The true story of Christopher Columbus

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
The true story of Christopher Columbus called the great admiral ; told for youngest readers
Physical Description:
187, 2 p. : ill., maps, ports ; 24 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Brooks, Elbridge Streeter, 1846-1902
D. Lothrop & Company ( Publisher )
A. Zeese & Co ( Engraver )
Publisher:
D. Lothrop Company
Place of Publication:
Boston
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Explorers -- Biography -- Juvenile literature -- Spain   ( lcsh )
Explorers -- Biography -- Juvenile literature -- America   ( lcsh )
Voyages and travels -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Discovery and exploration -- Spanish -- Juvenile literature -- America   ( lcsh )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1893   ( rbgenr )
Biographies -- 1893   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1893
Genre:
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
Biographies   ( rbgenr )
individual biography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston
United States -- Illinois -- Chicago

Notes

Summary:
A children's biography of Christopher Columbus.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Elbridge S. Brooks ; profusely illustrated.
General Note:
Some illustrations engraved by A. Zeese & Co., Chi.
General Note:
Publisher's advertisements follow text.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002222899
notis - ALG3145
oclc - 214285139
System ID:
UF00082527:00001


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"THE BOYS, POINTING AFTER HIM, WOULD CALL HIM 'THE CRAZY EXPLORER.''
See page 36


111
il '::P't
C~B:,_








THE TRUE STORY OF



CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS



CALLED THE GREAT ADMIRAL


TOLD FOR


YOUNGEST READERS


ELBRIDGE S. BROOKS
Author of
" The Story of the United States," Historic Boys," Historic Girls,"
" Story of the American Indian," Story of the American Sailor,"
In No Man's Land," and others



PROFUSELY ILL USTRA TED




BOSTON
D. LOTHROP COMPANY
1893














































COPYRIGHT, 1892,

BY
D. Lo~r-rijimi COMPA~NY.














PREFACE.


THIS True Story of Christopher Columbus" is offered and
inscribed to the boys and girls of America as the opening volume
in a series especially designed for their reading, and to be called
" Children's Lives of Great Men." In this series the place of honor,
or rather of position, is given to Columbus the Admiral, because had
it not been for him and for his pluck and faith and perseverance there
might have been no young Americans, such as we know to-day, to
read or care about the world's great men.
Columbus led the American advance; he discovered the New
World; he left a record of persistence in spite of discouragement and
of triumph over all obstacles, that has been the inspiration and guide
for Americans ever since his day, and that has led them to work on
in faith and hope until the end they strove for was won.
The True Story of Christopher Columbus will be followed by
the "true story" of others who have left names for us to honor and
revere, who have made the world better because they lived, and who
have helped to make and to develop American freedom, strength and
progress.
It will be the endeavor to have all these presented in the simple,
straightforward, earnest way that appeals to children, and shows how
the hero can be the man, and the man the hero.
E. S. B.




















CONTENTS.


CHAPTER I.


A BOY WITH AN IDEA


. a II


CHAPTER II.


WHAT PEOPLE THOUGHT OF THE IDEA


CHAPTER III.


HOW COLUMBUS GAINED A QUEEN FOR HIS. FRIEND


34


CHAPTER IV.


HOW THE ADMIRAL SAILED AWAY


CHAPTER V.

HOW THEY FARED ON THE SEA OF DARKNESS


CHAPTER VI.


WHAT COLUMBUS DISCOVERED .


66


CHAPTER VII.


HOW A BOY BROUGHT THE ADMIRAL TO GRIEF


CHAPTER VIII.


* a 82


TRYING IT AGAIN





* *








CONTENTS.


CHAPTER IX.

-HOW THE TROUBLES OF THE ADMIRAL BEGAN 103


CHAPTER X.

FROM PARADISE TO PRISON II12-


CHAPTER XI,

HOW THE ADMIRAL CAME AND WENT AGAIN 24


CHAPTER XII.

HOW THE ADMIRAL PLAYED ROBINSON CRUSOE 141


CHAPTER XIII.

THE END OF THE STORY 157


CHAPTER XIV.

HOW THE STORY TURNS OUT 173












Will



















LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


" The Boys pointing after him would Call him the crazy Explorer."'
Sailing to distant Lands
The Birthplace of Columbus
Bound around Africa .
Genoa, the Birthplace of Columbus
" Golden Cathay"
First Inspirations of Columbus .
Columbus at Thirty
What Folks Thought Lived in the "Jumping-off Place "
The Round Earth
A Dream of Cathay
A Wise Old Scholar .
The Room in the Convent of Rabida in which they Talked it Over
The Treasures of Cathay
The Convent of Rabida where Columbus Found Friends
Looking toward Cathay
The City Gate of Santa Fe
The Alhambra at Granada
Columbus at Granada Explaining his Ideas to Queen Isabella
The World as Columbus Knew it when he Went to School
The Bridge of Pinos where the Queen's Messenger found Columbus.
The Church of St. George at Palos
The Santa Maria, the Flag-ship of Columbus
What Pedro the Cabin Boy Expected to become in Cathay
The Departure from Palos .
Good-by, Columbus .
The Two Owners
The Three Caravels. .
A City in the Sea
Watching for Land
The Night before the Discovery .
Columbus Sees a Light
The Landing of Columbus (From a German picture) .
The Place where Columbus Landed. .


Frontis.


41
43
46
49
51
54
55
57
59
6i
63
64
65
67
71
74











LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


The Landing of Columbus (From the painting in the Capitol) 75
" They have Come from Heaven," they Said 77
The Tropic Islands 78
The New Land 79
Captain Alonso Pinzon 82
Fort La Navidad 84
Columbus Received by Ferdinand and Isabella at Barcelona' 87
Columbus has Come 89
Looking at the Procession 90
Columbus Telling his Adventures to Juan Perez at Rabida 91
The Harbor of Cadiz 93
" He saw the Hill-tops of Dominica" . 94
The Lurking Indian *95
Caonabo and his Braves 97
The Tower of the Fort 98
The Ruins of Isabella 99
The Grumblers I
;* 101
Statue of Leif Ericsson in Boston
Along the Shore of Cuba 104
Columbus in the Garb of a Priest 10o8
The Queen's Messengers .109
Ferdinand and Isabella to
In Sight of the mountain Peaks of Trinidad I. . I
The Three Ships of Columbus Leaving Paradise" 113
In the Dragon's Mouth 115
Bartholomew Columbus, Brother of the Admiral 7
On the Dock at Cadiz 119
Paddles and Pots from the Indies 120
" He Listened to the Complaints of all the Black Sheep" 121
Feathers and Fruit from the Indies 123
Columbus in Chains 125
The Man who Wanted "to Set Matters Straight 127
The Alhambra 130
The Court of the Lions in the Alhambra 131
I am still the Admiral 134
The old Castle and water Batteries at Santo Domingo 35
Getting ready the Gold Fleet 137
Corner of the City Wall and Sentry Box, Santo Domingo 138
The Wreck of Bobadilla's Ship. 139
" Broken and Shattered" 140
A Fragment of the Alhambra 141
Off the Coast of Honduras. 142










LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


"The Galley of the Cacique"
The People of Honduras see the Ships of the Admiral
A Gold Hunt in Veragua
On the Mosquito Coast
Sir Christopher's Cove on the Island of Jamaica
On the Island of Jamaica
Diego Mendez going for Help
Storm-tossed in the Indies .
Seville the Beautiful
The Arms of Columbus
The Death of Columbus
The House in Valladolid in which Columbus Died
A Cloister in the old Cathedral in Santo Domingo
Americus Vespucius .
Map showing the four Voyages of Columbus
Ruins of the Palace of Diego in Santo Domingo
Spanish Adventurers Exploring the New Land
A Medal of Columbus .
Two Historic Bridges.
Independence Hall, Philadelphia
The White City by the Lake
The Discoverer of our Country
The Founder of our Country
The Savior of our Country
The Harbor of New York City and the Statue of Liberty
Looking down the Lagoon on the World's Fair Grounds
The Old and the New. .
A Railway Station in Philadelphia
A Business Street in Chicago
The Dome of the Capitol


.80
182
S 183
185

186











THE TRUE STORY OF


CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS




CHAPTER I.

A BOY WITH AN IDEA.

EN who do great things are men we all
like to read about. This is the story
of Christopher Columbus, the man
who discovered America. He lived
four hundred years ago. When he was a little boy he lived
in Genoa. It was a beautiful city in the northwestern part
of the country called Italy. The mountains were behind it;
the sea was in front of it, and it was so beautiful a place
that the people who lived there called it Genoa the Superb."
Christopher Columbus was born in this beautiful city of
Genoa in the year 1446, at number 27 Ponticello Street. He
was a bright little fellow with a fresh-looking face, a clear
eye and golden hair. His father's name was Domenico
Columbus; his mother's name was Susanna. His father
was a wool-comber. He cleaned and straightened out the
II







A BOY WITH AN IDEA.


snarled-up wool that was cut from the sheep so as to make it
ready to be woven into cloth.
Christopher helped his father do this when he grew strong
enough, but he went to school, too, and learned to read and
write and to draw maps and charts. These charts were maps.
of the sea, to show the sailors where they could steer without
running on the rocks and sand, and how to sail safely from
one country to another.
This world was not as big then as it is now or, I
should say, people did not know it was as big. Most of the
lands that Columbus had studied about in school, and
most of the people he had
S heard about, were in Europe
S- and parts of Asia and Africa.
S The city of Genoa where
S Columbus lived was a very
busy and a very rich city. It
was on the Mediterranean Sea,
SAILING TO DISTANT LANDS.
and many of the people who
lived there were sailors who went in their ships on voyages
to distant lands. They sailed to other places on the Mediter-
ranean Sea, which is a very large body of water, you know,
and to England, to France, to Norway, and even as far
away as the cold northern island of Iceland. This was
thought to be a great journey.
The time in which Columbus lived was not as nice a
time as is this in which you live. People were always






































*THE BIRTHPLACE OF COLUMBUS.
,(The house at the right, with the tablet over the door, is the one in which the great Admiral was
born. The arch in the distance is the old Gate of St. Andrew.)


I
~II r


1t -







A BOY WITH AN IDEA.


quarreling and fighting about one thing or another, and the
sailors who belonged to one country would try to catch and
steal the ships or the things that belonged to the sailors or
the storekeepers of another country. This is what we call
piracy, and a pirate, you know, is thought to be a very
wicked man.
But when Columbus lived, men did not think it was so
very wicked to be a sort of half-way pirate, although they
did know that they would be killed if they were caught.
So almost every sailor was about half pirate. Every boy
who lived near the seashore and saw the ships and the
sailors, felt as though he would like to sail away to far-off
lands and see all the strange sights and do all the brave
things that the sailors told about. Many of them even said
they would like to be pirates and fight with other sailors,
and show how strong and brave and plucky they could be.
Columbus was one of these. He was what is called
an adventurous boy. He did not like to stay quietly at
home with his father and comb out the tangled wool. He
thought it would be much nicer to sail away to sea and be a
brave captain or a rich merchant.
When he was about fourteen years old he really did go
to sea. There was a captain of a sailing vessel that some-
times came to Genoa who had the same last name Colum-
bus. He was no relation, but the little Christopher somehow
got acquainted with him among the wharves of Genoa.
Perhaps he had run on errands for him, or helped him with









A BOY WITH AN IDEA.


some of the sea-charts he knew so well how to draw. At

any rate he sailed away with this Captain Columbus as his

cabin boy, and went to the wars with him and had quite an

exciting life for a boy.

Sailors are very fond of telling big stories about their

own adventures or about far-off lands and countries. Colum-


GENOA, THE BIRTHPLACE OF COLUMBUS.
( "It was so beautiful a place that the people who lived there called it' Genoa the Suferb.' ")

bus listened to many of these sea-stories, and -heard many

wonderful things about a very rich land away to the East

that folks called Cathay.

If you look in your geographies you will not find any

such place on the map as Cathay, but you will find China,

and that was what men in the time of Columbus called


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A BOY WITH AN IDEA.


Cathay. They told very big stories about this far-off Eastern
land. They said its kings lived in golden houses, that they
were covered with pearls and diamonds, and that everybody
there was so rich that money was as plentiful as the stones
in the street.
This, of course, made the sailors and storekeepers, who
were part pirate, very anxious to go to Cathay and get
some of the gold and jewels and spices and splendor for
themselves. But Cathay was miles and miles away from
Italy and Spain and France and England. It was away
across the deserts and mountains
and seas and rivers, and they had to
give it up because they could not
sail there. __T
At last a man whose name was _'
Marco Polo, and who was a very < -'
brave and famous traveler, really did
GOLDEN CATHAY."
go there, in spite of all the trouble it
took. And when he got back his stories were so very sur-
prising that men were all the more anxious to find a way to
sail in their ships to Cathay and see it for themselves.
But of course they could not sail over the deserts and
mountains, and they were very much troubled because they
had to give up the idea, until the son of the king of Port-
ugal, named Prince Henry, said he believed that ships could
sail around Africa and so get to India or "the Indies" as
they called that land, and finally to Cathay.







A BOY WITH AN IDEA.


Just look at your map again and see what a long, long
voyage it would be to sail from Spain and around Africa
to India, China and Japan. It is such a long sail that,
as you know, the Suez Canal was dug some twenty years
ago so that ships could sail through the Mediterranean Sea
and out into the Indian Ocean, and not have to go away
around Africa.
But when Columbus was a boy it was even worse than
now, for no one really knew how long Africa was, or whether
ships really could sail around it. But Prince Henry said
he knew they could, and he sent out ships to try. He
died before his Portuguese sailors,
Bartholomew Diaz, in 1493, and
Vasco de Gama, in 1497, at last did
sail around it and got as far as
,. "the Indies."
/ So while Prince Henry was try-
ing to see whether ships could sail
around Africa and reach Cathay in
BOUND AROUND AFRICA. that way, the boy Columbus was
listening to the stories the sailors
told and was wondering whether some other and easier
way to Cathay might not be found.
When he was at school he had studied about a certain
man named Pythagoras, who had lived in Greece thousands
of years before he was born, and who had said that the earth
was round "like a ball or an orange." As Columbus grew




















































































FIRST INSPIRATIONS OF COLUMBUS.

(From ike statue by Giulio Monteverde, in the Auseum of Ftne Arts, Boston)







A BOY WITH AN IDEA.


older and made maps and studied the sea, and read books
and listened to what other people said, he began to believe
that this man named Pythagoras might be right, and that
the earth was round, though everybody declared it was
flat. If it is round," he said to himself, what is the use of
trying to sail around Africa to get to Cathay? Why not
just sail west from Italy or Spain and keep going right
around the world until you strike
Cathay? I believe it could be
done," said Columbus.
By this time Columbus was a .
man. He was thirty years old and /'-
was a great sailor. He had been :'
captain of a number of vessels;
he had sailed north and south and
east; he knew all about a ship and
all about the sea. But, though he
was so good a sailor, when he said
S COLUMBUS AT THIRTY.
that he believed the earth was
round, everybody laughed at him and said that he was crazy.
" Why, how can the earth be round ? they cried. "The water
would all spill out if it were, and the men who live on the
other side would all be standing on their heads with their feet
waving in the air." And then they laughed all the harder.
But Columbus did not think it was anything to laugh
at. He believed it so strongly, and felt so sure that he was
right, that he set to work to find some king or prince or great







A BOY WITH AN IDEA.


lord to let him have ships and sailors and money enough to
try to find a way to Cathay by sailing out into the West
and across the Atlantic Ocean.
Now this Atlantic Ocean, the western waves of which
break upon our rocks and beaches, was thought in Colum-
bus's day to be a dreadful place. People called it the Sea of
Darkness, because they did not know what was on the other
side of it, or what dangers lay beyond that distant blue rim
where the sky and water seem to meet, and which we call
the horizon. They thought the ocean stretched to the end
of a flat world, straight away to a sort of "jumping-off
place," and that in
this horrible Jump- .

giants and goblins
and dragons and
monsters and all sorts of terrible '
things that would catch the
ships and destroy them and the sailors.
WHAT FOLKS THOUGHT
So when Columbus said that he LIVED N THE "JUMPING-
wanted to sail away toward this dreadful OFF PLACE."
jumping-off place, the people said that he was worse than crazy.
They said he was a wicked man and ought to be punished.
But they could not frighten Columbus. He kept on
trying. He went from place to place trying to get the ships
and sailors he wanted and was bound to have. As you will
see in the next chapter, he tried to get help wherever he







WHAT PEOPLE THOUGHT OF THE IDEA.


thought it could be had. He asked the people of his own
home, the city of Genoa, where he had lived and played
when a boy; he asked the people of the beautiful city that
is built in the sea Venice; he tried the king of Portugal,
the king of England, the king of France, the king and queen
of Spain. But for a long time nobody cared to listen to
such a wild and foolish and dangerous plan to go to Cathay
by the way of the Sea of Darkness and the Jumping-off
place. You would never get there alive, they said.
And so Columbus waited. And his hair grew white
while he waited, though he was not yet an old man. He
had thought and worked and hoped so much that he began
to look like an old man when he was forty years old. But
still he would never say that perhaps he was wrong, after all.
He said he knew he was right, and that some day he should
find the Indies and sail to Cathay.





CHAPTER II.

WHAT PEOPLE THOUGHT OF THE IDEA.

I DO not wish you to think that Columbus was the first
man to say that the earth was round, or the first to sail
to the West over -the Atlantic Ocean. He was not. Other
men had said that they believed the earth was round; other







WHAT PEOPLE THOUGHT OF THE IDEA.


:men had sailed out into the Atlantic Ocean. But no sailor
who believed the earth was round had ever yet tried to prove
that it was by crossing the Atlantic. So, you see, Columbus
was really the first man to say, I believe the earth is round
and I will show you that it is by sailing to the lands that
are on the other side of the earth.
He even figured out how far it was around the world.
Your geography, you know, tells you now
that what is called the circumference of the
earth that is, a straight line drawn right
around it is nearly twenty-five thousand
miles. Columbus had figured it up pretty
UD EARTH carefully and he thought it was about twenty
thousand miles. If I could start from
*Genoa, he said, and walk straight ahead until I got back
to Genoa again, I should walk about twenty thousand miles.
Cathay, he thought, would take up so much land on the
other side of the world that, if he went west instead of east,
he would only need to sail about twenty-five hundred or
three thousand miles.
If you have studied your geography carefully you will
see what a mistake he made.
It is really about twelve thousand miles from Spain to
China (or Cathay as he called it). But America is just about
three thousand miles from Spain, and if you read all this
story you will see how Columbus's mistake really helped him
to discover America.



















/ 1,


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7-~


- --


43


A DREAM OF CATHAY.
(Every boy of spirit in those days of adventure felt certain that he couldjfnd and conquer that
land of fable.)


o bS


\ ^


jr"r-7







WHAT PEOPLE THOUGHT OF THE IDEA.


I have told you that Columbus had a longing to do some-
thing great from the time when, as a little boy, he had hung
around the wharves in Genoa and looked at the ships sailing
east and west and talked with the sailors and wished that he
could go to sea. Perhaps what he had learned at school -
how some men said that the earth was round -and what he
had heard on the wharves about the wonders of Cathay set
him to thinking and to dreaming that it might be possible
for a ship to sail around the world without falling off. At
any rate, he kept on thinking and dreaming and longing until,
at last, he began doing.
Some of the sailors sent out by Prince Henry of Portu-
gal, of whom I have told you, in their trying to sail around
Africa discovered two groups of islands out in the Atlantic that
they called the Azores, or Isles of Hawks, and the Canaries,
or Isles of Dogs. When Columbus was in Portugal in
1470 he became acquainted with a young woman whose
name was Philippa Perestrelo. In 1473 he married her.
Now Philippa's father, before his death, had been governor
of Porto Santo, one of the Azores, and Columbus and his
wife went off there to live. In the governor's.house Colum-
bus found a lot of charts and maps that told him about
parts of the ocean that he had never before seen, and made
him feel certain that he was right in saying that if he sailed
away to the West he should find Cathay.
At that time there was an old man who lived in Flor-
ence, a city of Italy. His name was Toscanelli. He was a







WHAT PEOPLE THOUGHT OF THE IDEA.


great scholar and studied the stars and made maps, and was
a very wise man. Columbus knew what a wise old scholar
Toscanelli was, for Florence is not very far from Genoa. So
while he was living in the Azores he wrote to this old
scholar asking him what he thought about his idea that a
man could sail around the world until he reached the land
called the Indies and at last found Cathay.
Toscanelli wrote to Columbus saying that he
believed his idea was the right one, and he
said it would be a grand thing to do, if Co-
lumbus dared to try it. Perhaps, he said,
you can find all those splendid things that I
A WISE OLD know are in Cathay- the great cities with
SCHOLAR. marble bridges, the houses of marble covered

with gold, the jewels and the spices and the precious stones,
and all the other wonderful and magnificent things. I do
-not wonder you wish to try, he said, for if you find Cathay
it will be a wonderful thing for you and for Portugal.
That settled it with Columbus. If this wise old scholar
said he was right, he must be right. So he left his home
in the Azores and went to Portugal. This was in 1475, and
from that time on, for seventeen long years he was trying to
get some king or prince to help him sail to the West to
find Cathay.
But not one of the people who could have helped him, if
they had really wished to, believed in Columbus. As I told
you, they said that he was crazy. The king of Portugal,







WHAT PEOPLE THOUGHT OF THE IDEA.


whose name was John, did a very unkind thing I am sure
you would call it a mean trick. Columbus had gone to him
with his story and asked for ships and sailors. The king
and his chief men refused to help him; but King John said
to himself, perhaps there is something in this worth looking
after and, if so, perhaps I can have my own people find
Cathay and save the money that Columbus will want to keep
for himself as his share of what he finds. So one day he
copied off the sailing directions that Columbus had left with
him, and gave them to one of his own captains without letting
Columbus know anything about it. The Portuguese cap-
tain sailed away to the West in the direction Columbus had
marked down, but a great storm came up and so frightened
the sailors that they turned around in a hurry. Then they
hunted up Columbus and began to abuse him for getting
them into such a scrape. You might as well expect to find
land in the sky, they said, as in those terrible waters.
And when, in this way, Columbus found out that King
John had tried to use his ideas without letting him know
anything about it, he was very angry. His wife had died in
the midst of this mean trick of the Portuguese king, and so,
taking with him his little five-year-old son, Diego, he left
Portugal secretly and went over into Spain.
Near the little town of Palos, in western Spain, is a green
hill looking out toward the Atlantic. Upon this hill stands
an old building that, four hundred years ago, was used as a
a convent or home for priests. It was called the Convent of







WHAT PEOPLE THOUGHT OF THE IDEA.


Rabida, and the priest at the head of it was named the Friar
Juan Perez. One autumn day, in the year 1484, Friar Juan
Perez saw a dusty traveler with a little boy talking with the
gate-keeper of the convent. The stranger was so tall and
fine-looking, and seemed such an interesting man, that Friar
Juan went out and began to talk with him. This man was
Columbus.
As they talked, the priest grew more and more interested
in what Columbus said. He invited him into the convent to
stay for a few days, and he asked some other people the
doctor of Palos and some of the sea captains and sailors of
the town--to come and talk with this stranger who had
such a singular idea about sailing across the Atlantic.
It ended in Columbus's staying some months in Palos,
waiting for a chance to go and see the king and queen.
At last, in 1485, he set out for the Spanish court with a letter
to a priest who was a friend of Friar Juan's, and who could
help him to see the king and queen.
At that time the king and queen of Spain were fighting
to drive out of Spain the people called the Moors. These
people came from Africa, but they had lived in Spain for
many years and had once been a very rich and powerful
nation. They were not Spaniards; they were not Christians.
So all Spaniards and all Christians hated them and tried to
drive them out of Europe.
The king and queen of Spain who were fighting the
Moors were named Ferdinand and Isabella. They were













































THE RUOM IN THE CONVENT OF RABIDA IN WHICH THEY TALKED IT OVER.
(As it looks to.daay.)







WHAT PEOPLE THOUGHT OF THE IDEA.


pretty good people as kings and queens went in those days,
but they did a great many very cruel and very mean things,
just as the kings and queens of those days were apt to do.
I am afraid we should not think they were very nice people
nowadays. We certainly should not wish our American boys
and girls to look up to them as good and true and noble.
SWhen Columbus first came to them, they were with the
army in the camp near the city of Cordova. The king and
queen had no time to listen to what they thought were crazy
plans, and poor Columbus could get no one to talk with him
who could be of any help. So he was obliged to go back to
drawing maps and selling books to make enough money to
support himself and his little Diego.
But at last, through the friend of good Friar Juan Perez
of Rabida, who was a priest at the court, and named Talavera,
and to whom he had a letter of introduction, Columbus found
a chance to talk over his plans with a number of priests and
scholars in the city of Salamanca where there was a famous
college and many learned men.
Columbus told his story. He said what he wished to do,
and asked these learned men to say a good word for him to
Ferdinand and Isabella so that he could have the ships and
sailors to sail to Cathay. But it was of no use.
What! sail away around the world ? those wise men cried
in horror. Why, you are crazy. The world is not round; it
is flat. Your ships would tumble off the edge of the world
and all the king's money and all the king's men would be







34 HOW COL UMBUS GAINED A QUEEN FOR HIS FRJEND.

lost. No, no; go away; you must not trouble the queen or
even mention such a ridiculous thing again.
^, o So the most of them said. But one
or two thought it might be worth try-
jT. ing. Cathay was a very rich country,
and if this foolish fellow were willing to
run the risk and did succeed, it would
be a good thing for Spain, as the king
and queen would need a great deal of
money after the war with the Moors
i was over. At any rate,it was a chance worth
? thinking about.
And so, although Columbus was dread-
fully disappointed, he thought that if he had
only a few friends at Court who were ready
THE TREASURES OF
CATHAY. to say a good word for him he must not
give up, but must try, try again. And so he staid in Spain.




CHAPTER III.

HOW COLUMBUS GAINED A QUEEN FOR HIS FRIEND.

VHEN you wish very much to do a certain thing it is
dreadfully hard to be patient; it is harder still to
have to wait. Columbus had to do both. The wars against








HOW COLUMBUS GAINED A QUEEN FOR HIS FRIEND. 35

the Moors were of much greater interest to the king and
queen of Spain than was the finding of a new and very un-
certain way to get to Cathay. If it had not been 'for the
patience and what we call the persistence of Columbus,
America would never have been discovered -at least not
in his time.
He staid in Spain. He grew poorer and poorer. He

.. .. -- "













THE CONVENT OF RABIDA WHKRE COLUMBUS FOUND FRIENDS.

was almost friendless. It seemed as if his great enterprise
must be given up. But he never lost hope. He never
stopped trying. Even when he failed he kept on hoping
and kept on trying. He felt certain that sometime he should
succeed.
As we have seen,he tried to interest the rulers of different
countries, but ith no success. He tried to get help from .
Was almost friendless. It seemed as if his great enterprise






As we have seen,he tried to interest the rulers of different
countries, but with no success. He tried to get help from







36 HOW COLUMB US GAINED A QUEEN FOR HIS FRIEND.

his old home-town of Genoa and failed; he tried Portugal
and failed; he tried the Republic of Venice and failed; he
tried the king and queen of Spain and failed; he tried some
of the richest and most powerful of the nobles of Spain and
failed; he tried the king of England (whom he got his
brother, Bartholomew Columbus, to go and see) and failed.
There was still left the king of France. He would make
one last attempt to win the king and queen of Spain to his
side and if he failed with them he would try the last of the
rulers of Western Europe, the king of France.
He followed the king and queen of Spain as they went
from place to place fighting the Moors. He hoped that
some day, when they wished to think of something besides
fighting, they might think of him and the gold and jewels
and spices of Cathay.
The days grew into months, the months to years, and
still the war against the Moors kept on; and still Columbus
waited for the chance that did not come. People grew to
know him as the crazy explorer" as they met him in
the streets or on the church steps of Seville or Cordova, and
even ragged little boys of the town, sharp-eyed and shrill-
voiced as all such ragged little urchins are, would run after
this big man with the streaming white hair and the tattered
cloak, calling him names or tapping their brown little fore-
heads with their dirty fingers to show that even they knew
that he was as crazy as a loon."
At last he decided to make one more attempt before giving




















~l-2 ,,'


--~, III

~ "/A'


LOOKING TOWARD CATHAY.


--
c







HOW COL UMB US GAINED A QUEEN FOR HIS FRIEND. 39

it up in Spain. His money was gone; his friends were few;
but he remembered his acquaintances at Palos and so he
journeyed back to see once more his good friend Friar Juan
Perez at the Convent of Rabida on the hill that looked out
upon the Atlantic he was so anxious to cross.
It was in the month of November, 1491, that he went
back to the Convent of Rabida. If he could not get any
encouragement there, he was determined to stay in Spain no
longer but to go away and try the king of France.
Once more he talked over the finding of Cathay with the
priests and the sailors of Palos. They saw how patient he
was; how persistent he was; how he would never give up
his ideas until he had tried them. They were moved by his
determination. They began to believe in him more and
more. They resolved to help him. One of the principal sea
captains of Palos was named Martin Alonso Pinzon. He
became so interested that he offered to lend Columbus
money enough to make one last appeal to the king and
queen of Spain, and if Columbus should succeed with them,
this Captain Pinzon said that he would go into partnership
with Columbus and help him out when it came to getting
ready to sail to Cathay.
This was a move in the right direction. At once a mes-
senger was sent to'the splendid Spanish camp before the
city of Granada, the last unconquered city of the Moors of
Spain. The king and queen of Spain had been so long try-
ing to capture Granada that this camp was really a city,







40 HOW COL UMBUS GAINED A QUEEN FOR HIS FRIEND.

with gates and walls and houses. It was called Santa F6.
Queen Isabella, who was in Santa F6, after some delay,
agreed to hear more about the crazy scheme of this persistent
Genoese sailor, and the Friar
Juan Perez was sent for.
.._ He talked so well in be-
-- g half of his friend Columbus
".... '. that the queen became still
more interested. She ordered
Columbus to come and see
her, and sent him sixty-five
THE CITY GATE OF SANTA FE.
dollars to pay for a mule, a
new suit of clothes and the journey to court.
About Christmas time, in the year 1491, Columbus,
mounted upon his mule, rode into the Spanish camp before
the city of Granada. But even now, when he had been told
to come, he had to wait. Granada was almost captured; the
Moors were almost conquered At last the end came. On
the second of January, 1492,
the Moorish king gave up the
keys of his beloved city, and
the great Spanish banner was .-
hoisted on the highest tower
of the Alhambra the hand-
THE ALHAMBRA AT GRANADA.
somest building in Granada
and one of the most beautiful in the world. The Moors
were driven out of Spain and Columbus's chance had come.







HO W COLUMBUS GAINED A QUEEN FOR HIS FRIEND. 41

So he appeared before Queen Isabella and her chief men
and told them again of all his plans and desires. The
queen and her advisers sat in a great room in that splendid
Alhambra I have told you of. King Ferdinand was not
there. He did not believe in Columbus and did not wish to
let him have either money, ships or sailors to lose in such a


COLUMBUS AT GRANADA EXPLAINING HIS IDEAS TO QUEEN ISABELLA.
foolish way. But as Columbus stood before her and talked
so earnestly about how he expected to find the Indies and
Cathay and what he hoped to bring away from there, Queen
Isabella listened and thought the plan worth trying.
Then a singular thing happened. You would think if
you wished for something very much that you would be







42 HOW COLUMB US GAINED A QUEEN FOR HIS FRIEND.

willing to give up a good deal for the sake of getting it.
Columbus had worked and waited for seventeen years. He
had never got what he wanted. He was always being disap-
pointed. And yet, as he talked to the queen and told her
what he wished to do, he said he must have so much as a
reward for doing it that the queen and her chief men were
simply amazed at his -well, what the boys to-day call
"cheek" -that they would have nothing to do with him.
This man really is crazy, they said. This poor Genoese
sailor comes here without a thing except his very odd ideas
and almost "wants the earth" as a reward. This is not
exactly what they said, but it is what they meant.
His few friends begged him to be more modest. Do not
ask so much, they said, or you will get nothing. But Colum-
bus was determined. I have worked and waited all these
years, he replied. I know just what I can do and just how
much I'can do for the king and queen of Spain. They must
pay me what I ask and promise what I say, or I will go some-
where else. Go,then! said the queen and her advisers. And
Columbus turned his back on what seemed almost his last
hope, mounted his mule and rode away.
Then something else happened. As Columbus rode off
to find the French king, sick and tired of all his long and
useless labor at the Spanish court, his few firm friends there
saw that, unless they did something right away, all the glory
and all the gain of this enterprise Columbus had taught them
to believe in would be lost to Spain. So two of them, whose





















~I_
__





N
-N
~-c -2_

~---~-----.
11
~7~Z

h A. ~~ .~U
~-`----
:~'t
i V
r-LI$-T~~
~3,~ r ai rQ
-\--LI r-~

~---
~---
~V7
9:
~6


THE WORLD AS COLUMBUS KNEW IT WHEN HE WENT TO SCHOOL.







HO W COL UMB US GAINED A QUEEN FOR HIS FRIEND. 45

names were Santangel and Quintanilla, rushed into the
queen's room and begged her, if she wished to become the
greatest queen in Christendom, to call back this wandering
sailor, agree to his terms and profit by his labors.
What if he does ask a great deal? they said. He has
spent his life thinking his plan out; no wonder he feels
that he ought to have a good share of what he finds. What
he asks is really small compared with what Spain will gain.
The war with the Moors has cost you ever so much; your
money-chests are empty; Columbus will fill them up. The
people of Cathay are heathen; Columbus will help you
make them Christian men. The Indies and Cathay are
full of gold and jewels; Columbus will bring you home
shiploads of treasures. Spain has conquered the Moors;
Columbus will help you conquer Cathay.
In fact, they talked to Queen Isabella so strongly and so
earnestly, that she, too, became excited over this chance for
glory and riches that she had almost lost. Quick! send for
Columbus. Call him back she said. I agree to his terms.
If King Ferdinand cannot or will not take the risk, -I, the
queen, will do it all. Quick! do not let the man get into
France. After him. Bring him back!
And without delay a royal messenger, mounted on a swift.
horse, was sent at full gallop to bring Columbus back.
All this time poor Columbus felt bad enough. Every-
thing had gone wrong. Now he must go away into a new
land and do it all over again. Kings and queens, he felt,







46 HOW COLUMBUS GAINED A Q UEEN FOR HIS FRIEND.

were not to be depended upon, and he remembered a place
in the Bible where it said: Put not your trust in princes."
Sad, solitary and heavy-hearted, he jogged slowly along
toward the mountains, wondering what the king of France
would say to him, and whether it was really worth trying.
Just as he was riding across the little bridge called the
Bridge of Pinos, some six miles from Granada, he heard the
quick hoof-beats of a horse behind him. It was a great spot





T A -". ;.--- ..








THE BRIDGE OF PINOS WHERE THE QUEEN'S MESSENGER FOUND COLUMBUS.

for robbers, and Columbus felt of the little money he had in
his traveling pouch, and wondered whether he must lose it
all. The hoof-beats came nearer. Then a voice hailed him.
Turn back, turn back! the messenger cried out. The queen
bids you return to Granada. She grants you all you ask.
Columbus hesitated. Ought he to trust this promise, he
Columbus hesitated. Oug-ht he to trust this promise, he







HOW COLUMBUS GAINED A QUEEN FOR HIS FRIEND. 47

wondered. Put not your trust in princes, the verse in the
Bible had said. If I go back I may only be put off and
worried as I have been before. And yet, perhaps she means
what she says. At any rate, I will go back and try once
more.
So, on the little Bridge of Pinos, he turned his mule
.around and rode back to Granada.. And, sure enough, when
he saw Queen Isabella she agreed to all that he asked. If he
found Cathay, Columbus was to be made admiral for life of
all the new seas and oceans into which he might sail; he
was to be chief ruler of all the lands he might find; he was
-to keep one tenth part of all the gold and jewels and treasures
he should bring away, and was to have his say" in all
questions about the new lands. For his part (and this was
because of the offer of his friend at Palos, Captain Pinzon)
he agreed to pay one eighth of all the expenses of this expe-
dition and of all new enterprises, and was to have one eighth
of all the profits from them.
So Columbus had his wish at last. The queen's men
figured up how much money they could let him have; they
called him Don Christopher Columbus," Your Excellency"
and Admiral," and at once he set about getting ready for
his voyage.







HOW THE ADMIRAL SAILED AWAY.


CHAPTER IV.

HOW THE ADMIRAL SAILED AWAY.

T HE agreement made between Columbus and the king
and queen of Spain was signed on the seventeenth of
April, 1492. But it was four months before he was quite
ready to sail away.
He selected the town of Palos as the place to sail from,
because there, as you know, Captain Pinzon lived; there,
too, he had other acquaintances, so that he supposed it would
be easy to get the sailors he needed for his ships. But in
this he was greatly mistaken.
As soon as the papers had been signed that held the
queen to her promise, Columbus set off for Palos. He
stopped at the Convent of Rabida to tell the Friar Juan Perez
how thankful he was to him for the help the good priest
had given him, and how everything now looked promising
and successful.
The town of Palos, as you can see from your map of
Spain, is situated at the mouth of the river Tinto on a little
bay in the southwestern part of Spain, not far from the
borders of Portugal. To-day the sea has gone away from it
so much that it is nearly high and dry; but four hundred







HOW THE ADMIRAL SAILED A WA Y.


years ago it was quite a seaport, when Spain did not have
a great many sea towns on the Atlantic coast.
At the time of Columbus's voyage the king and queen of
Spain were angry with the port of Palos for something its
people had done that was wrong just what this was we do
not know. But to punish the town, and because Columbus
wished to sail from there, the king and queen ordered that
Palos should pay them a fine for their wrong-doing. And
this fine was to lend the king and queen of Spain, for one
year, without pay, two sailing vessels of the kind called cara-
vels, armed and equipped for the service of the crown "-
that is, for the use of the king and queen of Spain, in the
western voyage that Columbus was to make.
When Columbus called together the leading people of
Palos to meet him in the church
of St. George and hear the royal
commands, they came; but at first
they did not understand just -- "'
what they must do. But when .
they knew that they must send --_ ':i I .
two of their ships and some of .
THE CHURCH OF ST. GEORGE AT PALOS.
their sailing men on this dreadful
voyage far out upon the terrible Sea of Darkness, they were
terribly distressed. Nobody was willing to go. They would
obey the commands of the king and queen and furnish the
two ships, but as for sailing off with this crazy sea captain
- that they would not do.






HOW THE ADMIRAL SAILED AWAY.


Then the king's officers went to work. They seized some
sailors (impressed is the word for this), and made them go;
they took some from the jails, and gave them their freedom
as a reward for going; they begged and threatened and paid
in advance, and still it was hard to get enough men for the
two ships. Then Captain Pinzon, who had promised Colum-
bus that he would join him, tried his hand. He added a
third ship to the Admiral's fleet." He made big promises
to the sailors, and worked for weeks, until at last he was able
to do what even the royal commands could not do, and a
crew of ninety men was got together to man the three vessels.
The names of these three vessels were the Cafitana
(changed before it sailed to the Santa Maria), the Pinta and
the Nina or Baby. Captain de la Cosa commanded the Santa
Maria, Captain Martin Alonso Pinzon the Pinta and his
brother, Captain Vincent Pinzon, the Nina. The Santa
Maria was the largest of the three vessels; it was therefore
selected as the leader of the fleet -the flag-ship, as it is
called and upon it sailed the commander of the expedition,,
the Admiral Don Christopher Columbus.
When we think of a voyage across the Atlantic nowa-
days, we think of vessels as large as the big three-masted
ships or the great ocean steamers- vessels over six hundred
feet long and fifty feet wide. But these ships of Colum-
bus were not really ships. They were hardly larger than
the fishing smacks that sail up and down our coast to-day.
Some of them were not so large. The Santa Maria was, as.











-K : -_-- .. -


Aim
.- ;'1 '"'~ .-' -


THE SANTA MARIA, THE FLAG-SHIP OF COLUMBUS.
(The ship in the picture is an exact copy in every way of the original Santa Maria, and was built
in Spain in 1892 to come to America to take part in the Columbian anniversaries.)







HOW THE ADMIRAL SAILED AWAY.


I have told you, the largest of the three, and she was only
sixty-three feet long, twenty feet wide and ten and a half
feet deep. Just measure this out on the ground and see
how small, after all, the Admiral's flag-ship" really was.
The Pinta was even smaller than this, while the little Nina
was hardly anything more than a good-sized sail boat. Do
you wonder that the poor people of Palos and the towns
round about were frightened when they thought of their
fathers and brothers and sons putting out to sea, on the
great ocean they had learned to dread so much, in such shaky
little boats as these?
But finally the vessels were ready. The crews were se-
lected. The time had come to go. Most of the sailors were
Spanish men from the towns near to the sea, but somehow
a few who were not Spaniards jointed the crew.
One of the first men to land in America from one of the
ships of Columbus was an Irishman named William, from
the County Galway. And another was an Englishman
named either Arthur Laws or Arthur Larkins. The Spanish
names for both these men look very queer, and only a wise,
scholar who digs. among names and words could have found
out what they really were. But such a one did find it out,
and it increases our interest in the discovery of America to
know that some of our own northern blood the Irishman
and the Englishman were in the crews of Columbus.
The Admiral Columbus was so sure he was going to
find a rich and civilized country, such as India and Cathay







HOW THE ADMIRAL SAILED AWAY


were said to be, that he took along on his ships the men he
would need in such places as he expected to visit and among
such splendid people as he was sure he should meet. He
took along a lawyer to make out all the forms and proclama-
tions and papers that would have to be sent by the Admiral
to the kings and princes he expected to visit; he had a secre-
tary and historian to write out the story of what he should
find and what he should do. There was a learned Jew,
named Louis, who could speak almost a dozen languages,
and who could, of course, tell him what
the people of Cathay and Cipango and the
Indies were talking about. There was a
jeweler and silversmith who knew all
about the gold and silver and precious
stones that Columbus was going to load (| ;|J
the ships with; there was a doctor and a
surgeon; there were cooks and pilots, and' I ,
even a little fellow, who sailed in the \
Santa Maria as the Admiral's cabin boy, Ind
wand whose name was Pedro de Acevedo. ,j i
Some scholars have said that it cost
WHAT PEDRO THE CABIN
about two hundred and thirty thousand BOY EXPECTED TO BECOME
IN CATHAY.
dollars to fit out this expedition. I do
not think it cost nearly so much. We do know that Queen
Isabella gave sixty-seven thousand dollars to help pay
for it. Some people, however, reckoning the old Spanish
money in a different way, say that what Queen Isabella gave








HOW THE ADMIRAL SAILED A WA Y


toward the expedition was not over three or four thousand
dollars of our money. Perhaps as much more was bor-
rowed from King Ferdinand, although he was to have no
share in the enterprise in which Queen Isabella and Colum-
bus were partners.
It was just an hour before sunrise on Friday, the third
r_ ,i ~~~- --- .. ....-


THE DEPARTURE FROM PALOS.
(The Friar Juan Perez bidding Columbus good-by. The building on the hill is the Convent ofRabida.)

of August, 1492, that the three little ships hoisted their
anchors and sailed away from the port of Palos. I suppose
it was a very sorry and a very exciting morning in Palos.
The people probably crowded down on the docks, some of







HOW THE ADMIRAL SAILED A WAY.


them sad and sorrowful, some of them restless and curious.
Their fathers and brothers and sons and acquaintances were
going- no one knew where, dragged off to sea by a crazy
old Italian sailor who thought there was land to be found
somewhere beyond the Jumping-off place. They all knew
he was wrong. They were certain that nothing but dreadful
goblins and horrible monsters lived off there to the West,
just waiting to devour or destroy the poor sailors when
these three little ships should tumble over the edge.
But how different Columbus must have felt as he stepped
into the rowboat that took him off to his flag-ship," the
Santa Maria. His dreams had come true. He had ships
and sailors under his command, and was about to sail away
to discover great and wonderful things. He who had been
so poor that he could hardly buy his own dinner, was now
called Don and Admiral. He had a queen for his friend
and helper. He was given a power that only the richest and
noblest could hope for. But more than all, he was to have
the chance he had wished and worked for so long. He was
to find the Indies; he was to see Cathay; he was to have
his share in all the wealth he should discover and bring
away. The son of the poor wool-weaver of Genoa was to
be the friend of kings and princes; the cabin boy of a pirate
was now Admiral of the Seas and Governor of the Colonies
of Spain! Do you wonder that he felt proud ?
So, as I have told you, just before sunrise on a Friday
morning in August, he boarded the Sania Maria and gave








HOW THE ADMIRAL SAILED AWA Y


orders to his captains to get under way." The sailors with
a "yo heave ho!" (or whatever the Spanish for that is)
tugged at the anchors, the sails filled with the morning
breeze, and while the -~---- -- .. -
people of Palos watched-
them from the shore, ': .
while the good friar,
Juan Perez, raised his -
hands to Heaven calling ..
down a blessing on the '
enterprise, while the chil-
dren waved a last good-
by from the water-stairs,
the three vessels steered
out from Palos Harbor,
and before that day's sun
had set, Columbus and '-
his fleet were full fifty -
GOOD-BY, COLUMBUS i
miles on their way across
the Sea of Darkness. The westward voyage to those won-
derful lands, the Indies and Cathay, had at last begun.








58 HOW THEY FARED ON THE SEA OF DARKNESS.


CHAPTER V.

HOW THEY FARED ON THE SEA OF DARKNESS.

D ID you ever set out, in the dark, to walk with your little
brother or sister along a road you did not know much
about or had never gone over before? It was not an easy
thing to do, was it? And how did your little brother or
sister feel when it was known that you were not just certain
whether you were right or not ? Do you remember what the
Bible says about the blind leading the blind ?
It was much the same with Columbus when he set out
from Palos to sail over an unknown sea to find the uncertain
land of Cathay. He had his own idea of the way there, but
no one in all his company had ever sailed it, and he himself
was not sure about it. He was very much in the dark.
And the sailors in the three ships were worse than little
children. They did not even have the confidence in their
leader that your little brother or sister would probably have
in you as you traveled that new road on a dark night. It
was almost another case of the blind leading the blind,
was it not?
Columbus first steered his ships to the south so as to
reach the Canary Islands and commence his real westward


n ~~_







HOW THEY FARED ON THE SEA OF DARKNESS.


voyage from there. The Canary Islands, as you will see by
looking in your geography, are made up of seven islands and
lie off the northern corner of Africa, some sixty miles or
so west of Morocco. They were named Canaria by the Ro-
mans from the Latin canis, a dog, because of the multitude
of dogs of great size that were found there. The canary
birds that sing so sweetly in your home come from these
islands. They had been known to the Spaniards and other
European sailors of Columbus's day about a hundred years.
At the Canaries the troubles of Columbus commenced.
And he did have a lot of trouble before his voyage was
over. While near the island called the Grand Canary the
rudder of the Pinta, in which Captain Alonso Pinzon sailed,
somehow got loose, then broke and finally came off. It was
said that two of the Pinta's crew, who were really the
owners of the vessel, broke the rudder on purpose, because
they had become frightened at the thoughts
of the perilous voyage, and hoped by dam- _.,.-.
aging their vessel to be left behind. r- ,
But Columbus had no thought of doing
any such thing. He sailed to the island
THE TWO OWNERS.
of Gomera, where he knew some people,
and had the Pinta mended. And while lying here with his
fleet the great mountain on the island of Teneriffe, twelve
thousand feet high, suddenly began to spit out flame and
smoke. It was, as of course you know, a volcano; but the
poor frightened sailors did not know what set this mountain







6o HOW THEY FARED ON THE SEA OF DARKNESS.

on fire, and they were scared almost out of their wits' and
begged the Admiral to go back home. But Columbus would
not. And as they sailed away from Gomera some sailors
told them that the king of Portugal was angry with Colum-
bus because he had got his ships from the king and queen
of Spain, and that he had sent out some of his war-ships to
worry or capture Columbus.
But these, too, Columbus escaped, although not before
his crews had grown terribly nervous for fear of capture.
At last they got away from the Canaries, and on Sunday, the
ninth of September, 1492, with a fresh breeze filling their
sails, the three caravels sailed away into the West. And as
the shores of Ferro, the very last of the Canary Islands,
faded out of sight, the sailors burst into sighs and murmur-
ings and tears, saying that now indeed they were sailing off
- off--off-- upon the awful Sea of Darkness and would
never see land any more.
When Columbus thought that he was sailing too slowly
-he had now been away from Palos a month and was only
about a hundred miles out at sea- and when he saw what
babies his sailors were, he did something that was not just
right (for it is never right to do anything that is not true)
but which he felt he really must do. He made two records
(or reckonings as they are called) of his sailing. One of
these records was a true one; this he kept for himself. The
other was a false one; this he kept to show his sailors. So
while they thought they were sailing-slowly aind that the







HOW THEY FARED ON THE SEA OF DARKNESS.


ocean was not so very wide, Columbus knew from his own
true record that they were getting miles and miles away
from home.
Soon another thing happened to worry the sailors. The
pilots were steering by the compass. You know what that is
-a sort of big magnet-needle perfectly balanced and pointing
always to the north. At the time of
Columbus the compass was a new
thing and was only understood by a
few. On the thirteenth of September
they had really got into the middle
of the ocean, and the line of the north
changed. Of course this made the
needle in the compass change its posi-
tion also. Now the sailors had been
taught to believe so fully in the
compass that they thought it could
never change its position. And here THE THREE CARAVELS.
it was playing a cruel trick upon them. We are trapped! they
cried. The goblins in this dreadful sea are making our com-
pass point wrong so as to drag us to destruction. Go back;
take us back! they demanded.
But Columbus, though he knew that his explanation was
wrong, said the compass was all right. The North Star,
toward which the needle always pointed, had, so he said,
changed its position. This quieted the sailors for a while.
When they had been about forty days out from Palos,







62 HOW THEY FARED ON THE SEA OF DARKNESS.

the ship ran into what is marked upon your maps as the
Sargasso Sea. This is a vast meadow of floating seaweed
and seagrass in the middle of the Atlantic; it is kept drift-
ing about in the same place by the two great sea currents
that flow past it but not through it.
The sailors did not know this, of course, and when the
ships began to sail slower and slower because the seaweed
was so thick and heavy and because there was no current to
carry them along, they were sure that they were somewhere
near to the Jumping-off place, and that the horrible monsters
they had heard of were making ready to stop their ships, and
when they had got them all snarled up in this weed to drag
them all down to the bottom of the sea.
For nearly a week the ships sailed over these vast sea-
meadows, and when they were out of them they struck what
we call the trade-winds a never-failing breeze that blew them
ever westward. Then the sailors cried out that they were in
an enchanted land where there was but one wind and never a
breeze to blow the poor sailors home again. Were they not
fearfully "scarey?" But no doubt we should have been so,
too, if we had been with them and knew no more than they did.
And when they had been over fifty days from home
on the twenty-fifth of September, some one suddenly cried
Land! Land! And all hands crowded to the side. Sure
enough, they all saw it, straight ahead of them fair green
islands and lofty hills and a city with castles and temples
and palaces that glittered beautifully in the sun.







HOW THEY FARED ON THE SEA OF DARKNESS.


Then they all cried for joy and sang hymns of praise and
shouted to each other that their troubles were over. Cathay,
it is Cathay! they cried; and they steered straight for the
shining city. But, worst of all their troubles, even as they
sailed toward the land they thought to be Cathay, behold!
it all disappeared island and castle and palace and temple
.and city, and nothing but the tossing sea lay all about them.















A CITY IN THE SEA.

For this that they had seen was
what is called a mirage -a
trick of the clouds and the sun
and the sea that makes people imagine they see what they
would like to, but really do not. But after this Columbus
-" .. L --" .
















had a harder time than ever with his men, for 'Lhey were sure
he was leading them all astray.
he was leading them all astray.







64 HOW THEY FARED ON THE SEA OF DARKNESS.

And so with frights and imaginings and mysteries like
these, with strange birds flying about the ships and floating
things in the water that told of land somewhere about them,
with hopes again and again disappointed, and with the
sailors growing more and more restless and discontented,
and muttering threats against this Italian adventurer who
was leading the ships and sailors of the Spanish king to sure
destruction, Columbus still
Sailed on, as full of patience
Sand of faith, as certain of
success as he had ever been.
On the seventh of Octo-
ber, 1492, the true record
that Columbus was keeping
showed that he had sailed
twenty-seven hundred miles
from the Canaries; the false
Record that the sailors saw
said they had sailed twenty-
two hundred miles. Had
WATCHING FOR LAND.
Columbus kept straight on,
he would have landed very soon upon the coast of Florida
or South Carolina, and would really have discovered the
mainland of America. But Captain Alonso Pinzon saw
what looked like a flock of parrots flying south. This made
him think the land lay that way; so he begged the Admiral
to change his course to-the southward as he was sure there







HOW THEY FARED ON THE SEA OF DARKNESS.


was no land to the west. Against his will, Columbus at last
consented, and turning to the southwest headed for Cuba.
But he thought he was steering for Cathay. The islands
of Japan, were, he thought, only a few leagues away to the
west. They were really, as you know, away across the


THE NIGHT BEFORE THE DISCOVERY.


United States and then across the Pacific Ocean, thousands
of miles farther west than Columbus could sail. But accord-
ing to his reckoning he hoped within a day or two to see the
cities and palaces of this wonderful land.
When they sailed from the Canaries a reward had been
offered to whomsoever should first see land. This reward
was to be a silken jacket and nearly five hundred dollars
in money; so all the sailors were on the watch.







WHAT COLUMB US DISCOVERED.


At about ten o'clock on the evening of the eleventh of
October, Columbus, standing on the high raised stern of the
Santa Maria, saw a moving light, as if some one on the
shore were running with a flaming torch. At two o'clock
the next morning-Friday, the twelfth of October, 1492-
the sharp eyes of a watchful sailor on the Pinla (his name
was Rodrigo de Triana) caught sight of a long low coast-
line not far away. He raised the joyful shout Laid, ho!
The ships ran in as near to the shore as they dared, and
just ten weeks after the anchors had been hauled up in
Palos Harbor they were dropped overboard, and the ships of
Columbus were anchored in the waters of a new world.
Where was it ? What was it ? Was it Cathay? Colum-
bus was sure that it was. He was certain that the morning
sun would shine for him upon the marble towers and golden
roofs of the wonderful city of the kings of Cathay.




CHAPTER VI.

WHAT COLUMBUS DISCOVERED.

A LITTLE over three hundred years ago there was a
Pope of Rome whose name was Gregory XIII. He
was greatly interested in learning and science, and when the
scholars and wise men of his day showed him that a mis-







































































































COLUM13US SEES A LIGHT.








WHAT COL UMBUS DISCOVERED.


take in reckoning time had long before been made he set
about to make it right. At that time the Pope of Rome
had great influence with the kings and queens of Europe,
and whatever he wished them to do they generally did.
So they all agreed to his plan of renumbering the days
of the year, and a new reckoning of time was made upon
the rule that most of you know by heart in the old rhyme:


Thirty days hath September,
April, June and November;
All the rest have thirty-one,
Excepting February which alone
Hath twenty-eight- and this, in fine,
One year in four hath twenty-nine.

And the order of the days of the months and the year is
what is called, after Pope Gregory, the Gregorian Calendar.
This change in reckoning time made, of course, all past
dates wrong. The old dates, which were called Old Style,
had to be made to correspond with the new dates which were
called New Style.
Now, according to the Old Style, Columbus discovered
the islands he thought to" be the Indies (and which have
ever since been called the West Indies) on the twelfth of
October, 1492. But, according to the New Style, adopted
nearly one hundred years after his discovery, the right date
would be the twenty-first of October. And this is why, in
the Columbian memorial year of 1892, the world celebrated







70 WHAT COL UMB US DISCOVERED.

the four hundredth anniversary of the discovery of America
on the twenty-first of October; which, as you see, is the same
as the twelfth under the Old Style of reckoning time.
But did Columbus discover America? What was this
land that greeted his eyes as the daylight came on that
Friday morning, and he saw the low green shores that lay
ahead of his caravels ?
As far as Columbus was concerned he was sure that he
had found some one of the outermost islands of Cipango or
Japan. So he dropped his anchors, ordered out his row-
boat, and prepared to take possession of the land in the
name of the queen of Spain, who had helped him in his
enterprise.
Just why or by what right a man from one country could
sail up to the land belonging to another country and, planting
in the ground the flag of his king, could say, This land be-
longs to my king! is a hard question to answer. But there
is an old saying that tells us, Might makes right; and the
servants of the kings and queens -- the adventurers and ex-
plorers of old -- used to go sailing about the world with this
idea in their heads, and as soon as they came to a land they
had never seen before, up would go their flag, and they
would say, This land is mine and my king's! They would
not of course do this in any of the well-known or Christian
lands of Europe; but they believed that all pagan lands "
belonged by right to the first European king whose sailors
should discover and claim them.






















404 *s%.


THE LANDING OF COLUMBUS.

(From a drawing by Closs of Stuttgart.)


`- o.-


"-' .-'








WHAT COLUMBUS DISCO VERED.


So Columbus lowered a boat from the Santa Maria,
and with two of his chief men and some sailors for rowers
he pulled off toward the island.
But before he did so, he had to listen to the cheers and
congratulations of the very sailors who, only a few days be-
fore, were ready to kill him. But, you see, this man whom
they thought crazy had really brought them to the beautiful
land, just as he had promised. It does make such a differ-
ence, you know, in what people say whether a thing turns
out right or.not.
Columbus, as I say, got into his rowboat with his chief
inspector and his lawyer. He wore a crimson cloak over
his armor, and in his hand he held the royal banner of Spain.
Following him came Captain Alonso Pinzon in a rowboat
from the Pinta, and in a rowboat from the Nina Captain
Vincent Pinzon. Each of these captains carried the banner
of the green cross on which were to be seen the initials of
the king and queen of Spain.
As they rowed toward the land they saw some people on
the shore. They were not dressed in the splendid clothes
the Spaniards expected to find the people of Cathay wearing.
In fact, they did not have on much of anything but grease
and paint. And the land showed no signs of the marble
temples and gold-roofed palaces the sailors expected to find.
It was a little, low, flat green island, partly covered with
trees and with what looked like a lake in the center.
This land was, in fact, one of the three thousand keys or








WHAT COL UMBUS DISCOVERED.


coral islands that stretch from the capes of Florida to the
island of Hayti, and are known as the Bahama Islands.
The one upon which Columbus landed was called by the
natives Guanahani, and was either the little island now marked
on the map as Cat Island or else the one called Watling's
Island. Just which of these it was has been discussed over
and over again, but careful scholars have now but little


doubt that it was
day as Watling's
To see no


THE PLACE \VWHERE COI UMBUJS LANIDEDI)


the one known to-
Island.
sign of glittering
palaces and gayly
dressed people
was quite a dis-
appointment to
Columbus. But
then, he said, this
is probably the
island farthest out


to sea, and the people who live here are not the real Cathay
folks. We shall see them very soon.
So with the royal banner and the green-cross standards
floating above him, with his captains and chief officers and
some of the sailors gathered about him, while all the others
watched him from the decks of his fleet, Columbus stepped
upon the shore. Then he took off his hat, and holding the
royal banner in one hand and his sword in the other he said
aloud: I take possession of this island, which I name

















































THE LANDING OF COLUMBUS.
(From a painlzng by John van der Lyn in the Capitol at Washington.)







WHAT COLUMBUS DISCOVERED.


San Salvador,* and of all the islands and lands about it in
the name of my patron and sovereign lady, Isabella, and her
kingdom of Castile. This, or something like it, he said, for
the exact words are not known to us.
And when he had done this the captains and sailors fell
at his feet in wonder and admiration,
begging him to forgive them for all the
hard things they had said about him.
For you have found Cathay, they cried.
You are our leader. You will make us
rich and powerful. Hurrah for the great
Admiral "THEY HAVE COME FROM
S1HEAVEN," THEY SAID.
And when the naked and astonished EAEN," T
people of the island saw all this--the canoes with wings,
as they called the ships, the richly-dressed men with white
and bearded faces, the flags and swords, and the people
kneeling about this grand-looking old man in the crimson
cloak they said to one another: These men are gods;
they have come from Heaven to see us. And then they,
too, fell on the ground and worshiped these men from
Heaven, as they supposed Columbus and his sailors to be.
And when they found that the men from Heaven did not
offer to hurt them, they came nearer; and the man in the
crimson cloak gave them beads and pieces of bright cloth
and other beautiful things they had never seen before. And
The island of San Salvador means the island of the Holy Saviour. Columbus and the Spanish
explorers who followed him gave Bible or religious names to very much of the land they discovered.







WHAT COLUMBUS DISCOVERED.


this made them
had come to see


THE TROPIC ISLANDS.


feel all the more certain that these men who
them in the canoes with wings must really be
from Heaven. So they brought them fruits
and flowers and feathers and birds as pres-
ents; and both parties, the men with clothes
and the men without clothes, got on very
well together.
But Columbus, as we know, had come
across the water for one especial reason.
He was to find Cathay, and he was to find
it so that he could carry back to Spain the
gold and jewels and spices of Cathay. The
first thing, therefore, that he tried to find
out from the people of the island whom
he called Indians," because he thought he
had come to a part of the coast of India-
was where Cathay might be.
Of course they did not understand him.
Even Louis, the interpreter, who knew a
dozen languages and who tried them all,
could not make out what these Indians"
said. But from their signs and actions
and from the sound of the words they
spoke, Columbus understood that Cathay
was off somewhere to the southwest, and
that the gold he was bound to find came
from there. The Indians had little bits



















































































THE NEW LAND.
(" This country excels all others," wrote Columbus, as the day surpasses the night.")


A
-







WHAT COLUMBUS DISCOVERED.


of gold hanging in their ears and noses. So Columbus sup-
posed that among the finer people he hoped soon to meet in
the southwest, he should find great quantities of the yellow
metal. He was delighted. Success, he felt, was not far off.
Japan was near, China was near, India was near. Of this he
was certain; and even until he died Columbus did not have
any idea that he had found a new world such as America
really was. He was sure that he had simply landed upon
the eastern coasts of Asia and that he had found what he set
out to discover the nearest route to the Indies.
The next day Columbus pulled up his anchors, and hav-
ing seized and carried off to his ships some of the poor
natives who had welcomed him so gladly, he commenced a
cruise among the islands of the group he had discovered.
Day after day he sailed among these beautiful tropic
islands, and of them and of the people who lived upon them
he wrote to the king and queen of Spain : This country excels
all others as far as the day surpasses the night in splendor.
The natives love their neighbors as themselves; their con-
versation is the sweetest imaginable; their faces smiling;
and so gentle and so affectionate are they, that I swear to
Your Highness there is not a better people in the world."
Does it not seem a pity that so great a man should have
acted so meanly toward these innocent people who loved
and trusted him so ? For it was Columbus who first stole
them away from their island homes and who first thought
of making them slaves to the white men.







82 HOW A BOY BROUGHT THE ADMIRAL TO GRIEF.


CHAPTER VII.

HOW A BOY BROUGHT THE ADMIRAL TO GRIEF.

C OLUMBUS kept sailing on from one island to another.
Each new island he found would, he hoped, bring him
nearer to Cathay and to the marble temples and golden
palaces and splendid cities he was looking for.
But the temples and palaces and cities did not appear.
When the Admiral came to the coast of
Cuba he said: This, I know, is the main-
land of Asia. So he sent off Louis, the
interpreter, with a letter to the "great
Emperor of Cathay." Louis was gone
several days; but he found no emperor,
no palace, no city, no gold, no jewels, no
S'sispices, no Cathay--only frail houses of
CAPTAIN ALONSO PINZON.
bark and reeds, fields of corn and grain,
with simple people who could tell him nothing about Cathay
or Cipango or the Indies.
So day after day Columbus kept on his search, sailing
from island to island, getting a little gold here and there,
or some pearls and silver and a lot of beautiful bird skins,
feathers and trinkets.






HOW A BOY BROUGHT THE ADMIRAL TO GRIEF


Then Captain Alonso Pinzon, who was sailing in the
Pinta, believed he could do better than follow the Admirals
lead. I know, he said, if I could go off on my own hook I
could find plenty of gold and pearls, and perhaps I could
find Cathay. So one day he sailed away and Columbus did
not know what had become of him.
At last Columbus, sailing on and troubled at the way
Captain Alonso Pinzon had acted, came one day to the
island of Hayti. If Cuba was Cathay (or China), Hayti, he
felt sure, must be Cipango (or Japan). So he decided to sail
into one of its harbors to spend Christmas Day. But just
before Christmas morning dawned, the helmsman of the
Santa Maria, thinking. that everything was safe, gave the
tiller into the hands of a boy- perhaps it was little Pedro
the cabin boy--and went to sleep. The rest of the crew
also were asleep. And the boy who, I suppose, felt quite
big to think that he was really steering the Admiral's flag-
ship, was a little too smart; for, before he knew it, he had
driven the Santa Maria plump upon a hidden reef. And
there she was wrecked. They worked hard to get her off
but it was no use. She keeled over on her side, her seams
opened, the water leaked in, the waves broke over her, the
masts fell out and the Santa Maria had made her last voyage.
Then Columbus was in distress. The Pinta had deserted
him, the Santa Maria was a wreck, the Nina was not nearly
large enough to carry all his men back to Spain. And to
Spain he must return at once. What should he do?







84 HOW A BOY BROUGHT HE ADMIRAL TO GRIEF.

Columbus was quick at getting out of a fix. So in this
case he speedily decided what to do. Hie set his men at
work tearing the wreck of the Santa Maria to pieces. Out
of her timbers and woodwork, helped out with trees from the
woods and a few stones from the shore, he made quite a fort.
It had a ditch and a watch-tower and a drawbridge. It
proudly floated the
flag of Spain. It was
Sthe first European fort
in the new world. On
its ramparts Colum-
bus mounted the can-
nons he had saved
from the wreck and
named the fort La
lVavidad that is,
Fort Nativity, be-
.- cause it was made
FORT LA NAVIDAD. out of the ship that
was wrecked on Christmas Day the day of Christ's nativ-
ity, his birthday.
He selected forty of his men to stay in the fort until he
should return from Spain. The most of them were quite
willing to do this as they thought the place was a beautiful one
and they would be kept very busy filling the fort with gold.
Columbus told them they must have at least a ton of gold
before he came back. He left them provisions and powder







HOW A BOY BROUGHT THE ADMIRAL TO GRIEF.


for a year, he told them to be careful and watchful, to be
kind to the Indians and to make the year such a good one
that the king and queen of Spain would be glad to reward
them. And then he said good-by and sailed away for Spain.
It was on the fourth of January, 1493, that Columbus
turned the little Nina homeward. He had not sailed very
far when what should he come across but the lost Pinta.
Captain Alonso Pinzon seemed very much ashamed when he
saw the Admiral, and tried to explain his absence. Colum-
bus knew well enough that Captain Pinzon had gone off
gold hunting and had not found any gold. But he did not
scold him, and both the vessels sailed toward Spain.
The homeward voyage was a stormy and seasick one.
Once it was so rough that Columbus thought surely the
Nina would be wrecked. So he copied off the story of what
he had seen and done, addressed it to the king and queen of
Spain, put it into a barrel and threw the barrel overboard.
But the Nina was not shipwrecked, and on the eighteenth
of February Columbus reached the Azores. The Portuguese
governor was so surprised when he heard this crazy Italian
really had returned, and was so angry to think it was Spain
and not Portugal that was to profit by his voyage that he
tried to make Columbus a prisoner. But the Admiral gave
this inhospitable welcomer the slip and was soon off the
coast of Portugal.
Here he was obliged to land and meet the king of Portu-
gal- that same King John who had once acted so meanly







:86 HOW A BOY BROUGHT THE ADMIRAL TO GRIEF.

toward him. King John would have done so again had he
,dared. But things were quite different now. Columbus
was a great man. He had made a successful voyage, and
the king and queen of Spain would have made it go hard
with the king of Portugal if he dared trouble their admiral.
So King John had to give a royal reception to Columbus,
and permit him to send a messenger to the king and queen
of Spain with the news of his return from Cathay.
Then Columbus went on board the Nina again and
sailed for Palos. But his old friend Captain Alonso Pinzon
had again acted badly. For he had left the Admiral in one
of the storms at sea and had hurried homeward. Then he
sailed into one of the northern ports of Spain, and hoping to
get all the credit for his voyage, sent a messenger post-haste
to the king and queen with the word that he had returned
from Cathay and had much to tell them. And then he, too,
sailed for Palos.
On the fifteenth of March, 1493, just seven months after
he had sailed away to the West, Columbus in the Nina
sailed into Palos Harbor. The people knew the little vessel
at once. And then what a time they made! Columbus has
come back, they cried. He has found Cathay. Hurrah!
hurrah! And the bells rang and the cannons boomed and
the streets were full of people. The sailors were welcomed
with shouts of joy, and the big stories they told were listened
to with open mouths and many exclamations of surprise.
So Columbus came back to Palos. And everybody pointed










































































COLUMBUS RECEIVED BY FERDINAND AND ISABELLA A I BARCELONA.
(" 7he king and tueen said he had done wvdil."







HOW A BOY BROUGHT THE ADMIRAL TO GRIEF.


him out and cheered him and he was no longer spoken of as
that crazy Italian who dragged away the men of Palos to
the Jumping-off place."
And in the midst of all this rejoicing what should sail
into the harbor of Palos but the Pinza, just a few hours late!
And when Captain Alonso Pinzon heard the sounds of re-
joicing, and knew that his plans to take away from Columbus
all the glory of what had been done had all gone
wrong, he did not even go to see his old friend and -
ask his pardon. He went away to his own house
without seeing any one. And there he found a
stern letter from the king and queen of Spain ;
scolding him for trying to get the best of Colum-
bus, and refusing to hear or see him. The way coLUMBUS HAS
COME.
things had turned out made Captain Alonso Pin-
zon feel so badly that he fell sick; and in a few days he died.
But Columbus, after he had seen his good friend Juan
Perez, the friar at Rabida, and told him all his adventures,
went on to Barcelona where King Ferdinand and Queen
Isabella were waiting for him. They had already sent him
letters telling him how pleased they were that he had found
Cathay, and ordering him to get ready for a second expedition
at once. Columbus gave his directions for this, and then, in
a grand procession that called everybody to the street or
window or housetop, he set off for Barcelona. He reached
the court on a fine April day and was at once received with
much pleasure by the king and queen of Spain.







HOW A BOY BROUGHT THE ADMIRAL TO GRIEF


Columbus told them where he had been and what he
had seen; he showed them the gold and the pearls and the
birds and curiosities he had brought to Spain as specimens
of what was to be found in Cathay; he showed them the ten
painted and "fixed-up" Indians he had stolen and brought
back with him.
And the king and queen of Spain said he had done well.
They had him sit beside them while he told his story, and
treated this poor Italian wool-weaver as they would one of
their great princes or mighty lords. They told him he could
put the royal arms alongside his own on his shield or crest,
and they bade him get together at once
Ships and sailors for a second expedition
to Cathay ships and sailors enough,
L they said, to get away up to the great
cities of Cathay, where the marble temples
f and the golden palaces must be. It was
their wish, they said, to gain the friend-
LOOKING AT THE ship of the great Emperor of Cathay, to
PROCESSION trade with him and get a good share of
his gold and jewels and spices. For, you see, no one as
yet imagined that Columbus had discovered America. They
did not even know that there was such ,a continent. They
thought he had sailed to Asia and found the rich countries
that Marco Polo had told such big stories about.
Columbus, you may be sure, was "all the rage" now.
Wherever he went the people followed him, cheering and








HOW A BOY BROUGHT THE ADMIRAL TO GRIEF.


shouting, and begging him to take them with him on his
next voyage to Cathay.
He was as anxious as any one to get back to those beau-
tiful islands and hunt for gold and jewels. He set to work
at once, and on the twenty-fifth of September, 1493, with a
fleet of seventeen ships and a company of fifteen hundred


COLUMBUS TELLING HIS ADVENTURES TO JUAN PEREZ AT RABIDA.


men, Columbus the Admiral set sail from Ca'diz on his
second voyage to Cathay and Cipango and the Indies. And
this time he was certain he should find all these wonderful
places, and bring back from the splendid cities unbounded
wealth for the king and queen of Spain.







92 2R YING IT1 AGAIN.





CHAPTER VIII.

TRYING IT AGAIN.


D O you not think Columbus must have felt very fine as
he sailed out of Cadiz Harbor on his second voyage to
the West? It was just about a year before, you know, that
his feeble fleet of three little ships sailed from Palos port.
His hundred sailors hated to go; his friends were few;
everybody else said he was crazy; his success was very
doubtful. Now, as he stood on the high quarter-deck of his
big flag-ship, the Maria Galante, he was a great man. By
appointment of his king and queen he was Admiral of the
Ocean Seas and Viceroy of the Indies." He had servants
to do as he directed; he had supreme command over the
seventeen ships of his fleet, large and small; fifteen hundred
men joyfully crowded his decks, while thousands left at
home wished that they might go with him, too. He had
soldiers and sailors, horsemen and footmen; his ships were
filled with all the things necessary for trading with the
Indians and the great merchants of Cathay, and for building
the homes of those who wished to live in the lands beyond
the sea.
Everything looked so well and everybody was so full of







TRYING IT AGAIN.


hope and expectation that the Admiral felt that now his
fondest dreams were coming to pass and that he was a
great man indeed.
This was to be a hunt for gold. And so sure of success
was Columbus that he promised the king and queen of




.- .--- K


L~X ____

1YIi1;rY `


THE HARBOR OF CADIZ.


Spain, out of the money he should make on this voyage, to
himself pay for the fitting out of a great army of fifty thou-
sand foot soldiers and four thousand horsemen to drive away
the pagan Turks who had captured and held possession of
the city of Jerusalem and the sepulcher of Christ. For this
had been the chief desire, for years and years, of the Chris-


... .. .... -







TRYING IT7 AGAIN.


tian people of Europe. To accomplish it many brave
knights and warriors had fought and failed. But now
Columbus was certain he could do it.
So, out into the western ocean sailed the great expedi-
tion of the Admiral. He sailed first to the Canary Isles,
where he took aboard wood and water and many cattle,
sheep and swine. Then, on the seventeenth of October, he
steered straight
r A out into the broad
Atlantic, and on
Sunday, the third
of November, he
saw the hill-tops
of one of the
W n wVest India Isl-
ands that he
named Dominica.
.You can find it
i,-. "on your map of
the West Indies.
For days he
sailed on, passing
HE SAW THE HILL-TOPS OF DOMINICA." island after isl-

and, landing on some and giving them names. Some of
them were inhabited, some of them were not; some were very
large, some were very small. But none of them helped him
in any way to find Cathay, so at last he steered toward Hayti







TRYING IT AGAIN.


(or Hispaniola, as he called it) and the lit-
tle ship-built fortress of La Navidad, where
his forty comrades had been left.
On the twenty-seventh of November,
the fleet of the Admiral cast anchor off the
solitary fort. It was night. No light was
to be seen on the shore; through the dark-
ness nothing could be made out that looked
like the walls of the fort. Columbus fired
a cannon; then he fired another. The
echoes were the only answer. They must
be sound sleepers in our fortress there, said
the Admiral. At last, over the water he
heard the sound of oars -or was it the dip
of a paddle? A voice called for the Ad-
miral; but it was not a Spanish voice.
The interpreter-who was the only one
left of those ten stolen Indians carried by
Columbus to Spain-came to the Ad-
miral's side; by the light of the ship's lan-
tern they could make out the figure of an
Indian in his canoe. He brought presents
from his chief. But where are my men at
the fort? asked the Admiral. And then
the whole sad story was told.
The fort of La Navidad was destroyed;
the Spaniards were all dead; the first at-


A

kS~4


TiHE LURKING INDIAN.







TR YING IT A GAIN.


tempt of Spain to start a colony in the new world was a
terrible failure. And for it the Spaniards themselves were
to blame.
After Columbus had left them, the forty men in the fort
did not do as he told them or as they had solemnly promised.
They were lazy; they were rough; they treated the Indians
badly; they quarreled among themselves; some of them ran
off to live in the woods. Then sickness came; there were
two "sides," each one jealous of the other; the Indians be-
came enemies. A fiery war-chief from the hills, whose name
was Caonabo, led the Indians against the white men. The
fort and village were surprised, surrounded and destroyed.
And the little band of conquerors "- as the Spaniards
loved to call themselves was itself conquered and killed.
It was a terrible disappointment to Columbus. The
men in whom he had trusted had proved false. The gold
he had told them to get together they had not even found.
His plans had all gone wrong.
But Columbus was not the man to stay defeated. His
fort was destroyed, his men were killed, his settlement was
a failure. It can't be helped now, he said. I will try
again.
This time he would not only build a fort, he would
build a city. He had men and material enough to do this
and to do it well. So he set to work.
But the place where he had built from the wreck of the
unlucky Santa Maria his unlucky fort of La Navidad did







TR YING IT A GAIN


not suit him. It was low, damp and unhealthy. He must
find a better place. After looking about for some time he
finally selected a place on the northern, side of the island.
You can find it if you look at the map of Hayti in the West
Indies; it is near to Cape Isabella.
He found here a good harbor for ships, a good place on
the rocks for a fort, and good land for gardens. Here
Columbus laid
-out his new town,
and called it after
his friend the
,,, queen of Spain,
the city of Isa-
bella.
_41-' He marked
out a central spot
for his park or
I square; around
S this ran a street,
~ and along this
S" '. street he built
large stone build-
CAONABO AND HIS BRAVES.
house, a church
and a house for himself, as governor of the colony. On the
side streets were built the houses for the people who were to
live in the new town, while on a rocky point with its queer








TR YING IT A GAIN.


little round tower looking out to sea stood the stone fort to
protect the little city. It was the first settlement made by
white men in all the great new world of America.
You must know that there are some very wise and very
bright people who do not
agree to this. They say that
nearly five hundred years
before Columbus landed, a
iNorwegian prince or viking,
whose name was Leif Erics-
son, had built on the banks
Sof the beautiful Charles
SRiver, some twelve miles
J_ from Boston, a city which
-_,-- __ he called Norumbega.
_- --_' But this has not really
Been proved. It is almost
all the fancy of a wise man
who has studied it out for
THE TOWER OF THE FORT.
T OWER OF TE IT. himself, and says he be-
lieves there was such a city. But he does not really know
it as we know of the city of Isabella, and so we must still
say that Christopher Columbus really discovered America
and built the first fort and the first city on its shores -
although he thought he was doing all this in Asia, on the
shores of China or Japan.
When Columbus had his people nearly settled in their