<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Half Title
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 References to plates
 Errata
 Part I: Animal life
 Part II: The vegetable world
 Part III: The mineral world
 Index
 Back Cover
 Spine


BLDN CCLC ICDL NEH UFSPEC



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mods:title The out-door world, or, Young collector's handbook
type alternative
Young collector's handbook
mods:name personal
mods:namePart Furneaux, William S.
mods:role
mods:roleTerm authority marcrelator Creator
Spottiswoode & Co.
Printer
Longmans, Green, and Co.
Contributor
mods:originInfo
mods:place
mods:placeTerm text London ; New York
mods:publisher Longmans, Green, and Co.
mods:dateIssued 1893
mods:language
mods:languageTerm English
mods:identifier ALEPH 002230090
NOTIS ALH0433
OCLC 03354957
mods:note Includes index.
mods:subject
mods:topic Natural history -- Juvenile literature.
Animals -- Juvenile literature.
Plants -- Juvenile literature.
Minerals -- Juvenile literature.
Fossils -- Juvenile literature.
Natural history -- Outdoor books -- Juvenile literature.
Natural history -- Juvenile literature. -- Technique
Bldn -- 1893.
mods:relatedItem original
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mods:extent xxviii, 411 p., 18 leaves of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 19 cm.
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processing.instr
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UF00082157_00001.mets
METS:structMap STRUCT1 mixed
METS:div DMDID The out-door world, or, Young collector's handbook ORDER 0 main
D1 1 Front Cover
P1 Page
METS:fptr FILEID
P2 2
D2 Matter
P4 i
D3 Half Title
P5 ii
D4 4 Frontispiece
P8 iii
D5 5
P9 iv
D6 6 Preface
P11 v
P12 vi
D7 7 Table of Contents
P13 vii
P14 viii
D8 8 List Illustrations
P15 ix
P16 x
P17 xi
P18 xii
P19 xiii
P20 xiv
P21 xv
P22 xvi
P23 xvii 9
P24 xviii 10
P25 xix 11
P26 xx
P27 xxi 13
P28 xxii 14
D9 References to plates Section
P29 xxiii
P30 xxiv
P31 xxv
P32 xxvi
P33 xxvii
P34 xxviii
D10 Errata
P35 xxix
D11 Part I: Animal life Chapter
P36
D12 Ponds and streams Subdivision Level
P36_repeat
P37
P38
P39
P40
P41
P42
P43
P44
P45
P46
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P50 15
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P61 24a 25
P62
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P81 45
P82 46
P83 47
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P85 49
P86 50
P87 51
P88 52
P89
P90 54
P91 55
P92 56
D13 Insects insect hunting
P93
P94 57
P95 58
P96 59
P97 60
P98 61
P99 62
P100 63
P101 64
P102
P103
P104 67
P105
P106 69
P107 70
P108 71
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P110 73
P111 74
P112 75
P113 76
P114 77
P115 78
P116 78a
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P137 96a
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P150
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P153 112
P155 112a
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P157 114
P158
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P208 165
P209 166
D14 sea-shore
P210 167
P211 168
P212 169
P213 170
P214 171
P215 172
P216
P217 174
P218 175
P219 176
P220
P221 178
P222 179
P223 180
P224 181
P225 182
P226 183
P227 184
P228 185
P229 186
P230 187
P231 188
P232 189
P233 190
P234 191
P235
P237 192a
P238 193
P239 194
P241 194a
P242 195
P243 196
P244 197
P245 198
P246 199
P247 200
P248 201
P249 202
P250 203
P251 204
P252 205
P253 206
P254 207
P255 208
P256 209
P257 210
P258 211
P259 212
P260 213
P261 214
P262
P263 216
P264 217
P265 218
P266 219
D15 Snails slugs
P267 220
P269 220a
P270
P271
P272 223
P273 224
D16 Spiders, centipedes, millepedes
P274 225
P275 226
P276 227
P277 228
P278 229
P279 230
P280 231
P281 232
P282 233
P283 234
D17 Reptiles reptile
P284 235
P285 236
P286 237
P287 238
P288 239
P289 240
P290 241
P291 242
P292 243
P293 244
P294 245
P295 246
P296 247
P297 248
P299 248a
D18 British birds
P300 249
P301 250
P302 251
P303 252
P304 253
P305 254
P306 255
P307 256
P308 257
P309 258
P310 259
P311 260
P312 261
P313 262
P314 263
P315 264
P316 265
P317 266
P318 267
P319 268
P320 269
P321 270
P323 270a
P324 271
P325 272
P326 273
P327
P328 275
P329 276
P330 277
P331 278
P332 279
P333 280
P334 281
P335 282
P336 283
P337 284
P338 285
P339 286
P340 287
P341 288
P342 289
P343
P344 291
P345 292
P346 293
P347 294
P348 295
P349 296
P350 297
D19 mammals
P351 298
P352 299
P353 300
P354 301
P355 302
P356 303
P357 304
P358 305
P359 306
P360 307
P361 308
P362 309
P363 310
P364 311
P365 312
P366 313
P367 314
P368 315
P369 316
P370 317
P371 318
P372 319
P375 320
D20 II: vegetable world
P376 321
D21 Sea-weeds
P376_repeat
P377 322
P378 323
P379 324
P380 325
P381 326
P382
P383 328
P384 329
P385 330
P386 331
D22 Fungi
P387 332
P388 333
P389 334
P390 335
P391 336
P392 337
P393 338
P394 339
P395 340
P396 341
D23 Mosses
P397 342
P399 342a
P400 343
P401 344
P402 345
P403 346
P404 347
P405 348
P406 349
D24 Ferns
P407 350
P408 350a
P410 351
P411 352
P412 353
P413 354
P414 355
P415 356
P416 357
P417 358
P419 358a
D25 Wild flowers
P420 359
P421 360
P422 361
P423 362
P424 363
P425 364
P426 365
P427 366
P428 367
P429 368
P430 369
P431 370
P432 370a
P434 371
P435 372
P436 372a
P438 373
P439 374
P440 375
P441 376
P442 377
P443 378
P445 378a
D26 Grasses
P446
P447 380
P448 381
P449 382
P450 382a
P452 383
P453 384
D27 Our forest trees
P454
P455 386
P456 387
P457 388
P458 389
P459 390
P460 391
P461 392
D28 III: mineral
P462 393
D29 Minerals fossils
P462_repeat
P463 394
P464 395
P465 396
P466 397
P467 398
P468 399
P469 400
D30 Index
P470 401
P471 402
P472 403
P473 404
P474 405
P475 406
P476 407
P477 408
P478 409
P479 410
P480 411
P481 412
D31 Back
P482
P3
D32 Spine
P6


The out-door world, or, Young collector's handbook
CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS DOWNLOADS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00082157/00001
 Material Information
Title: The out-door world, or, Young collector's handbook
Portion of title: Young collector's handbook
Physical Description: xxviii, 411 p., 18 leaves of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Furneaux, William S
Longmans, Green, and Co ( Publisher )
Spottiswoode & Co ( Printer )
Publisher: Longmans, Green, and Co.
Place of Publication: London ;
New York
Manufacturer: Spottiswoode and Co.
Publication Date: 1893
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Natural history -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Animals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Plants -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Minerals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Fossils -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Outdoor books -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Technique -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1893
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
United States -- New York -- New York
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by W. Furneaux ; with 16 coloured plates and over 500 illustrations in the text.
General Note: Includes index.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002230090
notis - ALH0433
oclc - 03354957
System ID: UF00082157:00001

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page i
    Half Title
        Page ii
    Frontispiece
        Page iii
    Title Page
        Page iv
    Preface
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
    List of Illustrations
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
    References to plates
        Page xxiii
        Page xxiv
        Page xxv
        Page xxvi
        Page xxvii
        Page xxviii
    Errata
        Page xxix
    Part I: Animal life
        Page 1
        Ponds and streams
            Page 1
            Page 2
            Page 3
            Page 4
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 24a
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
        Insects and insect hunting
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 78a
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 96a
            Page 97
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
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            Page 105
            Page 106
            Page 107
            Page 108
            Page 109
            Page 110
            Page 111
            Page 112
            Page 112a
            Page 113
            Page 114
            Page 115
            Page 116
            Page 117
            Page 118
            Page 119
            Page 120
            Page 121
            Page 122
            Page 123
            Page 124
            Page 125
            Page 126
            Page 127
            Page 128
            Page 129
            Page 130
            Page 131
            Page 132
            Page 133
            Page 134
            Page 135
            Page 136
            Page 137
            Page 138
            Page 139
            Page 140
            Page 141
            Page 142
            Page 143
            Page 144
            Page 145
            Page 146
            Page 147
            Page 148
            Page 149
            Page 150
            Page 151
            Page 152
            Page 153
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            Page 155
            Page 156
            Page 157
            Page 158
            Page 159
            Page 160
            Page 161
            Page 162
            Page 163
            Page 164
            Page 165
            Page 166
        The sea-shore
            Page 167
            Page 168
            Page 169
            Page 170
            Page 171
            Page 172
            Page 173
            Page 174
            Page 175
            Page 176
            Page 177
            Page 178
            Page 179
            Page 180
            Page 181
            Page 182
            Page 183
            Page 184
            Page 185
            Page 186
            Page 187
            Page 188
            Page 189
            Page 190
            Page 191
            Page 192
            Page 192a
            Page 193
            Page 194
            Page 194a
            Page 195
            Page 196
            Page 197
            Page 198
            Page 199
            Page 200
            Page 201
            Page 202
            Page 203
            Page 204
            Page 205
            Page 206
            Page 207
            Page 208
            Page 209
            Page 210
            Page 211
            Page 212
            Page 213
            Page 214
            Page 215
            Page 216
            Page 217
            Page 218
            Page 219
        Snails and slugs
            Page 220
            Page 220a
            Page 221
            Page 222
            Page 223
            Page 224
        Spiders, centipedes, and millepedes
            Page 225
            Page 226
            Page 227
            Page 228
            Page 229
            Page 230
            Page 231
            Page 232
            Page 233
            Page 234
        Reptiles and reptile hunting
            Page 235
            Page 236
            Page 237
            Page 238
            Page 239
            Page 240
            Page 241
            Page 242
            Page 243
            Page 244
            Page 245
            Page 246
            Page 247
            Page 248
            Page 248a
        British birds
            Page 249
            Page 250
            Page 251
            Page 252
            Page 253
            Page 254
            Page 255
            Page 256
            Page 257
            Page 258
            Page 259
            Page 260
            Page 261
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            Page 263
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            Page 266
            Page 267
            Page 268
            Page 269
            Page 270
            Page 270a
            Page 271
            Page 272
            Page 273
            Page 274
            Page 275
            Page 276
            Page 277
            Page 278
            Page 279
            Page 280
            Page 281
            Page 282
            Page 283
            Page 284
            Page 285
            Page 286
            Page 287
            Page 288
            Page 289
            Page 290
            Page 291
            Page 292
            Page 293
            Page 294
            Page 295
            Page 296
            Page 297
        British mammals
            Page 298
            Page 299
            Page 300
            Page 301
            Page 302
            Page 303
            Page 304
            Page 305
            Page 306
            Page 307
            Page 308
            Page 309
            Page 310
            Page 311
            Page 312
            Page 313
            Page 314
            Page 315
            Page 316
            Page 317
            Page 318
            Page 319
            Page 320
    Part II: The vegetable world
        Page 321
        Sea-weeds
            Page 321
            Page 322
            Page 323
            Page 324
            Page 325
            Page 326
            Page 327
            Page 328
            Page 329
            Page 330
            Page 331
        Fungi
            Page 332
            Page 333
            Page 334
            Page 335
            Page 336
            Page 337
            Page 338
            Page 339
            Page 340
            Page 341
        Mosses
            Page 342
            Page 342a
            Page 343
            Page 344
            Page 345
            Page 346
            Page 347
            Page 348
            Page 349
        Ferns
            Page 350
            Page 350a
            Page 351
            Page 352
            Page 353
            Page 354
            Page 355
            Page 356
            Page 357
            Page 358
            Page 358a
        Wild flowers
            Page 359
            Page 360
            Page 361
            Page 362
            Page 363
            Page 364
            Page 365
            Page 366
            Page 367
            Page 368
            Page 369
            Page 370
            Page 370a
            Page 371
            Page 372
            Page 372a
            Page 373
            Page 374
            Page 375
            Page 376
            Page 377
            Page 378
            Page 378a
        Grasses
            Page 379
            Page 380
            Page 381
            Page 382
            Page 382a
            Page 383
            Page 384
        Our forest trees
            Page 385
            Page 386
            Page 387
            Page 388
            Page 389
            Page 390
            Page 391
            Page 392
    Part III: The mineral world
        Page 393
        Minerals and fossils
            Page 393
            Page 394
            Page 395
            Page 396
            Page 397
            Page 398
            Page 399
            Page 400
    Index
        Page 401
        Page 402
        Page 403
        Page 404
        Page 405
        Page 406
        Page 407
        Page 408
        Page 409
        Page 410
        Page 411
        Page 412
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
    Spine
        Spine
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THE OUT-DOOR WORLD




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THE OUT-DOOR WORLD

OR


YOUNG COLLECTOR'S HANDBOOK



BY


W. FURNEAUX, F.R.G.S.


WITH 16 COLOURED PLATES
AND OVER 500 ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT


LONDON
LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.
AND NEW YORK: 15 EAST 16th STREET
1898


All rights reserved













PREFACE



'BoYS WILL BE BOYS How often has this expression been
used in extenuation of their mischievous propensities Boys
are naturally active, and if they have not the inclination or
the opportunity to expend their store of mental and physical
energy in some interesting and profitable employment, we
shall be sure to find them busily occupied in working out some
little scheme by which they hope to derive satisfaction at the
expense of their playmates, their neighbours, or some dumb
animal. You may almost as well talk to an oak log as tell a
boy that he should abstain from such practical jokes as those
which give him pleasure at the cost of his victimised school-
mates, that it is wrong to annoy his neighbour by damaging
his property, or that it is cruel to tie a bundle of ignited crackers
to the tail of a cat. If a boy is to relinquish such occupations,
we must direct his energies into another channel by giving
him a taste for something better. Teach him to play a game
of cricket, or to swim ; let him have a camera, and show him
how to take a photograph ; give him a sketch-book, and culti-
vate a taste for the reproduction of the beautiful in nature
and art; or make him a present of a book of scientific recrea-
tions. Among such works probably none will be found so
fascinating to a boy as those which treat of natural history.
Let him once acquire a taste for collecting, preserving, and
studying natural history objects, and he has a hobby that will
keep him out of mischief, give him healthy employment for
mind and body, and occupation for all seasons of the year,
both at home and in the field.





PREFACE


It is with a desire to cultivate such a taste, and to assist
our boys (and our girls too for that matter) in the varied em-
ployments which constitute the labour of love' of the true
naturalist that these pages are written. I was once a boy
myself, and well do I remember the many difficulties and
disappointments I experienced while endeavouring to make a
useful collection of natural objects-difficulties and disappoint-
ments which might have been to a great extent obviated by
the perusal of a popular yet scientific guide to the various
departments of natural history.
In presenting the following pages to my readers, I do not
hope, nor shall I attempt, to convert them into full-blown
naturalists. Many years of the most careful observation, com-
bined with much patient work on the part of the student,
would be necessary to produce such a result. My only aim
is to induce my readers to make a start, and to give them
such a general outline of natural history as may form a safe
foundation for the future study of any branch of the science
that they may desire to follow.
The scope of this volume is large compared with its size.
It includes a brief survey of the animal kingdom, with numerous
hints on the collection, preservation, and classification of
specimens.. Many objects which are not generally studied by
young collectors are here considered as worthy of a drawer
in the young naturalist's cabinet. Thus the reader is made
acquainted with the fact that the seaside is not merely a
collecting ground for shells and weeds, but that almost every
overturned stone between the tide-marks reveals a host of living
beings which, although less conspicuous, will repay the time
spent in their study. The vegetable kingdom is dealt with in
a similar manner. Then follows a short chapter on the
collection and arrangement of minerals and fossils.
It is hoped that the detailed descriptions given for the
construction of the necessary apparatus and the methods of
using it, and the abundance of illustrations, will render this
work a thoroughly practical guide to the young collector.












CONTENTS




PART I

ANIMAL LIFE
CHAP. PAGE
I. PONDS AND STREAMS 1
II. INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 56
III. THE SEA-SHORE 167
IV. SNAILS AND SLUGS 220
V. SPIDERS, CENTIPEDES, AND MILLEPEDES 225
VI. REPTILES AND REPTILE HUNTING 235
VII. BRITISH BIRDS 249
VIII. BRITISH MAMMALS 298



PART II

THE VEGETABLE WORLD

IX. SEA-WEEDS 321
X. FUNGI 332
XI. MOSSES 342
XII. FERNS 350
XIII. WILD FLOWERS 359
XIV. GRASSES 379
XV. OUR FOREST TREES 385



PART III

THE MINERAL WORLD


. 393


XVI. MINERALS AND FOSSILS .





















LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


FIG. pAGE
1.
2. NET FOR COLLECTING SPECIMENS 2, 3
3.J
4. A DREDGING-HOOK. 3
5. BOTTLE FOR COLLECTING Low FORMS OF POND LIFE 4
6. THE MEDICINAL LEECH 11
7. THE TEETH OF A MOLLUSC 12
8. THE CRAYFISH 14
9. ,, ,, (under-surface) 15
10. A WATER-FLEA, magnified 17
11. A CYCLOPS CARRYING ITS EGG-SACS 17
12. WATER SPIDERS 18
13. WATER MITE, highly magnified 19
14. GRASSHOPPER, SHOWING THE STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF AN
INSECT'S BODY 21
15. WATER BOATMAN (Glauca) 22
16. Corixa, slightly enlarged 23
17. THE WATER SCORPION 23
18. Banatra 24
19. A WATER GNAT (Hydrometra argentata), magnified 24
20. WATER GNAT (H. gibbifera), enlarged 24
21. LARVA OF DILAGON-FLY, SHOWING THE MASK, AND THE PERFECT
INSECT EMERGING FROM TIHE PUPA-CASE 26
22. THE MAY-FLY 27
23. LARVA OF THE MAY-FLY 27
24. PUPA OF THE MIAY-FLY 27
25. CADDIS-FLIES 28
26. CADDIS CASES 29
27. EGGS OF THE GNAT, magnified 30
28. THE STAGES OF THE GNAT, SHOWING THE L.AVA, PUPA, PERFECT
INSECT EMERGING, AND MALE AND FEMALE FLYING 31
29. Dyticus margincalis. Male 33
30. ,, ,, Female 33






x LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
FIG. PAGE
31. LARVA OF Dyticus 4. 4
32. PUPA OF DytUcus .. 34
33. Agabus biguttatus, magnified 34
34. Pelobius Hermanni, magnified 84
85. THE WHIRLIGIG 5. 35
36. LARVA OF THE WHIRLIGIG 35
87. Piceus. Male 5. 35
38. LARVA OF Piceus, not fully grown 5. 5
39. PUPA OF Piceus 85
40. SKELETON OF A FISH (PERCH) 87
41. ORGANS OF A FISH (CARP) 88
42. THE CARP 40
43. THE MINNOW 40
44. THE GUDGEON 40
45. THE ROACH 41
46. THE DACE 41
47. THE BLEAK 41
48. THE LOACH 41
49. THE TEREE-SPINED STICKLEBACK AND NEST 48
50. THE BULLHEAD 44
51. THE BLOOD-CELLS OF THE FROG, highly magnified 45
52. THE HEART OF THE FROG 45
53. THE GREAT WARTY NEWT 47
54. THE SMOOTH NEWT 48
55. STAGES IN THE LIFE OF A FROG 49
56. THE COMMON FROG 50
57. THE TONGUE OF THE FROG 51
58. THE COMMON TOAD 52
59. SKELETON OF THE FROG 55
60. SCALES FROM THE WINGS OF BUTTERFLIES 57
61. HEAD OF A MOTH 58
62. MOTH JUST EMERGED 60
63. THE CYANIDE BOTTLE. 61
64. THE LAUREL Box 62
65. SECTIONS OF TIIHREE KINDS OF SETTING BOARDS 66
66. A BUTTERFLY ON THE SETTING BOARD. 67
67. THE SCARCE SWALLOW-TAIL 72
68. THE LARGE WHITE. EGG (magnified), LARVA, PUPA, AND IAGO 78
69. THE SMALL WHITE. Male 74
70. Female 74
71. THE GREEN-VEINED WHITE. Under side 74
72. THE BATH WHITE 75
78. THE BLACK-VEINED WHITE 75
74. THE WOOD WHITE 76
75. THE CLOUDED YELLOW. Female and Larva. (Male shown on
Plate II.) 76
76. THE LARGE TORTOISESHELL 77







LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xi

FIG. PAGE
77. CHRYSALIS OF THE LARGE TORTOISESHELL; AND A LARVA SUS-
PENDED JUST PREVIOUS TO UNDERGOING ITS CHANGE 77
78. THE COMMA BUTTERFLY, WITH WINGS FOLDED. (See also Plate
III.) 78
79. THE WHITE ADMIRAL 78
80. THE PURPLE EMPEROR AND LARVA 79
81. THE DARK GREEN FRITILLARY 80
82. LARVA AND PUPA OF THE DARK GREEN FRITILLARY 80
83. THE HIGH BROWN FRITILLARY 80
84. THE QUEEN OF SPAIN FRITILLARY. Under side 80
85. lTHE PEARL-BORDERED FRITILLARY. Upper and Under sides. 81
86. THE SMALL PEARL-BORDERED FRITILLARY 81
87. THE GLANVILLE FRITILLARY 81
88. MARBLED WHITE BUTTERFLY 82
89. THE SPECKLED WOOD OR WOOD ARGus 82
90. THE WALL BUTTERFLY 82
91. THE GRAYLING. Female 82
92. THE MEADOW BROWN. Male 82
93. ,, ,, ,, Female 82
94. THE LARGE HEATH. Male 83
95. ,, ,, Female 83
96. THE RINGLET. Under side 83
97. THE MARSH RINGLET 83
98. THE NORTHERN BROWN OR SCOTCH ARGUS 83
99. THE SMALL HEATH 83
100. THE BROWN HAIRSTREAK. Under surface 84
101. THE BLACK HAIRSTREAK. Under side 84
102. THE WHITE LETTER HAIRSTREAK 84
108. THE PURPLE HAIRSTREAK. Under side 84
104. THE GREEN HAIRSTREAK. Under side 84
105. THE LARGE COPPER BUTTERFLY-LARVA, PUPA, AND IMAGO 85
106. THE AZURE OR HOLLY BLUE. Under side 85
107. THE BEDFORD BLUE 85
108. THE MAZARINE BLUE. Under side 86
109. THE COMMON BLUE. Male 86
110. ,, ,, ,, Female 86
111. THE COMMON BLUE. Under side 86
112. THE BROWN ARGUS 86
113. THE NEW SMALL SKIPPER 87
114. THE DINGY SKIPPER 87
115. THE GRIZZLED SKIPPER 87
116. THE CHEQUERED SKIPPER 87
117. THE DEATH'S-HEAD HAWK MOTII (Atropos) 98
118. THE LARVA OF THE DEATH'S-HEAD HAWK 99
119. THE EYED HAWK (Ocellatus) 100
120. LARVA OF THE SPURGE HAWK. (Perfeet Inseot shown on Plate V.) 101
121. THE HUMMING-BIRD HAWK (Stellaatrnum) 101






xii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
FIG. PAGE
122. THE HORNET CLEARWING (S. Apiformis) 102
123. THE LEOPARD MOTH (2Esculi) AND LARVA 103
124. THE GOAT MOTH (Ligniperda) AND LARVA (the latter about one-
third grown) 103
125. THE COMMON SWIFT (Lupulinus) 104
126. THE GHOST SWIFT (Humiuli) 104
127. L.uVA AND COCOON OF THE SIX-SPOT BURNET 104
128. LARVA OF THE CINNABAR MOTH (Jacobcee) 105
120. THE CREAMt-SPOT TIGER (Villica) 105
130. THE BUFF ERMINE (Lubricipeda) 105
131. THE WHITE ERMINE (Menthastri) 105
132. THE VAPOURER MOTH (Antiqua)-Male, Female, and Larva 106
133. THE BROWN TAIL (Chrysorrhwa) 106
134. THE BLACK ARCHES (Monacha) 107
135. ,, ,, ,, (Dark variety) 107
186. THE SMALL EoGAs (Lanestris) 107
137. THE LACKEY (Neustria) 108
138. THE LAPPET MOTH (Quercifolia) AND LARVA. (See also Plate V.) 108
139. THE SWALLOW-TAIL MOTH (Savibucata) 109
140. LARVA OF THE BRIMSTONE MOTH. (Perfect Insect on Plate IV.) 109
141. THE BRINDLED BEAUTY (Hirtaria) AND LARVA 110
142. THE PEPPERED MOTH (Betudaria). Male 110
143. THE GREY SCALLOPED BAR (Bclqgiaria) 110
144. THE MAGPIE (Grossu tariatat) 110
145. THE MOTTLED UMBER (Defularia). Male, Wingless Female, and
Larva 111
146. THE WINTER MOTH (Britliata) 11
147. THE BEAUTIFUL CARPET (Albicillata) 111
148. THE ARGENT AND SABLE (Hastata) 112
149. THE SILVER-GROUND CARPET (Montana) 112
150. THE MARSH CARPET (Sagiltata.a) 112
151. THE COMMON CARPET (Subtristata) 112
152. THE CHIMINEY SWEEP (Chcerophyllata) 112
153. THE SALLOW KITTEN (Furcuila) 112
154. THE LOBSTER MOTH (Fagi) AND LARVA 113
155. THE BUFF TIP MOTH (Bucephal(t) AND LARVA. (See also Plato V.) 118
156. Puss MOTH (Vi)nla) AND L.uVA 114
157. THE PEACH-BLOSSOM MOTH (Butis) AND LARVA. (See also Plate
IV.) 115
158. TiE GREY DAGGER (Psi) 115
159. THE CABBAGE MOTH (Brassicce) 116. i
160. TiE TURNIP MOTH (Scgetnm) .. 116
161. THE L.tOIE YELLOW UNDERWING (lF'ru0itbl) AND LARVA. (See
also Plate V.) 116
162. THE LESSER BROAD BORDER (Ianthiiw) 116
163. TimHE DOT (Persicarice) 116
164. THE ANGLE SHADES (Meticalosa) AND LARVA. (See also Plate V.) 117







LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xiii
FIG. IAGEl
165. THE SILVER Y (Gamma) 117
166. THE BURNISHED BRASS (Chrysitis) 117
167. THE HERALD MOTH (Libatrix) AND LARVA 117
168. MOTHER SHIPTON (Mi) 118
169. THE RED UNDERWING (Nlpt)ta) 118
170. THE CLIFDEN NONPAREIL (FraTxini) 118
171. THE SNOUT (Bostralis) 119
172. THE MEAL MOTH (Farinalis) .. 119
173. THE TABBY (Pingtlinalis) 119
174. THE MOTHER OF PEARL (Urticalis) 119
175. THE RUST VENEER (Hybridalis) 120
176. THE BEAUTIFUL CHINA MARK (Stagnalis) 120
177. THE PEARL-STREAK VENEER (Hametlus) 120
178. THE HONEYCOMB MOTH (Cerella) 120
179. THE STRAW OBLIQUE BAR (Costana) 120
180. THE HAZEL TORTRIX (T. Sorbiana) 120
181. LEAVES, ROLLED AND MINED 121
182. THE WOOLLEN MOTH 121
183. LARVA OF THE WOOLLEN MOTH 122
184. THE HAIm MOTH 122
185. THE PLUME MOTH (Pentadactylus) 122
186. PLUME MOTH (Hexadactyla). 122
187. LARVA BOTTLE 125
188. LARVA CAGE 126
189. LARVA GLASS 126
190. BLOWPIPE FOR BLOWING LARVAE, FITTED WITH A SPRING CLIP 181
191. KILLING BOTTLE FOR BEETLES 188
192. A BEETLE ON THE SETTING BOARD 184
193. THE GREEN TIGER BEETLE 135
194. THE WOOD TIGER BEETLE (Cicindela sylvatica) AND LARVA 135
195. THE SHORE TIGER BEETLE (C. maritima) AND LARVA 135
196. THE VIOLET GROUND BEETLE 136
197. THE SUN BEETLE (Anchomens dclorsalis), magnified 136
198. NEBRIA BREVICOLLIS, magnified 137
199. THE SUNSHINE, Imagnified 137
200. THE BOMBARDIER BEETLE, PURSUED BY A CALOSOMA 187
201. THE DEVIL'S COACH HORSE 189
202. A RoVE BEETLE (Staphylinus) FOLDING ITS WINGS 139
203. THE RED-NECKED ROVE BEETLE, magnified .. 140
204. THE FOUR-HORNED ROVE BEETLE, magnified 140
205. ATEMELES EMARGINATUS, magnified 140
206. QUEDIUS DILATATUS, magnified 140
207. BURYING BEETLES INTERRING THE BODY-OF A RAT 142
208. THE BANDED PILL BEETLE (Byrr eis f(sciatis), enlarged 143
209. MALE STAG BEETLE 144
210. FEMALE STAG BEETLE 144
211. THE COCKCHAFER 145






xiv LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
1' IG. PAGE
212. THE ROSE BEETLE 145
213. THE DOR BEETLE 145
214. THE ANTELOPE BEETLE 145
215. THE COMMON TYPHUS 145
216. OIL BEETLE. Male and Female 146
217. THE CHURCHYARD BEETLE 147
218. THE JUMPER BEETLE, magnified 147
219. THE CARDINAL BEETLE 147
220. THE BLISTER BEETLE 147
221. THE GLOW-WORM. Male and Female 148
222. SOLDIER BEETLE (Telephorus fuscus) AND LARVA 148
228. THE HIVE BEETLE 149
224. THE SPIDER BEETLE, magnified 149
225. THE DEATH WATCH AND LARVA, magnified 149
226. THE MUSIC BEETLE 149
227. Strangalia. armata 149
228. THE TIMBERMAN 150
229. BED-FOOTED WEEVIL (Bruckhus 'rufinainus) AND LARVA, magnified 151
230. THE APPLE WEEVIL, magnified 151
231. THE NUT WEEVIL, magnified 151
232. THE PINE WEEVIL, magnified 151
233. THE OAK WEEVIL, magnified 152
234. THE WOOD-EATING WEEVIL, magnified 152
235. THE TURNIP BEETLE, magnified 152
236. THE BLOODY-NOSED BEETLE, magnified 152
287. THE TORTOISE BEETLE, WITH LARVA AND PUPA 153
238. THE RAM-HORNED BEETLE, magnified 153
239. THE SEVEN-SPOT LADY-BIRD AND LARVA 153
240. A WASPS' NEST 155
241. THE FEMALE WASP 157
242. THE FEMALE HORNET. 158
243. THE TREE WASP (Vespa arborea) AND NEST 158
244. SOLITARY WASP (Eumenes) AND NEST 158
245. THE BURROWING BEE, enlarged to twice natural size 159
246. THE LEAF-CUTTER BEE, enlarged 159
247. THE SHAVER BEE, about twice natural size 160
248. THE Moss HUMBLE BEE AND NEST 160
249. THE STONE HUMBLE BEE. Female 161
250. ,, ,, ,, W orker 161
251. ,, ,, ,, Male 161
252. THE Hoop SHAVER BEE, enlarged 161
253. CELLS FROM THE NEST OP THE COMMON HUMBLE BEE 162
254. THE HIVE BEE. Female 162
255. ,, ,, ,, Male 162
256. ,, ,, ,, W orker 162
257. THE WOOD ANT. Male 164
258. ,, ,, ,, Female 164







LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xv

FUJ;. PAGE
259. THE WOOD ANT. Worker .164
260. PORTION OF THE NEST OF THE RED ANT 165
261. THE BLACK ANT 166
262. SOLITARY ANT (Mutilla Europ ea). Male 1(6
263. MUTILLA EUROP.RA. Female 166
204. NET FOR COLLECTING AT THE SEASIDE 169
265. THE DREDGE 170
266. EHIZOSTOMA 176
267. CHIYSAOnA 176
268. MEDUSA AURITA IN ITS DIFFERENT STAGES 176
269. ANEMONE (Mesembryanthemum) 178
270. LONGITUDINAL SECTION THROUGH A SEA ANEMONE 179
271. TRANSVERSE SECTION 179
272. THE COMMON MADREPORE 180
273. THE COMMON STARFISH 182
274. THE ROSY FEATHER STARFISH 18"3
275. EARLY STAGES OF THE FEATIIER STARFISH 183
276. THE SUN STARFISH 184
277. THE BRITTLE STA 184
278. SEA URCHIN, VIEWED FROM ABOVE. (MOST OF THE SPINES RE-
MOVED) 165
279. INTERIOR OF TIHE SHELL OF A SEA URCHIN 185
280. MASTICATING APPARATUS OF THE SEA URCHIN 185
281. SEA CUCUMBER 186
282. THE LUG WORM 187
283. TUBE-BUILDING WORMS: Terebella, Seqpula, and Sabella 188
284. THE SEA MOUSE 189
285. SEA SQUIRT 190
286. THE SHIPWORM 191
287. PHOLAS DACTYLUS 192
288. Thracia papyracea 193
289. Tellina crassa. THE BLUNT TELLEN 194
290. THE RADIATED TROUGH SHELL (Mactra stltoru) 194
291. VENUS CASINA 19
292. VENUS EXOLETA 194
293. ARK SHELL (Areca lactea) 195
294. NUT SHELL (NIucula gnucleus) 195
295. PINNA RUDIS 196
296. THE SADDLE OYSTER (Anomia ephippium) 196
297. THE GROOVED TUSi SHELL (Dentalium entails) 197
298. THE CHITON OR MAIL SHELL 198
299. THE GREY TOP (Trochus cinereus). (See also Plate VII.) 199
800. TOWER SHELL (Turritella) 199
301. SECTION OF A TOWER SHELL 199
302. THE LADDER SHELL (Scalaria communis) 199
303. EGGS OF THE WHELK 199
804. TnE CoMMoN OCTOPUS 200







xvi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

FIG. AGE
805. THE SEPIA OR CUTTLEFISH 201
806. 'BONE' OF THE CUTTLEFISH 201
307. EGGS OF THE CUTTLEFISH 201
308. THE COMMON SQUID (Loligo vulgaris) AND ITS 'PEN' 202
309. BALANUS 203
310. THE BARNACLE 204
311. THE SAND HOPPER 204
312. THE MANTIS SHRIMP (Squilla mantis) 204
313. THE OPOSSUM SHRIMP (Mysis chameleon) 205
314. THE COMMON SHRIMP (Crangon vulgaris) 205
315. THE PRAWVN (Palenmon serratus) 206
831. THE NORWAY LOBSTER (Nephrops Norvegicus) 207
817. THE COMMON SHORE CRAB (Carcinus Menoas) 208
318. EARLY STAGES OF TIIHE SHORE CRAB 208
819. THE HERMIT CRAB IN THE SHELL OF A WHIIELK 209
320. THE HERMIT CRAB (Pagurus Bernhardus) OUT OF ITS SHELL 209
321. THE PEA CRAB (Pinnotheres pisun) 210
822. Porcellana platycheles 210
323. Portunus variegatus 210
324. HENSLOW'S SWIMMING CRAB (Polybius Henslowii) 211
325. THE LONG-ARMED CRAB (Corystes). Female 211
326. THE SPIDER CRAB (Maia squinado) 212
327. THE SMOOTH BLENNY 21
328. THE CORNISH SUCKER 217
829. THE FIFTEEN-SPINED STICKLEBACK AND NEST 217
330. THE FATHER LASHER 218
331. THE GOBY 218
332. THE LESSER WEEVER 218
333. THE LESSER SAND EEL 2. 19
834. EGG CASE OF DOG FISH 219
335. Helix aspersa 220
336. Helix pomatia 2. 221
337. DIAGRAM OF THE HEAD OF A SNAIL 222
338. Succineaputris 222
339. Arion ater 223
340. Testacella 224
341. SPECIMEN BOTTLE 227
842. THE GARDEN SPIDER 228
343. Segestria senoculata-A SIX-EYED SPIDER 230
344. CRAB SPIDER (Thomisus nio) 230
345. THE STONE SPIDER (Drasisus lapidliolo) 230
834. A FEMALE WOLF SPIDER (Dolomedles) WITH Ean BAG, enlarged .230
347. TIE RAFT SPIDER 231
348. Salticus scenicus, magnified 231
349. A MILLEPEDE B(Juls tecrestris) 233
350. A CENTIPEDE 234
351. THE COMMON LIZARD 237







LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xvii

FIG. PAGE
352. THE SLOW WORM OR BLIND WORM (Anguis fragilis) 240
353. THE COMMON SNAKE 242
854. HEAD OF THE COMMON SNAKE 248
855. EGGS OF THE COMMON SNAKE 244
356. HEAD OF THE VIPER 245
357. A CONTOUR FEATHER 250
358. DIAGRAM OF THE HEART OF A BIRD 250
859. THE DIGESTIVE ORGANS OF A BIRD 250
360. THE SKELETON OF A BIRD 251
361. EGG DRILLS 253
362. BLOWPIPE FOR BLOWING AND WASHING EGGS 253
363. SHOWING HOW TO MAKE THE CARD TRAYS 255
364. THE GOLDEN EAGLE 267
365. THE FALCON 267
866. THE SPARROW-HAK 268
367. THE KESTREL .268
368. THE MERLIN 269
369. THE HONEY BUZZARD 269
370. THE BARN OWL 269
371. HEAD OF THE LONG-EARED OWL 269
372. THE SHRIKE .270
373. THE ROOK 270
374. THE JACKDAW 271
375. THE NUTHATCH 271
376. THE WOODPECKER 272
377. THE WRYNECK .272
378. THE KINGFISHER .27
379. THE WREN 274
880. THE GREAT TIT 274
381. THE LARK 274
382. THE GOLDFINCH 275
388. THE BULLFINCH 275
884. THE LINNET 275
385. THE CUCKOO 275
386. THE NIGHTINGALE .276
387. THE SWALLOW 277
888. THE SAND MARTIN AND THE HAWK 278
889. THE STOCK DOVE 279
390. THE PHEASANT 279
391. THE PARTRIDGE 280
392. THE QUAIL 280
393. THE OYSTER-CATCHER 281
394. THE HERON 281
395. THE LAPWING 282
396. THE SNIPE 282
397. THE SHELDRAKE 282
398. THE TERN, OR SEA SWALLOW 283
a






xviii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
FIG. PAGE
399. THE BLACK-BACKED GULL 283
400. THE WHITE GULL 283
401. THE GREBE 284
402. THE GUILLEMOT 284
408. THE PETREL 284
404. PART OF THE UPPER JAW (HUMAN), SHOWING THE KINDS OF
TEETH 298
405. SKULL OF A CARNIVOROUS MAMMAL-THE DOG 299
406. SKULL OF THE SHEEP 299
407. THE PORPOISE 3 . 802
408. THE OTTER 304
409. SKULL OF THE OTTER 304
410. THE WEASEL 304
411. THE STOAT 305
412. THE POLECAT 305
413. SKULL OF THE HARE 0
414. THE INCISOR TOOTH OF A RODENT 3. 07
415. THE SQUIRREL 3. 08
416. THE HARVEST MOUSE AND ITS NEST 309
417. THE LONG-TAILED FIELD MOUSE 3. 10
418. THE WATER RAT 810
419. THE COMMON SHIEW 11
420. THE WATER SHREW 3 . 811
421. THE HEDGEHOG ** 812
422. THE FORTRESS AND GALLERIES OF THE MOLE 18
423. THE MOLE 3 814
424. SKELETON OF THE BAT 316
425. BAT ON THE WING 316
426. THE BAT AT REST .. 817
427. Ceramium diaphanunm, with portions magnified 326
428. Ectocawpus siliculosus, with Spore-cases enlarged 329
429. Elctocaipus granulosus, with a portion magnified 329
430. Sp'oronchuis pedlnculatus 0 380
431. THE COMMON MUSHROOM .
432. COLLECTING THE SPORES .33
4838 THE FLY AGARIC (A2manita i ussaria) 3 338
434. OYSTER MUSHROOM (Agaricus oetreatus) 8883
435. Agaricus vernus. Size much reduced 884
436. Agaricus odorus o 334
437. PARASOL MUSHRoos (Agaricus procerus) 334
488. THE GIGANTIC POLYPORUS (P. gigateius) 834
439. Armillaria malleus 835
440. Pholiota squarrosa 35
441. THE HEDGEHOG HYDNUM (H. erinaceum,) 335
442. THE COMMON PUFF-BALL (Lycoperdonpy0'iformirta) 335
443. Clavaria fusiformis 836
444. THE Lum n BOLETUS (B. luridus). Section 836







LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xix
FIG. PAGE
445. THE STINK-HORN OR STINKING MOREL 83
446. Ecidium berberidis-A DUST FUNaUS, ON A LEAF AND A FLOWER;
ALSO ITS Cups, magnified 837
447. COMMON DUNG MOULD 337
448. COLLECTING THE SPORES OF A FUNGUS 339
449. Sphagnum acutifolium 842
450. Encalypta vulgaris .. 842
451. Gimnmia pulvinata 342
452. Grimmia apocaa 848
458. Dicranum squarrosum 34. 3848
454. Orthotrichumn affine 343
455. Orthotrichum Lyellii 344
456. Zygodon .. 344
457. Bartramia pomiformis 344
458. -Bartramia fontana 844
459. Bryum capillare 844
460. Polytrichum piliferum 345
461. Fissidens brjoides 846
462. Fissidens taxifolius 846
468. Leucodon sciuroides 846
464. Anomodon viticulosum 846
465. Leskea polycarpa .. 847
466. Hypnum purum .. .. 847
467. Hypnumpiliferum 848
468. Hypnum triquetrum 848
4609. Hypnum cupressiforme 849
470. THE MOUNTAIN POLYPODY (Polypodium phegopteris) 350
471. THE THREE-BRANCHED POLYPODY (P. dryopteris) 850
472. THE BLACK SPLEENWORT FERN (Asplenium nigrunm). Portion of
the Plant, showing the Rhizome, and a Frond with Spores 351
473. THE NORTHERN HARD FERN (Blechnum boreale) 852
474. THE ALTERNATE SPLEENWORT (Asplenium alternifolium) 352
475. THE GREEN SPLEENWORT (Asplenium viride) 853
476. TRANSVERSE SECTION THROUGH THE STEM OF A FERN 353
477. THE SMOOTH ROCK SPLEENWORT (Aspleniumfontanum) 854
478. THE WALL RUE (Asplenium ruta-muraria) 354
479. AN ARRANGEMENT FOR THE PROPAGATION OF FERNS 855
480. A YOUNG FERN SPRINGING FROM THE PROTHALLIUM. Natural size 355
481. THE COMMON MAIDEN-HAIR (Adiantum capillus-veneris) 856
482. THE HOLLY FERN (Aspidium loncditis) 856
483. THE HAIRY WOODSIA (Woodsia alpina) 357
484. THE OSMUND ROYAL (Osmunda regalis) 857
485. SECTION OF THE BUTTERCUP (Banunculus acris) 3860
486. PISTIL OF THE LILY 860
487. RHIZOME OF SOLOMON'S SEAL 63. 8
488. SIMPLE LEAF OF THE OAK 868
489. COMPOUND LEAF OF ACACIA 868






xx LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
FIG. PAGE
490. CAPSULE OF POPPY 865
491. CAPSULE OF PRIMULA 865
492. POD OF THE PEA 365
493. SILIQUA OF WALLFLOWER 365
494. SAMARA or MAPLE 865
495. Box FOR HERBARIUM SHEETS 867
496. A YOUNG BEAN PLANT 3 869
497. MARSH MARIGOLD 370
498. TRAVELLER'S JOY 870
499. THE WALLFLOWER 70
500. COMMON CHICKWEED 871
501. MOUSE-EAR CHICKWEED 871
502. COMMON STONECROP 3 . 372
503. COMMON HOUSELEEK 372
504. COMMON HEMLOCK 872
505. WILD CARROT .. 372
506. FOOL'S PARSLEY 8373
507. COMMON SOW-THISTLE 873
508. DEAD NETTLE .. 374
509. WHITE HOREHOUND 374
510. SCORPION GRASS 375
511. COMMON BORAGE 375
512. COMMON LOOSE-STRIFE 3 875
513. PRICKLY SALTWORT 376
514. GLASSWORT 376
515. CURLED DOCK 76 87
516. MAN ORCHIS 877
517. STAR OF BETHLEHEM 877
518. BUTCHER'S BROOM 377
519. EXPANDED SPIKELET OF THE OAT, WITH A FERTILE AND A
BARREN FLOWER 379
520. FERTILE FLOWER OF THE OAT, SHOWING THE THREE ANTHERS
AND THE FEATHERY STIGMAS 380
521. SECTION OF THE OAT-SEED 380
522. THE SPLIT LEAF-SHEATH OF A GRASS 380
523. 'iHE COMMGON OAK (Quercus edlunculata) 385
524. THE SESSILE-FRUITED OAK (Q. sessiliflora) 385
525. LEAVES, FLOWER, AND FRUIT OF THE BEECH (Fagus sylvatica). 886
526. THE SWEET CHESTNUT (Castenea vesca) 386
527. THE HAZEL (Co]ylus avellana) 8. 386
528. THE HORNBEAM (Ostrya vulgaris) 886
529. THE COMMON ELM (Ulmus campestris) 87
530. THE WHITE POPLAR (Populus alba). Leaf and Flowers 387
531. LEAF AND FLOWERS OF THE BLACK POPLAR (P. nigra) 887
532. THE WHITE WILLOW (Salix alba) 887
533. THE BROAD-LEAVED SALLOW (S. caprea) 888
584. THE OSIER (S. viminalis) 888







LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xxi

FIG. PAGE
585. THE COMMON BIRCH (Betula alba) 888
586. THE ALDER (Alnus glutinosa) 888
537. THE ASH (Fraxinus excelsior) 889
588. THE YEW (Taxus baccata) 889
539. THE LARCH (Larix communis) 889
540. THE SCOTCH FiR (Pinus sylvestris) 389
541. THE COMMON MAPLE (Acer campestre) 390
542. THE SYCAMORE (Acer pseudoplatanus) 890
543. THE HORSE-CHESTNUT (zEsculus hippocastanum) 390
544. THE SPINDLE-TREE (Euonymus Europea) 390
545. THE SLOE OR BLACKTHORN (Prunus spinosa) 891
546. THE Box (Buxus sempervirens) 91
547. GEOLOGIST'S HAMMER 894
548. DUCK'S-HEA HAMME 94
549. GEOLOGIST'S PICK 894


















REFERENCES TO PLATES



PLATE I (Frontispiece)-BUTTERFLIES

1. SWALLOW-TAIL (Papilio machaon).
2. COMMON BLUE (Polyommatus alexis). Male.
3. BROWN ARGUS (Polyommatus agestis).
4. ADONIS BLUE (Polyommnatus adonis).
5. CLOUDED SULPHUR (Colias hyale).
6. BRIMSTONE (Gonepteryx rhamni).
7. CLOUDED YELLOW (Colias edusa).
8. ORANGE-TIP (Euchloe cardamines). Under side of male.
9. ,, ,, ,, Upper side of male.
10. SILVER-WASHED FRITILLARY (Argynnis paphia).
11. GREASY OR MARSH FRITILLARY (Melitcea artemis).
12. DUKE OF BURGUNDY FRITILLARY (Nemeobius lucina).


PLATE II-DRAGON-FLIES

1. zEshna grandis. 4. Libellula depressa. Male.
2. Cordulegaster annulatus. 5. Calopteryx virgo.
3. Agrion minium. I 6. Agrion puella. Male.


PLATE III-BUTTERFLIES

1. RED ADInsiI (Vanessa atalanta).
2. LARGE SKIPPER (Pamphila sylvanus).
3. S-MALL SKIPPER (Pamphila linea).
4. CoMim (Grapta C. album).
5. SMALL TORTOISESHELL (Vanessa urtice).
6. PAINTED LADY (Cynthia cardui).
7. CHALK-HILL BLUE (Polyonmmatus corydon).






xxiv REFERENCES TO PLATES

8. CHALK-HILL BLUE (Polyommatus corydon). Male.
9. SMALL COPPER (Chrysophanus phlceas).
10. PEACOCK (Vanessa lo).
11. CAMBERWELL BEAUTY (Vanessa Antiopa).


PLATE IV-MOTHS

1. CRIMSON UNDERWING (Catocala sponsa).
2. OAK-EGGAR (Bombyx quercus). Male.
3. EMPEROR MOTH (Saturmia carpini). Male.
4. COMMON TIGER (Chelonia caja).
5. SIX-SPOT BURNET (Anthrocera filipendule).
6. CINNABAR MOTH (Callimorpha TJacobe).
7. BRIMSTONE MOTH (Rumia cratcegata).
8. MOTTLED UMBER (Hibernia defoliaria).
9. PEACH-BLOSSOM (Thyatira batis).
10. ELEPHANT HAWK (Chcerocampa elpenor).
11. POPLAR HAWK (Smerinthus populi).


PLATE V-MOTHS

1. SCARLET TIGER (Callimorpha dominula).
2. ANGLE-SHADES (Phlogophora meticulosa).
3. BUFF-TIP (Pygara bucephala).
4. BORDERED WHITE (Fidonia piniaria).
5. WoOD TIGER (Chelonia plantaginis).
6. LAPPET MOTH (Lasiocampa quercifolia).
7. CANARY-SHOULDERED THORN (Ennomos tiliaria).
8. SCALLOPED OAK (Crocalls elinguaria).
9. YELLOW UNDERWING (Tryphcena pronuba).
10. LIME HAWK (Smerinthus tilice).
* 11. SPURGE HAWK (Deilephila euphorbice).


PLATE VI-MARINE SHELLS

1. VARIABLE SCALLOP (Pecten various .
2. TELLEN (Tellina balthica).
3. TELLEN (Tellina tenuis).
4. Astarte compressa.
5. TIGER SCALLOP (Pecten tigrinus).
.6. COMMON SCALLOP (Pecten OperCularis).
7. Ceratisolen legumen.






REFERENCES TO PLATES


8. POD RAZOR. (Solen siliqua).
- 9. Tapes pullastra.
10. SABUE RAZOR (Solen ensis).



PLATE VII-MARINE SHELLS


Donax.
Tapes Virgineus.
Tapes aureus.
EDIBLE MUSSEL (AMytilus edulis).
TORTOISESHELL LIMPET (Acinea testuidinalis).


Under side.
TTU ia


11 1, 1, 1, paper s
HORSE MUSSEL (1Modiola modiolus).
SMOOTH LIMPET (Patella pellucida).
CowRY (Cyprcea Europta).
COMMON GAPER OR OLD MAID (Mya arenaria).
SUNSET SHELL (Psammobia Ferroensis).
COMiON LIMPET (Patella vulgata). Under side of shell.
COMMON Top (Trochus zizyplhinus).


14.t
15. Three figures of the variable Dog Periwinkle (Purpura lapillus).
16.

PLATE VIII-LAND AND FRESH-WATER SHELLS


1. EDIBLE SNAIL (Helix
pomatia).
2.
3. Three figures of Helix
S4. nemoralis.
5. } Two figures of Helix hor.
6. J tensis.
7. Helix pisana.
8. SWAN MUSSEL (Anodonta
cygnea).
9. GARDEN SNAIL (Helix as-
persa).


10. Planorbis corners.
11. Helix lapicida.
12. Bulimus montanus.
13. Limncea peregra.
14. Helix virgata.
15. Helix cantiana.
16. Limncea stagnalis.
17. Paludina vivipara.
18. Helix abustormm.


PLATE IX-BIRDS' EGGS


1. SPOTTED FLYCATCHER.
2. WOODCHAT.


3. NIGHTINGALE.
4. ROBIN.


XXV


e.






BEFEBENCES TO PLATES


5. MISSEL THRUSH.
6. SONG THRUSH.
7. BLACKBIRD.
8. FIELDFARE.
9. WHEATEAR.
10. REDSTART.
11. REED WARBLER.
12. SEDGE WARBLER.
13. LESSER WHITETHROAT.
14. BLACKCAP.
15. CHIFF-CHAFF.
16. WREN.


1. SWALLOW.
2. CUCKOO.
3. ROOK.
4. CROW.
5. JACKDAW.
6. JAY.


17. GREAT TIT.
18. BLUE TIT.
19. LONG-TAILED TIT.
20. WHITE WAGTAIL.
21. CRESTED LARK.
22. SHORT-TOED LARK.
23. GREENFINCH.
24. REED BUNTING.
25. YELLOW BUNTING.
26. GOLDFINCH.
27. CHAFFINCH.


PLATE X-BIRDS' EGGS

7. SPARROW HAWK.
8. KESTREL.
9. RINGED PLOVER.
10. SNIPE.
11. BLACK TERN.
12. COMMON TERN.


PLATE XI-SEAWEEDS


1. CHANNELLED FUCUs (Fucus
canaliculatus).
2. SERRATED FUCUS (Fucus I
serratus).
3. DULCE 7 (Rhodomenia pal-
mata).
4. 'IRISH Moss'. (Chondrus
crispus).


5. Padina pavonia.
6. Wormskioldia sanguine.
7. Gracillaria compressa.
8. Plocamium coccineum.
9. Corallina officinalis.
10. Ulva latissima.
11. Enteromorpha compressa.
12. Callithamnion.


PLATE XII-MOSSES


1. Hypnum rutabulun.
2. Hlypnum tamariscinum.
3. Mnium undulatumn.
4. Mnium subglobosum.
5. Polytrichum formosum.


Dicranum scoparium.
Funaria hygrometrica.
Bartramia fontana.
Sphagnum cymbifolium.
Atrichum undulatum.






REFERENCES TO PLATES


PLATE XIII-FERNS

1. COMMON HART'S-TONGUE (Scolopendrium vulgare).
2. COMMON POLYPODY (Polypodium vulgare).
3. BLADDER FERN (Cystopteris).
4. COMMON BRACKEN (Pteris aguilina).
5. MALE FERN (Lastrea filix-mas).
6. LADY FERN (Athyriumfilix-femtina).
7. MAIDEN-HAIR SPLEENWORT (Asplenium trichomanes).
8. SEA SPLEENWORT (Aspleninum marinum).
9. ADDER'S TONGUE (Ophioglossum vulgatum).
10. MOONWORT (Botrychium lunaria).



PLATE XIV-GBASSES


MEADOW FOXTAIL.
DOGSTAIL.
CATSTAIL.
HAIR GRASS.
MEADOW FESCUE.


6. FINE BENT-GRASS.
7. QUAKING GRASS.
8. DARNELL.
9. RYE GRASS.
10. COCK'S-FOOT.


PLATE XV-GRASSES


MEADOW SOFT.
CANARY GRASS.
MILLET GRAss.
WILD OAT.
WHEAT GRASS.


6. WALL BARLEY.
7. BROME GRASS.
8. COUCH GRASS.
9. COMMON SEDGE.
10. WATER-SWEET.


PLATE XVI-WILD FLOWERS

PRIMROSE (Primula idlgaris).
SCENTED VIOLET (Viola odorata).
WOOD ANEMONE (Anemone nemorosa).
PURPLE ORCHIS (Orchis mascula).
WILD HYACINTH (Hyacinthus nonscriptus).
PURPLE CLOVER (Trifolium pratense).


xxvii






REFERENCES TO PLATES


7. DEADLY NIGHTSHADE (Atropa belladonna).
8. WATER CROWFOOT (Ranunculus aguatilis).
9. BRooM (Sarothamnmis scoparius).
10. AaUM (Arum maculatum).



PLATE XVII-WILD FLOWERS

1. DOG ROSE (Rosa carina).
2. HONEYSUCKLE (Lonicera),
3. FOXGLOVE (Digitalis pumnurea)
4. BITTER VETCH (Lathyrum macrorhizus).
5. CoBN Popry (Papaver rheas).
6. FORGET-ME-NOT (Myosotis Ipalustris).
7. STONECROP (Sedum Anglicum).
8. SCABIOUS (Scabiosa columbaria).
9. CORN BLUEBOTTLE (Ocntaurea cyanus).
10. BITTERSWEET (Solanum dulcamara).


PLATE XVIII-WILD FLOWERS

1. CORN MARIGOLD (Chrysanth7emum seget umr).
2. LESSER BINDWEED (Convolvulus arvensis).
3. SUNDEW (Drosera rotundifolia).
4. BIRD'S FOOT (Ornithopuls perpusillus).
5. BLUE SPEEDWELL (Veronica chamcedrys).
6. PIMPERNEL (Anagallis arvensis).
7. MALLOW (Malva sylvestris).
8. YELLOW TOADFLAX (Linaria vulgaris).
9. Ins (Iris pseudacorus).
10. SEA HOLLY (Eryngium maritimum).


xxviii







Errata

Plates XVI. XVII. XVIII. should be numbered XIV.
XV. XVI. to be in accordance with the references in the text.
Plates XIV. and XV. should be numbered XVII. and
XVIII.
















PART I

ANIMAL LIFE



CHAPTER I
PONDS AND STREAMS

I WILL begin by giving my readers a few hints on the collection of
the various forms of animal life to be met with in ponds and streams.
Young collectors often neglect the study of pond life. Perhaps this
may be accounted for by the fact that most of the inhabitants of the
water are not to be seen before they are caught. A butterfly on the
wing will always arouse their interest; and, even if it appears to be
only a White,' yet the probabilities that it may be a Hawthorn' or
a Bath' will often result in the insect being netted for a cursory
inspection. But when we stand on the edge of a pond, nothing in
particular attracts our attention, unless it may be that the brilliant
wings of a dragon-fly fix our gaze. We look at a dense mass of
duckweed-a screen so thick that we scarcely hope to find a living
creature in the water from which it shuts off the sun's rays. A little
careful observation will, however, show us our mistake. A small
black and shining body suddenly appears on the surface, displacing
some of the little green fronds; and after a few seconds' repose
as suddenly disappears again. Soon other signs of life become
apparent, and then probably we wish some means were at hand by
which we could search the new hunting ground.
I can strongly recommend pond hunting to a young naturalist.
There is an immense variety of living forms in fresh water. Nearly
all these are easily obtained, and generally require but little attention
in the aquarium. One single hour spent in pond hunting will
supply you with material for interesting occupation at home for
many weeks. This form of recreation has the additional advantage
















PART I

ANIMAL LIFE



CHAPTER I
PONDS AND STREAMS

I WILL begin by giving my readers a few hints on the collection of
the various forms of animal life to be met with in ponds and streams.
Young collectors often neglect the study of pond life. Perhaps this
may be accounted for by the fact that most of the inhabitants of the
water are not to be seen before they are caught. A butterfly on the
wing will always arouse their interest; and, even if it appears to be
only a White,' yet the probabilities that it may be a Hawthorn' or
a Bath' will often result in the insect being netted for a cursory
inspection. But when we stand on the edge of a pond, nothing in
particular attracts our attention, unless it may be that the brilliant
wings of a dragon-fly fix our gaze. We look at a dense mass of
duckweed-a screen so thick that we scarcely hope to find a living
creature in the water from which it shuts off the sun's rays. A little
careful observation will, however, show us our mistake. A small
black and shining body suddenly appears on the surface, displacing
some of the little green fronds; and after a few seconds' repose
as suddenly disappears again. Soon other signs of life become
apparent, and then probably we wish some means were at hand by
which we could search the new hunting ground.
I can strongly recommend pond hunting to a young naturalist.
There is an immense variety of living forms in fresh water. Nearly
all these are easily obtained, and generally require but little attention
in the aquarium. One single hour spent in pond hunting will
supply you with material for interesting occupation at home for
many weeks. This form of recreation has the additional advantage






ANIMAL LIFE


that it may be carried on, if desired, throughout the year. Even in
the month of February, when nearly all life is apparently dormant,
a dip in a stagnant pool will generally be rewarded with more or
less success ; but during the warmer months every haul will bring
to view a crowd of living creatures.

APPARATUS FOR COLLECTING IN FRESH WATER
Many and varied are the appliances recommended by different
writers for the capture, conveyance, and preservation of the speci-
mens, many being of a somewhat complicated character. But the
best of results may be obtained by the use of the most simple appli-
ances, such as may be fitted up by the most inexperienced and
unskilled.
The collector's outfit will consist of a net, a dredging-hook, a
dipping-bottle, a can, some wide-mouthed bottles, and a few tin or
zinc boxes.
As regards the net, this may be home-made or purchased.
Where the means are not very limited, a most convenient form of
folding net may be bought. This may be carried in the pocket, and
readily screwed on to the end of a stick when required for active
service. But it is possible that many of my readers may, either for
pleasure or from necessity, desire to make their own. I will there-
fore give a few hints based on my own experience.
For years I have used a net made as follows: Bend a piece of
stout iron wire into the form here represented. Push the two
straight ends into a piece of strong brass tubing, about three-eighths










FIG. 1. FIG. 2.

of an inch in internal diameter, and three inches long. Then, by
hammering the end of the tube, the wire is held in a firm grip.
The other end of the tube receives a tough stick about three or






PONDS AND STREAMS


. four feet long. A strip of stout calico is now sewn round the iron
ring, and to this is attached a net of gauze or book muslin, about
eighteen inches deep, conical in form, but with a rounded end.
A metal y (fig. 3) may be obtained at the dealer's
for a few pence, and with this a net frame may be fitted /
up in a very short time. All that is necessary is to
bend a piece of cane of suitable diameter, and push
it well into. the two narrow arms of the Y. Or a i
strong y-shaped twig may be cut, and the ends of a
strong cane or piece of wire firmly bound to two of FIG. 3.
its arms by fine copper wire; the other arm being
provided with a ferrule by which it is attached, when required, to
a walking-stick.
A dredging-net is often very useful, especially when the ponds
or streams to be searched are rather large. This may be simply an
ordinary net, the metal frame of which is thicker than usual-say
about three-sixteenths of an inch-and flattened on the off side.
The net is tied to a strong string four or five yards long. The
other end of the string being tied to the wrist, the net is skil-
fully thrown out into the water so that it falls flat on the surface, and
then pulled in along the bottom. I have often made the same net
serve both purposes, changing string for stick, or vice versd, as cir-
cumstances required.
When the pond is crowded with weeds it may often be an
advantage to weight the off side of the net with a piece of lead.
During several summers I have paid many visits to a certain
favourite pond about eight yards in diameter. Here I have always
commenced operations by scraping the banks by
means of the stick and net. Then, exchanging stick
for string, I have searched the less accessible parts,
by which means I have undoubtedly secured many
a victim driven from the borders by my previous
attacks.
The dredging-hook is very useful for collecting
the plants which thrive in our ponds, and which
add so much to the beauty of our aquaria. It
may, I believe, be purchased, but is easily made. Fi. 4. -A
Mine consists of three butcher's galvanised meat- DRED)GING-HOOK.
hooks soldered together; but they may be bound
together by means of copper wire. Soldering is such a useful art
that even the naturalist should learn it. Sometimes the ferrule of
12






ANIMAL LIFE


his net splits, his bait can springs a leak, or the joint of his y gives
way ; and the repairing occupies only a few minutes.
A dipping-bottle is exceedingly useful, especially when the
collector is the fortunate possessor of a good microscope. It con-
sists of a wide-mouthed bottle of medium size, with a spreading
rim. A stout wire ring is fastened securely round the neck, and the
twisted ends of this serve to fix the arrangement to a stick.
Stagnant water usually teems with the lower forms of life, both
animal and vegetable; and with the aid of the dipping-bottle
samples of water may be collected from different parts of a pond.
When it is intended to search for microscopic objects, a hand mag-
nifying lens should always form part of the equipment. Each
sample of water removed from the pond is held up to the light and
examined with the lens. If abundant signs of life are visible, the
greater portion is gently poured back into the pond, and the lower
richer part, with all its sediment, put into a collecting-bottle for
further examination at home.
Many interesting low forms of life may be secured by gently
scraping the submerged surfaces of piles
and other objects. Of course, this may
be done by means of the simple dipping-
bottle and stick. My own plan, however,
which seems to be in every way satisfac-
tory, is this: A small tin funnel with
a wide tube fits firmly in the cork of a
wide-mouthed bottle. Two other holes
in the cork are covered with fine muslin
ne and a ferrule soldered to a metal band
round the neck of the bottle serves to fix
I |the whole to a stick.
A As the funnel moves upwards in the
water, gently scraping the surface to
which it is applied, a current of water sets
downwards into the bottle, afterwards
escaping through the muslin covering the
FIGo. 5.-BOTTLE FOR COL- holes in the cork. In this way a large
LECTING Low Fo OI s OF quantity of water may be strained through
PoND LIFE. the apparatus, while the little living beings
passing down the funnel are continually
adding to the density of the population.
After a time the cork is removed, and the contents poured into







PONDS AND STREAMS 5

the collecting-bottle. The little animals and microscopic plants thus
collected will afford no end of amusement and instruction for many
months. They require no further attention beyond the occasional
addition of a little water to replace the loss by evaporation, and
they will often be found to increase prodigiously in their new
home.
The can previously mentioned may be the ordinary angler's bait
can, or, as a substitute, a few smaller tin boxes with perforated
covers. The perforations need not be many or large, and are easily
made by knocking the point of an awl through the metal. These
are used for the larger aquatic animals, such as.the newts and
tritons. It is quite a mistake to suppose that these require a large
supply of water during their transmission. Each box should con-
tain a little of some kind of water weed to keep the specimens
damp, the weeds themselves being useful for study, and also for
stocking the aquaria. Smaller boxes should also be taken for
water beetles, larvm, water spiders, &c.; and great care must be
taken to isolate the voracious kinds. The carnivorous beetles and
larTm should not only be separated from the harmless creatures
which they so readily attack, but they themselves should not be
crowded together; otherwise the collector may find, on his return, a
number of dead insects, some having been even reduced to fragments
by the powerful jaws of their fellow-captives.
When all the above requisites have been properly prepared, only
one thing remains to be done: see that you have provided ample
accommodation for the expected enormous and sudden increase of
your family. The new abodes may consist of glass jars, tumblers,
bell jars, pans, or anything that will hold water. My plan is to
keep a large bell jar for the newts and tritons, another for the
water beetles and carnivorous larvae, a third for the less voracious
insects and water spiders, and a fourth and smaller one for the
microscopic specimens. As a rule, small fishes may inhabit the same
water as the newts, and aquatic snails may be distributed in all.
Pond hunting is not by any means a drawing-room sport, and
one must not be too careful about his outward appearance in its
pursuit. Most ponds and many streams are surrounded by low,
marshy banks; so that it is often impossible to keep oneself free
from mire during the search. It is therefore absolutely necessary
that the collector be provided with a thick and sound pair of boots,
not polished, but well greased. Starched cuffs become an abomina-
tion, and even the coat-sleeves will generally acquire a consider-






ANIMAL LIFE


able accumulation of bottom mud, often black and highly odorous.
The young naturalist, therefore, if wise, will leave his 'Sunday
clothes' at home, and he will take care to wear a good pair of
leather leggings.
THE AQUARIUM
Perhaps it will be advisable at this stage to give some hints on
the selection and management of aquaria. Where the main object
of the collector is to become acquainted with aquatic life in all its
phases-to obtain as great a variety as possible for purposes of
observation and study-the large single aquarium is a great mistake.
A number of vessels will have to be provided, in order that the
various kinds of animals may be effectually protected from their
enemies. But it is not necessary that the vessels be of any parti-
cular or fashionable form. Of course, a large aquarium is very
serviceable for fishes and newts, but many of the lower forms are
much more easily managed in small vessels. For purposes of study
one can do nothing better than fix a shelf across a window that is
not exposed to the full blaze of the sun, and arrange on this one or
two good-sized vessels for the larger specimens, and several smaller
ones to contain the others.
We can quite understand, however, that a strong desire to possess
a larger and really ornamental affair may exist, and then the design
and general appearance becomes a most important consideration,
especially if the proposed aquarium is to occupy a place in the
drawing or dining room. The shape of the vessel is, to a certain
extent, a matter of taste ; but as success will be in proportion to the
maintenance of natural conditions, we should make it our aim, as
far as is consistent with appearance and other circumstances, to
imitate the natural pond or stream.
All natural waters receive their supply of light from the top only;
hence the animals which are kept in the inverted bell-jar aquarium
are at once placed in an unnatural condition, for they receive the
light from all sides. Yet my own experience shows that this form
is not by any means unsatisfactory if properly managed.
The rectangular form of aquarium is far preferable to the bell,
for it does not magnify and distort the specimens. Such aquaria
are rather expensive, but are easily made by those who possess a
little mechanical ingenuity. A framework is made by soldering
together some pieces of angle zinc.' This may then be soldered to
a bottom of sheet zinc, supported on a slab of wood, and the sides






PONDS AND STREAMS


and ends fixed with a good cement. The ends may be of slate, the
front of thick glass, and the back either of glass or slate.
The selection and application of the cement, however, requires
considerable care, since a very small leakage may prove a great
inconvenience, particularly with an indoor aquarium. I have seen
scores of recipes for stopping and fixing the glass, and have tried
several of them, but still feel doubtful as to which is the best. The
following is a good one: Mix two parts each of litharge, plaster of
Paris, and very fine sand, and one part of powdered resin. Then
make this into a putty with boiled linseed oil and a little driers.
This cement will take a few weeks to harden.
Some writers recommend an aquarium which widens out at the
top; the object being to expose a larger surface of water to the air.
I cannot regard this form as a very sightly one, and the necessity
for the widened top disappears when the aquarium is properly
stocked. It may be observed, however, that all aquaria, of what-
ever form, should be wide in proportion to their depth.
Now, supposing that the vessel is chosen and procured, how shall
we proceed to make the necessary preparations ? First obtain from
a neighboring pond or stream a sufficiency of bottom mud to form
a layer about two inches deep. I have seen ordinary garden soil
recommended for this purpose, but it is more likely that the mud
taken from the pond or stream whence we are to obtain our stock
of animal and vegetable life will satisfy the requirements of the in-
habitants than soil obtained from any other source.
We are now ready for the aquatic plants; and here again we
must study the requirements of Nature. Some thrive best in swift
waters, and others in sluggish streams and pools. The same remark
applies also to the animal life, and especially to fishes. Therefore,
specimens that have been caught in running water should be kept
under the same conditions; and creatures obtained from ponds
should not have frequent changes of water.
Some aquatic plants have well-developed roots, and require the
presence of either a muddy or a sandy soil; others, like the duck-
weeds, require no soil, but float on the surface of the water, deriving
all their nourishment direct from the air and the water. The former
should be properly set in the soil of the aquarium, which is then, if
at all muddy, covered with a moderately thick layer of well-washed
sand or shingle. The water is now allowed to run in gently till it
reaches within an inch or two of the rim.
If the side of the aquarium which is turned to a window is of






ANIMAL LIFE


glass, it may be advisable to cut off much of the light entering at
that side.
A few rather large stones, loosely piled one on the other, are also
useful in providing hiding-places for such animals as require more
or less seclusion.
It will sometimes be necessary to cover the top of the aquarium
with gauze to prevent the escape of some of the captives. Minnows,
for example, will often take a vigorous suicidal leap into the air,
and developing frogs, leeches, and the pupa of the dragon-fly
crawl up the glass above the water. But the watchful aquarium-
keeper will soon learn for himself when the gauze covering is
necessary.
We have now a very important matter to decide. Supposing
our aquarium to be stocked with pond life, how often will it be
necessary to change the water? Such a question is not to be
answered satisfactorily in a few words. We are all acquainted with
the ordinary fish-globe,' with its contracted top, stocked with a
few gold-fish, and placed on a table or suspended in front of a
window by way of ornament. And who has not seen the poor fish
skimming the surface of the water and gasping for want of air ?
The form of the vessel is such as to prevent the free aeration of the
water, and no means have been arranged for a renewal of air.
Fishes and all gill-breathing animals are dependent entirely on the
supply of air dissolved in the water; and without air they die as we
should. This being the case, we should always keep up a sufficiency
of dissolved air in an aquarium which contains gill-breathers.
Now, this may be done in two or three different ways. There
may be frequent changes of water, or the same water may be
agrated by some mechanical contrivance; or, thirdly, an appro-
priate amount of vegetable life may be introduced to maintain
what is called the balance of life.
The first of these methods is exceedingly troublesome, especially
when the aquarium is small and the demand on the air large; for,
in this case, a change may be necessary every day; and, once for-
gotten, we are sadly reminded of our neglect by the sight of our
lifeless pets floating on the surface.
The second method is more satisfactory, but a little ingenuity
is required in fitting up the necessary apparatus. Either a current
of air is to be forced into the water, or a fine jet of the latter
is sent into the air. The better plan is to supply a very fine
fountain jet from a small cistern placed high enough to give the







PONDS AND STREAMS


required pressure. A waste pipe is not necessary, for the little
cistern may be refilled with water from the aquarium.
Personally, I have no delight in either of the above methods; for,
where the lack of vegetable life renders one or the other necessary,
the aquarium cannot be a very attractive object. The chief interest
doubtless lies in the varied movements and habits of the animated
creatures, but the general appearance is due principally to the beau-
tiful verdure and the graceful form of the plant life.
I will now point out a better way of snrating the water. Pro-
bably you know that plants as well as animals require air. But
there is this difference: Animals inhale the oxygen that is in the air,
and breathe out carbonic acid gas, while green plants take in carbonic
acid gas and give out oxygen. If, then, care be taken in regulating
the supply of aquatic plants, the animals will provide these plants
with carbonic acid gas, and in return will receive from the plants
the oxygen that they need; and the water of the aquarium need
seldom be changed. I have at the present time three vessels which
have had no change of water for over four months, and yet the
health of the animal inmates leaves nothing to be desired.
An aquarium should be put in a good light, but should never be
exposed to the direct rays of the sun for any length of time. Low
forms of vegetable life (Confervc) will make their appearance as a
green growth on the glass, especially if the light is strong. A little
of this does not mar the beauty of the scene at all; but it sometimes
becomes so dense as to be almost opaque. This growth may be re-
tarded considerably by reducing the intensity of the light. A sheet
of white or blue tissue paper pasted on the side of the glass which
receives the stronger light will prove very effective.
One word more about aquaria: let me recommend you to
depart from the old-fashioned plan of stocking your aquarium with
a few fish only, as if fishes were the sole inhabitants of the water.
Fishes are very interesting, some of them particularly so; but,
strange to say, those which exhibit the greatest variety of interesting
habits are seldom to be seen in aquaria. The eternal gold-fish is a
little overdone. Its colour is too bright when not relieved by a
blending of less gaudy tints, to be constantly before one's eyes ; and
its movements are monotonous compared with the lively and
variable antics of many of our little finny friends. An aquarium
should be always a changing scene; and every outing should be the
means of providing new items in the entertainment,






ANIMAL LIFE


MAKING A START

We are now on our way, and we naturally inquire, Which are
the best kinds of ponds in which to search ? My advice is: 'Try
all.' It frequently happens that a most unpromising pond or ditch
is full of interesting beings. Sometimes the black mud and brown
frothy scmn are very uninviting, and the odour evolved on disturbing
the water repels us; yet a few dips may be rewarded by many a
beautiful specimen. On the other hand, a pond of clear water,
adorned with the lovely flowers and leaves of the water-lily and
crowfoot, may be comparatively barren. Frequently we can see the
objects we require, and aim straight at them with the net; at other
times we dip indiscriminately, and wonder what the result will be.
It is not wise, as a rule, to spend much time in walking round a
pond merely looking for moving forms at which to strike. Your
chances of success are much greater if you are constantly dipping
as you go. On reaching the bank of a pond, put out your net as
far as you can, and strike the surface of the water perpendicularly
with your net. Then drag it in along the bottom, being careful to
bring it well home on the vegetation, if any, bordering the banks.
Always make for tufts of weeds and submerged grasses, for many
animals seek shelter under these, especially after the water has been
disturbed by a few strokes of the net. After a few dips, turn out the
whole contents of the net-mud, weeds, snails, worms, beetles,
larvae, spiders, and a host of other things -on a piece of bare ground;
and, after turning up a few inches of your coat-sleeves, proceed to
examine the mass most carefully, and put in boxes the specimens
selected.
LEECHES

It is probable that most of my readers do not possess such a
luxury as a compound microscope, and for this reason I have thought
it advisable to pass over all the interesting microscopic inhabitants
of our ponds and streams. This I do with very great reluctance,
since these minute creatures are quite as beautiful and just as enter-
'taining as the more conspicuous aquatic animals. Let those who
have a microscope make a free use of the dipping-bottle I have de-
scribed, and they will find innumerable treasures in the stagnant
pool; and even those who have no better magnifier than an ordinary
pocket lens may derive much pleasure and profit in watching the
movements of these low forms of life,







PONDS AND STREAMS


We shall start, then, with the leeches, and pass from these to
the higher aquatic animals.
Several varieties' of leeches inhabit our ponds and streams.
They are all soft-bodied animals, divided into a number of ring-like
segments like the common earthworm. They are parasites, deriving
all their nourishment by sucking the juices from the bodies of living
animals.
The Horse Leech is very common in our country. Many are
the fabulous stories which have been told about this harmless
creature, many ignorant persons considering it to be so poisonous
that nothing would induce them to handle one. It certainly has
teeth, but these are made of gristle only, and could not penetrate
the thinnest human skin. Nevertheless, these weapons can easily
wound the flesh of the soft-bodied animals on which the leech feeds.
It lives principally on worms and grubs; but, failing these, it does
not hesitate to suck the blood of its own species. One of my cap-
tive leeches was bold enough to enter the shell of a large fresh-
water mussel; but it was a fatal venture. The mussel snapped its
shells together with a powerful grip that almost severed the leech's
body in twain. When the horse leech wishes to swim, it flattens
its body into a tape by means of a series of muscles which pass
from the upper to the lower surface. It then moves onward with
graceful undulating motions.
The Medicinal Leech, once common with us, but now rare, is
larger than the horse leech, and may be known by the broken










Fis. G.-THE MEDICINAL LEECH.

yellow bands along its back. Its teeth are hard and sawlike, and are
worked with a rasping motion by a set of powerful muscles. It has
ten eyes, arranged in one curved line.






ANIMAL LIFE


FRESH-WATER MOLLUSCS

The term 'shell-fish' is so unscientific that perhaps we had
better discard it altogether. The various animals included in this
category are not fish at all, nor are they even near relatives of the
finny tribe. The class name Mollusca is applied to an extensive
group of animals, all of which are characterized by a soft body,
usually inclosed in one or two shells. Most of them have not the
faintest trace of an internal skeleton.
The body of a mollusc is covered with a loose, thick, and slimy
envelope called the mantle, and this secretes the hard layer of limy
substance that forms the shell. A kind
of membrane on the floor of the mouth
bears, in many species, a large number of
little teeth, arranged in regular rows; and
FIG 7.-THE TEETH OF these constitute the rasp by which the
A MOLLUSC. creature grinds the vegetable matter on
which it feeds. Nearly all the molluscs
are aquatic, the majority of them inhabiting salt water; but some
inhabit fresh water, and must now be briefly considered.

The Fresh-water Mussel
The fresh-water mussel (Anodon), shown on Plate VIII, is com-
mon in some of our ponds and rivers. It is one of the bivalves or
two-shelled molluscs, very similar to the common edible mussel in
form and appearance, but much superior in size.
This creature is easily kept in the aquarium, and is perfectly
harmless. Let us watch its movements and habits, after having
placed it on a bed of fine sand. At first its shells remain firmly
closed, but when it feels itself out of danger it thrusts out from
between its valves a fleshy part called its foot. By means of this it
slowly turns itself over, and half buries its shells in the sand. As
it lies here with its valves gaping, we observe two open tubes slightly
protruding, and a very small quantity of carmine or other suitable
colouring matter placed gently near the Anodon will prove the
existence of two currents of water-one entering and the other leaving
its body through these tubes. By this means the gills with which
it breathes are being continually bathed with fresh water.






PONDS AND STREAMS


Fresh-water Snails

Fresh-water snails are not only ornamental, but even useful, in
the aquarium. Some of them feed on the Conferva-the green
vegetation which sometimes covers the sides of the vessel so densely-
and consequently help to keep the glass clean.
All the snails belong to the Headed Mollusca, a division charac-
terised by the possession of a distinct head, with eyes and horns, or
feelers. They are all vegetable feeders, and the 'rasp' formed by
their numerous small teeth aids them in securing their food. The
front portion of this rasp does the chief work, and is, consequently,
soon worn down; but the strip of gristle on which the teeth are set
is continually growing towards the front, thus renewing the worn
part.
The shells of snails are coiled into a spiral, due to the unequal
growth of the body, one side growing faster than the other.
The largest British water-snail is the Paludina (Plate VIII), which
sometimes reaches a length of nearly two inches. It is to be found
in the quiet nooks of many of our southern rivers, and, less abun-
dantly, in other parts. Its eyes are placed on the extremities of
short stalks. This snail brings forth its young alive, for the eggs are
hatched while yet within the body of the parent. When disturbed
it retreats within its shell, and then closes the aperture with a horny
lid operculumm), similar to that of periwinkles and whelks.
On Plate VIII you will see a figure of another large snail (Limnea
stagnalis), which is very common in stagnant pools and sluggish
streams; and the common Peregra of the same family, found in
similar situations. On the same plate you will also see a repre-
sentative of the flat spiral molluscs (Planorbis), of which there are
several species.
Sometimes water-snails lay their eggs on the glass of the
aquarium, in which case the gradual development of the young
may be easily watched with the help of a magnifying lens.
The table of classification given in the chapter on Snails and
Slugs' includes both the terrestrial and aquatic molluscs, and will
assist the beginner in the arrangement of his collection of shells.
The few hints given in the same place on the preservation of mol-
luscs also apply to the aquatic species.





ANIMAL LIFE


FRESH-WATER CRUSTACEANS

Before examining the fresh-water species of this group it will be
well to learn the general characteristics by which we may recog-
nise its members. The bodies of all the Crustacea are composed
of a number of ring-like segments jointed together, all the segments
being constructed more or less on the same general plan. Each
segment bears a pair of limbs. Sometimes two or more of these
rings are fused together so completely that the divisions are no
longer to be seen; bu in such cases the limbs always remain quite
distinct, and thus reveal the true or original number. The Crus-
taceans have no internal bony skeleton, but are protected by a skin
which has either become horny, or else hardened by limy substance.
Our common aquatic species include the Crayfish, the Fresh-
water Shrimp, Water-fleas, and Cyclops.

The Crayfish
The River Crayfish (Astacus fluviatilis), which closely re-
sembles the common lobster, is plentiful in many of our rivers. Its
skin is hardened by carbonate of lime, which is extracted from the













FIG. 8.-THE CRAYISII.

water ; and as this condition is absolutely necessary for the preser-
vation of the animal, we find crayfishes abounding most in the
rivers of limestone districts.
During the winter crayfishes spend much of their time in bur-
rows which they excavate, or in natural crevices in the banks of the
streams ; and large numbers may sometimes be dug out of these
hiding-places during the cold weather. In milder weather they






PONDS AND STRfEAMS


watch for their prey at the months of their burrows with horns ex-
tended, but dart backward with a rapid flap of their powerful tails
when danger threatens them. In summer they may be seen
walking about in shallow water during the cool hours of the evening,
but they hide themselves during the heat of the day.





























FIG. 0.-THE CRAYFISH (UNDER-SUlFACE).

Crayfishes are to be caught in a variety of ways. Baskets baited
with frogs or pieces of meat may be let down into the water and
hauled up at intervals. Like moths, they are said to be attracted
by lights during the night, and are then easily caught with a net.
But the most exciting mode of capture is that of wading in the river
and pulling the creatures out of their hiding-places by the horns;
also turning over the stones and chasing the retreating crayfish as






16 ANIMAL LIFE

it smartly flaps its tail with its face to the foe. This is the only
method I have tried myself, and recommend it as being a very
amusing and lively sport, especially as it often affords an opportunity
of testing the power of the creature's claws.
We frequently meet with crayfishes having a limb much less
than its proper size. This is generally the result of a fight-a kind
of sport in which crayfishes seem to derive as much pleasure as some
men. Again, if a limb is seriously injured, the animal snaps it off
at one of the joints above the seat of injury ; or, if caught by one of
its limbs, it will often voluntarily amputate that limb, and rapidly
retreat, leaving an inconsiderable portion of its body wriggling in
the hands of its captor. In either case a new limb is developed, and
at last becomes almost, if not quite, as large as the original.
The best way to keep crayfishes alive is to put them in a very
shallow trough with a supply of running water, and some loosely
piled stones to afford them hiding-places. As to diet, they are not
at all fastidious. They will dispose of water plants, carrots, turnips,
cabbage stalks, and other vegetables with a relish. But they are not
strict vegetarians by any means, for they will devour snails (shells
included), fish, meat, or poultry. The old hard and limy skin thrown
off during a moult' is crushed in the animal's jaws, and utilised in
the formation of a new coat of armour. The female crayfish will
even devour her own offspring; and, yet more horrible, the male
will kill and eat his own spouse I
Other Crustaccans
Every young collector who has tried his luck in small streams
must have met with the lively little Fresh-water Shrimp. A number
of these should be put into the aquarium for observation, not only
because their movements are interesting, but also on account of their
usefulness as scavengers. They are not at all particular as to diet,
and greedily devour all kinds of decomposing matter that would tend
to make the water putrid. In structure they rather closely resemble
their salt-water cousins -lobsters, shrimps, and prawns-and, like the
females of these marine relatives, the fresh-water shrimp carries her
eggs under her abdomen.
If you examine the water that has been dipped out of a stagnant
pool by simply holding it up to the light, you are almost sure to see
a number of little creatures, varying in size from a sixth of an inch
downwards, darting about actively in all directions. These are the
Water-fleas and Cyclops, both of which may be kept in an ordinary






PONDS AND STREAMS


bottle for a great length of time without the slightest attention, and
be examined at leisure with a magnifying glass. It must not be
supposed that the water-flea is in any way related to the obnoxious















FIG. 10.-A WATER-FLEA, FIG. 11.-A CYCLOPS
MAGNIFIED. CARRYING ITS EGG-SACS.

parasite of a similar name, for both it and the cyclops are crustaceans,
while the flea is an insect.


WATER SPIDERS AND MITES
Spiders and Mites, together with various other small creeping
and flying creatures, are often regarded as belonging to the insect
world, but in reality they form quite a distinct class (the Arachnidae),
differing from all insects in several important particulars. If you
examine a spider, you will see that its body is composed of two dis-
tinct parts. The foremost division consists of the head and thorax
(chest) combined, and the large and globular hinder portion-the
abdomen-is joined to this by a very slender waist. Spiders may
also be distinguished by their four pairs of legs. They all breathe
by means of a system of air-tubes, which communicate direct with
the atmosphere. The eyes, which are not compound like those of
insects, are arranged in little clusters on the front of the head. If
the reader will compare these few characteristics with those of
insects (p. 20), he will at once perceive the reason for the separa-
tion of the two creatures into distinct divisions of the animal
kingdom.






ANIMAL LIFE


The most interesting of the water spiders is undoubtedly the
Argonaut or Argyroneta, more commonly known as the water spider.
This creature was at one time quite plentiful, but is now compara-
tively scarce, owing, it is said, to the vigorous search made for it by
naturalists and the 'dealers.' We can quite understand that the
disclosures of the wonderful instincts of this spider would make it
4


FIa. 12.-WATER SPIDERS.


quite a pet with aquarium-keepers, but perhaps a lesson may be
learned from its almost wholesale destruction.
.The Argyroneta may sometimes be found among the contents
of the net, but it is also to be seen exploring the banks of ponds and
streams in search of food. It constructs a dome-shaped cell of silk
beneath the surface of the water. This cell is moored to water plants
by means of silk threads, and is fixed with its mouth downwards,






PONDS AND STREAMS


just after the fashion of a diving-bell. Having finished the construc-
tion of this little dwelling, it rises to the surface, and thrusts the
tip of its abdomen out of the water. Then, by a sharp snap of its
hindermost legs, it detaches a bubble of air; and, holding this
securely between its limbs and its hairy body, it descends to the
dome, looking like a ball of silver as it goes down, thrusts its abdo-
men under the rim, and sets the bubble free. The air is at once
caught in the cell, and, after about a dozen such journeys, sufficient
has been collected to supply the spider's wants.
The argonaut feeds on all kinds of aquatic insects, and sometimes
travels considerable distances from home in search of its prey, but
always returns to its dome to suck the juices of its victim. The meal
being over, it rests awhile with its head downwards, thus exposing
the breathing tubes of its abdomen to the air, and at the same time
keeping strict guard over its habitation.
The eggs of the argonaut are laid in a silken cocoon at the top
of the dome; and here the young; about a hundred in number, remain
till they are strong enough to construct domes for themselves.
Other water spiders frequent
our ponds and sluggish streams,
but none of them construct a
sub-aquatic home like the species
above described.
Mites resemble spiders in
form, and may generally be Q /W\A
known by their four -pairs of '
legs; but some of them, during
their earlier stages, are seen
with only two or three pairs of' I
limbs properly developed. These
little creatures are sometimes
seen swimming freely in the pFe. 13.-WATER MITE,
water, or creeping along the HIGHLY MAGNIFIED.
leaves and stems of the water
weeds; but some of them, especially when young, are unable to
get about without assistance, so they attach themselves to the bodies
of water beetles and water scorpions, thus obtaining a very con-
venient ride at an extremely low fare.






ANIMAL LIFE


FRESH-WATER INSECTS

We now come to the class Insecta, the most numerous and the
most highly developed of all the animals without backbones. These
are so widely distributed that it is almost impossible to find a place
in which they do not live. The summer air is full of their hum;
every little pond harbors its thousands, every crevice in the soil
or the solid rock provides them shelter, every tree and shrub
supplies them with food; and many seek shelter in the habitation
of man.
The term insect is applied by the uninitiated alike to all small
animals. Spiders, mites, centipedes, and woodlice are all popularly
known as insects. But let us see what an insect really is. The
name is derived from two Latin words which signify cut into,' and
itself marks one of the chief distinguishing characteristics of the
whole class, for the bodies of all insects are distinctly divided into
three parts-the head, the thorax, and the abdomen-and the de-
pression between these parts is often so deep that they appear to be
connected by a mere thread. Look, for instance, at the very slender
neck of the house-fly, and the thin waist of the wasp.
Insects also undergo changes of form (metamorphoses). Thus,
from the egg is hatched the larva or grub. This, when full grown,
changes into the pupa, or chrysalis, from which emerges the imago,
or perfect insect.
The larvre, as a rule, are voracious feeders, and grow very
rapidly, undergoing a series of moults or changes of skin. When
fully grown they cease to eat, and, after casting their skins for the
last time, change into the pupal state, usually concealing themselves
underground, or in a cocoon of silk or other material which they
construct for their protection.
The pupa is usually very inactive, and eats nothing ; but a change
is gradually taking place within it, for the organs of the perfect in-
sect are in process of formation. At last the time arrives for the
final metamorphosis. It breaks its loosened skin, struggles out of
its burrow or cocoon, and seeks a place where it can expand and
dry its wings. It is now the perfect insect or imago, endowed
usually with enormous powers of flight, and capable of propagating
its kind.
The perfect insect has always three pairs of legs, one pair being
appended to each of the three segments which form the thorax.






PONDS AND STREAMS


Many, like flies and gnats, have but one pair of wings, always jointed
to the middle segment of the thorax. Others, such as butterflies
and moths, possess two pairs, attached to the second and third seg-
ments. Others, again, like fleas and lice, have no well-developed
wings for flying.
All insects have one h
pair of antennae, with
some, very conspicuous
and exquisitely formed, -
but with others, so
small as to escape .1
general observation. F
Insects are further k
characterized by the
peculiarity of their
breathing apparatus,
which consists of a set
of air-tubes called tra-
chece, kept open by an
elastic thread coiled
spirally, just like the
wire in an india-rubber
gas-pipe, and communi-
eating with the outside
air by openings in the
skin called spiracles.
Having now ob-
served the chief m Fio. 4.-- GRASSHOPPER, SHOWING THE STRUC-
served the chiefmaTURE AND COMPOSITION OF AN INSECT'S
by which insects are BODY.
distinguished from all head; b, eye; c, antenna; d, thorax, foremost seg-
other animals, we are ment; e, foremost pair of legs; f, middle segment of
thorax; g, foremost pair of wings; h, second pair of
in a position to define legs; i, hindmost segment of thorax'; j, posterior pair
precisely what an in- Of wings; third pair of legs; ab, abdomen.
sect is. It is a jointed
animal, with a body of three divisions, undergoing metamorphoses,
having always three pairs of legs in the perfect state, and breathing
by means of trachea.
Water Bugs
We will start our observations on the aquatic insects with a brief
notice of the Water Bugs (Hydrocorisa). These have very short






ANIMAL LIFE


antennae, almost concealed beneath the eyes. The front legs are
not very long, and are capable of being folded in such a manner as
to be useful in seizing and holding their prey.
The family of Water Boatmen (Notonectidre) is very well known,
especially the Common Boatman (Notonecta glauca), which may be
found among the net haulings from ponds
ahlost everywhere. These insects are
happily named, for they are decidedly
boat-shaped, and the hind legs, which are
about twice as long as the others, stand
out at right angles like the oars of a
boat, and are provided with fringes of
stiff bristles for blades. The Latin name
is also well applied, for Notonecta means
FIG. 15.-WATER BOATMAN back swimmer,' and all the members of
(Glauca). the family swim on their backs. These
insects should be watched in the aqua-.
rium, for their movements are extremely interesting. They pad-
dle themselves about with great activity, always nicely feathering'
their oars by depressing the bristles after every stroke. When
taken out of the water they act very clumsily, sometimes walking
with their four short legs, and dragging their oars behind them,
and often giving a succession of leaps by a sharp motion of the
latter. During the night they often leap out of the water and
take short flights from pond to pond.
The boatman is a carnivorous insect, feeding on any living
thing which it is strong enough to conquer. It holds its prey firmly
with its front legs, and, after stinging it to death with its sharp beak,
proceeds to suck its juices till nothing is left but an empty skin.
The beak is also used as a weapon of defence, as I have proved
many times when holding these creatures in the hand. It will
pierce the skin, producing a sharp pain like the sting of a bee, but
not so intense.
It breathes by means of an air cavity between the wings and the
upper surface of the body, and often reposes on its back with the
tip of the abdomen just above the water, so as to allow this cavity
to communicate with the atmosphere. Sometimes, however, it will
seek another experience by turning itself over and basking in the hot
sun with its back out of the water.
The boatman spends all its three stages in the water. The larva
and pupa both resemble the perfect insect in general form, but the






PONDS AND STREAMS


larva has no wings, and those of the pupa are imperfectly developed.
The eggs may be found in spring on the leaves of water plants, and
the young larve are hatched in April or May.
The Corixa is very similar to the Notonecta in form and habits,
but is not nearly so common.












FIG. 16.- Corixa, Fio. 17.-THE WATER
SLIGHTLY ENLARGED. SCORPION.

The Water Scorpion (Nepa cinerea) forms a bold contrast to
the pretty and active boatman. It is a very unsightly and sluggish
creature, delighting in stagnant and foetid waters. The term scor-
pion has been applied to it on account of the scorpion-like appear-
ance of the front pair of legs, which are bent round towards the
mouth to serve as a pair of pincers. Its body is flat and leaf-like,
and of a colour resembling that of the mud in which it lies concealed
when watching for its prey.
When the water scorpion is at rest you will notice that it is
either on the mud in very shallow water, or on water plants near
the surface, with its long and pointed 'tail' thrust upwards so
that the end projects out into the air. This 'tail' is really a pair
of grooved rods, which, when placed together, form the creature's
breathing tube.
The scorpion does not eat its prey, but sucks out all the juices
from its body. I have before me, as I write, a vessel containing
about a dozen water scorpions, and about the same number of the
dead larve of the dragon-fly. The latter have been killed by the
scorpions, and their dead bodies, which have not lost their original
form, have been sucked till they are transparent.
Our next example of the water bugs (Ranatra linearis) is
quite a graceful object compared with the ugly Nepa. It is also





24 ANIMAL LIFE

far more active, and will sometimes boldly defend itself against its
enemies.
All insects have very light bodies, and even in cases where the
build seems bulky and heavy, a great deal of the interior is occupied


Fia. 18.-Ranatra.


by air-sacs and air-tubes. A certain group of the bugs (Hydro-
metridce) have bodies so very light that they actually run on the


FIG. 19.-A WATER GNAT
(Hydrometra argentata), MAGNIFIED.


FiG. 20.-WATER GNAT
(H. gibbifera), ENLARGED.


surface. These are the Water Gnats, which we see during the sum-
mer in almost every pond.
Let us catch one of them, and examine its wonderful feet. The
microscope shows that they are covered with fine velvety hairs.


































- 6


Plate. I.


I


AlunM~






PONDS AND STREAMS


which, like the feathers of the duck, will not become wet, and are
resisted by the water beneath them with sufficient force to support
the body of the owner. As we watch them on the water we observe
that they run on two legs as we do, using for this purpose the
middle pair. The front legs are always held out in readiness to
seize their prey, and the hind pair, projecting backwards, form the
steering gear.
Some of the water gnats fly well, and when they alight on the
surface of the water they may be seen folding their hind mem-
branous wings, and tucking them snugly under the front horny pair
with their legs.

Aquatic Nerve-winged Insects
This order, the Neuroptera or Nerve-winged Insects, is so
named on account of the delicate network of nervures which sup-
port the transparent membrane of the wings, giving them a beautiful
lace-like appearance.
The group includes the beautiful Dragon-flies (Libellulce), with
wings of such delicacy, and colours so brilliant, as to make them in
no wise inferior to the butterflies in beauty.
In many parts they are known as horse-flies or horse-stingers,
on the supposition that they are guilty of annoying horses and
cattle; but this is wrong, for they live entirely on insects, and have
no occasion to attack quadrupeds.
Several species inhabit our country, some of which are shown on
Plate I, but they resemble each other so closely in structure and
habits that the following account applies almost equally to all.
The larvae may be dredged out of our ponds, where they lie
concealed in the mud, with their large and prominent eyes on the
look-out for their prey. Their jaws are covered with a peculiar
' mask,' which can be thrust out till it is about half the length of the
body. This mask is really an enlarged lower lip, extending back-
wards on the front lower portion of the thorax, and is provided with
a pair of jaws or pincers, with which the larva seizes its prey.
Thus the creature can lie motionless and unseen in the mud, and
seize its unwary victims by simply shooting out its mask.
These larvae have a very remarkable breathing apparatus, which
serves also as a means of locomotion. The breathing cavity lies
along the back of the abdomen, and if you watch one at rest you
can see this cavity pulsating regularly. But now disturb it, and it
will make a sudden dart without moving a limb, just as if it had






ANIMAL LIFE


been pushed on by some magic force. Now put the larva in a glass
of clear water with very fine sand at the bottom, and you will
notice that each time the creature darts forward a little cloud of
sand is shot backward. Thus the secret is revealed: the larva
suddenly contracts its breathing cavity, forcibly ejecting the water
it contained, and the recoil starts the body in the opposite direction.
The pupa of the dragon-fly is very similar in appearance to the
larva, but may be distinguished at once by the short imperfect wings.
























FIG. 21.-LARVA OF DRAGON-FLY, SHOWING THE MASK, AND THE
PERFECT INSECT EMERGING FROM THE PUPA-CASE.

Unlike most pupse, it retains the voracious habits of the larva.
After the dragon-fly has spent about eleven months in its two
preparatory stages, living all the time in water, it climbs up the
stem of a water-weed to prepare for its final change. Here the
pupal skin splits along the back, and the perfect insect gradually
works itself out of its old coat, and leaves it still attached by the
claws to the plant. The perfect fly now remains suspended on the
weed till its beautiful wings have expanded and dried. This does






PONDS AND STREAMS


not take long, and, as soon as the wings are sufficiently stiff, the
dragon-fly begins its short aerial life.
The flight of some of the larger dragon-flies is so rapid that it
is very difficult to catch them on the wing. They dart about,
chasing, tearing to pieces, and devouring all kinds of insects. They
have the remarkable power of suddenly reversing the action of their
wings, so that they can stop quickly and dart backward in the air.
The jaws of the dragon-fly are very powerful. It will allow itself
to be fed while held in the hand by the wings, but probably it is
anger rather than hunger that prompts it, for it will savagely chew
up small sticks and straw when brought within its reach.


FlI. 22.-THE MAY-FLY.


Fri. 23.-LARVA or
THE MAY-FLY.


FIG. 24.-PUPA OF
THE MAY-FLY.


The May-fly (of the family Ephiemeridce) has a life-history very
similar to that of the dragon-fly, but there are a few interesting
points of difference which we will briefly note. The eggs of this
insect are allowed to fall into the water, all being united into one
little mass. The larva burrows into the mud at the bottom of the






ANIMAL LIFE


pond or stream, and there feeds on decayed vegetable matter. If
you require these larve for the aquarium, you must dredge in some
of the pond mud with your net; or you may stir up the mud with
a stick, and then capture the larve which have been driven out with
the net.
After spending about two years in the larval and pupal states,
the insect leaves the water towards the close of a day. Its skin then
splits along the back, and out comes a rather heavy-flying insect,
which is called the false-imago, and settles at once on the bark of a
neighboring tree. Here it rests for a time, after which the second
skin splits, and from it escapes the perfect and active little May-fly,
leaving the false' skin still attached to the tree. The perfect May-
fly has no mouth, and requires no food, for it is destined to live for a
few hours only It joins the merry company over the water's edge,
and dances during the evening twilight with an incessant up-and-
down motion. Before the sun rises in the morning it has finished
its frolicking, deposited its little cluster of eggs, and fallen dead, with
all its playmates of the previous evening, either on the water or near
its edge. It has lived two years in its preparatory stages, but in its
perfect form it has, perhaps, not taken one single peep at the sun.













Fro. 25.-CADDIS-FLIES.

Our last example is the Caddis-fly, known also as the Cad,
Grannum, and Cockspur. This is well known to anglers, for both
the larva and the perfect insect are admirable for bait. The fly
itself is not swift on the wing like the dragon-fly, but it runs quickly,
and it can do this even on the surface of water. The chief interest,
however, lies in the larva, which constructs a home for itself out of
materials found in the water. It cements together pieces of stick,
sand, shells, dead leaves &c. into a little tubular habitation suffi-






PONDS AND STREAMS


ciently long to completely cover its body. Then the larva, knowing
that its soft, fat, white body is highly prized as a delicacy by the
fishes and predacious larve, never ventures to expose any portion
save its hard head and its legs; but this is sufficient to enable it to
walk about, while the claspers at its hinder extremity serve to fix it
to its 'case.'
Very interesting experiments may be performed to test the
building powers of the caddis larva. If you pull a few of them gently










FIG. 26.-CADDIS CASES.

out of their homes and place them in a clean glass of water, they will
construct new ones before your eyes, and of any material you may
please to give them. In this way I have obtained pretty little tubes
composed of glass beads, small pins, shells, &c.

Aquatic Two-winged Insects
This order (Diptera) contains a large number of insects, all of
which possess two transparent and veined wings. The hind pair
of wings is not in reality absent, but only imperfectly developed.
If you catch one of these creatures-the common blow-fly or daddy-
long-legs, for example-you will easily make out a pair of rod-like
and knobbed structures just behind the bases of the wings. These
are the halteres or balancers, supposed to be of great assistance in
regulating the flight, and are the representatives of the hind pair of
wings in other insects. The Diptera are further distinguished by
the size of the eyes. These are always very large comparatively, and,
in some instances, certainly make up the greater part of the head.
Most of the two-winged insects are inhabitants of the land and
air only, but a few very interesting species are more or less aquatic
in their habits, and will therefore be best considered now.
The troublesome little gnat (Culex pipiens) is a well-known
example. Let us look briefly into its wonderful structure and






ANIMAL LIFE


history. Catch one of these sportive little creatures and place it
under the microscope, and you cannot but regard it with wonder.
Even the instrument with which it wounds us is sure to call forth
our admiration. The exquisitely tinted scales which adorn the
wings and the beautiful feathered antennae of the male are always
favourite objects with microscopists. The male gnat is a perfectly
harmless fellow; but look at the instrument of torture that arms his
mate. It is a little case, consisting of two parts, and containing a
bundle of lancets which can not only pierce through our skin, but
also inject an irritating liquid into the wound.
If you want to study the life-history of the gnat you need go no
farther than the open water-butt. Here you may see Mrs. Gnat with
her fore legs on a floating straw or weed, her middle legs resting on
the water, and her hind legs carefully arrang-
ing her new-laid eggs into the form of a little
boat. One by one she lays the eggs and
glues them together. When she has finished
Fro. 27.-EGGs OF her labours you may examine the little float-
THE GNAT, MAGNIFIED. ing boat. Ruffle the surface of the water
and it will not turn over. Turn it completely
over and it will immediately right itself again. So here it remains
on the surface, probably deriving benefit from its double exposure
to air and water.
Shortly the young .larve appear, and you may observe their
transparent bodies at the top of the water, with the breathing tubes
just above the surface. When fully grown the larva changes to the
pupa. It is now a very different creature. Its back is hunped, and
the hump is raised slightly out of the water, for it has now discarded
its old breathing tube, and receives its air supply by means of two
appendages on its back. It does not eat, nor could it if it wished,
for its pupal skin completely covers its mouth. Yet it is active,
and may be seen wriggling about in the water, alternately
straightening and bending its body.
Now comes the final transformation scene. The pupa raises its
back out of the water. The portion of the skin thus exposed be-
comes dry and splits. The rent enlarges rapidly, and the dry skin
opens so as to form a little boat. Little by little the perfect gnat
emerges from its torn garment-first the head, then the thorax, and
finally its abdomen. The gnat now raises its body till it looks as if
the boat were supplied with mast and sail. Then it leans over and
rests its front legs on the surface of the water, which is sufficiently






PONDS AND STREAMS


firm to support its fragile body. Watch it a little longer and you
can see its wings expand. Soon they are dry and rigid, and in a
moment the gnat is frolicking in the air.

"0- 'dAl


-\\


.' I-\


FIG. 28.-THE STAGES OF THE GNAT, SHOWING THE LARVA, PUPA,
PERFECT INSECT EMERGING, AND MALE AND FEMALE FLYING.






ANIMAL LIFE


Aquatic Beetles
The Coleoptera, or Horny-winged Insects, are well represented
in our ponds and streams. Dip your net into any weedy pool, and
you will almost invariably turn out a few species of water beetles.'
Put them all in a tin box or can with plenty of wet weed-no water
being necessary for their transmission-and, on arriving-home, throw
the whole into a large vessel of water, and observe them at your
leisure. You will probably find among them species ranging from
about a twelfth of an inch to considerably over an inch in length.
Observe how actively they dart about. Their bodies are smooth
and boat-shaped, so that they are enabled to move through the water
with but little resistance. The hind legs are long and fringed, and
are used exactly after the fashion of a pair of oars. Take one of the
insects in your hand, and gently lift up the horny outer wings (the
elytra), and beneath will be seen the neatly folded transparent wings
used in flying. Notice, too, their powerful horizontal jaws, and you
will not be surprised at their voracity. You may feed them on
worms, fishes, frogs, insects, or any kind of meat, raw or cooked;
but, if not well supplied, they will soon take to eating one another.
The water beetles generally remain in the pools and streams
throughout the day, but often make long excursions from one patch
of water to another during the night. In some cases their flight is
somewhat lofty, and when they find themselves vertically over a
favourable piece of water, they seem to.let themselves drop into it.
Many a water beetle has been deceived on a clear night by the re-
flection of the moon's rays from glass, and has fallen with a crash
on the roof of a greenhouse.
The finest of our carnivorous water beetles is the Great Water
Beetle (Dyticus marginalis), a very interesting object for the
aquarium. It is very common in ponds, and its voracious larva
may be dredged in with the mud and weeds. Those who keep the
Dyticus in captivity must remember its nocturnal habits. If the
aquarium contains much floating weed, the insect can get a foothold
to enable it to start its flight; but this may be prevented by a
covering of gauze. The attitude of Dyticus when at rest is a curious
one. When undisturbed it keeps at the surface, with its head in-
clined towards the bottom, and the tip of its abdomen just a little
out of the water, and thus it remains perfectly still, resting on its
oars.' It is watching for some dainty morsel with which to satisfy
its keen appetite. But why this curious attitude ? When the beetle







PONDS AND STREAMS


dives beneath the surface you will observe a bubble of air entangled
between the tip of the abdomen and the elytra, shining in a strong
light like a globule of quicksilver. This is the supply of air for its
respiration, and must, of course, be renewed at frequent intervals;
but as long as the Dyticus remains at rest with its hinder extremity
just out of the water, there is a free communication between the
outer air and the breathing space beneath the elytra.
When you grasp a Dyticus in your hand, you will almost invari-
ably find it endeavouring to slip backward between your fingers,
and, unless your skin is moderately thick, you will probably learn
why. There are a couple of sharp spines underneath the abdomen
close to the hind legs. These are directed backward, and are thus
rendered serviceable by the movement of the beetle just mentioned.













Fia. 29.-Dyticus marginalis, Fro. 30.-Dyticus marginalis,
MALE. FEMALE.

It has another peculiar means of defence. When irritated it dis-
charges a whitish fluid, of a very disagreeable odour; should any
of this touch the skin, something more than an ordinary wash will
be necessary to remove the objectionable perfume.
The larva attains a length of about two inches, and may be kept
in the same aquarium as the perfect insect. In ponds it often lies
concealed in the mud, and, being of much the same colour as this
mud, it is not easily seen by the unwary beings who live in danger
of its hungry jaws. It breathes by means of a pair of fringes wh'ch
you will observe at the end of its tail. When it dives beneath the
surface it carries down a small supply of air entangled among the
hairs of this fringe; but it often rests at the surface in an inclined
position like the perfect insect, with the tail-fringe projecting a little
above the water. The larva is as voracious as the perfect form, and
D






ANIMAL LIFE


by means of its hollow jaws it will suck the juices of its victims,
leaving little more than an empty skin.
When about to change to the pupa, it creeps up the bank of the
pond, burrows into the damp earth, and constructs a little oval cell












Fia. 31.-LARvA OF Dyticus. FiG. 32.-PUPA OF Dyticus.

in which to conceal itself. If the weather is genial, it emerges as a
perfect Dyticus in about three weeks; but if the winter winds are
near at hand it takes a long nap in the pupal state, postponing its
final change till the warmth of the spring sun penetrates into its
cell.












Fia. 33.-Agabus biguttatus, FIG. 34.-Pelobius Hermanni,
MAGNIFIED. MAGNIFIED.

The Dyticus may be taken as a type of its family (the Dyticidce),
two other members of which are figured (figs. 33 and 34); but our
limited space will not admit of even a short description.
There is another family of carnivorous water beetles-the Gyri-
nida-so named from their peculiar habit of whirling round and






PONDS AND STREAMS


round on the surface of the water. The best known among these
is the common Whirligig (Gyrinus natator), a little beetle, only a
quarter of an inch long, and of a blue-black colour. The whirligigs
are gregarious, and little com-
panies of them may often be
seen dancing a merry round in
some sheltered corner of a pond.
They feed on smaller insects,
but are themselves the prey of
the birds above and the fishes
below. In order to compensate ..
for this twofold peril, their eyes -
are divided so that they look
like four. With the upper divi. FIr. 35.- T FI. 36.-LAv.
sions they watch for enemies WHIRLIGI. OF THE WIIIRLIGIG.
above, and the lower portions
are submerged to enable them to see distinctly in the water.
Threaten them from above, and they dive rapidly to the bottom;
but if in danger of some evil-disposed fish below, they jump up


(-~)


FrI. 37.-Piceus, M


FIG. 38.-LARVA
OF PiceUS, NOT
IALE. FULLY GROWN.


FI,. 39.--PUPA OF
PiiceCls.


from their liquid playground and take to their wings. The larva,
shown in fig. 86, may be dredged out of ponds, and the cocoon may






ANIMAL LIFE


be seen plentifully towards the end of summer, attached to the
leaves and stems of water plants.
Our last example of the water beetles is the Black Water Beetle
(Hydrous piceus). This one is even larger than Dyticus; in fact,
it is the largest of all the British Coleoptera, with the exception of
the beautiful stag.' It was once very plentiful in ponds and streams
round London; but, being perfectly harmless to animal life, it has
become quite a pet with aquarium-keepers; and the consequent
demand for it has led to such a vigorous search on the part of the
dealers who call themselves naturalists, that scarcely a specimen is
now to be found. The female Piceus is provided with a spinning
apparatus at the tip of her abdomen; with this she constructs a
turnip-shaped cocoon on the stem of a water plant, in which she
deposits about fifty eggs. As soon as the young larve are hatched
they make for the water, where they feed on molluscs and other
aquatic animals till they attain a length of three inches.

FRESH-WATER FISHES
All the species of aquatic animals .which we have described
belong to the great division Invertebrata-animals without back-
bones; and, in passing onward from the insects to the fishes, we
leave this division for the Vertebrata, or animals possessing back-
bones. Perhaps, then, at this stage, we cannot do better than
spend a short time in noting the chief characteristics which dis-
tinguish these two primary groups of the animal world. None of
the beings previously mentioned have internal skeletons; but the
Vertebrata, which include fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and
mammals or milk-giving animals, all have some kind of internal
framework, the chief part of which is termed the backbone or
vertebral column.
This vertebral column generally consists of a large number of
separate bones (vertebrae) placed together end to end, thus forming
a long, flexible axis, extending throughout the length of the trunk of
the body.
The backbone, being hollow, forms a kind of tube, through
which a great nerve (the spinal cord) proceeds from the base of the
brain.
In the Vertebrates, too, we observe a great cavity in front of (or
below) the backbone-the cavity which holds the organs of digestion
and circulation; while in the Invertebrate animals, with no bony







PONDS AND STREAMS


column, the nervous system (if any) has no separate tube, but shares
the great cavity with the various internal organs.
Fishes constitute the lowest class of the vertebrates. They are
all aquatic animals, and their structure is, in all cases, peculiarly
adapted for their native element. The round-bodied fishes always
taper at both ends, and the flat-bodied species always present sharp
edges to the water as they move along; and thus the resistance
offered to their movements is but slight.
Beneath the backbone, in the fore part of the body, are a
number of ribs, arranged in pairs, surrounding the internal organs.
The limbs are fanlike fins, usually four in number, and arranged in
pairs, corresponding with the two pairs of limbs in the higher verte-

d













FmI. 40.-SKELETON OF A FISH (PERCH).
d, dorsal fins; v, ventral fin ; a, anal fin; p, pectoral fin ; t, tail fin.

rates. Besides these there are fin rays extending along the back,
and also on the under-surface; but these are not to be regarded as
limbs, since they are merely extensions of the outer skin.
Fishes are all cold-blooded animals, their bodies being always
approximately of the same temperature as the water in which they
live. The heart consists of two divisions: one, the auricle, receiving
the blood from the veins; and the other, the ventricle, pumping the
blood to all parts of the body. At each circulation a portion of the
blood is forced through the gills for the purpose of being aerated.
Everyone has observed that fishes, while alive and in water, are,
apparently, drinking without intermission; but the water taken in
at the mouth at each gulp does not pass into the stomach with the






ANIMAL LIFE


food: it is discharged through wide slits immediately at the back
of the head. In these slits are placed the gills--fringe-like organs,
richly supplied with blood-
vessels, and consequently of a
deep red colour. Here the
blood is separated from the
water by only a very thin and
transparent membrane-so thin,
--.-----. 5 indeed, that the dissolved air
....... c. which the water contains is
readily absorbed into the vital
fluid. Thus all fishes, together
with the gill-breathing inverte-
brates, are provided with an
apparatus by means of which
air is filtered from water, but
----. which is not capable of effectu-
ally aerating the blood when in
..Uv direct contact with the free air.
Some fishes live entirely at
the bottom of their watery
home, deriving their food from
smaller animals which conceal
themselves among the stones,
nmud, and weeds; but others
are always suspended in the
water, and feed on beings which
swim about as freely as them-
selves. The former are heavier
than water, and could not rise
to the surface without some
effort. The latter, however, are
of the same specific gravity as
the water; and are, moreover,
provided with an air-bladder,
by which they are enabled to
regulate their specific gravity
according to the density of the
water at any particular depth
FIG. 41.--OGANS OF A FIsn (CARP). at which they desire to swim
br, gills; c, heart; f, liver; in, swimming or rest.
bladder; ci, intestine.






PONDS AND STREAMS


The young fishes come from eggs, which are laid in enormous
numbers. It has been calculated that the roe of a single fish some-
times contains over a million eggs, and that if all the eggs of the
various species (more than twelve thousand in number) were to
develop into mature animals, our seas and rivers would soon become
so thicldy populated that they would have no room to move. But,
thanks to their numerous enemies, the greatest of which are the
fishes themselves, the majority of the young are devoured, and our
waters are thus prevented from becoming stagnant masses of
writhing and seething beings, struggling for the last share of food
and air.

Fishes for the Aquarium
Some of our fresh-water fishes thrive well in the aquarium, and
become very tame and interesting pets. They should always have
plenty of room, and, if you are to be very successful in their
management, you must keep them in their natural conditions as
near as possible. In all cases give them a liberal supply of
growing weeds. Those you catch in still ponds need seldom have
a change of water; but the captives from rapid streams should
have running water. See, too, that they are provided with their
favourite hiding-places. Some like thick tufts of weeds; others
prefer to hide in rocky holes, while several seek shelter under the
stones of a rugged bottom. All such points as these may be easily
settled by a careful observation of the fishes in their haunts. One
more general observation: Give your pets their natural food
when you can, but never more than is necessary. Flies, grubs, and
worms are favourite dainties with nearly all; but, failing these,
you may try fresh meat chopped very small, and an occasional
sprinkling of flour paste. You must remember, however, that all
excess of food will decompose in the water, rendering it putrid and
poisonous.
Many of our fresh-water fishes belong to the Carp family (Cypri-
nide), and of these the Common Carp may be taken as a type.
This fish (Cyprinus ca/rmio) was once very rare in this country, and
was probably introduced from the Continent. It attains a length of
twelve or fifteen inches, and is exceedingly prolific, the number of
eggs in a single roe numbering over half a million. It inhabits
deep holes in the sluggish parts of our streams, and also thrives well
in ponds. Its food consists of worms and insects, and, with these as
bait, the carp is easily caught. In winter it lies concealed in the





ANIMAL LIFE


mud at the bottom. This fish is very much desired for the aquarium
and small ponds, especially as it can be easily tamed.
The Golden Carp, or Gold-fish (Cyprinus auratus), is apparently
a universal favourite with aquarium-keepers. It was originally


' ,. 42-T', H, I A-




FIG. 42.--THE CWIP.


introduced from China, and has now become so far acclimatised
that it does well in our ornamental waters.
The Minnow is deservedly a favourite, for it is not only one of
our prettiest river fishes, but is hardy and easily tamed.


Fi(. 43.-TiE MINNOW.


Several other members of the carp family do well in captivity;
but, unless your aquarium is a very large one, you must be satisfied
with young specimens only. The Gudgeon, Roach, Dace, and Bleak







FIG. 44.--THE GUDGrEON.

are not difficult to manage, and their bright silvery scales will give
a pleasing contrast to the other fishes.






PONDS AND STREAMS


The common Loach (Cobilis barbatula) does not seem to be so
well known, nor have its interesting habits secured for it the popu-
larity it deserves as an aquarium pet. A few years since I caught
a few small loach in a stream at the southern end of Epping Forest.


Fio. 45.-THE ROACH.


lI''. 47.-THIE BLEAK. V


FIG. 48.-THE LOACH.

These I placed in my aquarium and was greatly pleased with their
movements. They are very heavy fish, and spend much of their time
at rest on the bottom ; but often would they rise to the surface, and,
after dragging themselves on to the floating leaves of a water-lily,






ANIMAL LIFE


somewhat after the manner of a seal when landing, they would bask
in the hot sunshine with their bodies partly out of the water. In a
very few days they became so tame that they readily took their food
from the hand. The loach is a slimy fish, with six barbules at the
month. It may be caught by dragging a strong net along the bottom.
Of all the British fresh-water fishes none is so interesting as the
common Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), known popularly as
the Tittlebat, Tittlebrat, or the Tittler. There are several species of
sticklebacks, readily distinguished from each other by the number
of spines in the dorsal fin. The term gasterosteus applied to all
signifies bone-bellied, and is given on account of the bony bands
which form a kind of coat of armour beneath. In addition to the
spines of the back, there are the two formidable weapons of the
breast (pectoral) fins, which, like the others, can be raised or de-
pressed at pleasure. The commonest species has three spines on
the back; another-a fresh-water fish-has ten; and a third, which
inhabits salt water, no less than fifteen dorsal spines.
Sticklebacks are easily kept in an aquarium, but they are very
pugnacious creatures, and must have plenty of* space, or the
' survival of the fittest' will be demonstrated to perfection in a very
short time.
Should you wish to closely observe the habits of these interesting
creatures your best plan will be to secure one or two males, and a
dozen or so females, early in March, and transfer them to a large
glass aquarium, or, which is quite as good, a large tub. Give them
a plentiful supply of gravel or sand, and introduce some pond weeds
of any description.
During the greater part of the year the males and females are
hardly to be distinguished from each other, both being of a dull
greyish brown colour; but, as the breeding season approaches, the
male gradually assumes the brilliant colours which have earned for
him such names as Soldier and Fiery.' His eyes then become
bright green; the back also assumes a brilliant green colour, and
the under-surface becomes bright red.
This change takes place in March or early April, and at this time
the male stickleback sets busily about domestic affairs. His first
work is to prepare a nest for the coming brood. In some cases this
nest is composed entirely of vegetable fibres, which he has collected
and woven into a kind of cylinder or barrel, open at both ends, and
so short that, when occupied by the parent, both head and tail may
be seen exposed. Sometimes, however, the nest is simply a hollow






PONDS AND STREAMS 48

scooped out in sand or mud, and covered over with interlacing
vegetable fibres. Seeing that the stickleback has no building tool
except his mouth, and no cement save the slime from his own body,
we are bound to admit that great credit is due to him for the clever
manner in which he prepares his snug little nursery.
The nest finished, his next business is to seek his mate. Having
met with a suitable bride, he induces her to enter the nest, some-
times, it is said, even resorting to force when his affections meet
with no encouragement. As soon as the female has deposited her
eggs she is turned out of the nest, and the master immediately starts

















FIG. 49.-THE THREE-SPINED STICKLEBACK AND NEST.

in search of another mate, who is called in to take the place of the
outcast. This is repeated till the male is satisfied that the supply of
eggs is proportionate to the accommodation. He then closes the
ends of the nest, and rigidly guards it till the eggs are hatched, and
the young are strong enough to be allowed to roam into the world.
During the whole of this time the male 'tittler' will furiously
charge all the creatures, including even the larger fishes of the pond
or stream, who are so rash as to pass within a foot or so of the nest.
But as soon as the young have gone to shift for themselves, and the
duties of the nursery are thus brought to an end, he gradually loses
much of his pugnacity, and at the same time his brilliant colours
slowly fade away, to reappear in the following spring.
If you want to catch the Bullhead, known in parts as the Miller's






ANIMAL LIFE


Thumb and the Tom Cull, you must look out for a shallow and rapid
stream with a pebbly bed. Raise some of the larger pebbles, one
by one, and at the same moment sweep your net rapidly towards it
against the stream. In this way you may obtain several in a. very






'C,









Fin. 50. --THE BULLHEAD.

few minutes. You may keep these in your aquarium, but you will
not see much of them, for nearly the whole of their time is spent in
their hiding-places, and they seldom come out excepting when they
make a dash at their prey, or shuffle their heavy bodies from one
stone to another. Their food consists chiefly of insects and fresh-
water shrimps.
AMPHIBIANS

We cannot take leave of our ponds and ditches without devoting
a little of our space to the interesting amphibious animals-animals
which, although not strictly aquatic, yet spend more or less of their
existence in the water. These include the Newts or Efts, Frogs, and
Toads.
Their life-history is as full of romance as is that of some insects.
They begin life as little fish-like creatures, spending the whole of their
infant period in the water, breathing by means of external fringe-
like gills. In this stage they further resemble fishes in the posses-
sion of a two-chambered heart, and they also own a pair of air-sacs
which correspond with the air-bladder of the fish. But as they ad-
vance in life a series of wonderful changes takes place, the fish-like
form gradually developing into a creeping or jumping quadruped.






PONDS AND STREAMS


The external gills slowly disappear and give place to an internal
pair hidden in clefts behind the head. But even these have only a
transitory existence, for they soon vanish and pass their function
over to a pair of true lungs which have been gradually evolved from
the air-sacs above mentioned. At the same time other transforma-
tions have been progressing. The two-chambered heart has deve-
loped into a more complicated organ with three cavities; the limbs
have slowly made their appearance, first one pair, then another;
and the original tail has, in some families, been slowly but entirely
absorbed, while in others it has developed into a large, useful, and
ornamental appendage.
The skeletons of the higher Amphibians are well developed, the
build of the limbs in particular bearing a close resemblance to that
of the highest animals. The ribs, however, are either very short or
entirely absent.
The Amphibians, like fishes, are all cold-blooded animals, and
the blood is remarkable for the comparatively large size of the cells
(corpuscles) which it contains, those of the frog being one eight-













FIG. 51.-THE BLOOD- FIG. 52.-THE HEART OF
CELLS OF THE FROG, THE FROG.
HIGHLY MAGNIFIED. o, anricles : ventricle.

hundredth part of an inch in diameter. Small as these bodies
really are, yet they are large compared with the corresponding
corpuscles in the blood of other animals. The circulation of the
blood in the Amphibian may easily be traced. The upper portion
of the heart consists of two chambers-the auricles. One of these
receives the purified blood from the lungs, and the other the blood
from all other parts. Both are continually forcing this into the
SSome of the lower amphibians are entirely limbless.






ANIMAL LIFE


lower division-the ventricle-by a series of contractions or pulsa-
tions. The ventricle, in a similar manner, forces the blood through
the whole circulatory system, some passing to the lungs for an
additional air-supply, and the rest penetrating and bathing the other
structures. Thus in each circulation only a part of the blood of the
Amphibian is aerated.
We will now examine briefly the commonest of the British
Amphibians-
Newts or Efts
There are but two common species of Newts in our country, and
both these are more or less known by schoolboys, who speak of
them generally as Effers or Effets. I have also frequently heard
them called Lizards, especially when they have been seen wandering
about on dry land. They are certainly much like lizards in general
form, but may always be distinguished from these by the softness
and colour of the skin. I have met with many who suppose that
newts are never to be seen out of the water. But it is a fact that
they spend much more of their existence out of water than they do
in it. When on land, however, they always seek cool and shady
places; while lizards delight to bask in the hot sun, spreading out
their flattened bodies so as to expose a larger surface to his rays.
Strange tales have been and are still being told about the
venomous and fiery character of newts. Some of our country folk
aver that they can spit fire, even immediately on quitting the
water; others tell horrible tales concerning the victims who have
succumbed from the effects of their poisonous fangs; and, according
to the accounts of others, many are the cattle that have been
poisoned through drinking the water of ponds and troughs which
were inhabited by newts. The country cottager who has lived out
his threescore-and-ten in close proximity to a pond annually fre-
quented by these dreaded Amnphibians seems to be as ignorant
about them as anyone ; and on more than one occasion have such
individuals looked at me with terror, and most earnestly entreated
me to desist while I have been engaged in collecting newts; and
the fear-stricken countenance has given place to an expression of
wonder when, after careful watching, it was observed that the venom
had had apparently no effect.
But, in spite of all that has been- said, the newts remain, as ever,
perfectly harmless and exceedingly pretty animals. They have no
fangs and will not bite. Even if they did bite, they could not
possibly do the slightest harm.







PONDS AND STREAMS


The Great Warty Newt (Triton cristahts) is a beautiful creature,
sometimes attaining a length of over six inches. Its skin is covered
with little wart-like projections, and is marked with a number of
pores. The tail is flattened at the sides. The upper surface is of a
varied dark brown; on the sides are rows of white dots, and silvery
bands usually adorn the tail. But the chief beauty of the warty
newt is the bright yellow under-surface, which is boldly patched
with black. The female is rather larger than her mate, and the


FIG. 53.-THE GREAT WARTY NEWT.
Rledlncd in size.


latter has a beautiful waved crest along the back to the end of the
tail. It is only during the breeding season, however, that the crest
is to be seen in its fullest development ; for it disappears slowly, but
ahnost entirely, as this period closes and the summer approaches.
This newt hibernates during the winter months, and for the whole
of this time the lungs are inactive, the creature deriving the small
air-supply necessary for its indolent existence through its skin.
In March it takes to the water, and the best time to secure it for
observation in the aquarium is-towards the end of that month.
Early in April the female Cristatus lays her eggs, depositing them
singly on the leaves of water plants, and carefully covering up each
one by rolling the leaf round it with its paws. The egg is globular,






ANIMAL LIFE


and consists of a capsule, in which the white yelk floats in a colour-
less liquid. Outside the capsule is a covering of gelatinous substance,
by which the egg is fixed to the leaf. In three or four weeks the
young newt-known at this period as the tadpole-eats its way out
of its prison, and starts life in perfect independence. In about three
months the legs begin to appear-the fore pair first; but it is at least
six months before the tadpole has completed all its metamorphoses.
In September all the newts, old and young, leave the water and
seek a safe hiding-place in some snug hole or corner where several
lie huddled together, occasionally straying abroad in suitable weather
in search of food. The young newt does not return to the water
till it is just three years old, at which age we may look upon it as
having reached maturity; but it is not fully grown till the end of
the fourth year.


---Li


__ ^"-U---


FIG. 54.-THE SMOOTH NEWT.


These creatures are very interesting in the aquarium, where they
may be fed on worms; and they will not, as a rule, interfere with
other inhabitants. It is necessary that they should be provided with
a landing-place where they can find a shelter quite out of the water.
The common Smooth Newt (Lophlinus punctatus) is much
smaller than the last, seldom exceeding four inches in length. Its






PONDS AND STREAMS


skin is quite smooth. The colour of the male is light brownish-grey
above, spotted irregularly with black; beneath it is light yellow,
which changes to a brilliant orange, also spotted with black, in the
breeding season. The male is crested at this time, and is then a
beautiful creature. The female is only slightly spotted, and is not
nearly so pretty as the male.
The growth and habits of this newt are very similar to those of


FIG.-55.-STAGES IN THE LIFE OF A FROG.


the last. Both species cast their skins at apparently irregular
periods. It is very interesting to watch this operation. As a rule,
the whole skin comes off in one piece, and the tiny gloves from
off the feet are quite perfect in form, though as delicate as the
finest gossamer. I have preserved a few of these cast skins in
dilute spirit, and find them in excellent preservation after several
years.


0 *


I U#






ANIMAL LIFE


Frogs
Those who desire to watch the development of the Frog (lRana
temporaria), and to observe its habits, should begin by collecting
the eggs, which may be found in abundance in almost every pond.
Early in the spring the frogs quit their winter quarters and make
for the ponds, where they remain at rest during the day with


"---- '* '-- < ? .- : -,l '.
-.- -- '.": :' ".--- .' ~ b


_LL


. V
------~100


FIo. 56.--Tin Co:Mrox Fioc.'

heads just out of the water. During the night, however, they
are full of activity, and the air resounds with their music.
About the middle of March the female deposits her eggs at the
bottom of the pond. These are little black globular bodies, each
surrounded by a covering of transparent gelatinous substance, the
whole forming one irregular mass. The gelatinous envelopes soon
swell up enormously by absorbing water, and then the mass rises to
the surface, where it remains till the larvae escape. In a few days


2R71






PONDS AND STREAMS


the black embryo elongates and gradually assumes a fish-like form,
and may be seen moving about in the middle of its case. A few
days more and the eggs are hatched.
The newly emerged tadpoles are very active little creatures of
gregarious habits. They attach themselves to pond weeds by means
of little suckers just beside their mouths, frequently changing their
positions in the social gathering. At this stage they are vegetarians,
feeding on conferve and other low vegetable forms. As they gra-
dually assume the adult form, they lose their gregarious tendencies,
and swim about freely by means of the undulations of their flattened
and fringed tails. In their subsequent metamorphoses they differ
from newts in that the hind legs are the first to appear, and also in
the gradual absorption and ultimate disappearance of the tail. On
reaching the adult form they leave the water, and spend the
remainder of the summer in the neighbourhood of the ponds, and
feed entirely on insects, worms, and other small animals.
A few of the structural peculiarities of the frog are worthy of
notice. A well-developed web extends between the five long and
slender toes of the hind feet ; but the fore feet, which have only four
toes, are not webbed. The drums
of the ears are conspicuous be-
hind the eyes on each side. The
tongue, which is often used to I
seize the smaller insects on which
it feeds, is attached to the front of
the mouth with its tip extending '
backward. The teeth are veryJ
small, and consist of a single row
in the upper jaw and two small
clusters on the roof of the mouth. FIo. 57.-THE TONGUE O" THE
The breathing of the frog is Fioo.
performed exactly on the principle
of a pair of bellows. At the nostrils are placed a pair of valves
which open inward, and the contraction of the muscular floor of the
mouth forces air into the lungs. Thus the frog may be choked by
keeping its mouth open, for the air can no longer be forced into the
lungs.

Toads
Many persons do not seem to know the difference between a
toad and a frog, and thus it is we hear the name of one so commonly
E2






ANIMAL LIFE


applied to the other. Yet the distinguishing features of these
amphibians are so obvious that the common error is almost
inexcusable. The build of toads is very bulky and comparatively
clumsy, and the dull-coloured skin, instead of being smooth and
slimy, is drier and thickly covered with warts or pimples. The
toads, moreover, do not leap like frogs, but walk slowly with a very
awkward gait. The hind legs also are much shorter, and the hind
feet only slightly webbed. They have no teeth either in the jaws or
in the palate, and the gape of the mouth is much wider than in frogs.


FI(. 58.-THE COMMON TOAD.

The metamorphoses of toads are very similar to those of the
frog, but the eggs are generally laid a few weeks later, and are
fastened together in long double chains, instead of in irregular
masses. The tadpoles are also smaller than those of the frog.
Dreadful and wonderful tales are told and believed concerning
this unfortunate creature. Its poisoned fangs, its venomous skin,
its fire-spitting propensities, the magic virtue and curative power of
the jewel in its head, and its enormous longevity are all accepted
as indisputable facts, except by those who have kept and closely
observed the toad, and thoroughly investigated into the alarming
and startling reports. There is certainly some small sprinkling of







PONDS AND STREAMS


truth in the statements made concerning its venomous character, for
its skin does certainly excrete an irritating fluid which is undoubtedly
harmful to certain animals ; but, while the toad is thus protected
from the hungry jaws of animals to whom the frog is a luxurious
morsel, the poison remains perfectly harmless to the human skin.
The Common Toad (Bufo vulgaris) is easily domesticated, and
its habits-especially its mode of capturing and devouring its prey-
are very interesting. Its partiality for all kinds of insects has long
caused it to be regarded with favour by florists.
The Natterjack (Bufo calamnita) is not nearly so widely distri-
buted as B. vulgaris, but is rather common in certain localities. It
may be known at once by the olive tint of its skin, and by the pale
yellow stripe running down the middle of the back. It is also more
active than its relative, and does not attain to the same large size.

PRESERVATION OF AQUATIC ANIMALS

It will now be desirable to dwell for a short time on the different
methods of preserving our aquatic specimens, and on the arrange-
ment of these into a useful collection for future study.
In many cases the real animal cannot be satisfactorily preserved,
but some non-living portion of its structure, which may in itself be
exceedingly instructive, and in many instances beautiful, can easily
be kept permanently intact.
Soft animals, and soft parts of animals, may generally be pre-
served indefinitely in spirit of wine. But it must be remembered
that this liquid has a great attraction for water; and, consequently,
if the specimen be very soft and contain much water, the spirit will
extract a quantity of the moisture, thus causing it to shrivel up till
it is hardly recognisable.
Again, pure spirit is never necessary for mere preservation,
being equally effective for this purpose when mixed with its own
volume of water. My own plan is to keep a stock of small wide-
mouthed bottles, fitted with good corks ; also a supply of diluted
spirit. It is then no trouble to bottle any specimen that is likely to
prove useful in the future, either for a museum collection or for
dissection. In this way one may soon get a useful collection of
molluscs, crustaceans, fishes, amphibians, &c., always in good con-
dition for examination when occasion requires.
All the winged insects caught in and about the water should find
a place in the reader's collection. Instructions are given for killing







ANIMAL LIFE


and setting' these in the part devoted to Insect Hunting. The
water beetles in particular are well worth the trouble. Some of
these may be set' with their wings folded as we generally see
them, while others may have their wings expanded as in flying.
Most of their larvae are rather soft-bodied, and cannot be dried with-
out losing their natural form. These are best preserved in diluted
spirit, and stored in small bottles or specimen tubes.
See that every specimen is properly and fully labelled, and that
it stands in its correct position with regard to the others. Each
drawer or box should be marked outside with the name of the class
or order to which its contents belong; and beneath each specimen
should be placed a label containing its name, locality, date, and
any other particulars considered sufficiently interesting.
How to prepare the Skeleton of a Frog
Among the various objects in a naturalist's museum, few, if any,
will be more instructive than the collection of bones illustrating the
comparative build of the various animal frameworks. But whence
is such a collection to be obtained ? There are several methods of
preparing the skeletons of small animals, but all of them entail
operations of a more or less tedious and disagreeable character.
This, however, is nothing to the enthusiastic naturalist, who allows
no trifle to stand between himself and his anticipated prize. But
even those who have not sufficient enthusiasm to set them to work
at bone-cleaning may still hope to acquire a moderate collection of
useful specimens, which have already been prepared for them by
the natural decomposition of the softer parts of dead animals,
aided by the industry of nature's scavengers-the insects.
I have many useful specimens, some of them complete skeletons
in good condition, which have been simply picked up from the spots
where their former owners died.
But the naturalist does not restrict himself to this haphazard
means of collecting his bones. He aims at obtaining a good typical
collection, as far as his means and his leisure allow, and finds it
useful to know how to set to work to obtain a complete skeleton, in
good condition, of any small animal.
We will now see how this is to be done in the case of the frog,
reminding the reader that the instructions given will apply almost
equally well to all the vertebrate animals of our ponds and streams.
First kill the frog, if alive, by shutting it in a vessel with a piece
of blotting-paper that has been moistened with a few drops of






PONDS AND STREAMS


chloroform, and then lay it out on a board. With a sharp knife in
the right hand, and a pair of forceps in the left, cut away the skin
and abdominal walls, and remove all the internal organs, baing
very careful not to injure any of the bones or cartilages.
After the body-cavity has been cleared of its contents, the
muscles of the trunk and limbs may be attacked in a similar
manner ; but the white ligaments that bind the bones together at the
joints must not be cut.
When the skeleton has
been roughly cleaned in
this way it may be put
aside out of doors, in a
dish of water, in some spot
where the unpleasant
odours arising from the
decomposition of the little
animal matter that re-
mains can give no offence.
At intervals of a few
days a gentle stream of
water should be allowed
to play upon it, to remove
any refuse, and loose
pieces of the perishable Fm. 59.---SKELETON OF THE FROG.
matter should be removed
with the forceps or a soft brush. When, at last, everything has
decomposed with the exception of the bones, the cartilages, and the
ligaments, the skeleton may be gently removed from the water, set
in some natural position, and then allowed to dry. When quite
dry, any of the parts which may have become detached from the
general framework may be fastened in their proper places with a
little glue or cement.






ANIMAL LIFE


CHAPTER II

INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING

MANY of our insects have already been alluded to, but up to the
present we have confined our attention to the resident population
and the frequenters of our ponds and streams. We must now see
what can be done in other quarters; so for a time we quit the miry
banks and odorous mud, and wander through lanes and woods, and
try our luck in meadows and waste places. Our work now is
strictly entomological-that is, confined entirely to the insect world.
So we will set to work till we have put together all the necessary
paraphernalia, and then start off delighted with the thought that
we have at last been metamorphosed into real live entomologists.
The entomologist has a happy time of it, for there is no doubt
that he has selected for his study some of the most beautiful of all
animated beings; and he is continually finding something that is
entirely new to him.
Some insects are said to be positively ugly; others we regard as
extremely noxious to our persons; others, again, earn our enmity
for their extensive damages to our crops. But we must put aside
all such prejudices, if we would make ourselves acquainted with
the wonderful habits and marvellous structures and metamorphoses
of the chief divisions of the insect world.
A true entomologist finds delight in the study of all insects.
None are too small to attract his attention. If the naked eye fails
to detect any beauty of form or colour, he knows that his lens will
at once change the appearance. He is not content to study the
creatures of the air, but searches diligently for the creeping inhabi-
tants of the earth, turning them out of all kinds of chinks and
crannies, and digging them out from their homes in the soil.
We will now proceed to study a few of the most popular orders.






INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING


SCALY-WINGED INSECTS

We shall first take the Lepidoptera, or scaly-winged insects, by
far the most beautiful of all the insect world, and the favourites of
all entomologists. The four wings which constitute the chief beauty
of the perfect insects of this group are more or less covered with
little scales of exquisite form, and generally exhibit a wonderful
variety of colour. Everyone has observed the mealy dust which is
so easily removed from the wings of Butterflies and Moths when
these creatures are handled. These dust particles are the scales




















FIG. 00.--SCALES FROM THE WINGS OF BUTTERFLIES.

which form the characteristic feature of the Lepidoptera, and it is
only necessary to collect a little of this on a slip of glass, and examine
it under a microscope, to satisfy oneself as to the extreme beauty of
the wings. The head is furnished with a.pair of antennae, which
are undoubtedly connected with one or more of the senses of the
insect. There is also a very delicate proboscis, or sucker, by means
of which the sweet juices of flowers are imbibed. This can be rolled
up into a spiral when not in use. The structure of this organ is
really a wonder, for, although it is about as fine as a hair, yet it
consists of two separate pieces, each one finely grooved, and the
two are locked together from end to end by means of a fringe of






ANIMAL LIFE


minute hairs so as to form an air-tight tube. The eyes are large
and rounded, and looking ahnost all ways at the same time; and
the number of lenses sometimes amounts to nearly two thousand in
a single eye. In addition to these
e compound eyes there are two simple
eyes or ocelli situated on the top of
1, the head, but these are generally so
S' thickly covered with down that they
probably have but little to do with
vision.
1 The sole work of the perfect
butterfly and moth is the repro-
duction of their kind. The females
always lay their eggs on the food-
plants of the larva, and it is
astonishing with what precision the
proper vegetation is selected in pre-
ference to all others. We could
Fmo. 61.- HEAI OF A Morn.
Understand this habit of the mater-
a, upper lip; b, nmandliblps ; c, 1p0-
boscis; d, under lip; e, Uitciea; nal parent if she herself derived any
?ye. direct benefit from the same plant as
that which sustains her offspring;
but it generally happens that none of the sweets of her life are to
be obtained from the food-plants she so carefully selects, and she
cannot possibly settle on them except for the one special purpose
of providing for her progeny. Very soon after this work is accom-
plished the parent dies, and this generally before the eggs are
hatched.
The eggs of butterflies and moths are beautiful objects for the
microscope ; and, as they require no special preparation of any kind,
the least expert microscopist is not denied the opportunity of witness-
ing their beautifully sculptured forms and delicate tints. During the
summer months a great variety of eggs may be obtained by search-
ing the leaves in our gardens, and these may be examined in site
as opaque objects, throwing a good light on them from above. The
time which elapses before the appearance of the larva varies accord-
ing to the time of the year. Eggs laid in spring take longer to hatch
than those laid during the summer months, and those laid in the
fall of the year do not hatch till the following spring.
When the time arrives for the appearance of the young larva,
they gnaw their way out of the shell, and sometimes even devour






INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING


entirely the little case from which they emerge. They are now sur-
rounded by abundance of food, and right well do they make use of
it, for they often eat as much as three times their own weight of food
during the first twenty-four hours of their existence, and continue
to live after this riotous fashion during the weeks or months of the
larval life. In this state they undergo several moultings, for they
grow so fast that their old coats become tight and uncomfortable.
When about to cast its skin, a larva will cease eating for a time,
and seek out some secluded spot until its little trouble is over. At
last the tightened skin splits and begins to peel off, and the larva,
after many twitchings and twirlings of its uncomfortable body,
manages to creep out of its old garment, and to show itself in its
new and often differently coloured suit. The body of the larva or
caterpillar consists of thirteen segments, including the head. Three
pairs of legs are appended to the second, third, and fourth segments,
and a variable mnuber of claspers to the hinder joints, usually
making up a total of sixteen limbs. Many of them are furnished
with a silk-spinning apparatus which is attached to the lower lip.
The period during which the Lepidoptera remain in the pupal
condition varies considerably. In some cases this is a few days only,
but in others the time extends over several months, including per-
haps the whole of the winter and spring. The pupa is sometimes
naked and hidden in the earth; sometimes concealed in a cocoon of
earth, silk, moss, chipped bark, or fragments of mortar from an old
wall; some are suspended by the tail, and secured by a silk cord
round the middle ; and others are rolled up in leaves and well secured
from their enemies by numerous silk bands or fibres. In the pupal
state life sometimes seems quite dormant, and the length of time
thus spent seems to depend entirely on the temperature. Thus the
emergence of the perfect insect may be delayed for months or even
years by prolonged exposure to cold, or may be hastened by placing
the pupa in a warm situation.
One of the most interesting sights ever witnessed by a naturalist
is the gradual unfolding and developing of the wings of a newly
emerged butterfly or moth. Shortly before this event takes place
the tint of the chrysalis is seen to change, the colour of the wings
and body often showing itself through the half-transparent case. At
last the thin shell breaks, and the perfected insect returns to the
world in which it spent its early life as a crawling grub. It is soon
free from its prison cell, and immediately seeks some rising surface,
up which it creeps. Here, if possible, it selects the under-side of






ANIMAL LIFE


some branch or ledge, and fixes itself with its back downwards to
dry its body and expand its wings. At first it is a queer-looking
creature, its wings short and dumpy, more like a pair of useless ex-
crescences than the richly ornamented pinions into which they are
soon to develop. As we watch the insect closely we observe the
wings expand irregularly till they present quite a crumpled appear-
ance. At last they straighten themselves out till they have reached
their full size. The insect, however, remains
stationary, for the newly developed wings,
the nervures of which are just filled with
currents of fluid from the body, are very
'i moist, and so soft and flexible that they bend
Back on the body if the insect turns over.
But after a few hours the wings are dry and
rigid, and after sundry flutterings, as if to test
the mechanism of the new flying apparatus,
the insect starts its aerial life.
Very few persons, excepting those who
delight in the appellation 'Entomologist,'
know the difference between a butterfly and
Fro. 62.--MOTH a moth. Some appear to base their distinct.
JUST EMEREDEI.
JU EERED. tion on the brilliancy of the plumage of the
wings; but, since many of the moths are
adorned with gaudy colours while some of the butterflies are posi-
tively dingy, we must consider them quite wrong in their nomen-
clature. Others have the idea that the nocturnal habits of the moths
are sufficient as a distinguishing characteristic, not knowing that
several species of these insects delight in the midday sun. It is true
that the butterflies are generally more brightly coloured than moths;
also that all the butterflies are day flyers, while most of the moths
are nocturnal; but there is one distinguishing mark which can never
lead us astray: the antenna of all butterflies terminate in little
knobs or clubs,' while those of the other Lepidopte.ra taper to a
point. There are yet other differences which, although not to be
taken as absolute, are of sufficient interest to note. Butterflies,
when at rest, usually raise their wings perpendicularly, pressing them
together over their backs ; but moths either spread out their wings
horizontally, or bring them close over their bodies, often folding the
hinder pair quite out of sight beneath the fore wings. Again, moths
generally curve their antenna backward under the head and thorax
-a feat which is impossible with the rigid horns of butterflies.






INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING


Catching Butterflies
The apparatus required for this part of the entomologist's
work is simple and small in amount. A net, a killing bottle, a col-
lecting box, and a supply of pins of various sizes are all that are
required.
The net should be of gauze, preferably of a green colour, about
twelve or fifteen inches in diameter, with a light but strong frame.
As a general rule the entomologist does not require to keep many
of his insects alive, and consequently finds it convenient to take with
him some arrangement with which he can perform the happy de-
spatch.' This is, to my mind, the only unpleasant part of his work.
And even though some authorities give it as their opinion that
insects cannot feel pain, yet we should always act as if we were sure
they could, and kill the insects required, and no more, in the most
humane manner possible.
There are many methods of killing insects, each method having
its devoted advocates; so I cannot do better than mention a few
of those most commonly used, leaving the reader to try any or all
of them, and so be in a position to decide on a plan that suits
himself. At the same time, having given all
the methods here mentioned a very fair trial
myself, I will give my own experiences, and
my opinions as to their relative value in my
hands.
The first I will mention is the cyanide
bottle.' This is simply an ordinary wide-
mouthed bottle, such as is used to contain
pomades and other similar luxuries, not less
than four or five inches in height, into which
is put some potassium cyanide with an absor-
bent material. The cyanide bottle may be
purchased of the naturalist ready for use, or
it may be easily fitted up by anyone. The
potassium cyanide may be bought at the
chemist's, providing he knows you and is satis. FIG. 3.--THE
fled as to your intentions; but it is a deadly CYANIDE BOTTLE
poison, and must be used with considerable
caution. Dissolve a few drams of the cyanide in a little water,
and add slowly, with constant stirring, sufficient plaster of Paris
to convert it into a thin paste. Pour this at once into the bottle





ANIMAL LIFE


and leave it to set.' Close the bottle with a good cork, and it is
then ready for use. A cyanide bottle prepared in this manner will
retain its power for a great length of time if kept tightly corked.
Some entomologists dispense with the plaster, and put a few pieces
of the cyanide into the bottle, keeping them in place with a few
thicknesses of blotting-paper cut to the proper size. This, I think,
is not nearly so good a plan, for the paper and cyanide are easily
shaken out of their position, and may then seriously damage the
insects.
Chloroform, benzole, and ammonia are often used for killing
insects. In either case a few drops of the liquid should be thrown
on to some absorbent material in the bottom of the bottle just before
it is required for use; but it should not be used in such quantity as
to wet the insects, especially if ammonia is chosen, for this liquid
will injure the colour of many specimens and completely spoil them.
Both chloroform and benzole, and especially the latter, render the
insects very rigid, so that there may be some difficulty in setting'
them after. The fiunes of burning sulphur have also been employed,
but I denounce this at once as troublesome and inconvenient, and
because it so often results in damaged specimens.
The' laurel bottle or' laurel box' has many decided advantages.
Some young laurel leaves are well beaten with
a hammer, wrapped up and tied in a piece of
calico or strong muslin, and then pressed firmly
into the bottom of a wide-mouthed bottle or a
cylindrical tin box. It should be pressed in so
firmly that there is no chance of its falling out of
its place; and should fit close round the sides of
the bottle to prevent insects from being jammed
between it and the glass. I have made a very
useful laurel box as follows: Procure two cylindrical
tin boxes of exactly the same size-four or five inches
S64--TE high and about two in width answers admirably.
L.UREL Box. One is required only for its lid. Knock or cut out
the bottom of one box. Make a false bottom of
a, space for illn-
sects; b, perfo- perforated wood, and fix it in this, about one-third
rtd pnisirt itin from one end, and then put the two lids, one on
leave,. each end. The smaller division is to contain the.
bruised laurel leaves, and the larger is for the
insects. The laurel is very quick in its action, but should always
be used fresh. It will keep the insects in a moist or relaxed con-





INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING


edition, so that they are easily set, either on the same day or a few
days after the capture.
The box just described may be used for the other stupefying
agents as well as the laurel. Thus the smaller division may contain
some cyanide wrapped up in blotting-paper or linen rag, or it may
be filled loosely with cotton-wool or any absorbent to which either
of the liquid agents may be applied. In fact, this is altogether a
very convenient arrangement, for the charge can be renewed at
any time, even when the insects are in the other division, and with-
out disturbing them much. It must be remembered that the liquid
poisons--chloroform, benzole, and ammonia-are volatile ; and, as
a consequence, some is lost in the form of vapour each time the box
is opened. Hence it is advisable, when using either of these, to
take a small bottle of it in the waistcoat pocket for recharging.
Care must always be taken to leave the insects in the killing
bottle or box until quite dead. We cannot easily tell when that is,
for they are stupefied and rendered quite motionless before death
takes place ; and if removed too soon they will often revive.
Butterflies are so delicate that it is not safe to allow them to
remain in the killing box very long, to be trampled on and turned
over by their new arrivals; nor is it well to leave them loose in
boxes of any kind, for their wings are easily damaged if they are
shaken about. They should be pinned as soon as dead. For this
purpose the collector will require a 'collecting box and some
entomological pins of various sizes.
The former should be as large as can be conveniently carried in
the pocket. It should be either oval in form, or oblong with rounded
corners. As most of the insects, and possibly all of them, will be
taken home in this, it will be advisable to have the box so con-
structed that they cannot become dry in it. For this reason it
should be of tin or zinc, the cover fitting closely, but opening easily
by a hinge or hinges. The .box should be so deep as to allow the
butterflies to be pinned to both the top and the bottom, which should
be lined with cork. Just before starting on the collecting expedition
the cork should be saturated with warm water, or a piece of damp
sponge pinned firmly in one end, as a further precaution against
rigidity.
The pins used by entomologists are very fine, with small heads.
They are sold at the 'naturalists' shops,' and may always be obtained
through the post.
A great deal depends on the choice of the day for a butterfly






ANIMAL L1FE


hunt. A bright warm day is essential; and it should be known
that these insects will never expose themselves to an east or north-
east wind. The best time of day for actual work is between the
hours of eleven and four; and the best localities are flowery meadows
-especially the borders, lanes, chalky districts, flowery railway-
banks exposed to the full sun, clover fields, borders of woods, and
flowery wastes. It must be observed that many butterflies are very
'local.' Hence if we are in search of any of these, it is necessary to
make ourselves acquainted with their haunts. It would not be ad-
visable to dwell on this subject now, but some of the chief pecu-
liarities of many species will be mentioned presently.
Having at last reached our hunting-ground, how are we to pro-
ceed ? We all remember the time when a butterfly, white or
purple it mattered not, was a certain stimulus resulting in the
violent action of the muscles of every limb. It was the signal for a
chase, and the contest between ourselves and the insect was always
one of speed and endurance. And then, if successful in bringing
down the winged creature with the cap, or, it may be, the coat, with
what pride did we pin the insect to adorn the very weapon by which
it was laid low But now our captives are to form a permanent
and useful collection. They must necessarily be caught without
injury to their appearance, handled with the greatest of care, and
killed in the most humane manner possible. We therefore relin-
quish the cap for the net; and learning by experience that the but-
terfly on the wing is sometimes more than a match for our legs, we
resort to stratagem. As a rule it is not advisable to start off at full
speed immediately on seeing the insect, but follow it up gently,
keeping some distance behind, giving the creature every opportunity
of alighting on its favourite plant or flower, and then a few cautious
steps and a sharp stroke of the net will generally settle the business.
Sometimes, however, a butterfly shows at once by its almost straight
and unhesitating movement to be intent on a long flight. In such
a case, should you desire it, you must make up your mind for a good
run, with one eye on the insect, and the other on the look-out for
ditches, mole-hills, and furze clusters.
The insect is sure to flutter a great deal in the net, and no
attempt should ever be made to handle it until it is quiet. If
a killing bottle is to be used, this might be passed at once into the
net by the left hand, and the bottle covered quickly by the right as
soon as the insect is secured. If this plan is adopted, we soon find
a number of captures in the bottle ; and, as we are still actively on






INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING


the chase for more, we are liable to injure these by causing them to
rub together as we run. To avoid any damage in this way the
butterflies should be pinned in the collecting box as soon as we are
satisfied that they are quite dead. Some collectors dispense with
the killing bottle for butterflies altogether. They wait till the insect
can be secured in the net, with its wings closed over its body, and,
gently pressing the folds of the net against it from the outside, kill
it instantly by nipping the thorax between the finger and thumb.
Of course this must be done with the greatest of care, or the insect
may be so damaged as to be perfectly useless. One objection to this
mode of procedure is that the insect may only be temporarily
quieted; so that, when we open the collecting box for a future speci-
men, we are horrified at the sight of our pinned butterfly struggling
to escape.


Setting and arranging the Butterflies
Our butterflies must now be 'set' for the cabinet. This need
not be done at once-in fact, it may be postponed for many days or
weeks-but it is always advisable to set them as soon as possible.
If they are in a metal collecting box, their limbs will remain soft and
pliable for some days ; but they should not be kept in a moist con-
dition for a great length of time, or you will find them completely
covered with a forest of mildew.
It is of no use attempting to set an insect after its limbs have
become dry and brittle, for under these circumstances the slightest
pressure will cause a part to snap off. The insect must first be
'relaxed.' To do this it is simply necessary to pin it for a day
or two in a metal box containing a damp sponge or moistened
blotting paper, or to keep it for a corresponding time under a tumbler
or other vessel with some means for keeping the inclosed air moist.
A very simple plan is to fix the pinned insect to a cork, float it
on a little water in a saucer, and then cover it with an inverted
tumbler.
The dealers sell relaxing boxes' for bringing about the same
result. These are zinc boxes lined with cork and covered with a
well-fitting lid. The cork is kept in position by means of small
projecting pieces of metal in preference to any kind of glue or
cement, as the latter would not stand the perennial dampness.
The cork may be moistened with a little water, or a piece of damp
sponge may be pinned inside, and the box is then ready for the
F






ANIMAL LIFE


insects. The specimens brought home in a wood collecting box are
often so dry that they cannot be set even on the same day; but if
a metal box be used there will be no need for the relaxer, for they
will keep in a good pliable condition for several days.
If an insect, when set, does not give satisfaction, it may at any
future time be relaxed and reset; and collectors often find it con-
venient, when away from home for some time, to keep all their
captures in the collecting boxes till they return, and then set them
at their leisure, relaxing them in batches as required. This avoids
the necessity of taking away the setting boards' and store
boxes. Space, too, is a matter of great consideration, and insects
usually pack away in a much smaller compass before than after
setting.
When engaged in setting our specimens we must always avoid
the direct use of the fingers. The best way to get the various parts
into their proper positions is by the use of a needle mounted in a
small wood handle. A few of these setting needles should always
be kept handy. They are easily made by cutting little pieces of
twigs, and then pushing the heads of ordinary sewing-needles into
them. They may be of different sizes to suit the various degrees of
delicacy required in the manipulation.
'Setting boards' are now required. These are usually con-
structed as shown in section in fig. 65. A piece of soft deal, free


k'-2. *- ', *4 u











FIG. 65.-SECTIONS OF THREE
HINDS OF SETTING BOARDS.


fiom knots, and about a quarter
or an eighth of an inch thick, is
cut into strips about eight or ten
inches long, and varying in width
from one and a half to five inches.
These slips are covered with
cork, glued on, and then grooved
down the centre to receive the
bodies of the insects. Lastly, the
surface of the cork on which the
wings are to be laid is covered
with clean white paper. Such
boards may be obtained at the
dealers' ; but, if expense is a con-
sideration, seeing that several


will be required, they may be made in a very economical manner.
The cork bed may consist entirely of sliced wine-corks, cut clean
with a sharp knife, and then glued to the wood quite close together.






INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING


Or cork may be dispensed with altogether if good wood, uniformly
soft, is procured. In this case it is simply necessary to cut a
groove with a gouge, and bevel off the edges with a plane, if neces-
sary; or, I might say, if it suits the fancy of the collector. There
is a great difference of opinion with regard to this. Some prefer
a rounded board, some a plain bevel on each side, and others a
perfectly flat surface. For my part I reject the round board, since
I have never yet seen a live butterfly with wings bent into a curve.
Whatever form be adopted, all the boards should be of the same
pattern, so that there may be a degree of uniformity in the
cabinet.
The setting is done as follows: First see that the pin is passed
centrally through the thorax. If not satisfactory, it should be re-
moved and reinserted, passing
it through till the point is pro-
jecting quite one-eighth of an
inch on the under side. Now
fix the pin in the centre of the
groove of the setting-board per-
pendicularly. Spread out the
wings with a setting needle,
being careful not to touch the
upper surfaces, and then secure
them by means of little strips of
rather stiff paper as shown in the
accompanying cuts. Some of FIo. 66.-A BUTTEEFLY ON THE
the butterflies, at least one of SETTING BOAnD.
each species, should be set 6n
their backs, so as to show the under surfaces of the wings and other
distinguishing characters of the under surface of the body as they
lie in the cabinet.
As a rule four of each kind is sufficient for all purposes: two of
the male and two of the female, one of each exhibiting the upper,
and one the lower, surface. In some cases, however, the species is
so variable that it will be interesting to introduce a few others
simply to illustrate the varieties.
And now we come to one of the chief difficulties which the young
collector has to experience. Where shall we keep all our specimens ?
The boy who is clever with his tools does not hesitate long over
this matter, but sets to work at his cabinet or his boxes ; and I can
personally declare what a pleasure is to be derived from putting
F2