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 LSTA Application
 Introduction
 Outcomes Plan






Rewiring Florida's News : from microfilm to digital ( LSTA Grant )
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00082123/00001
 Material Information
Title: Rewiring Florida's News : from microfilm to digital ( LSTA Grant )
Physical Description: Archival
Language: English
Creator: Kesse, Erich, 1959-
Publisher: University of Florida
Publication Date: 2005
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: University of Florida.   ( lcsh )
Florida Digital Newspaper Library
Genre:
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Notes
Abstract: Library Services and Technology Act (LTSA) grant proposal for digitizing Florida newspapers which are then available in the Florida Digital Newspaper Library.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
System ID: UF00082123:00001

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Table of Contents
    LSTA Application
        Page 1
    Introduction
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Outcomes Plan
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
Full Text


Library Name: University of Florida Libraries
Project Name: Rewiring Florida's News: from microfilm to digital

Florida Department of State, Division of Library and Information Services


LSTA APPLICATION
Application Due: March 15. 2005

LIBRARY/ORGANIZATION NAME...... University of Florida Libraries

MAILING ADDRESS .............................. P.O. Box 117007,
University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611-7007

PHONE # ..................................................... (352) 846-0129
SUNCOM #.................................................. 622-0129
FAX # ........................................................... (352) 846-3702

CONTACT PERSON............................... Erich Kesse
E-MAIL ADDRESS.................................. kesse@ufl.edu

FEID OR SAMAS AND EO #.................... 550100104

CONTRACTING AGENCY NAME......... University of Florida
TYPE .......................................................... Academic Library

CATEGORY ............................................. Library Technology Connectivity and Services
PROJECT NAME..................................... Rewiring Florida's News: from microfilm to digital
PROJECT: ................................................ New
LSTA FUNDS REQUESTED................ $199,321

PRIORITY# 1 OF 1 APPLICATIONS SUBMITTED

LIBRARY SERVICE AREA POPULATION
Entire State of Florida (17+ million citizens),
Primarily in the 41 Florida counties where the 54 newspapers are published and
Largely by Genealogists & Family Historians, Researchers & K-12 Students,
But also by newspaper readers in the general population of Florida.

NUMBER OF PERSONS TO BE SERVED BY PROJECT
17+ million citizens of the State of Florida

TARGETED USER GROUP(s)................. Mixed

Typed Name and Signature of Library / Organization Director



Dale B. Canelas Date






Library Name: University of Florida Libraries
Project Name: Rewiring Florida's News: from microfilm to digital

B. Introduction

Located in Gainesville, Alachua County, the Libraries of the University of Florida form the
largest information resource system in the state of Florida. The Libraries of the University of
Florida consist of eight libraries. Six are in the system known as the George A. Smathers
Libraries of the University of Florida and two (Health Sciences and Legal Information) are
attached to their respective administrative units. Together the Libraries hold over 4,075,290
catalogued volumes, 7,335,476 microforms, 1,335,094 documents, 769,239 maps and images,
and 19,287 computer datasets. FTE staffing at the Libraries includes 112 professionals, 208
support staff, and 64 student assistants. The Libraries serve over 42,042 students and a faculty of
2,865. The operating budget for 2004-05 was 19,146,073 million. The University of Florida is
a public higher education institution, with a Board of Trustees appointed by the Governor of
Florida.

Recent grant administrative experience within the Libraries includes an IMLS grant "Ephemeral
Cities" (including a retrospective newspaper digitization component), a two-phase LSTA grant
"From the Air: the photographic record of Florida's lands," and two-phase NEH grant
"Literature for Children." Previous experience digitizing newspapers include: two research
grants from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, "Caribbean Newspaper Imaging Project",
phases one and two in the mid-1990s that made 140,000 page images available on CD-ROM and
an Internet searchable index. The Libraries also were recently awarded a project from the
National Endowment for the Humanities to retrospectively digitize Florida newspapers (cf,
Appendix 5 for additional information).

Introduction to Project

Rewiring Florida's News: from microfilm to digital

From sinkholes threatening local drinking water to gardening tips, our local newspapers inform,
entertain, and educate us. The University of Florida has microfilmed Florida's newspapers since
the 1930s and has one of the country's oldest newspaper programs. Much of the microfilming of
key Florida local newspapers was done at the University of Florida. As we enter the new digital
era, UF is now poised to take the news to the Internet. While the microfilming program has
shrunk as newspapers ceased publication or their publishers offered their own microfilm or
digital versions, UF continues to microfilm 54 papers from counties throughout Florida. The
microfilm, sold at cost, can be found in both public and academic libraries throughout the state
and region.

Once touted as the ultimate preservation format, microfilm is a dying medium: raw film
production is declining; aging equipment can no longer be replaced; and costs are soaring. Most
importantly, microfilm is not user friendly. A fortuitous nexus of evolving technologies and
services has uniquely positioned the University of Florida to assist Florida independent
newspaper publishers to move into the digital arena and to make the news available to
researchers via the Internet. The equipment to digitally capture newspapers has reached an
acceptable level of sophistication, optical character recognition software is 99% accurate in
creating searchable text from newspaper images, Web serving software makes searching and






Library Name: University of Florida Libraries
Project Name: Rewiring Florida's News: from microfilm to digital

viewing easy for Internet users, and the first "true" digital archiving facility has been created in
Florida.

Highly cognizant of the Internet's impact on information seeking behavior, 41 publishers
(Appendix 1), to date, have consented to the ongoing preservation of contemporary issues of
their newspapers in digital format with free Internet distribution for noncommercial uses. As
indicated, digital archiving has come of age in Florida because the Florida Center for Library
Automation (FCLA) has created the first digital archive in the United States. Digital images
created from the newspapers will be stored, monitored and migrated forward in the FCLA digital
archive in perpetuity. Because the digital archive is a totally new service, the product of this
grant, the Florida Digital Newspaper Library, will be freely accessed for two years. During
these two years, the University will investigate and develop cost-sharing mechanisms, if
necessary.

With publisher permission, the same titles that had been filmed will be switched over to digital
production. The intent is to begin the new digital production service with the January 1, 2006
issue of all papers. At the end of the grant, the first six months of newspaper issues should be
available on the Web. The average number of pages microfilmed per year between 2000-2005 is
245,128, which includes foreign titles. During the grant period, 95,000 images should be
digitized from the Florida newspapers only. From January forward, with a projected two month
lag period, all issues will be preserved digitally and accessible over the Internet. It is expected
that some back issues that were missed during the microfilming era will be discovered and they
will also be captured digitally. UF is committed to the continued digitization of these
newspapers after the grant period ends.

After the infrastructure and procedures for producing, serving, and archiving newspaper issues in
digital format are created with this grant, additional funding and partnerships will be sought to
fill in years and titles to provide a comprehensive Florida Digital Newspaper Library. It is also
our intent to make content available to both the Florida Electronic Library and to the National
Digital Newspaper Program at the Library of Congress. The recently funded National Program
(see, Appendix 5: Notice ofAward) funds retrospective conversion of preservation microfilms
from 1900 through 1910. The University of Florida will act outside these date limits, using its
own internal funding and other grant opportunities, to extend coverage of the State's news. In
the last Fiscal Year, for example, the University retrospectively microfilmed a nearly complete
run of the Jax Air News. It also piloted the digitization of its Civil War era newspapers. As such
retrospective runs and appropriate funding become available, the equipment provided by this
grant will be used to digitize these retrospective holdings. Additionally, through the creation and
active promotion of a manual for the digitization of Florida newspapers by third parties, the
Florida Digital Newspaper Library will accept compliant product for inclusion (see, Deliverable
6 in the list below).






Library Name: University of Florida Libraries
Project Name: Rewiring Florida's News: from microfilm to digital

Deliverables from this grant will include:
1) Creation of a digital newspaper architecture at the University of Florida that will support the
ongoing ingest, digitization, Internet serving, and archiving of all Florida newspapers
currently being supported by the microfilming production unit.
2) Reinventing the preservation model for newspapers from a microfilm to digital paradigm.
3) Establishment of an online fully searchable collection of local Florida news stories with
multi-paper simultaneous search functionality.
4) Preservation of newspaper digital images in the Florida Center for Library Automation
Digital Archives (http://www.fcla.edu/digitalArchive/).
5) Promoting this state-wide resource by providing publicity through both printed and digital
issues of the participating newspapers. Publicity will also be sent to branch public libraries,
community college libraries, and high school libraries
6) Create a manual, with specifications and compliance-requirements, to be used by other
institutions seeking to digitize Florida newspaper titles. The manual will be distributed via
the Internet from the Florida Digital Newspaper Library web page. And, the Florida
Digital Newspaper Library will encourage its use through publicity (see, Deliverable no. 5)
and consultation with agencies seeking funds for digitization.
The Florida Digital Newspaper Library infrastructure will accommodate ingest of
retrospective Florida newspapers digitized to specification by third parties to the National
Digital Newspaper Project's specifications. And, the Project staff (i.e., the staff of the
University's Digital Library Center) will offer their services to review plans and funding
proposals of third parties wishing to contribute content for the Florida Digital Newspaper
Library.







Library Name: University of Florida Libraries
Project Name: Rewiring Florida's News: from microfilm to digital


C. LSTA Outcomes Plan

LSTA OUTCOMES PLAN


Project Name Rewiring Florida's News: from microfilm to digital Library George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida

Project Summary / Program Purpose: The purpose of this project is to change the preservation model for newspapers from microfilm to digital and
to create the core collection of the Florida Digital Newspaper Library by digitizing and making internet searchable and viewable 54 local Florida
newspapers beginning with January 2006 issues This grant will set up the technical infrastructure to be expanded over time to include more newspaper
titles and years; thus, creating a digital resource that is useful to all Floridians and can be integrated into the Florida Electronic Library.

EVALUATION
INPUTS ACTIVITIES OUTPUTS OUTCOMES INDICATORS SOURCES / METHODS


Hire, train, and supervise # issues digitized, marked up 1 .Public uses technology to 1a. # of hits on newspaper la,b,e System generated statistics,
Digital Library Center staff project staff and served get information, database using a customized web-use
(see, Section E: Inputs, Staff) (The creation of a Florida statistics program developed by the
Purchase equipment #metadata records created digital newspaper collection 1b. Inspection of use logs to Project Programmer (working
Project Technicians and served for harvesting will enable Floridians to determine hits by user against use logs automatically
(see, Section E: Inputs, Staff) Digitize, markup and serve all easily find and use news category, e.g., .gov, .edu, recorded by the web server). A
issues of designated Web site with search related to their local .com visual representation of use will also
FCLA Digital Archive newspapers between interface created communities. It will also be displayed using HitMaps script
(see, Section E: Inputs, Staff) January 1, 2006 and June provide rich content for use (http://kmi.open.ac.uk/
30, 2006 # publicity materials in local schools and could be proiects/hitmaps/)
Software developed for: used in the development of
(see, Section E: Inputs, Create a newspaper 1) newspapers local Newspapers in 1 c. # responses to pop-up 1 c Responses collected through
Software) digitization manual 2) branch public libraries Education programs such as questionnaire that will be web survey commercial software
3) community college the one offered by the St. online for first two weeks in and analyzed by project staff
Equipment Create Web interface and libraries Petersburg Times September
(see, Section E: Inputs, database 4) public high school libraries http://nieonline.com/sptimes/i
Equipment) ndex.cfm) 1 d. # publicity packages sent 1 d. Physical counts of mailings to
Develop publicity materials to Newspaper digitization to: each constituency
be used by participating manual available on Internet 1) newspapers,
newspapers and for 2) branch public libraries
distribution to local libraries 3) libraries of community
and schools colleges
4) public high school libraries

le. # times newspaper le. See source/methods above (la,
digitization manual viewed or b, e)
downloaded.






Library Name: University of Florida Libraries
Project Name: Rewiring Florida's News: from microfilm to digital

D. Need

The four numbered items below succinctly define the needs addressed by this project. A more
comprehensive discussion, extending these points, follows.

1. Targeted audience

Although the initial collection of 54 titles digitized here will be of highest interest to the readers
within the circulation area of those titles (45 counties), all Floridians (17 million) who can access
the Internet personally, at work, or in their public libraries and/or schools will have access to this
collection. As titles and years are expanded, the research value to all citizens will grow. The
project developers believe that the use of newspapers online will far surpass the actual
circulation figures of any of the printed newspaper versions.

2.Unmet needs

Very few Floridians from smaller cities and rural areas have access to their news online, nor is
there an easy way to compare news coverage of issues of regional and state-wide interest. This
project will help solve both needs. Citizens, students, and policy makers throughout the state,
region, and beyond will have a resource that can educate them about community situations. It
will provide local perspectives on issues that are often missed in "bigger" picture reporting, but
are critical to maintaining local community character and viability. As past years and titles of
multiple newspapers are added, the Florida Digital Newspaper Library will document the
history and evolution of Florida's communities.

Recently, the Digital Library Center digitized an early collection of the Indian River Farmer for
Pam Cooper, Supervisor, Indian River County Main Library, Florida History & Genealogy
Department, Vero Beach, Florida. Her response to accessing them over the web was "They
actually worked and I was able to print them out. Thank you so much. What a great piece of our
history that was missing!!! We had no written documentsfor this time period prior to the Press
Journal in 1919." While this example draws on earlier years, the need to access local news is
clear. By beginning this project now, we will assure Floridians that 20-50 years from now, they
will have access to the news legacy of their communities.

Searchability is a need unmet in newspaper microfilm. It will be met here. Digitization,
particularly optical character recognition, opens newspapers not only to Internet display but to
content searches, text highlighting, and other time-saving aids to research.

With microfilm and other film technologies quickly declining, Rewiring Florida's News also
anticipates the massive task of migrating microfilming technologies to digital technologies.
Digitization both for the current good and for long-term longevity (continuing good) requires
more that simply scanning documents. It implies digital preservation. The emergence of the
FCLA Digital Archive meets a key need.






Library Name: University of Florida Libraries
Project Name: Rewiring Florida's News: from microfilm to digital

3. Local library/Community Services unable to meet needs

The resources needed to efficiently digitize, provide Internet access, and to digitally archive local
newspapers are beyond the means of most smaller newspaper publishers and public libraries as
well. Phalbe Henrksen's comment "We simply do not have the staff to do this work oi1 \.ll'e" is
relevant to libraries throughout the state. Because the University of Florida has extensive
experience in newspaper microfilming, digitization, and preservation techniques, it is qualified to
lead the state-wide initiative in newspaper digitization. The manual created as part of this grant
will provide digitization guidance to other Florida institutions that seek to collaborate in building
the Florida Digital Newspaper Library as a state-wide resource.

4. Project relationship to UF mission

UF is a major, public, comprehensive, land-grant, research university. The state's oldest, largest
and most comprehensive university, Florida is among the nation's most academically diverse
public universities. Florida has a long history of established programs in international education,
research and service. Its service mandate includes the creation and support of resources to
benefit the citizens of Florida.

Newspaper collection and preservation has been a part of the University of Florida's mission
since the 1930s. And, since the 1930s, newspapers have been integrated into the University's
teaching and research programs. Even before the Library of Congress began microfilming its
newspaper collections, the University of Florida had been microfilming its Florida newspaper
collection. By the time that the University officially entered the U.S. Newspaper Project in the
1980s, Florida had already cataloged and preserved the majority of its newspapers. Today, the
newspaper microfilms of the University of Florida are a statewide resource, acquired and used by
archives, libraries and their patrons around the State of Florida.

Discussion of Need.

"The news written about any important event or trend, when viewed over time, often constitutes
the best and most complete story available anywhere in society. When historians look at past
events, even those in the recent past, they go directly to the newspaper archives as one if not the
main source of content." ["Old News" may be newspaper's best reason to adopt XML," by
Barry Schaeffer. Online Technology, December 2000. Accessed online 3/3/05 at
http://www.newsandtech.com/issues/2000/12-00/ot/12-00_schaeffer.htm ]

In her article "For homework or baseball scores, children like using computers, not newspapers -
and will continue to do so," Ellen Pearlman discusses a poll conducted by Day and Business
Wire of "1,500 online households with children ages 6 to 15. Some key findings showed that:

70 percent have researched a topic for school online.
89 percent would rather conduct research for a school project online than with books in a
traditional library.
84 percent would rather do homework on a computer than with pen and paper.
57percent believe that when they grow up, they will get the vast majority of their
daily news from the Internet.






Library Name: University of Florida Libraries
Project Name: Rewiring Florida's News: from microfilm to digital

27 percent think they will get their news from TV, and less than 8 percent plan on
needing to read a newspaper. [The American Editor, July-August 1996. Accessed
online 3/3/05 at http://www.asne.org/kiosk/editor/iulyaugust/pearlman.htm]

The heaviest use of local Florida papers is probably at the undocumented local level, but 774
requests for issues of Florida newspapers were received at UF during 2004-2005; 22 of those
were for papers proposed for digitization here.

The need for a Florida newspaper digitization initiative was first vocalized at the Florida
Electronic Library Conference held in Orlando, May 15-16, 2003. During one of the open
sessions, several public librarians from across the state voiced concern about the need for digital
access to newspapers. The following three excerpts from letters in Appendix 2 are representative
of the state-wide support for Internet access to Florida's newspapers.

Phalbe Henrksen, Director of the Bradford County Public Library, writes:

Many years ago, the owner of the Telegraph gave the then currently existing
Telegraph on microfilm. Since then, we have bought each reel as it has become
available. Unfortunately, that can be as long as a year and a half after the paper
is published. So we keep the papers. We feel that if the Telegraph is available to
the public anywhere, it should be in Bradford County Public Library.

Over the years, we have spent many hours researching thing\ for people who
have inquired by mail and now by e-mail. We get requests for obituaries, of
course, like everyone else does. In 1994, in self-defense, we began indexing the
obituaries. All of that work was done by volunteers. Now we have an Experience
Works person transferring the information on those cards into MS Word tables,
so we can put them in PDFform and make it available on the internet.

We simply do not have enough staff to do this work ourselves. Digitizing the
newspaper will keep us from having to go even further back into the microfilm.
Early editions of the Telegraph did not have an obituary section. Dei, lt, were
simply written up as news articles. We would have to comb through every page of
the paper and read the headline and beginning of each article to see if there were
a death in it. Being able to search a digitizedpaper would be incredibly easy
compared to what we have been doing.

In addition, Starke is the town from which news articles are sent about Florida
State Prison. We have had many requests for copies of articles written about FSP.
We have done what we could, but there really is a limit to how much time we can
spend looking for people. Since there's no historical society here, it has been up to
us to do this work.

Digitizing the Telegraph will take a large burden off us. I have been looking
forward to this for more than nine years now. I hope that the LSTA funds will be
awarded to the Digital Library Center.

Nancy Pike, Director of the Sarasota County Library System, identifies the existing
problems with microfilm and the potential benefits of digital newspapers in her






Library Name: University of Florida Libraries
Project Name: Rewiring Florida's News: from microfilm to digital

letter:

For many years, the Sarasota County Library System has purchased our local
newspapers on microfilm and we appreciate the work done at UF to make it
possible for us to store and provide access to this rich resource.

However, it is certainly time to make the shift to digital access. The index to the
microfilms of our newspapers is not as thorough as we would like; in addition,
patrons often have difficulty using the equipment and printing the pages needed.
With the newspapers in digitalform, researchers will be able to find text, clearly
highlighted, online i ithiitt scrolling through reels of microfilm. The fact that they
will be able to research papers statewide, will be a huge benefit. Plus it will save
all of us money, libraries as well as patrons who will be able to search as many of
the papers as they like, i iithilt travel or special borrowing requests. I understand
they will even have the opportunity to simultaneously search the University of
Florida's other digital collections o Florida history, maps, and images.
We are all really delighted to hear that UF is submitting this grant proposal
because it is a project that is long overdue. This would be a wonderful addition to
both the Florida Electronic Library and to the National Digital Newspaper
Program at the Library of Congress.

I hope you will give this proposal strong consideration. The digitized newspapers
will be a national treasure and make a huge amount ofFlorida information
available to researchers all over the world.

Mark Greenberg, a nationally respected scholar of Florida history and the head of Special
Collections at the University of South Florida, describes the research benefits of digitized
newspapers:

Building upon its experience digitizing Gainesville, Key West, and Tampa
newspapers for inclusion in "Ephemeral Cities, the University ofFlorida now
wishes to expand its effort statewide. UF has an opportunity to provide patrons
Ii ith searchable digital newspaper text. It proposes creating a Florida Digital
Newspaper Library that will be available via the Internet at no cost for at least
the first two years. The news will become available more quickly -- two miutnli
as opposed to one year after publication.

As the result of UF's efforts, researchers will be able to find text, clearly
highlighted, online ii ithlut scrolling through reels of microfilm. If they want to
research issues statewide, they 'll be able to search all or as many of the papers as
they like, ii ithi,,it travel or special borrowing requests. They 'll even have the
opportunity to search simultaneously the University ofFlorida's other digital
collections ofFlorida history, maps, and images. UF also intends to make
content available to the Florida Electronic Library and National Digital
Newspaper Program at the Library of Congress.

As part of the University ofFlorida's commitment to statewide representation, it
has selected newspapers ofparticular interest to Tampa Bay area residents: the






Library Name: University of Florida Libraries
Project Name: Rewiring Florida's News: from microfilm to digital

Plant City Courier; Bartow 's Polk County Democrat; Tampa's La Gaceta; Dade
City 's Pasco News; and New Port Richey 's Suwannee Democrat.

(The complete text of these and other supporting letters may be found in Appendix 2.)

While larger syndicated newspapers such as the St. Petersburg Times, Gainesville Sun, etc. are
well represented in the digital world through their own web sites and services such as
Lexis/Nexis, often the local news that documents Florida's smaller communities is difficult to
discover. As noted, the purpose of this project is to provide access for all Florida citizens to the
current news that impacts their lives at a local level. This project also moves the Florida press
world beyond discrete web sites to an integrated repository of news that will permit searching
across papers.

In addition to the well-documented migration of news-seeking from print to Internet sources, the
support infrastructure of the microfilming industry is eroding. An analogous situation is
occurring in the photographic field where 35 mm cameras and their peripherals: film, processing
equipment, etc. are quickly being replaced by their digital counterparts. A similar demise for
microfilm is suggested by Susan A. Cady in "Microfilm Technology and Information Systems":
"Microfilm, like any information system, has its strengths and weaknesses. One strength is in its
ability to preserve information for long periods of time and another is its ability to disseminate
information cheaply...However, digital photography portends major changes in the technologies
used for information storage. Once digital photography penetrates fully into the mass market and
new storage mechanisms are developed for digital information that strength may decline. And
the World Wide Web offers amazing new facility for instant dissemination of up-to-date
information, including the most sophisticated graphic images. Microfilm's weakness lies in its
limited retrieval and output capabilities, both in print and on screen. The repeated, unsuccessful
attempts to design comfortable, convenient readers were a testimony to this lack." [accessed
3/3/05 at http://www.chemheritage.org/explore/ASISdocuments/ASIS98_Cady.pdf]

The discussion above clearly indicates that the previously standard method of preserving local
newspapers on microfilm does not serve the Internet-based news seeking behavior of Floridians
nor does the medium possess the robust search and retrieval functionality found in digital
formats. At a fundamental level, there is a question of the long-term viability of the microfilm
industry itself.






Library Name: University of Florida Libraries
Project Name: Rewiring Florida's News: from microfilm to digital

While the population that will be most interested in access to the initial titles digitized by the
grant are the 466,700 Floridians in the circulation areas of the newspapers, the ability to search
many newspapers and across newspapers at the same site will be of interest to the 3.5 million
Floridians who have Internet access in the state. [United States Census Bureau. Table lB.
Presence of a Computer and the Internet for Households, by State: September 2001; accessed
3/7/05 at http://www.census.gov/population/socdemo/computer/ppl-175/tabO1B.xls] In
September 2001, the U.S. Census Bureau surveyed the purpose of Internet use in the U.S. by 7.1
million children ages 6-9, 14.1 million children ages 10-14, and 9.3 million children ages 14-17.
Internet use pertaining to "News, Weather, or Sports Information" steadily increased with age;
the percentages of use by age group are 18.4% (6-9); 37.5% (10-14); and 51.9% (14-17).
[United States Census Bureau. Table 9A. Purpose of Internet Use for People 3 to 17 Years
Using the Internet Anywhere, by Selected Characteristics: September 2001; accessed 3/7/05 at
http://www.census.gov/population/socdemo/computer/ppl-175/tab09A.xls]

In 1997, the Florida Virtual School [http://www.flvs.net/] was founded with a threefold aim:
"1) to relieve the strain of overcrowded schools in the fast-growing Florida districts; 2) to meet
the demands for high-needs courses; and 3) to make advanced courses available to students
throughout the state's 32 rural districts." In a recent report "Tear Down Those Walls: The
Revolution Is Underway," on the U.S. Department of Education's National Technology
Education Plan site [http://www.nationaledtechplan.org/theplan/TearDownThoseWalls.asp] the
tremendous impact of this online school is detailed with one teacher from a small, rural Florida
district noting: "Online learning 'evens the playing field' for rural students." This project too
will help even the playing field by providing students throughout the state with the same type of
news access found in major metropolitan areas. In most smaller areas, neither local newspapers
nor local libraries have the resources to provide this type of service. In seeking funding for this
project, the University of Florida Libraries are assisting the University "to educate students, to
perform research, and to render service to society." In addition, this newspaper collection will
enhance other digital collections that have been developed by the University or in cooperation
with other public institutions including Florida Heritage, Florida Environments Online, and
Aerial photography of Florida (cf, PALMM Collections at http://palmm.fcla.edu/).

The deliverables of this project are closely aligned with the goals and outcomes expressed in
Florida's Strategic Plan for Library Development "Gateway to Information through Florida
Libraries, An Outcomes Plan, 2003-2007." The following table indicates the goal and LSTA
purposes that would be supported through this project.






Library Name: University of Florida Libraries
Project Name: Rewiring Florida's News: from microfilm to digital


Goals from Strategic Plan Outcomes from Strategic Plan Intended Project Contribution
Goal 1. Florida Residents have 2. Residents use the Florida Digitization and web serving of
electronic access to information Electronic Library portal to Florida local newspapers will
resources and services through retrieve information from create a new digital collection of
the Florida Electronic Library multiple sources with a single interest throughout the state.
search engine. OAI compliant metadata
LSTA Purposes: associated with the collection
1.Expanding services for lifelong 5. Residents access digital or will be made available for
learning and access to electronic local content through harvesting and searching to the
information and educational the virtual library. Florida Electronic Library.
resources in a variety of
formats...
2. Developing library services
that provide all users
access...through international
networks
Goal 2. People in Florida of all 1. Florida residents improve their Access to and use of local
ages have programs and services knowledge and skills through newspapers will aid library users
that support lifelong learning targeted programs provided by in identifying community-based
through their libraries libraries and library partners. programs that may be of interest.
These could include volunteer
LSTA Purposes: opportunities, educational
1.Expanding services for lifelong programs for all ages, health care
learning and access to information, job placement, etc.
information and educational Newspapers are often used in
resources in a variety of English as second language
formats... classes and in literacy classes.

2. Developing public and private
partnerships with other agencies
and community-based
organizations.


E. Inputs

Staff

The University of Florida Libraries will contribute a technical team consisting of one senior
Coordinator who will act as Project Administrator, one Project Coordinator, one Digital
Archiving Coordinator, one Finance Coordinator, one Bibliographic Control Coordinator, one
Digital Imaging coordinator, one Newspaper Imaging Coordinator, one Quality Control
Coordinator, one Mark-Up & Metadata Coordinator, and one Project Programmer. The Director
of the Digital Library Center will be the overall project administrator. Specific project duties for
each individual are given below. (Resumes of project staff may be found in Appendix 3.)

PROJECT ADMINISTRATOR (Erich Kesse): provides administrative and budgetary oversight
including supervising the hiring of project staff and purchase of necessary equipment and






Library Name: University of Florida Libraries
Project Name: Rewiring Florida's News: from microfilm to digital

software; helps design the basic Web site, reports directly to the funding agency; and in
coordination with the Project Coordinator tracks and revises the various Action Plans as
necessary. The Project Administrator, together with the Project Coordinator and other Project
staff, will produce a Florida Digital Newspaper Library: Manual for Digitization of Florida
Newspapers.

PROJECT COORDINATOR (Stephanie Haas): provides direct supervision and coordination between
the project components; coordinates the distribution of publicity materials; devises and analyzes
the questionnaire on site use; works with the UF Systems Department to collect and analyze
project statistics; helps design the basic Web site; and provides weekly updates to the Project
Administrator.

DIGITAL ARCHIVING COORDINATOR (Cathleen Mook): supervises all aspects of the digital
archiving of images submitted to the FCLA Digital Archive including the newspaper issues
created during this project.

FINANCE COORDINATOR (Kelley Cunningham): provides ongoing monitoring of all fiscal
transactions related to the grant; provides monthly reports to the Project Administrator and
Project Coordinator; and liaisons with various units in the university's office of sponsored
research.

BIBLIOGRAPHIC CONTROL COORDINATOR (Nelda Schwartz): manages the digital equivalent of
issue check-in; assigns bibliographic control numbers that uniquely identify issues to be scanned
and that serve, subsequently, as control numbers for digital archiving. The Bibliographic Control
Coordinator will also update holdings records in the University of Florida on-line library catalog,
U.S. Newspapers Project: Florida on-line inventory, and other catalogs.

DIGITAL IMAGING COORDINATOR (Randall Renner): supervises the scanning of the 95,000 page
images; consults with Quality Control Coordinator on quality issues and production of
derivatives for markup and Web serving and digital archiving; and integrates the scanning
operations with populating the metadata database.

NEWSPAPER IMAGING COORDINATOR (Will Canova): previously supervised all aspects of the
microfilming unit, now will be supervising and training students in digital capture of newspapers

QUALITY CONTROL COORDINATOR (Jane Pen): supervises the quality control staff responsible for
image quality and creating derivatives for markup and serving; oversees local archiving of
images to DVD.

MARK-UP & METADATA COORDINATOR (James "Gus" Clifton): works with the Project
Administrator, Project Coordinator, and other project staff to create functional text markup
procedures for newspapers, quality control OCR-ed output, and creation of appropriate metadata
for contribution to the Florida Electronic Library and National Digital Newspaper Program at the
Library of Congress.






Library Name: University of Florida Libraries
Project Name: Rewiring Florida's News: from microfilm to digital

PROJECT PROGRAMMER/FLORIDA DIGITAL NEWSPAPER LIBRARY INTERFACE DESIGNER (Mark
Sullivan): works with the Project Administrator and Coordinator to implement design and
functional elements of the Greenstone-based technology supporting the Florida Digital
Newspaper Library and SQL tables driving the U.S. Newspapers Project: Florida on-line
inventory; administers OAI configuration and other data transfer tools to ensure contributions to
the Florida Electronic Library, the National Digital Newspaper Project (Library of Congress),
and other metadata harvesters, e.g, AmericanSouth.org. Responsible for programs used to
generate use statistics.

The Florida Center for Library Automation (FCLA) Digital Archive will archive all issues
of newspapers digitized as part of this project. The University of Florida Library system is in the
process of finalizing the formal agreement for digital archiving with FCLA and all digitization
completed as part of this project will be covered under that agreement. Archiving requirements
are specified in format plans at the FCLA Digital Archive site
[http://www.fcla.edu/digitalArchive/dalnfo.htm#library]. As previously noted, a minimal fee for
archiving may be instituted in the future to cover archiving costs and server expansion needs.
These fees will be requested from system users not the contributing newspaper publishers. With
technical teams already in place, FCLA will provide:

Server space and management of the digital master images
Technical migrations to assure continued functionality and access to digital objects
created as part of this project
Statistical data concerning the digital master images archived as part of this project

The Project Staff that will be hired specifically for the project include:

Project Technicians: as supervised by appropriate unit coordinator/Coordinator, responsible for
creation of original, visually enhanced, and copyright clean versions; quality control review;
markup verification; metadata completion; and burning original and enhanced images to DVDs
for local storage.

Software:

Adobe Photoshop CS (v. 8) for Windows needed for two processing stations.

N.B. Scanning (image capture) software is preconfigured with digital cameras.

Equipment:

Six (6) capture stations each consisting of:
1-Better Light High-Speed Digital Scanning Camera Backs (Super 8K-HS);
1-Toyo-View 4 x 5 VS125-R Camera;
1-Schneider 120 mmm f/5.6 Digitar Lens;
1- Bogen Super Repro Column (copy stand) w/o Baseboard 53" #FF1220BL;
1-Toyo-View Recessed 110 x 110 mm Lensboard for #0 Copal/Compur Shutters with
Field, 23G &45 CX Cameras; and






Library Name: University of Florida Libraries
Project Name: Rewiring Florida's News: from microfilm to digital

2- Fluorescent Work Light Units, Item # 100SWL, 130 Watts.

One Aware JPEG 2000 server used to provide Internet access to newspaper images. Permits 1:1
zoomability, panning, search term highlighting, etc.

Two (2) post-capture workstations for image processing prior to transmittal to quality control
unit.

A grand total of eight (8) processing workstations will be purchased: one for each of the capture
stations (6) and two for image processing.


F. Action Plan

There are four action lines related to the successful completion of "Rewiring Florida's News"
and the creation of the Florida Digital Newspaper Library: (Each of these action lines is more
fully discussed below.)
1. Digitally capture, markup, serve, archive, and prepare metadata for the selected
newspaper issues from January 1, 2006 to June 30, 2006 (with a 2 month lag, June
digitization is projected for completion in August 2006) to create the Florida Digital
Newspaper Library.
2. Create Florida Digital Newspaper Library web interface for searching and retrieving the
newspaper content
3. Develop and distribute the Florida Digital Newspaper Library publicity to participating
newspapers, and local libraries and schools.
4. Develop newspaper digitization manual for third party contributors to the Florida Digital
Newspaper Library.


1. PROJECT ACTIVITIES

Workflow




Selection Bibliographic Preparation, Digitization Quality Control Text Conversion Digital C iiens
Copyright Control Collation, etc. & Copyright & Mark-up Libary Of Florida
Clearance Content Processing


Action Line 1:
Digitally capture, markup, serve, archive, and prepare metadata for the selected
newspaper issues from January 1, 2006 to June 30, 2006
(N.B. With a 2 month lag, June digitization is projected for completion in late August 2006)






Library Name: University of Florida Libraries
Project Name: Rewiring Florida's News: from microfilm to digital

Selection for Digitization
Newspaper Imaging Coordinator prepares lists of 54 Florida newspapers currently being preserved by
UF on microfilm and confirms with publisher that the migration from microfilm to digital preservation is
acceptable and obtains permission for Internet serving. (41 confirmed; 13 pending additional contact)

Tracking & Preparation for Digitization
DLC staff (bibliographic control) logs newspaper titles into tracking systems, updates holdings in
bibliographic records and other library catalogs.
Other DLC staff (physical processing) perform collation, flattening and other processes required for
optimal image capture.

Digitization & Image Derivative Creation
The scanning, image enhancement, and quality control of the newspaper images will be done
at the Digital Library Center, University of Florida. The Project Administrator in consultation
with the Project Coordinator, Digital Imaging Coordinator, Newspaper Imaging Coordinator, and
Quality Control Coordinator will set the initial standards for scanning the newspaper images.
Under direct supervision of the appropriate unit head, trained project technicians will carry out
the primary activities of image creation, enhancement, quality control, and markup validation.
Scanning will conform to all appropriate standards and at pixel-per-inch resolutions and bit-
depths that are consistent with the recommendations of Cornell University's Moving Theory into
Practice Digital Imaging for Libraries and Archives (Anne R. Kenney and Oya Y. Rieger1
[Mountain View, CA: Research Libraries Group, 2000.]
Electronic archive masters will be uncompressed TIFF files (ITU 6.0) at 100% scale: the
current de facto standard for electronic image archives. Under the supervision of the Newspaper
Imaging Coordinator, pages will be digitized and produced in graphical file formats (i.e., TIFF)
by project technicians to meet the requirements of the item's physical format. Images will be
scanned at 400 dpi, 8-bit grey-scale, per National Digital Newspaper Project specifications.
Pages with meaningful color, color that informs the story or without which interpretation is not
possible, will be scanned at 400 dpi, 24-bit sRGB calibrated color. Visually enhanced versions
will be created using Adobe Photoshop: these versions include needed corrections for brightness,
sharpening, etc. The enhanced version is sent to the Quality Control unit.
Per National Digital Newspaper Project specifications the deliverable will be JPEG 2000
images with searchable text. (See, Appendix 4 for discussion of JPEG 2000.)

Quality Control
The enhanced version is reviewed by the Quality Control Unit using the DLC quality control
application program. If the staff accepts the image, copyrighted contents such as cartoons,
syndicated columns, etc. are visually modified to create a copyright clean version of the page
image. Rejected images are reported to the Newspaper Imaging Coordinator for re-shooting.
Accepted images are transferred on to Mark-Up & Metadata Unit.

Mark-Up & Metadata
The Mark-Up & Metadata Unit processes the copyright clean version of the newspaper
images through PrimeRecognition software. Outputs include SGML files and a searchable JPEG
2000 file with an embedded text file. Appropriate metadata is created to describe the digital
package.

1 See Mrs. Rieger's letter of support in Appendix 2.






Library Name: University of Florida Libraries
Project Name: Rewiring Florida's News: from microfilm to digital

This metadata will be used to access the newspaper issues online and made available for
harvesting to the Florida Electronic Library.

Deployment & Archiving
With acceptable completion of markup and metadata creation, the completed digital package
will be ingested into the Greenstone-based digital library server at the University of Florida and
made available to the public.
The original TIFF image and the copyright clean enhanced version are FTP'd to the FCLA
Digital Archive (http://www.fcla.edu/digitalArchive/), with archive listed (separate database)
MD5 checksum. The Florida Center for Library Automation (FCLA) Digital Library Services
staff performs secondary review of packages, return errors in them to the DLC and pass on
accepted packages. Any returned error packages will be reviewed and rectified by the Digital
Archiving Coordinator in collaboration with the Mark-Up & Metadata Coordinator, and/or other
staff as appropriate. Copies of the original and copyright clean images, as well as the SGML and
searchable JPEG 2000 files will be stored on DVD at the Digital Library Center. Per standard
preservation policy (as also reflected in microfilm archiving), the Florida Digital Newspaper
Library will maintain redundant archives to ensure long-term preservation.


Action Line 2.
Create Web interface

The initial Web site design will be completed by the Project Programmer in collaboration with
staff at the Digital Library Center, University of Florida (e.g., the Project Administrator and
Project Coordinator) and the Libraries' Public Services Division.

Staff will seek public pre-release input on design and functional issues, particularly from those
who have submitted letters of support. The Florida Digital Newspaper Library, under the
auspices of the UF Digital Library Center, will maintain a pull-list of Web development items.
An Advisory Board will also provide advice on direction.2

No one fully knows what a digital newspaper collection's interface should look like or precisely
how it should behave. Form-and-function studies of electronic delivery for Florida newspapers
is a component funded by the National Digital Newspaper Program (see, Appendix 5: Notice of
Award). The interface completed during Rewiring Florida's News will share the form and
function of other digital newspaper collections, specifically collections at the Library of
Congress (see: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/sgphtml/sashtml/sashome.html), Alaska's Tundra
Times (see: http://ttip.tuzzy.org/), and Utah Digital Newspapers (see:
http://www.lib.utah.edu/digital/unews/).





2 Advisory Board is named in the outstanding proposal to the National Endowment for the Humanities for
retrospective newspaper microfilm digitization, as part of the National Digital Newspaper Project. For reference,
see: http://web.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/collections/FDNL/NDNPproposal.pdf.
3 See the Utah Newspaper Program's letter of support in Appendix 2







Library Name: University of Florida Libraries
Project Name: Rewiring Florida's News: from microfilm to digital


Action Line 3.
Develop and distribute the project publicity to participating newspapers, and local libraries
and schools.

The Project Coordinator with the assistance of the Publicity Coordinator for the University of
Florida Libraries will create a series of publicity packages to send to participating newspapers
and to all Florida branch public libraries, libraries at community colleges and all public high
schools. This distribution list consists of approximately 1,100 addresses. Digital Library Center
staff will also seek time on the Florida Library Association's agenda for the meeting immediately
following release.

Publicity
Please see Action Line 3 above.



Action Line 4.
Develop newspaper digitization manual for third party contributors to the Florida Digital
Newspaper Library.

The Project Administrator, together with the Project Coordinator and other Project staff, will
produce a Florida Digital Newspaper Library: Manual for Digitization of Florida Newspapers.

This manual, with specifications and compliance-requirements, is to be used by other Florida
institutions seeking to digitize Florida newspaper titles intended for contribution to the Florida
Digital Newspaper Library. The manual will be distributed via the Internet from the Florida
Digital Newspaper Library web page. And, the Florida Digital Newspaper Library will
encourage its use through publicity (see, Deliverable no. 5) and consultation with agencies
seeking funds for digitization.



2. TIMELINE FOR ACTION PLAN

Time Table Quarter 1 Quarter 1 Quarter 2 Quarter 4
Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb March April May June July Aug Sept
1. Purchasee andtest

2. Hire and train staff
3. Digitize, markup,
serve and archive
newspaper issues
4. Create newspaper
digitization manual
5. Create metadata for
issues
6. Create project Web
site
7. Develop publicity
packages and distribute






Library Name: University of Florida Libraries
Project Name: Rewiring Florida's News: from microfilm to digital

3. SUSTAINABILITY

Upon completion of "Rewiring Florida's News," 95,000 pages of local Florida news will be
available. The University of Florida is committed to continuing the digitization of the 54 titles
included in this grant after funding ceases in September 2006.

The intent of the grant developers is to seek additional funds to digitize earlier years of the titles
completed during this grant and to expand the number of newspaper titles available. As noted
previously, the funded NEH will digitize the issues of 50 Florida newspapers between the years
1900-1910. This will add an additional 120,000 pages to the project site. Funding sources may
include subsequent LSTA grants, private industry grants, other governmental bodies, and groups
with historical interests in Florida.

The University of Florida will act outside these date limits, using its own internal funding and
other grant opportunities to extend coverage of the State's news. In the last Fiscal Year, for
example, the University retrospectively microfilmed a nearly complete run of the Jax Air News.
It also piloted the digitization of its Civil War era newspapers. As such retrospective runs and
appropriate funding become available, the equipment provided by this grant will be used to
digitize these retrospective holdings. Additionally, through the creation and active promotion of
a manual for the digitization of Florida newspapers by third parties, the Florida Digital
Newspaper Library will accept compliant product for inclusion in this Project (see, Deliverable
6). Immediate targets for retrospective digitization include various extant issues from the more
than 20 titles in the University's Florida Underground Newspapers collection; the more than 10
titles in the University's Civil War Era Florida Newspapers collection; and the more than 700
issues of various out-of-state titles with extensive Florida reporting from the Goza andMickler
Newspaper Collections.), as well as the conversion of previously digitized newspapers (e.g.,
Hotel News) in the PALMM Florida Heritage Collections (http://palmm.fcla.edu/fh/).

As we have tried to indicate throughout this proposal, the funding for this grant will help
us to develop the technical infrastructure to successfully launch a Florida newspaper
digitization initiative. The project developers are keenly aware of the need to continue
newspaper ingest, serving and archiving throughout the lifetime of a paper and are
equally aware of the need to digitize the legacy news of past years.

The University of Florida's strategy for Florida's newspapers also includes ingest of newspapers
"born-digital". Capture of the digital content used to print newspapers obviates the need to
digitize them after print. Several of the newspaper publishers agreeing to allow us to digitize
their newspapers have indicated that they would make digital content available to the Florida
Digital Newspaper Library and assist in future fundraising to enable this final strategy.




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