policies and actions. In order to achieve these objectives, the Depart-
ment employs all current media of publicity and public relations which
include, apart from personal contacts, press liaison, publications, the use
of photographs and films, exhibitions, lectures, radio and television
facilities and other visual aids.
The department conducts its domestic publicity work through its
specialised Divisions and, on a country-wide basis, through its Regional
Organizations. For the purpose of overseas information, the Department
liaises closely through its own Ministry with the Ministry of Foreign
Affairs and overseas missions, several of which already have Information
branches of their own, staffed by the secondment of experienced members
of the Department. Much use through personal contact is made of visits
to Ghana of foreign correspondents and film, radio and television repre-
sentatives and through close co-operation with foreign missions
represented in Accra.
The Press and Publications Division has a two-fold responsibility: it
is responsible for the considerable day-to-day task of handling all the
Government's press releases and maintain close liaison with editors,
feature writers, local representatives of overseas newspapers and visiting
correspondents. State visits and important national occasions bring about
hard work and the Department ensures adequate, appropriate press
arrangements at every stage.
The Publications Division produces periodicals such as New Ghana,
Northern Review and Ghana Today. The last publication is produced in
This division also assumes responsibility for the distribution and
sale of papers published by the Bureau of Ghana Languages. Publications
include picture sets and posters which have a wide distribution in schools
A new monthly magazine called Ghana Reconstructs is also produced
by this division. This well produced magazine puts emphasis on deve-
lopment projects. It also features cultural matters of general interest, short
stories and poems by Ghanaian writers.
The department has taken over the publication of the President's
major speeches and 34 have been published since the inauguration of the
Republic. A comprehensive volume of all the President's speeches and
other speeches in French as well as in Ghanaian languages are also prepared.
Publications and distribution of high quality colour portraits of the
President, guides and handbooks about Ghana in English and French
for the use of visitors, are also undertaken by the division.
The Department also produced non-periodicals including Ten Great
Years and The Roadmakers, all of which give a prestige account of pro-
gress in Ghana.
The Photographic Division of the Department is well established.
Centred in Accra, it is capable of advanced technical photography includ-
ing colour processing and the enlargement of photographs to life size for
exhibition and poster purposes.
With either a staff photographer or a photographer stationed in
each region, the Photographic Division is responsible for portraying in
pictorial form both the background setting of Ghana-its beauty, its
natural resources, its historic treasures and its people-as well as the
contemporary scene of progressive development, industry, cultural, social
advancement and current events.
In addition, it furnishes photographs for other divisions of the
Department and for other Government departments, Ministries and the
It provides photographs of all events in Ghana for overseas missions,
for use in exhibitions, photographic displays and newspapers.
It maintains a library of photographs which preserves for the future
the intimate details of the first few years of Ghana's independence which
in many ways is a more vivid record than that preserved in documents
The Exhibition Division has been established out of the present
Exhibition Unit and the Development Publicity Section to undertake all
major local and prestige exhibitions for and on behalf of all the Ministries.
During 1960, the Department organised a most successful travelling exhibi-
tion on the subject of Ghana's development. Over 250,000 people saw this
exhibition in all the regional headquarters as well as the remotest areas
in the country. A recent development in getting out information to the
rural areas is the establishment of Information Centres throughout the
country. Information centres were opened during the year at Mamfe
and Sogakofe; other centres sited in the North, Brong-Ahafo and Ashanti
were nearing completion.
During the coming financial year, it is planned to open 64 new
Information Centres in the Regions. Naturally, the Information Centres
in regional headquarters and elsewhere can retain the interest only if
the pictures and display material are constantly removed and kept up
to date and it is the work of the Exhibition Division to devise, produce
and distribute such material.
In recent years, moreover, there has been a great demand for Ghana
to participate in international exhibitions and these requests are bound
to increase. An efficient Exhibition Division will be able to ensure that
Ghana's contribution to such exhibitions is a worthy one.
From a very modest beginning with a single cinema van built in 1939,
the Cinema Division has increased its fleet to 40 mobile Cinema Vans
and in many ways it is the most popular and penetrating of the Depart-
ment's many media of information.
Today, an average of 15,000 people attend cinema shows daily in
different parts of the country. This cinema consciousness was in a way
fostered by the impetus given to it by the cinema vans of the Ghana
Between 1951 and 1957 the Cinema Section successfully undertook
campaigns on general election, new deal for cocoa, road safety, public
health and hygiene, Togoland plebiscite, savings, premium bonds, pay
your levy, development in Ashanti, independence celebrations and
registration for elections.
With a fleet of 32 vans the Division undertook more campaigns on
health, redemption of premium bonds, local governments, road safety,
agricultural shows, independence anniversary, vocational guidance,
young farmers' clubs, trial census, population census, post enumeration
survey, constitutional and presidential plebiscite between 1958 and 1960.
In 1959, the 32 vans visited 2,293 towns and villages, gave 3,387
cinema shows to an aggregate audience of 2,660,800 and traversed 109,823
miles. The arrival of eleven more vans now on order will bring these
services to an ever-increasing audience.
The Cinema Division has a film library with a stock of some 10,000
films, worth G80,000 on various subjects. These are issued on loan to
educational units and institutions, Government Department and private
borrowers. Plans are being organised to enable films to be hired at a fix
scale of charges.
Outside Broadcast Unit of
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The Division administering a board of 29 voluntary film censors
which has recently been reconstituted, carries out the censorship of all
commercial films imported into Ghana. Seven hundred and seventy
films were censored during 1960.
The Ghana Broadcasting System, popularly known as Radio Ghana,
has four main services:-The National Service, The Relay Service, the
International Service and the Monitoring Service. It is operated by the
Broadcasting Department which will eventually be turned into a public
corporation by the Government.
The National Service broadcasts for ninety-three hours a week on
three wave lengths in the 31, 61 and 89 meter bands. It has four trans-
mitters which provide good general coverage for Ghana and the surround-
ing West African countries.
Ghanaian language news will now be heard at 5.40 in the morning,
12.15, and 4.30 in the afternoon and 7.15 in the evening. This new service
will enable many hard working people in the rural areas to keep themselves
abreast with the news.
The proportion of the population of Ghana which has access to a
radio set or a relay box is one of the highest in Africa. There are about
48,000 relay boxes in use and about 160,000 wireless sets.
Programmes are broadcast in eight languages:-English, Akan
(Twi and Fanti), Nzima, Ewe, Ga, Dagbani, Hausa and French. A school
broadcasting unit produces broadcasts for the secondary schools and
teacher-training colleges-the main subjects are English, current affairs
and French-and prepares booklets and teachers notes for the schools.
Broadcasts to the primary schools concentrate on the teaching of English
to the pupils of Forms 2 and 3.
There are adult educational programmes in English and in the
Ghanaian languages. There is also wide choice of music, ranging fiom
classical to local dance music and popular variety programmes for women
and children listeners. Similar programmes are being planned for farmers.
National events are covered by an active outside Broadcast Unit
which travels all over the country, making reports with actuality record-
ings. This unit also covers sporting events and its football commentaries
are popular with the public. Programme producers based in the Regions
draw recorded material from their Regions and help to ensure that the
output of the service is truly national in character.
Radio Ghana's programmes provide an outlet for the talent of writers,
actors and musicians of the country.
Osagyefo Dr. Kwame Nkrumah performed the opening ceremony
of Radio Ghana's external service at Tema in September, 1961, after which
kilowatt transmitters will be designed to reach not only West Africa, but
also North, East, Central and South Africa.
When these transmitters are on the air, apart from the programmes
in English, French, Hausa, Swahili, programmes in Arabic and Portuguese
will be inaugurated. It is expected that with these six languages large
masses of the African population will be able to hear the Ghana message
of freedom, independence and unity.
Apart from the external service the Ghana Broadcasting System has
links with the outside world through its monitoring service. The exchange
of programmes is already a factor for international goodwill and friend-
ship. Radio Ghana sends recordings of Ghanaian music and other pro-
grammes to radio organizations elsewhere and they in turn send cultural
items from their countries.
The Government has decided that a Television Service should be
inaugurated as soon as possible within the Ghana Broadcasting System,
along the lines recommended by Messrs. R. D. Calhoon and S. R.
Kennedy of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.
Plans are now afoot for implementing the proposals which briefly
cover a Television production centre at Accra on the Broadcasting House
site, and three T.V. transmitter stations at Ajangote, Nkabin near Kumasi
and Kusi near Komenda. At a later stage, a transmitter station will be
built at Tamale.
The Government Printing Department with its headquarters in Accra
and branches at Takoradi and Tamale, caters primarily for all
Government printing requirements, supply of stationery and typewriters.
Negotiation is going on with the Municipal Authorities for taking-over
the printing of Bus Tickets by the Department.
The rapid expansion of the Civil Service, the opening of Embassies,
the introduction of several new projects and the consequent establishment
of Development offices have considerably increased the demand for
printing work and stationery. In fact, the load on the Department has,
on many occasions, been so much in excess of its capacity that some
work has had to be given out to private printers from time to time.
A new Printing Press is to be established at Tema. It will be equipped
with the most modern machines for the production of illustrated papers in
colour, technical periodicals, scientific literature, magazines, stationery,
text-books and exercise books for Ghanaian Schools. The press when
fully established will give employment to about 400 people, bringing in a
yearly revenue of about G750,000 and reduce imported printed material
by about 75 per cent.
Under a departmental Training Officer, a Training Unit has now
been set up to provide intensive technical training for the staff within the
Department. This is an improvement on the previous practice by means of
which training devolved virtually on the Training Officer alone.The unit
is at present dealing satisfactorily with the progressive recruitment and
training of 300 apprentices in preparation for the establishment of the
new Tema Press.
The increasing production of publications in the French language
has created quite a problem. A number of Monotype Keyboard Operators,
Compositors and Printing Overseers are therefore attending part-time
Hitherto, planning work has been undertaken by the Government
Printer or his deputy in addition to the heavy load of administrative work
imposed by an expanding organisation. To ensure, therefore, that this
specialised form of work is accorded the continuity necessary for the
achievement of greater efficiency, a Planning and Progress Section"
has been established.
Its main functions are to receive all incoming work, distribute in
accordance with order of priorities, follow up and maintain a steady
progress of the work through the presses, and thus ensure the achievement
of target dates and maximum production.
MINISTRY OF THE INTERIOR
The Ministry of the Interior is responsible for the Police Service
and Prisons. Subjects with which the Ministry deals are: aliens; arms and
ammunition; citizenship legislation; deportation and repatriation; eva-
cuation and refugees; fire services; immigration; internal security;
naturalisation; petroleum importation, storage and conveyance; riot
damage, fires and occurrences; road safety and the highway code; road
traffic legislation; extradition; preventive detention and foreign processes.
The Ministry itself is divided into three branches comprising six
schedules each in charge of either an Assistant Secretary or a Senior
Executive Officer, the work of the Ministry as a whole is co-ordinated
at the level of Principal Assistant Secretary.
Considerable progress has been made in the development and
expansion of the various branches of the Police Service and the number
of Police Stations and Posts has increased from 214 to 224 including
28 Police District Headquarters. There are now nine Regional Head-
quarters established at each of the eight Regions and in Accra. The
strength of the Service at present is 7,443 as against 6,744 in 1960. This
consists of 122 Superior Police Officers, 245 Inspectors, 413 Sergeants,
614 Corporals and 6,049 Constables of various grades.
The strength of the Criminal Investigation Service has been increased
substantially and courses have been run at the Police College for senior
detective officers, who are responsible for training junior personnel
nuder their command. The value of this course has been reflected in the
immediate increase in the rate of criminal detection.
A forensic laboratory established in 1959 has made rapid strides.
The laboratory equipment consists of cameras, accessories, chemicals
and simple chemical apparatus and this has enabled the laboratory staff
to undertake comparisons and identification of items which previously
could not be done here and has also eliminated laborious methods
previously in use.
Local Government Division
The Local Government division of the Ministry is responsible for
elections, property valuation for rating purposes, constitutional affairs
and customary law, regional development committees, local courts, local
government training school and service committees and general super-
vision of the Ga-Adangbe-Shai district and Tema Corporation.
Ghana has three types of local councils: Municipal, Urban and
Local. There are only three MunicipalCouncils in Ghana and these are in
Kumasi, Sekondi/Takoradi and Cape Coast; Accra is now a city. Before
1953, Municipal Councils were known as Town Councils in these towns.
Urban Councils exist in the large towns while Local Councils are essen-
tially rural in character. Both carry out by large the same basic functions.
Following the recommendations of the "Greenwood Report"
(1957), several changes have taken place: 252 local and urban councils,
have been amalgamated into 65; 10 urban and 55 local councils, and
26 district councils have been abolished entirely.
The first experiment in the establishment of Municipal Institutions
in the Gold Coast was made by Sir Benjamin Pine, a former Governor,
in 1858. His aim was to improve the sanitary conditions of the towns.
In 1858 the Municipal Ordinance No. 5 was passed. At a public
meeting in Accra, seven people were elected to form a Town Council.
On January 8, 1861, however, the Ordinance was repealed and the
council abolished because people were not showing sufficient enthusiasm
for it. The ordinance was put into operation again in 1898 when the towns
of Accra and Christiansborg were brought together to form the Accra
Town Council and provisions of the ordinance were extended to Sekondi
in 1904 and Cape Coast in 1906. The Kumasi Public Health Board, the
forerunner of the Kumasi Municipal Council was established in 1925.
Between May and July, 1952, the first set of Local and Urban
Councils was established throughout the country under the Local
Government Ordinance of 1951. They were based largely on existing
native authority areas founded on native states. In the North, Local
Councils were based mainly upon areas of jurisdiction of sub-chiefs.
During 1955-56 and 1956-57, the Central Government made annual
grants of G700,000 to local authorities for development projects such
as schools, markets, roads, bridges, water supplies and clinics.
It is the primary duty of every Municipal Council to provide and
administer such public services as are required under the Municipal
Councils Ordinance of 1953. These include the construction and main-
tenance of streets and roads (for trunk roads, they receive a hundred per
cent grant from the Central Government); provision, maintenance and
supervisii of such schools, water supplies, public health, markets,
slaughter houses, and fire services as are under their authority. They
also provide for the licensing of dogs and destruction of unlicensed dogs;
and supply and maintenance of electric lighting for streets and public
places. They also maintain Local Courts and traditional authorities in
the Municipal areas. They register births, deaths and marriages. The
types of services provided vary slightly from council to council.
Local and Urban Councils perform most of these functions and have
the additional responsibility of providing services for improvement of
agriculture and allocation of land for agricultural purposes. They regulate
or license the manufacture, distillation, sale, transport, distribution,
supply, possession and consumption of fermented liquor. They establish
and maintain forest plantation and sell the products from them and are
responsible for the management of stool lands.
Elections to Municipal Councils are held at three-year periods while
the tenure of office of local and urban councils is limited to a maximum
of four years; but the life of each council is specified by the instrument
establishing the council.
Councillors are unpaid but they receive allowances in respect of any
day or part of a day spent at meetings of the council or committee.
Municipal Councillors receive twenty-five shillings (25s.) a sitting while
the Chairman receives a consolidated allowance of G1,200 annually.
Local and Urban Councillors receive twenty shillings (20s.) a sitting
while the Chairman gets a monthly allowance of thirty pounds (G30).
The Municipal Council chairman helps in the day to day administration
of the Council.
Local Authority areas are divided into electoral divisions known as
There are 27 elected members in the Accra Municipal Council, 27 in
the Kumasi Municipal Council, 21 in the Sekondi/Takoradi Municipal
Council and 18 in the Cape Coast Municipal Council. Average member-
ship of local and urban councils is about 20.
Under the ordinance, the president of the council is a Paramount
Chief, who presides on ceremonial occasions. The Chairman is elected
annually from among the members. Organisation of Council work is as
Questions of policy and principles are generally decided by the whole
council; and Committees are appointed to supervise the administration
of various services. After taking decisions on matters within their control
the committees submit recommendations for approval by the Council.
There are statutory Committees whose decisions need no council approval
if powers delegated to them so prescribe, and Standing Committees.
Under the ordinance, every council must have Finance and Staff Com-
mittees and may appoint any other committees as it may deem fit. Such
committees include Education and Social Welfare Development and
Works, Public Health, Police, Local Courts and Transport, and General
Purposes Committees. The execution of policy is done by salaried officers
and employees appointed and paid by the councils. At the head of this
administration is the Town Clerk or Clerk of Council in the case of local
and urban councils.
The powers and duties of Municipal Councils are prescribed and
limited by the Municipal Councils Ordinance of 1953 and those of local
and urban councils by the Local Government Ordinance, 1951. The
Ministry of Justice is the main link between Local Authorities and the
Inspections, inquiries, examination of statistics, authorisation of
loans, the approval of bye-laws and the administration of grants-in-aid
are made by the Minister of the Interior and Local Government. Other
Ministries have direct relations with councils on matters within their
The Minister of the Interior and Local Government delegates some
of his powers in respect of local authorities to Regional Commissioners.
The Regional Commissioner approves estimates on behalf of the
Minister. District Commissioners also advise local and urban councils.
Revenue accrues from Government grants and loans, Rates-basic,
general, and special, issue of licences in respect of taxis, bicycles, hawkers
and entertainments; Court fees, market and lorry park tolls and other
Rates are a form of local taxation paid annually by persons who
reside within or own immovable property within a local authority area,
as contributions to the cost of local services. All adult residents are
liable to pay (with certain exemptions for those incapacitated by age or
infirmity). Loans are raised with the approval of the Minister of Interior
and Local Government.
Accounts of all Local Authorities must be audited by the Auditor-
General appointed by the Minister.
Towards the end of 1951, an Association of Municipal Councils
in Ghana was formed in Kumasi. All the four Municipal Councils
attended. Its objects, among others, are-
(1) To watch over, protect and promote the interests, rights,
responsibilities and privileges of Municipal Councils.
(2) To maintain contact and (where found desirable) to co-
operate with other similar Associations and local authorities
especially in the promotion or support or opposition to any
new proposals which may be advocated.
(3) To provide a suitable means of consultation between
Government and Municipal Councils on matters affecting
Municipalities and generally to promote the welfare of
Municipal Councils in Ghana.
Each of the four-member councils sends four representatives to the
Association's biannual meetings. Chairmanship is by annual rotation,
in this order: Accra, Kumasi, Sekondi/Takoradi and Cape Coast. The
Secretary/Treasurer is the Town Clerk of Accra Municipal Council.
Standing and Special Committees are appointed to consider specific
questions. Representatives of each member council have one vote.
The National Association of Local Councils was formed under the
Local Government Ordinance, 1951 (Ghana's Statutory Law) in Accra,
on 1 th November, 1959. Hitherto, several futile attempts had been
made to form the association at regional level.
All the sixty-five local and urban councils in the country are members
of the Association. The Association watches over and protects the
interests, rights and privileges of local authorities as far as Public Bills
are concerned. It provides a forum of discussion for the solution of the
problems of common interest to local and urban councils and co-operates
with the Local Government Workers Union in improving relations with
the councils and employees for peaceful administration of local govern-
ment in the country. It is affiliated to the International Union of Local
Authorities with Headquarters at the Hague.
The association gives help and advice to member councils on pro-
blems of local Government, legal, constitutional, administrative or
financial. By exchange of correspondence, personal interviews and
submission of memoranda, the association gives its views on specific
subjects to government departments, corporations and Ministries.
It has an Executive Council of 26 members which meets four times
yearly to manage the association's affairs, decide policy and elect the
Each member council pays an annual subscription fee of G100.
The association meets yearly.
Both Associations are recognized by the Minister.
Municipal Council Revenue Expenditure Year
G s. d. G s. d.
Accra City Council .. 923,792 11 8 893,045 6 10
Kumasi .. .. .. 928,654 12 5 867,731 7 10 1958/59
Sekondi/Takoradi .. 402,650 19 7 404,142 2 1
Cape Coast .. .. 88,182 15 1 94,149 5 3
Local Authorities .. 5,304,100 0 0 5,236,677 0 0 1956/57
Voting Qualifications.-To qualify for the vote, every person, male
or female is entitled to register as an elector provided he or she is a
citizen of Ghana, within the meaning given to that expression by the
Ghana Citizenship Act, 1957; (b) he must have attained 21 years of age;
(c) must either own immovable property within or must have, for not less
than six months out of 12 months immediately preceding the date of
application to register, resided within the ward in which application is
A person is disqualified from registering as an elector (a) if he has
been sentenced to death or to imprisonment for a term exceeding 12
months or convicted of any offence involving dishonesty, and has not
been granted a free pardon provided that five years or more have elapsed
since the termination of the imprisonment; (b) if he is adjudged to be of
unsound mind or detained as a criminal lunatic under any law for the
time being in force in Ghana.
Whenever a bye-election is to be held, the Minister of the Interior
and Local Government appoints a date and a person who would not be a
candidate, to be a Returning Officer for each electoral district. The
Returning Officer gives notice of the time of election and the last date for
the delivery of nomination papers and appoints Assistant Returning
Every candidate should be nominated in writing by three electors of
the electoral district where he is a candidate, giving these particulars:
(a) name, address, occupation of candidate (b) names, addresses, occupa-
tions of nominees, (c) a certification by the candidate that he is willing
and qualified to stand for election. Nomination papers are delivered to
the Returning Officer not later than 21days before the first day appointed
Political Parties register symbols and colours and the Returning
Officer allocates them to candidates' ballot boxes, and publishes a list
containing full particulars of candidates and nominees, not later than
12 days before the first election day. Where there is only one candidate,
the returning officer declares him elected unopposed on the day appointed
If a candidate dies after delivering nomination papers and before
the commencement of the voting, the Returning Officer countermands
the election, some other convenient day is appointed and the electoral
procedure is commenced afresh. Each candidate may appoint two or
more persons as Polling Agents to draw attention of the Presiding Officer
to irregularities in procedure at polling station.
Every ballot box is so constructed that ballot papers can be put
into it by a voter but cannot be withdrawn by him. Hours of voting
aie 7 a.m. to 5 p.m. An elector presents himself to a polling assistant who
delivers to him a ballot paper and takes his thumb print. The elector
immediately goes to one of the screened compartments in the polling
station containing a ballot box for each candidate and secretly records
Except with the consent of the Returning Officer, no person other
than the Returning Officer, his assistants, candidates and their Counting
Agents may be present at the counting of votes. When the results of the
election have been ascertained, the Returning Officer declares the candi-
dates who had majority of votes to be elected, publishes details of the
result and reports to the Minister of the Interior and Local Government
who causes it to be published in the Gazette with the number of votes
recorded for each candidate.
Urban and Local Councils
Obuasi Urban Council .. .
Nyakrom-Nkum Urban Council
Sunyani Urban Council ...
New Juaben Urban Council
Oda-Swedru Urban Council
Tarkwa Aboso Urban Council ..
Swedru Urban Council ..
Keta Urban Council .
Nsawam Urban Council ..
Tamale Urban Council .. .
Adansi-Banka Local Council
Amansie Local Council .. .
Kumasi East Local Council
Kumasi North Local Council
Kumasi South Local Council
Kumasi West Local Council
Sekyere Local Council ..
Brong-Ahafo East Local Council
Brong-Ahafo Central Local Council
Brong-Ahafo North Local Council
Brong-Ahafo South Local Council
Wala Local Council .
Agona Nsaba Local Council
Assin Local Council
Breman-Ajumako-Enyan Local Council
Denkyira-Twifu-Hemang Local Council
Gomoa-Awutu-Effutu Local Council
Komenda-Edina-Aguafo-Abrem-Asebu Local Council
Mfantsiman Local Council
Anlo North Local Council
Anlo South Local Council
South Akim Abuakwa Local Council
Buem-Krachi Local Council
Ho Local Council .. .
Volta-Dayi Local Council
Tongu Local Council .
Manya-Krobo Local Council .
Eastern Dagomba Local Council
Eastern Gonja Local Council
East Akim Abuakwa Local Council
Ga-Dangbe-Shai Local Council ..
North Kwahu Local Council
West Gonja Local Council
Frafra Local Council
Kassena-Nankanni Local Council
Kusasi Local Council .
Tumu Local Council .
Amenfi-Aowin Local Council
Sefwi Anhwiaso-Bekwai-Bibiani Local Council
South Kwahu Local Council
West Akim Abuakwa Local Council .. .. .. Akwatia.
Yilo-Krobo Local Council .. .. .. .. Somanya.
Western Akim Local Council .. .. .. Akim Swedru.
Ada Local Council .. .. .. .. Big Ada.
Akwamu-Anum-Boso Local Council .. .. .. Senchi.
Akwapim Local Council .. .. .. .. .. Akwapim Akropong.
Nanumba Local Council .. .. .. .. Bimbilla.
South Mamprusi Local Council .. .. .. Nalerigu-Gambaga.
Western Dagomba Local Council .. .. .. Savelugu.
Builsa Local Council .. .. .. .. Sandema.
Sefwi-Wiawso Local Council .. .. Sefwi Wiawso.
Wassaw-Fiase-Mpohaw Local Council .. .. .. Tarkwa.
Lawra Confederacy Local Council .. .. .. Lawra.
Ahanta-Shama Local Council .. .. .. Apowa via Takoradi.
Nzima-Evalue-Ajomoro-Gwira Local Council .. Axim.
MINISTRY OF JUSTICE
The Ministry of Justice is responsible for ministerial functions in
relation to: the General Legal Council, the Board of Legal Education,
the Attorney-General's Department, Judicial Service, capital cases,
convict prisoners, remission and commutation of sentences, statutory
reviews and committal of criminal lunatics; Lands: public land policy,
acquisitions and divestments, resettlement, other than under the Land
Planning and Soil Conservation Ordinance, 1953, concessions, valuation,
public lands advisory committee; copyright, business names, trade marks,
designs, company law, companies, registration of title to land and stool
The Registrar-General, in addition to his administrative duties, holds
the following statutory offices:-
Sheriff of Ghana; Administrator-General; Public Trustee;
Registrar of Companies, Business Names, Trade Marks, Patents,
Newspapers, Books and Building Societies; Principal Registrar of
Marriages; and Principal Registrar of Births and Deaths.
As Sheriff of Ghana, it is his duty to serve and to execute summonses,
writs and other processes of the Courts. To perform these duties, he is
assisted by Deputy Sheriffs and Bailiffs in the Regions and Districts.
The Registrar-General as Administrator-General of Ghana adminis-
ters various estates, small and large, of all deceased persons who have,
by their Wills appointed him their sole executor, or who have died
intestate and have no available next of kin ready to act as administrator.
As Public Trustee, he also holds various properties on trust and
from time to time the Ghana Government have by Acts of Parliament
vested various assets of public bodies in the Public Trustee to be held
on trust subject to the directions of a named Minister.
There are at present 37 Marriage Districts in Ghana. The Principal
Registrar of Marriages has custody of all Marriage Records sent to his
office by the various Registrars and he has power to issue Special Marriage
Licences to enable parties to dispense with the usual formalities.
Compulsory Registration of Births and Deaths is enforced in all
the 37 Registration Districts. However, only about 12 per cent of the
total population of the country is covered by the compulsory registration.
It is hoped that within the next five years compulsory registration will be
extended throughout the country.
A new Immigration Service was set up in July, 1960, separate from
the Police. With this new administrative system, the various posts were
to be filled by police personnel who elected to transfer to the new service.
New Roll index machines for accommodating the new Immigration
card-index system are now in operation and a far simpler system of filing
correspondence and official documents has been introduced to replace
the old system.
A Fire Service Advisory Expert is now attached to the Ministry of
the Interior under United Nations Technical Assistance. The Advisory
Expert is now engaged in formulating proposals for the establishment
of a permanent Fire Service Training School that may lead to the setting
up of a National Fire Service. Equipment for the training of fire service
personnel has been donated by Messrs. George Angus and Company of
the United Kingdom.
The Ministry is also responsible for the Lands Secretariat and the
Boundary Settlement Commission.