• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Purpose
 Field methods
 Diet data program
 Results
 Darien recipes
 Bibliography






Group Title: Bioenvironmental and radiological-safety feasibility studies : Atlantic-Pacific Interoceanic canal
Title: Darienita's dietary
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Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00082069/00001
 Material Information
Title: Darienita's dietary
Series Title: Bioenvironmental and radiological-safety feasibility studies : Atlantic-Pacific Interoceanic canal
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Duke, James A.
Publisher: Battelle Memorial Institute
Publication Date: 1970
 Subjects
Subject: Caribbean   ( lcsh )
Panama Canal
Canal Zone
Spatial Coverage: North America -- Panama -- Panama Canal Zone
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00082069
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Purpose
        Page 1
    Field methods
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Diet data program
        Page 9
    Results
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Darien recipes
        Page A-1
        Page A-2
        Page A-3
        Page A-4
        Page A-5
        Page A-6
        Page A-7
        Page A-8
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        Page A-80
        Page A-81
        Page A-82
    Bibliography
        Page B-1
Full Text



















BIOENVIRONMENTAL AND RADIOLOGICAL-SAFETY FEASIBILITY STUDIES

ATLANTIC-PACIFIC INTEROCEANIC CANAL



DARIENITA'S DIETARY

Compiled by

James A. Duke








June 12, 1970












Prepared under Battelle Memorial Institute,
Columbus Laboratories, U. S. Atomic Energy Commission
Prime Contract No. AT(26-1)-171










BATTELLE MEMORIAL INSTITUTE
Columbus Laboratories
505 King Avenue
Columbus, Ohio 43201























BIOENVIRONMENTAL AND RADIOLOGICAL-SAFETY FEASIBILITY STUDIES

ATLANTIC-PACIFIC INTEROCEANIC CANAL



DARIENITA'S DIETARY

Compiled by

James A. Duke








June 12, 1970












Prepared under Battelle Memorial Institute,
Columbus Laboratories, U. S. Atomic Energy Commission
Prime Contract No. AT(26-1)-171










BATTELLE MEMORIAL INSTITUTE
Columbus Laboratories
505 King Avenue
Columbus, Ohio 43201









TABLE OF CONTENTS


INTRODUCTION. ..

PURPOSE .

FIELD METHODS .

DIET DATA PROGRAM .

RESULTS .


APPENDIX A


* a A-I


DARIEN RECIPES




BIBLIOGRAPHY.


APPENDIX B


B-1


LIST OF TABLES


Table 1. Panamanian Personal Code .. ...

Table 2. Colombian Personal Code .. .....

Table 3. Food Item Code ........

Table 4. Plant Foods of Isthmian People .. ..

Table 5. Animal Foods of Isthmian People. ...

Table 6. Summary of Food Types Consumed .. ..

Table 7. Results of Analyses of 90Sr, 137Cs, and 239
Isthmian Foodstuffs. .

Table 8. Elemental Analyses (ppm) by Atomic Absorption

Table 9. Elemental Analyses (ppm) by Atomic Absorption
of Isthmian Crops ......

Table 10. Elemental Analyses (ppm) by Spark-Source Mass
Isthmian Crops .


. 3


. 5 4
* 5

. 11

S12

. 13

in Samples of
. 14

of Isthmian Crops 15

and Neutron Activation
. 16

Spectrometry of
. 17


Table 11. Results of Analyses for Selected Stable Elements in
Isthmian Meats . . .

Table 12. Mass-Spectrographic Analyses of Isthmian Meats and Fish.

Table 13. Standard Bromatological Analyses of Isthmian Crops .

Table 14. Standard Bromatological Analyses of Isthmian Animal Products .

Table 15. Recommended and Actual Per-Capita Panamanian Food Intake


Page



1
1

2

9

10


18

19

21

25

27








DARIENITA'S DIETARY


Compiled by

James A. Duke



INTRODUCTION


Two words not in many dictionaries should be known to anyone with a sincere inter-
est in eastern Panama, darienita meaning a person from Darien, and darienista, meaning a
stranger, like Jim Duke, who likes Darien. In the pages that follow, a darienista has
attempted to compile what is known about the dietary habits of the darienitas: (1) the
Cuna Indians, originally hailing from Colombian Chibchan stock (Keeler, personal communi-
cation, 1969); (2) the Choco Indians, who seem to hail ultimately from Brasil via Colom-
bia (Duke, 1970); (3) the Panamanian Negroes, ultimately hailing mostly from Angola;
(4) the immigrating Colombian Negroes, largely with Congolese roots (Arboleda, personal
communication, 1966); and (5) the colonial Caucasians, recently invading from western
Panama in search of virgin lands (Torres de Arauz, personal communication, 1968). The
meager historical evidence suggests racial pulses of humanity across the Isthmus of
Darien, the Cuna being replaced by the Choco who are being displaced by both Panamanian
and Colombian Negroes, and a trickle of Caucasian colonials.

"Panama's cooking has been influenced over the centuries by the people of many
nations. The Spanish settlers, the Negro slaves, the French, Italians, Chinese,
Hindu, and, since Canal-construction days, the Yankees have left on the Isthmus
vestiges of their cultures and their kitchens.

"The culinary habits of Panama have been shaped by the fruits, vegetables,
and herbs native to the country, the abundance of fish, and local animals
and fowl.

"The even, tropical temperature permits a large number of fruits and vegetables
to be available throughout the year in Panama markets and at stalls along the
roadside in the Interior. Meat and fowl are plentiful all year.

"Down through the years Panama has developed its own cuisine, replete with deli-
cious dishes that are appetizing and distinct. Seasoning is the secret in
Panama's kitchens just as it has been since primitive cooks added a bit of this
and that to enhance the flavor or texture of the daily nourishment. Two flavor-
ing agents work near-miracles in Panama cookery, the "recado verde" and
annatto." (Hernandez, 1969).




PURPOSE


The dietary studies in Panama and Colombia were designed to quantify per-capita
food consumption so that it could be determined what quantity of radionuclides would be
ingested by natives following nuclear excavation of a sea-level canal, assuming that na-
tives are allowed to return after a selected period of time. From the dietary analyses,
coupled with the food analyses reported by Ewing, et al. (1969), one can compute the
quantities of certain trace minerals which are currently being ingested by the various
ethnic groups. From the data compiled in Tables 13 and 14, one could further compute the
calories, moisture, protein, fat, carbohydrates, etc., derived from various food types.
These data have been consulted in the preparation of Battelle's final report to the
Atomic Energy Commission under Contract No. AT(26-1)-171.









FIELD METHODS


Anthropologists Dra. Reina Torres de Aradz and Lic. Alfredo Costales Samaniego and
their associates performed the anthropological investigations on Routes 17 and 25, respec-
tively. Their programs were designed to represent the major social and economic strata of
the ethnic groups along the routes: Caucasian, Choco, Cuna, and Negro. For several days,
investigators lived with families from each of the groups, recording carefully the weights
of the major ingredients of the various dishes and the amounts consumed by the subjects.
As portions of food were removed from the pot, the portion destined for each individual
was weighed where feasible; recognizable items in soups and stews were weighed separately.
Each Panamanian subject was classified by the Personal Code (Table 1) devised by Dra. Arauz.
Colombian subjects were classified according to the Personal Code (Table 2) devised by
Costales. Subjects were also coded as to sex and age. As field biologist, the compiler
traveled frequently with the anthropologists to assist them in the identification of the
organisms and in sample collection and processing. The data were gathered by the anthro-
pologists, while the compiler has merely collated and translated, their data.

As a result of her study of 350 people over a span of 16 months, Dra. Arauz sub-
mitted 361 recipes containing about 200 items (see Table 3). Recipes varied in number
of major ingredients from 1 to 12, and each recipe was assigned a code number. The
recipes are given in the appendix to this report, with the code numbers of some of the
complicated recipes given in parentheses following the name of the recipe. In most cases
her recipes were quantified, but to quantify certain recipes, the following assumptions
were made:

Sugar to taste = 20 g/250 ml
Milk to taste = 15 ml/250 ml
Panela to taste = 30 g/250 ml
Salt to taste = 10 g/Z
Pepper to taste = 1 g/k
Garlic to taste = 1 g/200 g
Oregano to taste = 1 g/k
Oil for sauteing = 1 g/R
One crab = 28 g meat
One chicken egg = 28 g
One iguana egg = 15 g
One turtle egg = 15 g
Five oranges = 1 k juice
One lime = 20 ml
Butter to taste = 1 g/25 g bread
One ear corn = 30 g corn grain
One clove garlic = 1 g
One leaf culantro = 1 g
One package yeast = 28 g
One oil palm fruit = 25 g.

Arauz intended to classify water as rain water, well water, or superficial
water, and her classification has been maintained. However, in any recipe where she did
not specify water type, the specified quantity was divided among water types. Similar
divisions were employed in other recipes where alternatives were possible, e.g., if the
recipe called for 100 g oil not specifying whether imported or domestic oil, it was
channeled into the computer as 50 g cooking oil and 50 g palm oil. For meats with
bones, 10 percent has been subtracted from the weight entering the recipe.

Lic. Costales' group, working with 451 subjects during the rainy season in
Colombia was able, in many cases, to give only the total weights of the items consumed
daily by the individual or, in some cases, the family. In such cases, further assump-
tions have been made. For example, if Costales stated that the family used 150 g sugar

















TABLE 1. PANAMANIAN PERSONAL CODE

(From Torres de Arauz)


A. Economic Strata


C. Health


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.


B. Family


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.


Industrial
Commercial
Commercial farmer
Government employee
Semicommercial farmer
Subsistence farmer
Dayworker
Dependent

-y Status

Head of Family
Wife
Son
Daughter
Son-in-law
Daughter-in-law
Brother-in-law
Sister-in-law
Brother
Sister
Male cousin
Female Cousin
Nephew
Niece
Grandson
Granddaughter
Great grandson
Great granddaughter
Visitor
Mother-in-law
Father-in-law
Guest
Father
Mother
Step-son
Step-daughter


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.


Pregnant
Lactating mother
Weaning mother
Nursing baby
Weaning baby
Sick (undiagnosed)
Malaria
Diarrhea & parasitosis
Healthy


D. Ethnic Group


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.


Island Cuna
Inland Cuna
Choco
Negro
Mulatto
Zambo
Mestizo
White
Mongrel


E. Locality


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.


Mulatupu
Isla Pino
Ustupu
Uala
Morti
Piria
Canazas
Chiman
Chitola
Antado
Tupisa
Boca Sabalo
Rio Chico


14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.


Rio Sabana
Mogue
Tuquesa
La Palma
Isla Grillo
Rio Pixbae
Garachine
Rio Congo
Chepigana
San Miguel
Seteganti
Yaviza
Puerto Obaldia
Jaque
Iglesias
Nuevo Paraiso
Nuevo Paritilla
Caramuno
Bijagual
Curundama


F. Origin of Ingested
Material

1. Agriculture
2. Freshwater
3. Marine
4. Estuarine
5. Hunting
6. Gathering
7. Animal husbandry
8. Imported from other
parts of Panama
9. Imported from
Colombia
10. Imported from other
countries
11. Superficial water
12. Well water
13. Rain water


- -- -- -- -- --- -- --- ---- --
--- -- -- --- -- -- --
























TABLE 2. COLOMBIAN PERSONAL CODE

(From Costales)


A. Locality D. Family Status


1. Cuti (Santa Maria La Nueva)
2. Arquia
3. Unguia
4. Coredo
5. Curiche
6. Puerto Libre (Sautata)
7. La Nueva (Truando)
8. Salaqui

B. Economic Condition

1. Rich
2. Upper Middle Class
3. Middle Class
4. Lower Middle Class
5. Poor

C. Ethnic Group

1. White
2. Negro
3. Choco
4. Cuna
5. Mulatto
6. Mestizo
7. Mongrel


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.


Head of Family
His wife
Brother or sister
Father/Mother
Father/Mother-in-law
Grandchild
Great grandchild
Child
Niece or nephew
Son/Daughter-in-law
Servant
Other
Guest


E. Health

1. Pregnant
2. Lactating mother
3. Weaning mother
4. Nursing child
5. Weaning child
6. In good health
7. In menstruation
8. With malaria
9. Sick
10. Apparent good health


__ __ _____ ___ _____ ____ __ ____ __ ___ ______ __~_ __ ___
~ ___





5


TABLE 3. FOOD-ITEM CODE


Assumed
Water Adult Consumption,
Content, g wet wt/day
Code Item Category % Colombia Panama

001 Agouti Game Animal 65 -- 0.8
002 Ahuyama (Cucurbita) Plant 70 0.2 0.4
003 Almond (Dipteryx) Plant 70 --
004 Anise Liquid 100 9.6 --
005 Annatto (Bixa) Plant 70 2.2 --
006 Annatto sauce Plant 70 0.8 1.8
007 Armadillo Game animal 65 -- --
008 Avocado (Persea) Plant 70 0.4 14.5
009 Avocado leaves Plant 70 --(a)
010 Baking powder Import 65 -- 0.1
011 Bologna Import 65 -- 0.4
012 Balsam Plant 70 --
013 Banana, green (Musa) Plant 70 _(b) 80.2
014 Banana, ripe Plant 70 -(b) 20.1
015 Basil Import 70 --
016 Beans (Phaseolus) Plant 70 4.8 1.6
017 Beef, imported Import 65 -- --
018 Beef, native Domestic animal 65 2.0 13.0
019 Beef, hooves Domestic animal 65 -- 0.4
020 Beef sauce Domestic animal 65 0.1
021 Beer Liquid 100 -- 4.1
022 Beets Plant 70 0.1 --
023 Bicarbonate Import 65 --
024 Bijao (Calathea) Plant 70
025 Borojo (Borojoa) Plant 70 --
026 Breadfruit (Artocarpus) Plant 70 -- 0.1
027 Butter Import 65 -- 0.4
028 Cabbage (Brassica) Plant 70 0.3
029 Caimito (ChrysophylZum) Plant 70 -- --
030 Carrot (Daucus) Import 70 --(a) 0.1
031 Cassava (Manihot) Plant 70 69.4 4.0
032 Chayote (Sechium) Plant 70 -- --(a)
033 Cheese, local Domestic animal 65 --
034 Cheese, imported Import 65 -- 2.4
035 Cheveri Game animal 65 -- --
036 Chicken Domestic animal 65 2.9 2.4
037 Chicken concentrate Import 65 -- 0.4
038 Chiton Seafood 75 -- 0.5
039 Chocolate, local Plant 70 0.1 3.0
040 Chocolate, imported Import 65 -- 0.9
041 Chorizo Domestic animal 65 -- --
042 Cinnamon Import 65 --(a) --(a)
043 Clams Seafood 75 0.1 0.2
044 Cloves Import 65 -- --
045 Cocaleca (Ibis ?) Seafood ? 75 -- 0.2
046 Coconut meat Plant 70 1.9 2.5
047 Coconut milk Plant 70 7.4 92.5
048 Coconut oil Plant 70 2.0 --
049 Codfish bacalaoo) Seafood 75 -- 0.3
050 Coffee, imported Import 65 -- 18.6


051 Coffee, native Plant 70 1.4









TABLE 3. (Continued)


Assumed
Water
Content,
%


I


tem


Code

052
053
054
055
056
057
058
059
060
061
062
063
064
065
066
067
068
069
070
071
072
073
074
075
076
077
078
079
080
081
082
083
084
085
086
087
088
089
090
091
092
093
094
095
096
097
098
099
100
101
102
103


Category


Comino
Conchudo
Corn grain (Zea)
Cornmeal
Corn on cob
Corned beef
Corozo (Corozo)
Crab
Crab
Crackers
Cucumber
Culantro (Eryngium)
Curassow
Deer
Dove
Duck
Egg, chicken
Egg, duck
Egg, iguana
Egg, turkey
Egg, turtle
Eggplant (Solanum)
Fish, canned
Fish, estuarine
Fish, freshwater
Fish, marine
Flour (unspecified)
Flour, barley
Flour, corn
Flour, wheat
Fruit juice
Garlic (AZZium)
Gelatin
Ginger (Zingiber)
Grapefruit (Citrus)
Guan
Guava (Psidium)
Ham, canned
Ibis ? (pajaro coco)
Ice cream bean (Inga)
Iguana
Kool-Aid
Lancho
Lard, pork
Lard, turtle
Lemon (Citrus)
Lemon peel
Lemongrass (Cymbopogon)
Lentils (Lens)
Lima beans
Liver
Lobster


Import
Seafood
Plant
Plant
Plant
Import
Plant
Freshwater
Seafood
Import
Plant
Plant
Game animal
Game animal
Game animal
Domestic animal
Domestic animal
Domestic animal
Game animal
Domestic animal
Game animal
Plant
Import
Seafood
Freshwater
Seafood
Import
Import
Import
Import
Import
Plant
Import
Plant
Plant
Game animal
Plant
Import
Game animal
Plant
Game animal
Import
Game animal
Domestic animal
Game animal
Plant
Plant
Plant
Imported
Plant
Domestic animal
Seafood


Adult Consumption,
g wet wt/day
Colombia Panama


65
75
70
70
70
65
70
75
75
65
70
70
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
70
65
75
75
75
65
65
65
65
100
70
65
70
70
65
70
65
65
70
65
65
65
65
65
70
70
70
65
70
65
75


0.1

17.7
0.3





1.5


0.1
m--

0.2

5.2







15.4
17.0
22.6


0.8
0.6

0.1












7.4








0.1
I-'-
--
,--
--


0.9
8.0
4.2
14.6
0.1
0.1(a)

0.5
1.6


0.8
2.9
0.1
0.1
3.5

0.8

1.2


0.3
14.0
20.6
24.4

0.3

0.1(a)
0.2
0.1


1.7

__(a)
0.1

1.9
0.8

0.9
0.3
1.6


1.0
1.6

0.2


____ ___ C __ __


_ ___ __ I~ __~ _









TABLE 3. (Continued)


Assumed
Water Adult Consumption,
Content, g wet wt/day
Code Item Category % Colombia Panama


104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
202
143
144
203
145
146
147
201
148
149
150
151


Malt
Mamey (Mammea)
Mango (Mangifera)
Mansita
Margarine
Mayonnaise
Meat soup
Membrillo (Gustavia)
Milk, cow's
Milk, evaporated
Milk, powdered
Monkey
Nance (Byrsonima)
Noodles
Nutmeg
Oatmeal (Avena)
Oil, imported
Oil, mil pesos (Jessenia)
Oil Palm Fruit
Onion (AZZium)
Orange (Citrus)
Oregano
Oyster
Paca
Papaya (Carica)
Parrot
Parsley (Petroselinum)
Pea (Pisum)
Peach palm (Guilielma)
Peccary
Pepper, black (Piper)
Pepper, hot (Capsicum)
Pepper, sweet (Capsicum)
Pigeon Pea (Cajanus)
Pineapple (Ananas)
Pineapple rind
Plantain, green (Musa)
Plantain, ripe
Plantain flour
Poleo
Pork
Pork and beans
Pork blood
Pork feet
Pork skin
Pork tail
Poroto (Phaseolus)
Opossum
Potato (Solanum)
Rice (Oryza)
Salmon


Import
Plant
Plant
Seafood
Imported
Imported
Domestic animal
Plant
Liquid
Import
Import
Game animal
Plant
Imported
Imported
Imported
Imported
Plant
Plant
Plant
Plant
Imported
Seafood
Game animal
Plant
Game animal
Plant
Imported
Plant
Game animal
Imported
Plant
Plant
Plant
Plant
Plant
Plant
Plant
Plant
Plant
Domestic animal
Imported
Domestic animal
Domestic animal
Domestic animal
Domestic animal
Import
Game animal
Import
Plant
Seafood


65
70
70
75
70
70
65
70
100
75
65
65
70
65
65
65
65
70
70
70
70
65
75
65
70
65
70
65
70
65
65
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
65
70
65
65
65
65
70
65
70
70
75


-- -

m--


7.4

27.9
14.0



1.6

10.1

4.5

8.7
,--

0.1


0.7



0.6

0.1
0.1



159.7(b)
179.3(b)


13.9

0.1
1.2





10.2
234.8
--


.--
0.7
11.5
0.2

0.1
1.0
0.2
6.4
2.2
--(a)
0.4
0.3
1.3

1.5
17.4
1.8
0.5
9.1
2.0

0.4
0.6
0.6


0.4
5.7
3.6

0.1
1.1
0.2
5.5
0.1
55.2
69.5
0.5

4.5
0.1

0.2
1.8
0.8


1.5
129.2


-I~-- -----~ --- ----- ----~-- --~- ----- --- ------- ------ -- --- ------ -- ----









TABLE 3. (Continued)


Assumed
Water
Content,
%


Item


Code

152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200


Category


Salt
Sardine, canned
Sardine, freshwater
Sardine, marine
Sausage
Sesame (Sesamum)
Shrimp, freshwater
Shrimp, marine
Sloth
Snail, freshwater
Snail, marine
Soda pop
Soursop (Annona)
Soursop leaves
Spam (lunch meat)
Spanish plum (Spondias)
Squirrel
String bean (Phaseolus)
Sugar, granulated
Sugarcane juice (Saccharum)
Sugarcane molasses
Sugar, brown (panela)
Sweet potato (Ipomoea)
Tamarind (Tamarindus)
Tangerine (Citrus)
Tapir
Taro (Colocasia)
Tea
Tinamou
Tomato (Lycopersicum)
Tomato catsup
Tomato paste
Tongue
Tripe, beef
Tripe, pork
Toucan
Tuna
Turnip (Brassica)
Turtle
Vanilla
Vegetable soup (canned)
Vinegar
Rain water
River water
Well and spring water
Yam (Dioscorea)
Yampi (Dioscorea)
Yeast
Zapote (Quararibea)


Adult Consumption,
g wet wt/day
Colombia Panama


Import
Import
Freshwater
Seafood
Domestic animal
Plant
Freshwater
Seafood
Game animal
Freshwater
Seafood
Liquid
Plant
Plant
Import
Plant
Game animal
Plant
Import
Plant
Plant
Plant
Plant
Plant
Plant
Game animal
Plant
Import
Game animal
Plant
Import
Import
Domestic animal
Domestic animal
Domestic animal
Game animal
Seafood
Plant
Seafood
Import
Import
Import
Liquid
Liquid
Liquid
Plant
Plant
Imported
Plant


65
65
75
75
65
70
75
75
65
75
75
100
70
70
65
70
65
70
65
70
70
70
70
70
70
65
70
65
65
70
75
75
65
65
65
65
75
70
75
75
75
75
100
100
100
70
70
75
70


(a) Slightly higher consumption among younger people in
(b) The Colombian data includes bananas under plantain.


the reported data.


2.2



















6.6
6.0

38.1
0.2


0.1
4.5


0.2



0.3

0.1
,--, ,,

















0.2


0.2
1.7
186.8

23.1

--


__ ___~ ___________ 1_ _


. ______________ ____ ___ -- ___


- ------


7.5
1.8
0.5

0.8

0.2
0.5


__(a)
4.5
0.7

0.3

0.2

20.9
59.9
1.3
2.0
0.9


0.3
0.7
0.3(a)
0.3
0.1
1.7
1.1


0.1
0.1
0.3

2.0

0.1
0.2
0.9
977.0
467.1
24.7
2.1
0.6







on a given day, for calculation that amount was divided equally among the members of the
family 2 years of age or older.

Frequently an individual was away from home for one or more meals during the day.
Partial data for him were completely eliminated from the program for the day in those cases
where meal-by-meal data were not available.

Quantities for several Colombian menus have been modified or assumed, using the
experience derived from programming the Panama data. In some cases recipes were assigned
the same code number assigned to similar recipes from Panama. Thus there is no basis for
comparing the total number of recipes in Panama (361 recipes from 350 subjects) with the
new, not total, number of recipes from Colombia (Recipes 362-468). In many cases, these
Colombian numbers result not from recipes at all but from lack of recipes, e.g., meat with
no assignment to class of meat or method of preparation had to be given a separate number
in the recipe code. Many such unexplained items in the Colombian data had to be so en-
tered to give the desired totals in overall consumption of meat, plants, liquids, etc.

Except in the case of beverages and a few soups, Costales failed to include water
in his recipes. This may have resulted in the slightly higher calculations for Colombian
than for Panamanian food consumption. A source of error that has not been corrected is
the inclusion of all water in a recipe, not the fraction remaining after cooking. For an
extreme example, an Indian eating 150 grams of boiled shrimp would be calculated as eating
X percent of 150, where X = grams shrimp/grams shrimp + grams water in which boiled. The
seriousness of this evaporation factor has not been determined, but water is present in
over half the Panamanian recipes. Perhaps this factor accounts for the difference in the
Panamanian and Colombian solid intakes.

Patricia McKee designed the program for calculating the food consumption which
follows.



DIET DATA PROGRAM


Four types of data cards are used in the calculations:

(1) Individual cards that give information about an individual person as
to his locality, family, etc.

(2) Recipe cards that give the food item and its proportion in the recipe

(3) Ingredient cards that give the numbers and alphabetic description of
the food item

(4) Individual diet cards that give date and diet (in grams) for that day
in terms of recipes.

All cards for an individual "diet-day" are read in, and the recipe amount is trans-
lated into individual-food-item amounts by the following formula:


amount in recipe
total g in recipes x amount recipe eaten = amount food item eaten.
total g in recipes

If the diet data are divided into meals, then the average is calculated on a
sample-per-meal basis and the daily total is arrived at by summing the meal averages.
Otherwise, when a person does not eat a meal, the daily sample does not take this into
account.





10


Individual Diet Cards:

FORMAT (13, IX, 212, IX, 3(13, 1X, 4(13, IX)))

(day, month, person number, 3 (recipe number 4 (meals)))

Recipe Cards:

FORMAT (13, IX, 13, 1X, 14)

Recipe number, item number, grams)

Personal Data Cards:

FORMAT: (12, IX, 12, IX, II, lX, II, IX, 13, IX, 12, 1X, II, IX, 12, IX, 12)

(locality, family, economic condition, ethnic group, person number,
age, sex, parentage, state of health)

Output tape person number, number of foods, average daily diet (food number, amount)

Input tape:

(1) Personal cards
(2) Recipe data
(3) Ingredient data.



RESULTS


The food-item code, water content assumed for calculating dry weights, and the
adult consumption rate of the food items calculated are shown in Table 3. Calculations
were made for various combinations of the variables shown in Tables 1 and 2, and these
are stored on tape but will not be presented here. Table 4 illustrates the variations in
the plant-food consumption of the various ethnic groups in eastern Panama, while Table 5
shows the animal-food consumption. Table 6, in addition to summarizing the dry-weight
consumption of the various ethnic groups, shows variations among age groups.

Chemical analyses of many of these food items were performed and reported by
Ewing, et al. (1969) so that the contribution of nuclides from various food items could
be calculated. Results of the radionuclide analyses are presented in Table 7. Some
atomic absorption analyses of certain elements in isthmian crops performed by Gamble,
et al. (1969), are presented in Table 8, while comparable analyses performed at Battelle
(Ewing, et al., 1969) are presented in Table 9. The results of spark-source mass-
spectrometric analyses of isthmian crops (Ewing, et al., 1969) are presented in Table 10,
and the results of similar analyses of isthmian meats are presented in Tables 11 and 12.
Standard bromatological analyses of foods consumed in the isthmian region are presented in
Tables 13 and 14. Recommended and actual per-capita intakes for Panama in 1965 are shown
in Table 15. The data in these diverse tables should permit the computations that may be
necessary to detect potentially dangerous peculiarities in diet. The vocabulary and
recipe jargon in the appendix will certainly help subsequent workers to determine the
meaning of some colloquialisms not to be found in most dictionaries.





11


TABLE 4. PLANT FOODS OF ISTHMIAN PEOPLE

(Grams Wet Weight per Day)


Eastern
Inland Island Panama
Plant Food Choco Cuna Cuna White Negro Average

AZZium (onion) 7.8 -- 19.1 12.3 9.1
AZZium (garlic) 0.1 -- -- 0.4 0.2 0.2
Ananas (pineapple) 20.5 -- 7.3 -- 0.7 5.6
Annona soursopp) -- 6.4 -- 0.7
Artocarpus (breadfruit) -- -- -- -- 0.1 0.1
Avena (oats)(a) -- 4.0 1.7 1.5
Bixa annattoo) 3.7 -- 2.5 1.9 1.8
Byrsonima (nance) -- 1.5 0.3 0.3
Cajanus (pigeon pea) -- -- 0.3 0.2
Capsicum (peppers) 0.4 -- 1.9 2.1 1.2
Carica (papaya) -- 0.6 -- 0.5 1.0 0.6
Citrus (lime) 0.4 -- 5.9 -- 0.7 1.6
Citrus (orange) -- 10.3 3.5 -- 0.4 2.0
Cocos (coconut)
Meat -- -- 9.0 -- 2.1 2.5
Milk 22.3 42.2 308.4 9.5 78.7 92.5
Coffea (coffee)(b) 17.9 -- 3.5 20.4 26.3 18.6
Colocasia (taro) 1.5 -- 0.7 0.8 0.7
Corozo (oil palm) 0.7 -- -- -- 0.1
Cucurbita (ahuyama) -- -- 1.7 0.6 0.4
Cymbopogon (lemon grass) -- -- -- -- --
Dioscorea (yams) 7.8 -- 59.7 25.3 29.6 26.8
Eryngium (coriander) -- -- -- 0.1 0.1 --
Guilielma (peach palm) 18.1 15.9 4.9 -- -- 5.7
Gustavia (membrillo) -- 2.4 -- -- -- 0.2
Ipomoea (sweet potato) 4.7 -- -- 0.1 0.9
Jessenia (oil palm) 7.5 -- 0.4 0.7 1.8
Lens (lentils)(a) -- 0.9 1.8 1.0
Lycopersicon (tomato)(b) 0.8 -- 0.2 0.5 4.9 2.9
Mammea (mamey apple) -- 6.7 -- -- -- 0.7
Mangifera (mango) 35.1 2.8 11.5 11.2 -- 11.5
Manihot (cassava) 2.1 -- -- 11.5 6.1 4.0
Musa (banana) 84.4 141.2 439.4 7.4 2.2 100.3
Musa (plantain) 245.9 329.5 38.3 78.0 78.3 125.2
Oryza (rice) 129.3 8.5 17.8 296.5 160.4 129.2
Persea (avocado) 51.8 -- 10.3 -- 5.6 14.5
Phaseolus (kidney bean) -- -- -- 9.6 2.0 1.6
Phaseolus (lima bean) -- -- 23.8 -- 1.6
Pisum (peas)(a) -- -- -- 1.5 0.4
Saccharum (sugarcane) 100.5 42.5 174.0 120.4 1.1 63.2
Sechium (chayote) -- -- 0.1 --
Solanum (potato)(a) -- -- 1.7 2.6 1.5
Theobroma (chocolate)(b) -- 24.7 7.8 -- 0.5 3.9
Triticum (wheat)(a) 2.9 -- 41.1 7.0 33.4 24.4
Zea (corn) 25.3 68.4 64.0 35.3 6.1 27.1
Zingiber (ginger) -- -- -- -- 0.1 --
Totals 791.5 702.1 1210.6 687.8 467.4 688.1

(a) All or nearly all imported.
(b) Some imported.





12

TABLE 5. ANIMAL FOODS OF ISTHMIAN PEOPLE

(Grams Wet Weight per Day)


Eastern
Inland Island Panama
Choco Cuna Cuna White Negro Average


FISH AND SHELLFISH

Bacalao (fish)
Chiton (mollusk)
Clam (mollusk)
Conchudo (mollusk)
Crab (arthropod)
Fish
Lobster (arthropod)
Mansita (mollusk)
Oyster (mollusk)
Sardine (fish, part imported)
Shrimp (arthropod)
Snail (mollusk)
Turtle (amphibian) (+eggs)
Subtotal

GAME ANIMALS


Agouti
Deer
Dove
Curassow
Guan
Ibis (and/or rail)
Iguana (+ eggs)
Monkey
Paca
Peccary
Tapir
Subtotal

DOMESTIC ANIMALS

Beef
Canned beef
Milk
Local
Imported
Cheese
Butter
Pork
Feet
Lard
Skin
Canned ham (or Spam)
Duck
Chicken
Eggs
Sausage
Subtotal
Total


0.2


5.1

55.4



1.0
1.0


62.7



1.2
8.8

3.9
6.0
0.5
4.8
2.0

11.0
1.1
39.3


28.5







0.1
28.6



0.5


0.7


1.6

0.3
8.2
0.7
12.0


3.6


3.1
26.4
0.7


7.6


21.4
62.8


1.1




1.5


0.3

2.9


5.5



2.5



8.0


I--
7.9






1.9
0.7

18.6
-- 9


0.4

0.3


35.7
0.1
0.3
0.7
2.0
1.0


40.5


1.0
1.1
0.1

1.0
0.1
2.2

0.9
1.5

7.9


-25.6 22.6
- -- 0.2


6.4


18.3

1.5
7.6






33.8
135.8


I--




1.7







1.7
--


40.6


68.6
0.9




1.3


2.0
15.0
3.3

116.7
116.7


1.4
1.8
4.4
0.7
1.9
0.3
1.0
0.7
0.6

3.6
6.4
1.6
47.2


67.4 143.3 95.6 100.2


0.3

0.2
0.9
0.5
36.9
0.2
0.2
0.4
2.3
0.7
0.1
3.2
45.9



0.8
2.9
0.1
0.8
1.7
0.2
2.7
0.4
0.6
3.6
0.3
14.1



13.5
0.1

6.4
2.2
2.4
0.4
4.5
0.2
1.2
1.8
0.3
0.1
2.8
3.5
0.8
40.2


---- ---- -- --- --1 ~-~- -~--- -- ------- ------ -- --- ;--
- -- I--~-~ ---- ~--- ---~- ~ -- ---- -- ~---` --~-- -~~---- ~~ ~--~ ---~





13


TABLE 6. SUMMARY OF FOOD TYPES CONSUMED

(Calculated Grams Dry Weight per Day)


Age Fish and
Ethnic Group, Shellfish Other Animals Total
Group years Marine Fresh Game Domestic Imports Plants Food

Choco 1-5 0.8 7.3 8.1 2.7 14.1 98.7 131.7
5-10 1.9 5.7 10.6 5.7 15.5 172.9 212.3
10-15 1.7 11.1 14.6 7.9 22.6 178.3 236.2
>15 2.4 13.7 14.7 9.6 24.5 231.7 296.6

Inland 0-1 -- 2.3 0.7 -- -- 76.1 79.1
Cuna 1-5 -- 4.0 1.3 -- 0.1 108.8 114.2
5-10 -- 4.0 2.0 -- 0.2 163.9 170.1
10-15 -- 6.5 2.9 -- 0.2 191.8 201.4
>15 -- 7.2 4.2 -- 0.2 210.6 222.2

Island 0-1 3.0 -- 0.1 -- 3.6 99.2 105.9
Cuna 1-5 6.6 0.1 0.3 -- 18.3 162.5 187.8
5-10 9.1 0.3 1.9 -- 23.8 261.6 296.7
10-15 11.2 0.2 2.0 -- 21.6 337.9 372.9
>15 12.0 0.1 4.3 -- 26.4 347.4 390.2

Negro 0-1 5.3 0.1 1.5 4.6 26.8 50.0 88.3
1-5 6.8 1.2 2.3 6.8 30.3 78.6 126.0
5-10 8.6 1.1 3.3 6.8 38.7 98.4 156.9
10-15 10.8 3.0 5.6 8.3 35.5 127.6 190.8
>15 8.3 1.4 2.8 14.3 51.8 118.4 197.0

White 0-1 -- -- 0.8 3.2 2.1 32.8 38.9
1-5 0.4 0.5 1.6 13.3 26.1 102.7 144.6
5-10 0.1 0.5 2.9 8.6 23.5 139.8 175.4
10-15 0.1 0.3 5.7 6.5 26.5 209.4 248.5
>15 0.3 1.1 6.5 16.3 38.7 197.2 260.1

Eastern 0-1 3.0 0.3 0.9 2.4 25.1 62.2 93.9
Panama 1-5 3.7 1.1 1.7 9.1 27.2 75.8 118.6
Average 5-10 5.7 1.8 4.4 5.0 26.4 156.2 199.5
10-15 6.4 3.9 6.3 5.0 23.8 205.6 251.0
>15 6.7 3.7 5.5 10.4 37.9 191.4 255.6







14

TABLE 7. RESULTS OF ANALYSES OF 90Sr, 137Cs, AND 239Pu IN SAMPLES OF ISTHMIAN FOODSTUFFS

[From Ewing, et al. (1969)]



Ash, jCi/g Dry Food(a)
Sample Description Origin wt % 90Sr 137 Cs 239 Pu


66-3 Plantain dried


Plantain dried
Plantain
Plantain
Plantain boiled
Plantain boiled
Plantain dried
Plantain dried
Plantain boiled
Plantain roasted

Banana dried
Banana
Banana
Banana with cocoa


Avocado
Avocado
Breadfruit
Breadfruit


Panama 3.8 0.02 0.02


II

II
II
It


It
It


Panama
Colombia


Panama
Colombia
Panama
Colombia
Colombia


4.7
4.4
3.5
8.4
2.7
4.0
4.0
2.3
2.8


6.1
4.0
5.0(b)
5.0(b)


10.6
2.2
8.6
8.6


0.012 0.010
0.018 + 0.010
0.001 + 0.010
0.0 0.010
0.0 0.010
0.017 0.010
0.032 0.010
0.003 : 0.010
0.009 0.010

0.018 0.010
0.004 + 0.010
0.015 + 0.010
0.001 0.010

0.006 0.010
0.002 0.010
0.0 0.010
0.004 0.010


0.08
0.03
0.03
0.06
0.06
0.07
0.15
0.25
0.05

0.10
0.03
0.01
0.17

0.05
0.03
0.14
0.01


-- 0.1 + 0.06


0.02
+ 0.02
+ 0.02
+ 0.02
0.02
+ 0.02
0.02
+ 0.02
0.02

. 0.03
: 0.02
+ 0.02
0.03

d 0.05
0: 0.03
. 0.04
0.04


0.0006 0.0007


67-66 Sugarcane
-92 Sugarcane


67-22
-23
24
-58


Rice white
Rice yellow
Rice Chinese
Rice dough


67-71 Corn shelled
-228 Corn on cob

-103 Yam (Name)
-12 Yam (Name)

67-97 Cassava (yuca)


67-26
-170
-189

67-31
-176
-46


Cassava (yuca)
Turkey stew
Wild turkey


Deer
Deer stew
Deer stew


67-35 Iguana
-77 Iguana

67-174 Tapir


67-34
-128
-178
-121
-197
-251


Fish (grouper)
Boiled Pompano
Turtle
Blue crab
Land crab
Land crab with banana


Panama 1.0 0.0 0.010
1.7 0.005 0.010


Panama


Colombia


6.4
7.0
7.2
3.2


0.04 + 0.01
0.04 0.01
0.003 E 0.010


Panama 2.4 0.002 0.010
Panama 5.5 0.007 0.010

Panama 3.9 0.004 + 0.010
Colombia 6.1 0.067 0.010

Panama 2.9 0.005 0.010

Colombia 4.2 0.110 : 0.010
Panama 2.9 0.0 0.010
9.0 0.009 0.010


Panama

Colombia


9.0
6.0
7.6


0.014 0.010
0.026 0.010


Panama 5.2 0.006 : 0.010
Colombia 5.2 0.007 + 0.010

Panama 6.0 0.007 0.010


Panama
it
iti


Colombia


7.0
16.3
18.9
5.0
45.0
12.6


0.017 0.010
0.105 + 0.020
0.015 0.010
0.029 0.010

0.008 0.010


0.03 0.02
0.02 0.01


0.05 0.04
0.03 0.04
0.03 0.02

0.02 0.01
0.07 0.03

0.02 0.04
0.29 0.02

0.04 0.02

0.07 0.02
0.08 0.02
0.07 0.05


0.30 0.04
0.08 0.04

0.07 0.03
0.06 0.03

0.34 0.04

0.20 0.10
0.23 + 0.08
0.01 0.08
0.01 0.02

0.18 0.07


67-2
-93
-94
-190
-244
-3
-13
-52
-61

67-9
-70
-158
-237

67-100
-156
-5
-28


<0.0009Qc)




<0.0003(c)
---


0.018 + 0.008


(a) Error term is one standard deviation based on counting data only.
(b) Estimated percent ash.
(c) Minimum detectable concentration of 239Pu was 0.014 pCi/g of ash.


< 0. ool)





15


TABLE 8. ELEMENTAL ANALYSES OF ISTHMIAN CROPS BY ATOMIC ABSORPTION

[Modified From Gamble, Snedaker, et al. (1969)]


Analyses, ppm
Plant Source P K Ca Sr Mg Fe Mn Cu Zn

Ananas fruit Panama 2000 16,293 3,550 7 1900 137 32 17 20
Cajanus seed Panama 4958 15,483 637 1 1718 134 35 8 47
Capsicum fruit Panama 5125 30,850 1,725 3 1938 78 18 18 18
Carludovica leaves Panama 1288 5,043 15,100 56 4725 75 15 11 41
Citrus leaves Colombia 1500 12,000 45,825 161 2900 85 51 9 13
Cocos leaves Panama 981 7,012 3,678 15 3995 133 68 8 19
Cocos husk Panama 288 11,276 1,049 120 1022 45 11 3 11
Cocos meat Panama 2030 5,683 223 -- 1153 17 5 4 16
Cocos milk Panama 5099 910 2,129 -- 1892 3 33 1 11
Forage grasses Colombia 1545 9,845 2,883 33 1565 389 435 10 35
Forage grasses Panama 1884 6,900 2,313 21 1628 274 277 16 29
Gustavia fruit Panama 1625 17,800 812 5 1219 33 13 20 15
Manihot root Colombia 1875 7,810 638 1 1275 85 8 5 27
Manihot root Panama 2047 17,265 1,987 5 3373 58 12 12 16
Manihot leaves Panama 8250 9,800 24,250 90 6750 75 178 7 3
Musa fruit Colombia 1575 9,682 248 1 1145 37 17 5 11
Musa fruit Panama 1392 11,332 225 1 965 31 19 10 1
Musa leaves Panama 1886 25,249 8,647 23 4227 415 307 16 3
Oryza grain Colombia 3000 2,810 305 1 975 117 90 27 38
Oryza grain Panama 2048 1,728 318 2 920 53 54 9 33
Oryza inflorescence Panama 2225 12,294 1,800 4 1429 243 54 9 46
Oryza leaves Panama 1875 17,400 2,840 3 1605 84 725 7 59
Saccharum leaves Panama 2500 14,915 1,675 4 1225 41 10 10 16
Saccharum stalks Panama 944 4,103 664 2 488 46 36 6 27
Theobroma beans Panama 4574 11,201 1,371 3 3224 68 20 22 37
Zea grain Colombia 3600 3,014 158 1 950 41 13 3 31
Zea grain Panama 4114 4,244 202 1 1103 38 13 5 36








TABLE 9. ELEMENTAL ANALYSES OF ISTHMIAN CROPS BY ATOMIC ABSORPTION AND NEUTRON ACTIVATION


[Data from Ewing, et al.(1969)]


Ash, % Elemental Concentration in Dry Product,(a) ppm
Plant Source dry wt K Ca Mn Sr Zr Ru Te Cs Ce W Hg


Ananas comosus Colombia 3.7 -- -- -- 0.005 -- 0.003 -- 0.035 0.003 0.006
Artocarpus altilis 8.6 26,000 2100 19 2.2 0.055 0.0004 0.02 0.011 0.11 0.015 0.050
Byrsonima crassifolia Panama 1.7 1,300 5100 -- -- -- -- -
Carica papaya Colombia 16.3 0.015 0.002 0.03 0.035 0.020 0.35 0.01
Cocos nucifera Panama 1.4 0.015 <0.2 0.2 0.004 0.001 0.04 0.06
Colocasia esculenta Colombia 8.1 -- -- -- 0.10 -- 0.03 0.017 0.18 <0.001 0.01
Dioscorea alata Panama 3.9 14,200 530 11 3.1 0.065 -- -- -- 0.25 <0.001 --
Dioscorea alata Colombia 6.1 20,200 650 30 1.5 0.035 0.004 0.01 0.007 0.15 0.005 0.05
Manihot esculentus Panama 2.9 10,800 1500 45 4.8 0.020 -- -- -- 0.18 0.006 --
Manihot esculentus Colombia 4.0 -- -- -- 0.015 0.0002 0.004 0.007 0.14 0.003 0.003
Manihot esculentus 4.2 12,400 1000 8 3.0 -- -- -- -- 0.19 --
Musa paradisiaca Panama 4.7 14,300 420 18 2.5 0.040 -- -- 0.02 0.025 --
Musa paradisiaca 4.4 15,300 370 13 0.35 -- -- 0.02 0.12 --
Musa paradisiaca Colombia 4.0 15,300 170 10 0.32 0.015 0.0001 0.002 0.001 0.005 0.001 0.015
Musa paradisiaca 4.0 14,500 160 18 0.32 0.015 0.0001 0.004 -- 0.010 <0.001 0.004
Musa sapientumwn Panama 6.1 18,200 370 36 1.5 -- -- -- 0.006 -
Musa sapientwn 4.0 13,500 470 14 0.2 0.015 -- -- 0.03 --
Musa sapientum Colombia 5.0(b) 9,700 280 14 0.2 0.2 -- 0.002 -- 0.03 0.004 0.01
Musa sapientum 5.0 -- -- -- 0.045 -- 0.001 <0.001 0.012 0.001 0.007
Musa sapientwn 5.0 18,600 890 22 2.1 -- -- -- -- 0.015 --
Oryza sativa, white Panama 6.4(c) -- 0.075 <0.02 0.1 -- -- 0.03
Oryza sativa, yellow 7.0(c) 2,500 310 35 0.56 -- <0.04 0.2 -- <0.001 -- 0.03
Oryza sativa, chinese 7.2 2,400 350 25 0.57 -- -- 0.07 <0.01 --
Oryza sativa, black 2.9 900 160 17 0.14 -- -- --
Persea gratissima 10.6 46,000 360 17 2.4 0.010 -- -- -- 0.05 0.011 --
Persea gratissima Colombia 2.2 23,000 60 8 0.07 0.005 0.0004 0.02 0.011 0.011 0.015 0.05
PhaseoZus vulgaris 5.0 -- -- -- 0.015 <0.03 0.9 0.005 0.035 0.005 0.03
Saccharum officinarwn Panama 1.0 500 370 28 <0.03 -- -- -- -- -- --
Saccharum officinarum 1.7 3,600 420 8 1.3 -- -- -- 0.08 0.02 --
Theobroma cacao 5.3 -- -- -- -- -- -- 0.04 0.025 0.015 --
Theobroma cacao 3.9 10,800 610 -- --- -- --
Zea mays, on cob -- -- <0.2 0.2 -- --
Zea mays, shelled 2.4 4,100 80 12 0.20 -- -- -- 0.01 0.002 --
Zea mays, tamale Colombia 2.2 -- -- -- 0.002 0.002 0.008 0.008 0.005
Zingiber officinalis Panama 11.7 3,900 2000 -- -- -- -- --


8); Zr, Ru,


(a) K, Ca, Mn, and Sr by atomic-absorption analysis, included for interlaboratory comparison (see Table
Te, Cs, Ce, W, and Hg by neutron-activation analysis.
(b) Estimated.
(c) Analyses for possibly volatile elements Ru, Te, and Hg on dried samples not ashed.










17


Analysis




Co








Li 3
Be <0. I



Cl (e)
Ash,
wt % 9.3

Li 3


Sc 0.1



Ti 6.0
V 1.0
Cr 2.0
Mn 3.0
Cl (e)


Co 0.2
Ni 0.5
Cu 4.0
Cr 2.0
Mn 3.0
Co 0.2
Ni 0.5
Cu 4.0
Zn 4.0
Ga <0.1
Ge <0.1
As <0.1
Se <0.1
Br 1.0
Rb 20.0
Sr(a) 7.0
Y <0.1
Zr (a) <0.1
Nb <0.1
Mo <0.1
Ru(a,b) <0.1
Sn <0.1
Cs <0.1
Ba 1.0
La <0.1
Ce(a) 0.1
Pr(c) <0.1
Ta 2.0
W(d) <0.1
Pb 0.1


*H

44
Cs
0)
4I
=q


TABLE 10. ELEMENTAL ANALYSES OF ISTHMIAN CROPS BY SPARK SOURCE MASS SPECTROMETRY

Elemental Concentration in Dry Foods, ppm by weight [Data From Ewing, et al. (1969)]


Forod PI0.-


Co4
Cc; o
00 u
o o
43


C~Oc
to r--4S0

o SE-I
'-s Co
CO


I 1I


Cot

o Co -
CO t0S t3
*r"


-IA t-4 5v
005
Cot Co(
'~ Co C


0'-
CoO
e4 44
5)0
.)4 4.
~co, o


. _L


Cca

co to~
CoCo-


-C4Z


I I


co ca "1 0-
P0 3tc
Q 1~O 0o0)

R4 4


1.4 8.1 3.2 2.9 4.7 4.0 6.4 10.6 5.0


0.4 0.25
<0.01 <0.1
2.5 1.5
0.02 4.0
400 (e)
(e) (e)
0.005 <0.1
0.3 80.0
0.004 4.0
0.15 8.0
7.0 80.0
0.01 0.25
1.0 8.0
2.0 12.0
1.0 8.0
<0.01 <0.1
<0.01 <0.4
<0.01 0.25
<0.01 <0.5
0.2 <0.2
3.0 50.0
0.15 40.0
<0.01 0.4
<0.01 <0.3
<0.01 <0.1
0.06 0.5
<0.01 <0.1
<0.01 <0.1
<0.01 0.2
<0.01 50.0
<0.01 0.2
<0.01 0.5
<0.01 0.08
0.15 <0.1
<0.01 <0.1
0.015 0.25


0.4
0.001
2.5
0.15
80
(e)
0.07
15.0
0.4
0.2
2.0
0.04
1.0
2.0
2.5
<0.04
<0.04
<0.04
<0.04
1.0
8.0
2.0
<0.04
< 0.04
< 0.04
0.25
<0.04
< 0.04
< 0.04
2.0
< 0.04
< 0.04
< 0.04
0.4
< 0.04
0.03


CoW

K 0
to o 0 03
:3 4 Coo.o ;:S)0




1.7 5.3 2.4


0.6 0.5 0.01 0.3 0.01 0.5 0.2 1.5 0.05
0.001 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.1 <0.05 <0.02 <0.05 <0.02
1.0 5.0 2.5 1.0 40.0 3.0 0.8 10.0 1.0
0.1 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.1 <0.05 <0.02 0.2 <0.02
90 75 30 20 300 15 10 150 25
18 (e) (e) 0.2 20 30 -- 15 2.5
0.06 0.05 <0.05 0.1 0.1 0.05 0.02 <0.05 0.1
6.0 0.25 0.2 4.0 1.0 2.0 0.7 1.0 2.0
0.3 0.05 0.01 0.2 0.1 0.5 0.2 0.05 0.07
0.15 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.03 0.05 0.7 0.5 0.25
30.0 15.0 25.0 12.0 5.0 10.0 5.0 15.0 15.0
0.1 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 0.05 0.1 <0.02 0.05 0.02
1.5 0.25 0.25 3.0 10.0 1.0 0.1 2.5 1.0
3.0 2.0 2.0 6.0 10.0 8.0 7.0 20.0 5.0
9.0 3.0 1.5 1.0 3.0 5.0 10.0 12.0 6.0
<0.03 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.1 <0.05 <0.02 0.1 <0.02
<0.03 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.1 <0.05 <0.02 <0.05 <0.02
<0.03 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.1 <0.05 <0.02 <0.05 <0.02
<0.03 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.1 <0.05 <0.02 <0.05 <0.02
0.3 2.0 0.8 <0.05 <0.1 15.0 0.06 <0.05 <0.02
10.0 3.0 1.0 1.0 20.0 3.0 1.0 10.0 3.0
3.0 1.0 1.5 0.2 1.0 1.5 0.5 1.5 0.06
<0.03 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.1 <0.05 <0.02 3.5 <0.02
<0.03 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.1 <0.05 <0.02 <0.05 <0.02
<0.03 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.1 <0.05 <0.02 <0.05 <0.02
0.2 <0.05 <0.05 0.4 0.1 0.3 1.0 <0.05 1.0
<0.03 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.1 <0.05 <0.02 <0.05 <0.02
<0.03 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 0.10 <0.05 <0.02 <0.05 <0.02
<0.03 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.1 <0.05 <0.02 <0.05 <0.02
10.0 0.5 0.05 0.6 0.3 2.0 0.7 2.0 0.05
0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.1 <0.05 <0.02 <0.05 <0.02
0.05 < 0.05 < 0.05 < 0.05 < 0.1 < 0.05 <0.02 <0.05 <0.02
<0.03 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.1 <0.05 <0.02 <0.05 <0.02
0.3 0.5 0.2 0.05 0.3 0.5 0.06 0.1 0.02
<0.03 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.1 <0.05 <0.02 <0.05 <0.02
0.1 0.05 0.02 0.02 1.0 0.02 0.06 0.1 <0.02


(a) Estimated.
(b) Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, Te, and I receive same values as Ru.
(c) Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, and Hf same as Pr.
(d) Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Te, Bi, Th, and U same as W.
(e) Too high for analysis.


U 1.LaLL


--- I - -


I


I


I I












TABLE 11. RESULTS OF ANALYSES FOR SELECTED STABLE ELEMENTS IN ISTHMIAN MEATS


[From Ewing, et al. (1969)]


Elemental Concentration in Dry Foods(a)
Ash(b) Wt % Ppm by Weight
Description Origin wt % K Ca Mn Sr Zr Ru Te Cs Ce W Hg


Peccary meat Panama 11.4 1.45 0.088 -
Peccary bone 35.0 0.08 8.3 -- -

Iguana 5.2 -- -- 0.010 -- 0.005
Iguana Colombia 5.2 0.035 0.0002 0.002 0.012 0.011 0.001 0.(
Turkey stew Panama 2.9 0.43 0.12 9 <0.1 -- 0.003 0.20
Wild turkey 9.0 0.54 1.1 27 <0.3 -- --
Deer 9.0 0.05 --
Deer stew 6.0 1.30 0.84 19 0.46 0.260 -- -- 0.06 0.02
Deer 3.7 -- -- -- -- 0.030 -- 0.08
Deer stew Colombia 7.6 0.53 0.20 24 0.36 -- -- -- --
Tapir Panama 6.0 0.96 0.025 17 <0.18 -- -- 0.15 0.27
Spiny rat Colombia 5.0(a) -- 0.008 0.004
Opossum 5.0(a) -- -- -(b) 0.0005 0.025 <0.001
Fish (grouper) Panama 7.0 0.70 1.1 17 5.6 -(b) 0.0004 0.015 0.04 0.007 <0.
Boiled pompano" 16.3 -- -- 37 1.8 --- 0.04 0.05 <0.015 -
Fried snapper Colombia 2.1 -- -- -(b) 0.0001 0.001 0.02 <0.001
Turtle Panama 18.9 0.85 0.085 34 1.4 0.020 -- 0.08 0.02
Blue crab 5.0 1.35 0.47 24 1.5 -- --
Land crab 45.0 -- 1.1(c) -- -- 0.3
Land crab with banana Colombia 12.6 0.85 0.26 22 4.8 0.095 0.001 0.009 -- 0.20 0.002 0.
Freshwater shrimp 17.0 -- -- -- -- 0.100 -- -- 0.050 0.15 0.05 -
Marine shrimp 15.5 -- -- 0.050 0.015 0.10 0.005


D08










007





008
.-


Estimated.
Results doubtful because of interference.
Value somewhat doubtful; very low yield on


radiochemical procedure.


oc


(a)
(b)
(c)








TABLE 12. MASS-SPECTROGRAPHIC ANALYSES OF ISTHMIAN MEATS AND FISH

Elemental Concentration in Dry Food, ppm by weight(a, b)
[From Ewing, et al. (1969)]

.. .. '


H
Pt
ed


nj
U;

>.


S
U3
(0
0
0.
0


0


"d
'-j 0
0 0
r4

cC o
pir


(U

.a
a,

L
en
vl


},
U
'0
'0
c
rt


Sample 67-35 67-77 67-189 67-176


Country P
Ash, wt % 4.6


Li
Be
B
F
Na(d)
S
Cl
Sc
Ti
V
Cr
Mn
Fe
Co
Ni
Cu
Zn
Ga
Ge
As
Se
Br
Rb
Sr
Y
Zr
Nb
Mo
Ru
Rh
Pd
Ag


0.05
<0. 05
1
<0.05
H
15
H
<0.05
5
0. 5
1
2
H
<0. 05
15
2
15
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0.05
<0. 05
2
10
0.5
<0. 05
<0.05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0.05
<0. 05


C P P
5.2 9.0 6.0


0. 005
<0. 05
0. 3
<0.05
H
H
H
<0.05
2. 5
0.25
0. 75
2.5
100
<0. 25
1.5
2. 5
35
<0. 05
<0. 1
0.2
<0. 2
2. 5
30
2
<0.05
<0.05
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0.5
<0. 1
<0. 1


0.9
0. 002
1

H
300
H
<0. 1
2
0. 3
0. 1
1
H
<0. 1
10
2
30
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1
6
6
10
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1


67-174

P
6.0


0.6 0.05
0.004 <0.05
1 6
3 0.6
H H
300 600
H H
0.2 0. 1
35 10
0.6 0.6
0.2 0.2
6 2
H H
0.03 0.05
2 3
2 6
6 35
<0.05 <0.05
<0.05 <0.05
<0.05 <0.05
<0.05 <0.05
1 2
25 25
2 0.6
0. 1 <0.05
0.4 <0.05
<0.05 <0.05
<0.05 <0.05
<0.05 <0.05
<0.05 <0.05
<0.05 <0.05
<0.05 <0.05


67-157 67-159 67-34

C C P
5. 0(c) 5. 0(c) 7.0


0.5
<0. 05
3
0.05
H
H
H
<0, 05
0.75
<0.05
0. 15
0.5
200
<0. 05
2. 5
5
35
<0.05
<0. 25
<0.05
<0. 2
1. 5
H
7. 5
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 2
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 5
<0. 1
<0. 1


0. 5
<0. 05
0. 15
<0. 05
H
H
H
<0. 05
1.0
<0.05
<0. 1
0. 05
250
<0. 05
0. 15
1.5
5
<0. 05
<0. 25
0. 2
<0. 2
5
30
7. 5
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05


<0. 002
<0. 1
1
70
H
30
H
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1
7
H
<0. 1
<0. 1
1
3. 5
<0. 1
<0. 1
0. 5
<0. 1
2
0. 5
7
<0. 1
<0. 02
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0.05
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1


67-128

P
16.3


67-254

C
2. 1


0.15 0.2
<0. 15 <0.02
0.6 0.04
10 2
H H
65 H
H H
<0. 15 <0.02
<0. 15 4
<0. 15 <0.2
<0. 15 <0. 1
2 2
H 40
<0. 15 0.04
0.5 0.4
2 0.2
3 0.4
<0. 15 <0. 02
<0. 15 <0.04
0.5 2
<0. 15 <0.2
5 2
1 4
5 2
<0. 15 <0.02
<0.05 <0.02
<0. 15 <0. 04
<0. 15 <0.02
<0. 1 <0.04
<0.15 <0.04
<0. 1 <0.04
<0. 1 <0. 04


67-197

P
46. 0

5
<0. 5
0. 5
50
H
1000
H
<0.5
10
1. 5
0. 5
50
H
<0. 5
10
20
50
<0. 5
<0. 5
<0. 5
<0. 5
30
100
300
<0. 5
<0. 5
<0. 5
<0. 5
<0. 5
<0. 5
<0. 5
<0. 5


67-251

C
12. 0

0.04
<0. 1
7. 5
15
H
H
H
<0. 15
25
<1.5
<2. 5
6
600
0. 25
1.3
60
125
<0. 1
<2. 5
1.3
<1.3
50
75
7. 5
2. 5
<0. 6
<0. 25
<0. 8
<2
<0. 25
<0. 25
<0. 25


67-210 67-203 67-202

C P P
17.0 29.0 5.1


5
<0.2
1
50
H
3000
H
<0. 2
10
0. 9
4
20
H
<0. 2
20
100
5
<0. 2
<0. 2
<0. 2
<0. 2
20
35
100
<0. 2
<0.2
<0. 2
<0. 2
<0. 2
<0. 2
<0. 2
<0. 2


3
<0. 3
2
6
H
120
H
0.6
180
30
3
300
H-
0. 3
60
20
10
<0. 3
<0. 3
<0. 3
<0. 3
30
6
60
<0.3
<0.3
<0. 3
<0.3
<0. 3
<0. 3
<0. 3
<0. 3


1. 5
<0. 05
2
5
H
150
H
0. 05
3
0. 15
0. 15
2
H
5
0.8
1
50
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
3
30
0.5
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0.05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05


5)
U


0
rU


CV


.--
LO


67-178

P
19. 0

0.2
<0.2
6
2
H
200
H
<0.2
2
0.6
2
6
H
<0. 2
1
8
60
<0.2
<0.2
<0. 2
<0.2
30
4
4
<0. 2
<0. 2
<0. 2
<0.2
<0.2
<0. 2
<0. 2
<0. 2




















TABLE 12. (Continued)


SCd
0.
Cs
H


0
CO
0
0


CU
0
0
CU
C
a)



a0
U)O
0-


.m

ro

r.
U
0d
Cs
4


C
0n
tn


5)0



SU


_______ ________ ________ ..1_________ ________ ________J 4_________-_________4


67-77 67-189 67-176 67-174 67-157 67-159 67-34 67-128 67-254 67-197


C P P P C C P
5.2 9.0 6.0 6.0 5.0(c) 5.0(c) 7.0


<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1
0. 05
0. 5
<0.05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0.05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
0. 2


<0. 1
<0. 1
0.2
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1
1
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1
0.3
<0. 1
0. 1


<0.05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0.05
9
<0. 05
<0.05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0.05
0. 3
<0. 05
0.6


<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0.05
<0. 05
<0.05
0.6
<0. 05
<0.05
<0. 05
<0.05
<0.05
0.6
<0. 05
0. 06


<0. 2
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1
0. 15
0. 5
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0.05
<0.05
0. 75


<0.05
<0. 05
<0. 05
0. 25
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 1
2
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
1. 5


<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1
0. 05
<0. 1
0. 3
<0. 1
<0. 005
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1
0. 1


P
16. 3

<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0, 1
<0. 1
0. 1
<0. 1
0. 3
<0. 15
<0. 005
<0. 2
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0.2
<0. 2
0. 1


67-251 67-210 67-203 67-202 67-178


C P C C P P P
2.1 46.0 12. 0 17.0 29. 0 5. 1 19.0


<0. 12
<0. 14
<0. 04
0. 3
<0. 04
<0. 04
<0. 1
0. 1
<0. 02
<0. 02
<0. 02
<0. 02
<0. 02
<0. 02
<0. 02
<0.02


<0. 5
<0. 5
<0. 5
<0. 5
<0. 5
<0. 5
<0. 5
1500
<0. 5
<0.5
<0. 5
<0. 5
<0.5
1.5
<0. 5
0. 5


<0. 25
<0. 25
<0. 25
<0. 25
<0. 25
0. 5
<0. 25
0. 3
<0. 2
<0. 2
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1
<0. 1


<0. 2
<0. 2
<0. 2
<0. 2
<0. 2
0. 6
<0. 2
50
<0. 2
<0. 2
<0. 2
<0. 2
<0. 2
0. 5
<0. 2
0. 1


<0. 3
<0. 3
3
<0. 3
<0. 3
1.5
<0. 3
30
<0.3
<0. 3
<0. 3
<0. 3
<0. 3
1
<0. 3
0.3


<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05

<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
0. 05
<0. 05
2.5


<0.2
<0.2
<0.2
<0. 2
<0. 2
60
0.2
<0. 2
<0.2
<0.2
<0.2
<0. 2
0.6
<0.2
0. 06


Spark-source mass-spectrographic analyses performed on ashed samples.
In most cases, "less-than" values are base-d on a detection limit of ~1 ppm in the ash.
Estimated ash percentage.
Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, and Ca were all "High".
Rare earths Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu same as Nd.
Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Te, Bi, Th, and U same as W.


U)
44
S.


S.C
Q)
5)


Sample 67-35

Country P
Ash, wt % 4. 6


Cd
In
Sn
Sb
Te
I
Cs
Ba
La
Ce
Pr
Nd(e)
Hf
Ta
w(f)
Pb


<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0. 05
<0.05
1
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
0.5
<0.05
5


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)


_ ~ ~~~







TABLE 13. STANDARD BROMATOLOGICAL ANALYSES OF ISTHMIAN CROPS


[From Leung and Flores (1961)]


Composition in Terms of 100 Grams Edible Portion
Total
Food Mois- Carbo- Vit. A Thia- Ribo- Ascorbic
Energy, ture, Prot., Fat, hydrate, Fiber, Ash, Ca, P, Fe, Value, mine, flavin, Niacin, Acid,
Species cal % g g g g g mg mg mg mcg mg mg mg mg


Abrus precatorius (a)
Achras zapota
Achyranthes aspera (a)
Acrocomia mexicana
Allium cepa
Allium fistulosum
Alliun sativum
AZternanthera sessilis(a)
Ananas comosus
Anacardium occidental
Annona cherimolia
Annona diversifolia
Annona glabra
Annona muricata
Annona reticulata
Annona squamosa
Apium graveolens
Arachis hypogaea
Arracacia xanthorrhiza
Artocarpus altilis(a)
Artocarpus heterophylZus
Astrocaryum standleyanum
Avena sativa
Averrhoa bilimbi
Averrhoa carambola
Bactris minor
Bambusa arundinacea
Basella rubra
Beta vulgaris
Bixa orellana
Blighia sapida
Brassica oleracea
Brassica oleracea var.
capitata
Bromelia karata
Bromelia pinguin
Brosimum alicastrum
Byrsonima crassifolia
Cajanus cajan
Calathea macrosepala
Calocarpumn mammosum
Calocarpum sapota
Canna edulis
Capsicum sp.
Capsicum annuum var.
-abbreviatum
Capsicum frutescens


62 79.0 5.6
94 75.0 0.5
42 83.9 4.3
39 87.6 2.4
45 88.1 1.4
31 90.3 1.6
134 63.8 5.3
60 80.2 4.7
52 85.4 0.4
46 87.1 0.8
82 76.6 1.1
98 71.5 2.8
52 86.8 0.4
60 83.1 1.0
75 78.6 1.9
96 72.8 1.6
19 93.6 0.8
572 2.3 26.5
104 73.0 0.8
109 71.9 1.5
98 72.0 1.3
99 71.9 1.7
390 8.3 14.2
20 94.2 0.8
36 90.0 0.5
70 79.6 1.2
29 90.7 2.3
19 93.0 1.2
44 87.8 1.7
54 84.4 0.0
180 71.5 4.2
33 90.7 2.1
28 91.4 1.7

43 87.1 1.2
25 92.0 0.9
127 62.0 (3.2)(c)
66 82.8 0.9
337 12.2 19.2
22 92.3 1.8
121 65.6 1.7
126 63.8 3.1
130 66.8 0.9
293 18.8 7.0
296 13.2 13.2


1.1
.5
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.2
.8
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
1.6
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.2
46.7
0.2
.3
0.3
0.7
7.4
0.1
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.3
17.4
0.9
0.2

0.2
0.3
1.2
1.3
1.5
0.2
0.4
0.1
0.1
6.4
5.1


13.7
23.0
7.8
8.4
9.7
7.1
29.3
11.8
13.7
11.6
21.3
24.1
10.3
14.9
18.5
24.6
4.2
22.0
24.9
25.4
25.4
24.3
68.2
4.6
8.8
17.8
6.1
4.1
9.5
14.3
5.5
5.6
6.1

10.7
5.7
30.6
14.4
63.3
4.4
31.1
31.8
31.3
62.3
61.9


3.7 1.7
1.6 0.4
2.0 3.5
0.7 1.2
0.8 0.6
1.7 0.8
1.1 1.4
2.1 2.5
0.4 0.3
1.5 0.3
1.9 0.8
1.3 1.4
3.8 0.9
1.1 0.6
2.2 0.8
1.6 0.8
0.6 1.2
3.4 2.5
0.6 1.1
1.8 0.9
1.0 1.0
5.7 1.4
1.2 1.9
0.6 0.3
0.6 0.4
2.1 1.2
0.5 0.7
0.6 1.5
1.0 0.9
0.5 1.0
0.3 1.4
1.2 0.7
1.0 0.6

0.4 0.8
0.6 1.1
8.9 3.0
2.2 0.6
8.1 3.8
1.5 1.3
2.0 1.2
1.2 1.2
0.5 0.9
21.3 5.5
10.4 6.6


266 65 --
24 10 1.0
310 80 --
157 59 1.0
30 40 1.0
64 40 0.7
38 134 1.4
146 45 --
18 8 0.5
4 18 1.0
34 35 0.6
32 52 0.7
52 24 2.3
24 28 0.5
24 26 1.0
28 36 1.8
52 36 1.4
72 400 3.4
29 58 1.2
28 34 2.0
22 38 --
62 41 1.5
53 405 4.5
3 11 1.0
5 18 0.4
14 28 1.2
33 41 0.4
346 11 3.9
14 38 0.8
7 10 0.8
37 70 1.7
58 57 1.1
43 36 0.7

48 6 0.6
116 24 0.6
530 68 5.4
33 17 2.0
137 322 5.0
20 49 1.0
40 28 1.0
121 30 0.8
15 63 1.4
126 154 7.3
150 206 7.7


10

Tr
5
210
5

15
120
0
Tr
155
5
Tr
Tr
10
Tr
60
--_

6145
(0)(c)
20
90
85
10
860
Tr
45

25
30


0.01 0.01 0.2

0.04 0.08 1.3
0.04 0.03 0.3
0.06 0.09 0.6
0.21 0.08 0.6

0.08 0.04 0.2
0.03 0.03 0.4
0.09 0.13 0.9
0.02 0.03 2.2
0.04 0.07 0.6
0.07 0.05 0.9
0.07 0.12 0.7
0.11 0.15 0.9
0.02 0.04 0.4
0.25 0.26 16.8
0.06 0.04 3.4
0.08 0.05 0.7
0.03 (0.06)(c) 0.4
0.06 0.07 0.5
0.60 0.14 1.0
0.01 0.03 0.3
0.04 0.02 0.3
0.03 0.06 0.4
0.15 0.07 0.6
0.03 0.08 0.4
0.01 0.04 0.2
0.00 0.05 0.3
0.07 0.17 1.6
0.04 0.06 0.4
0.06 0.04 0.3


5 0.06 0.02 0.3
Tr 0.03 0.04 0.4
410 0.24 0.51 1.4
20 0.02 0.04 0.4
20 0.72 0.17 2.6
Tr 0.04 0.10 0.7
115 0.01 0.02 2.0
70 0.01 0.05 1.9
Tr 0.03 0.01 0.4
(3410)(c) 0.12 (0.94)(c) 4.0
3230 0.22 1.04 15.0


15

20
10
15(b)
9

61
219
17
14
21
26
30
35
8
1
28
31
8
4
(0)(c)
16
35
8
4
69
5
2
78
40(c)
43

47
21
55
84
0
7
22
40
7
32
79


49 85.9 1.6 0.7 11.1 1.5 0.7 22 32 1.9 360 0.07 0.09 1.1 125


NJ
IV


49 85.9 1.6


0.7 11.1 1.5 0.7 22 32 1.9


360 0.07 0.09 1.1 125








TABLE 13. (Continued)


Composition in Terms of 100 Grams Edible Portion
Total
Food Mois- Carbo- Vit. A Thia- Ribo- Ascorbic
Energy, ture, Prot., Fat, hydrate, Fiber, Ash, Ca, P, Fe, Value, mine, flavin, Niacin, Acid
Species cal % g g g g g mg mg mg mcg mg mg mg mg


Capsicum pubescens
Carica papaya
Cassia occidentalis(a)
Ceiba pentandra(a)
Celosia argentea(a)
Chamaedorea pacaya
Chenopodium ambrosioides
Chrysobalanus icaco
ChrysophylZwn cainito
Citrullus vulgaris
Citrus aurantifolia
Citrus aurantium
Citrus grandis
Citrus limetta
Citrus Zimon
Citrus paradisii
Citrus medical
Citrus reticulata
Citrus sinensis
Coccoloba sp.
Cocos nucifera
Coffea arabica
Coix Zachryma-jobi
Coleus amboinicus
Colocasia esculenta
Coriandrun sativum
Cucumis melo
Cucumis sativus
Cucurbita ficifolia
Curcubita maxima
Curcubita moschata
Curcubita pepo
Cyphomandra betacea
Daucus carota
Dioscorea sp.
Diospyros ebenaster
Elaeis guineensis
Emilia sonchifolia(a)
Enterolobium cyclocarpum
Eryngium floridanum
Erythrina berteroana
Euterpe oZeracea
Ficus glabrata
Galinsoga parviflora
Geonoma edulis
GZiricidia sepium
Gnetum gnemon
Guilielma gasipaes
Hibiscus esculentus
Hibiscus sabadariffa(a)


36 89.3 1.2
32 90.7 0.5
(No entry)
494 6.8 30.9
44 83.8 4.7
45 85.0 4.0
42 85.5 3.8
47 86.3 0.4
68 82.8 0.8
22 93.6 0.5
32 9.10 0.4
50 85.7 0.7
34 90.3 0.6
30 89.9 0.7
29 90.3 0.6
38 89.2 0.6
40 88.7 0.6
44 87.6 0.8
42 87.7 0.8
73 79.1 1.4
296 54.6 3.5
226 5.0 12.6
380 11.2 15.4
17 94.4 0.9
92 74.6 1.6
42 86.0 3.3
25 92.8 0.5
15 95.4 0.7
21 93.6 0.8
35 89.1 1.7
40 88.3 1.2
30 91.0 0.6
50 85.9 2.2
41 89.1 0.8
100 72.6 2.0
66 82.0 0.7
537 28.0 1.6
56 81.8 4.0
386 1.4 (31.3)(c)
44 85.7 2.3
48 84.2 4.4
265 41.0 3.4
33 90.3 0.5
42 86.1 3.2
35 88.2 3.2
46 86.0 2.4
121 65.6 5.9
196 50.5 2.6
42 87.1 2.2
276 16.6 4.9


0.2 8.7 1.0 0.6 6 20 0.7
0.1 8.3 0.6 0.4 20 13 0.4


36.5
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.1
1.6
0.1
1.4
0.1
0.2
0.6
0.6
0.2
0.1
(0.2) (c)
0.2
0.3
27.2
14.8
6.2
0.4
0.2
0.7
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.9
0.4
0.2
1.2
59.0
0.6
3.9
0.7
0.2
12.2
0.1
0.5
0.3
0.2
2.2
4.4
0.2
_--


20.1
7.6
8.3
7.6
12.4
14.5
5.3
7.0
13.0
8.5
8.4
8.1
9.6
10.2
11.0
10.5
18.2
13.7
63.4
65.3
3.1
22.4
8.0
6.2
3.4
5.1
8.1
9.8
7.6
10.3
8.9
24.3
15.0
10.5
11.7
60.2
9.2
10.0
42.2
8.4
8.3
7.0
10.8
24.6
41.7
9.7
74.0


1.5 5.7 214 1183? --
1.8 3.2 260 43 7.8
1.2 2.0 369 106 1.4
1.3 2.4 304 52 5.2
1.0 0.8 38 17 0.6
1.0 0.3 21 17 0.8
0.2 0.5 6 7 0.2
0.3 0.2 24 14 0.4
0.9 0.5 43 17 0.6
0.8 0.4 26 26 0.5
1.0 0.4 28 20 0.5
0.6 0.4 41 15 0.7
0.2 0.4 18 21 0.5
1.4 0.4 42 20 0.4
0.2 0.4 37 16 0.2
0.4 0.8 34 20 0.7
2.1 1.0 54 33 1.2
3.8 1.0 13 83 1.8
7.6 4.8 148 198 (2.9)(c)
0.8 1.9 25 435 5.0
0.5 1.2 232 8 3.9
0.8 1.2 96 88 1.2
1.7 2.0 188 72 3.0
0.5 0.4 15 15 1.2
0.4 0.4 16 24 0.6
0.4 0.4 15 19 0.4
0.9 0.9 32 24 2.3
0.6 0.4 12 27 0.7
0.7 0.6 19 22 0.5
1.6 0.7 9 48 0.8
0.8 0.8 34 26 0.9
0.6 0.9 14 43 1.3
1.6 1.1 18 26 1.2
2.7 0.9 98 44 4.0
2.0 1.9 398 118 --
2.0 3.2 30 547 4.6
2.0 2.1 295 46 5.7
2.4 1.2 108 80 2.2
18.0 1.2
1.7 0.7 62 7 2.3
1.3 1.9 245 45 7.1
1.5 1.3 41 82 1.8
1.6 0.6 22 37 1.8
11.8 1.7 336 73 2.7
1.0 0.8 14 46 1.0
1.0 0.8 78 62 1.1
15.8 4.5 55 163 Tr?


150 0.06 0.08 2.1 35
110 0.03 0.04 0.3 46


5
1210
Tr
5
70
5
20
0
0
5
10
5
165
40
Tr
0

0
490
5
1600
350
5
10
1145
1055
920
230
3530
Tr
40
18,245
--_
15
1660
110
--_
25
1120
Tr
35
4495
670
100
_--


0.08 0.10 0.9
0.06 0.28 0.6
0.04 0.03 0.3
0.04 0.03 1.0
0.02 0.03 0.2
0.03 0.02 0.2
0.06 0.04 0.3
0.04 0.02 0.2
0.05 0.03 0.2
0.06 0.02 0.1
0.05 0.02 0.2
0.06 0.04 0.2
0.10 0.03 0.2
0.09 0.03 0.2
0.03 0.03 0.6
0.4 0.03 0.6
0.07 (0.05)(c) 17.0
0.28 0.19 4.3
0.03 0.07 0.2
0.08 0.04 0.7
15 0.28 1.6
0.04 0.03 0.6
0.03 0.04 0.2
0.04 0.03 0.3
0.07 0.05 0.8
0.05 0.04 0.6
0.04 0.04 0.5
0.10 0.04 1.2
0.06 0.04 0.6
0.13 0.02 0.4
0.02 0.03 0.2
0.25 0.12 1.3

2.74 0.23 1.8
0.09 0.22 1.0
0.19 0.19 1.2
0.36 -- --
0.03 0.02 0.2
0.11 0.27 2.1
0.07 0.13 1.2
0.11 0.08 0.6
0.11 0.33 1.5
0.05 0.16 1.4
0.06 0.12 1.1
0.14 -- --


14
11
9
11
5
40
(42)(c)
35
48
51
43
32
36
59
17
4
--
(0)(c)
12
7
75
29
14
11
11
42
15
29
5
3
29
9

7
28
37
9
Tr
30(b)
18
44
215
35
29





TABLE 13. (Continued)


Composition in Terms of 100 Grams Edible Portion
Total
Food Mois- Carbo- Vit. A Thia- Ribo- Ascorbic
Energy, ture, Prot., Fat, hydrate, Fiber, Ash, Ca, P, Fe, Value, mine, flavin, Niacin, Acid,
Species cal % g g g g g mg mg mg mcg mg mg mg mg


Hylocereus undatus
Hymenaea courbaril
Inga sp.
Inga edulis
Ipomoea batatas
Lactuca sativa
Lagenaria siceraria
Lantana camera
Lens sp.
Leucaena leucocephala
Licania platypus
Lucuma salicifolia
Luffa acutanguZa(a)
Lycopersicon esculentum
Malpighia glabra
Malpighia punicifolia
Malva sp.
Mammea americana
Mangifera indica
Manihot dulcis
Manihot esculenta
Maranta arundinacea
Melicocca bijuga
Mentha spp.
Momordica charantia
Mucuna pruriens(a)
Muntingia calabura
Musa cavendishii
Musa paradisiaca
Musa sapientum
Nasturtium officinate
Nymphaea elegans
Opuntia sp.
Oryza sativa
Pachyrrhizus erosus
Parmentiera edulis
Passiflora quadrangularis
Paullinia pinnata(a)
Pennisetum pyonostachyum(a)
Pereskia aculeata
Persea americana var.
drymifolia
Petroselinum crispum
Phaseolus vulgaris
Physalis sp.
Physalis peruviana
Phyllanthus acidus
PhyZZanthus emblica
Pimenta dioica


54 84.4 1.4
309 14.6 5.9
60 83.0 1.0
118 63.3 10.7
116 68.9 1.3
15 94.9 1.3
26 92.2 0.7
(No entry)
340 12.2 23.7
68 79.5 2.9
116 67.4 1.4
145 59.7 1.3
(No entry)
21 93.8 0.8
39 83.2 1.8
36 90.3 0.4
37 86.7 4.4
47 86.8 0.6
59 83.5 0.5
132 65.2 1.0
148 60.6 0.8
157 57.2 2.4
59 78.4 1.1
45 86.5 2.7
21 93.4 0.9
344 10.9 29.5
91 76.3 2.1
107 69.6 2.0
132 62.6 1.2
110 68.8 1.2
22 92.2 2.8
159 55.9 7.9
37 88.8 1.1
361 13.0 7.1
45 87.8 1.2
44 87.6 1.4
20 94.4 0.7
69 83.0 0.7
16 93.7 2.6
11 96.8 0.7
94 83.9 1.3

43 85.9 3.2
337 12.0 22.0
40 88.3 1.6
73 78.9 0.3
37 91.4 1.0
81 77.1 0.4
115 65.7 4.6


0.4 13.2
2.2 75.3
0.1 15.5
0.7 24.0
0.3 28.6
0.2 2.9
0.2 6.3

1.3 60.7
0.8 15.3
0.5 29.7
0.8 37.3

0.3 4.6
1.0 6.8
0.4 8.7
0.6 5.9
0.2 12.1
0.2 15.4
0.4 32.8
0.3 37.4
0.1 39.0
0.2 19.9
1.3 7.7
0.2 4.7
3.2 52.9
2.3 17.9
0.2 27.3
0.1 35.3
0.2 29.0
0.4 3.3
0.3 35.0
0.4 8.8
1.1 78.0
0.1 10.6
0.1 10.6
0.2 4.3
0.6 15.2
0.2 2.1
0.1 2.1
8.2 5.7

0.6 8.5
1.6 60.8
0.5 8.8
0.2 19.6
1.8 5.2
0.2 21.8
1.4 25.7


1.4
13.4
1.2
1.6
0.9
0.7
1.5

3.2
1.8
0.9
1.0

0.6
1.2
0.4
1.6
1.0
0.8
1.0
1.0
1.9
1.4
1.1
1.2
7.8
6.0
1.1
0.4
0.4
1.1
0.4
2.6
0.7
0.7
0.3
0.7
0.3
1.1
0.2
1.3

1.3
4.3
1.7
4.9
2.1
1.9
6.0


0.6 10 26 1.3 Tr 0.04 0.04
2.0 28 143 3.2 Tr 0.23 0.17
0.4 21 20 0.9 Tr 0.04 0.06
1.3 192 128 3.1 0 0.19 0.13
0.9 31 37 1.0 1815 0.11 0.04
0.7 43 34 1.3 260 0.08 0.08
0.6 18 21 0.5 Tr 0.04 0.03


2.1 68 353 7.0
1.5 553 51 --
1.0 11 29 1.7
0.9 36 36 0.7


10 0.46 0.33

125 0.02 0.01
105 0.18 0.00


0.5 7 24 0.6 180 0.06 0.05
7.2 27 27 1.2 10 0.03 0.04
0.2 12 11 0.2 -- 0.03 0.05
2.4 249 69 12.7 2190 0.13 0.20
0.3 13 12 0.4 90 0.03 0.05
0.4 12 12 0.8 630 0.05 0.06
0.6 40 34 1.4 Tr 0.05 0.04
0.9 36 48 1.1 5 0.06 0.04
1.3 20 24 3.2 0 0.08 0.03
0.4 12 20 0.6 25 0.05 0.02
1.8 138 41 6.7 2540 0.13 0.26
0.8 26 34 1.7 25 0.08 0.06
3.5 -- -- -- -- 0.51 0.24
1.4 125 94 1.2 15 0.06 0.05
0.9 8 29 0.5 -- 0.06 0.06
0.8 8 40 0.8 380 0.07 0.04
0.8 7 28 0.5 65 0.04 0.04
1.3 .117 76 1.9 1105 0.12 0.10
0.9 55 153 2.8 0 0.17 0.04
0.9 110 20 0.5 50 0.04 0.04
0.8 11 221 (1.3) (0)(c) 0.16 0.04
0.3 18 16 0.8 Tr 0.03 0.03
0.3 14 29 3.2 10 0.06 0.06
0.4 14 17 0.8 Tr 0.00 0.03
0.5 4 171 -- -- --
1.4 11 71 2.0 -- -- --
0.3 13 9 0.8 890 0.02 0.03
0.9 6 31 0.8 15 0.06 0.10

1.8 195 52 3.1 1820 0.12 0.24
3.6 86 247 7.6 5 0.54 0.19
0.8 10 34 0.9 25 0.09 0.04
1.0 8 55 1.2 730 0.10 0.03
0.6 20 21 3.2 35 0.05 0.02
0.5 12 26 0.5 Tr 0.03 0.05
Z.b 383 48 2.6 2065 0.06 0.12


0.3
4.1
0.4
1.2
0.8
0.4
0.6

2.4

1.5

3.3

0.7
0.5
0.6
1.0
0.4
0.4
0.6
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.9
0.3
1.7
0.5
0.7
0.5
0.7
1.0
6.5
0.2
2.5
0.3
2.0
3.8
_--

1.0
1.5

1.0
2.1
2.4
1.7
0.5
0.2
0.6


8
11
9
13(b)
31
12
19

5

11
40

23
21
1790(b)
35
16
53
19
40
9
5
64
51
--
90
13
28
15
44
1
19
(0)(c)
21
5
15
__
7
4
16

146
3
6
4.3
11
625
69


- -- --








TABLE 13. (Continued)


Composition in Terms of 100 Grams Edible Portion
Total
Food Mois- Carbo- Vit. A Thia- Ribo- Ascorbic
Energy, ture, Prot., Fat, hydrate, Fiber, Ash, Ca, P, Fe, Value, mine, flavin, Niacin, Acid,
Species cal % g 8 g g mg mg mg mcg mg mg mg mg


Pisum sativwnm
Portulaca oleracea
Psidium guajava
Saccharum officinarum
Sechium edule
Sesamum indicwn
Solanum melongena var.
esculentum
Solanwnum nigrum
Solanum quitoense
Solanum tuberosum
SpathiphyZZum phryniifolium
Spondias mombin
Spondias purpurea
Syzygium jambos
Syzygiwn malaccense
Tamarindus indica
Terminalia catappa
Theobroma bicolor
Theobroma cacao
Triticum aestivum
Triumfetta sp.
Urena Zobata
Vicia faba
Vigna spp.
Vigna unguiculata ssp.
catjang
Vitis tiliifolia
Xanthosoma sp.
Zea mays
Zingiber officinale


97
26
57
82
31
584
27

45
28
79
55
70
83
63
32
272
607
71
456
330
68

118
341
342

57
132
361
47


70.2
91.2
83.8
78.8
90.8
4.1
91.8

85.0
91.8
77.9
82.4
82.7
76.2
82.4
90.9
22.6
2.7
79.2
3.6
13.0
78.4
76.0
69.0
10.6
10.8


7.6
2.0
0.5
0.3
0.9
17.6
1.0

5.0
0.7
2.8
6.3
0.8
0.9
0.6
0.6
3.1
23.1
2.8
12.0
14.0
4.2
--_
9.3
24.1
23.1


83.9 2.0
65.9 1.7
10.6 9.4
87.6 1.6


0.4 21.0
0.4 5.0
0.1 15.2
0.1 20.5
0.2 7.7
52.2 21.1
0.3 6.3

0.8 7.4
0.1 6.8
0.2 18.2
1.2 8.4
2.1 13.8
0.1 22.0
0.2 16.4
0.1 8.0
0.4 71.8
54.6 17.2
0.3 16.5
46.3 34.7
2.2 69.1
0.4 15.2

0.4 20.3
1.2 60.7
1.4 61.4

0.4 12.9
0.3 30.9
4.3 74.4
0.8 9.0


3.0 0.8 24 124 2.0 125 0.38 0.14
0.9 1.4 79 32 3.6 750 0.02 0.10
2.4 0.4 20 13 (0.6)(c) 70 0.01 0.04
0.4 0.3 13 12 0.7 Tr 0.02 0.01
0.6 0.4 12 30 0.6 5 0.03 0.04
5.3 5.0 1212 620 10.4 5 0.98 0.25
1.2 0.6 23 31 0.8 Tr 0.04 0.04


1.4 1.8 199 60 9.9
0.4 0.6 8 14 0.4
0.6 0.9 10 50 1.0
1.5 1.7 403 136 1.4
1.0 0.6 26 31 2.2
0.4 0.8 22 40 0.6
1.4 0.4 36 15 0.4
0.7 0.4 6 16 0.4
3.0 2.1 54 108 1.0
9.2 2.4 497 957 2.4
1.1 1.2 6 41 0.7
8.6 3.4 106 537 3.6
2.3 1.7 36 383 3.1
3.4 1.8 392 76 29.2?

3.8 1.0 31 140 2.3
4.9 3.4 77 420 7.2
4.8 3.3 101 383 7.6


3.5 0.8
0.6 1.2
1.8 1.3
0.9 1.0


62 41 2.2
14 56 0.8
9 290 2.5
44 66 1.8


230 0.18 0.35
50 0.06 0.04
Tr 0.11 0.04
10 0.04 0.49
70 0.08 0.06
30 0.07 0.03
75 0.02 0.03
Tr 0.03 0.03
20 0.44 0.16
0 0.71 0.28
95 1.80 0.15
15 0.17 0.14
(0)(c) 0.57 0.12


60 0.28 0.17
10 0.87 0.23
-- 0.75 0.18

10 0.04 0.04
10 0.13 0.03
70 0.43 0.10
Tr 0.02 0.06


2.2
0.5
0.5
0.1
0.4
5.0
0.8

1.0
1.5
1.5
1.8
0.5
1.0
0.6
0.3
2.1
0.7
3.2
1.7
4.3
--

1.7
1.9
2.5

1.2
0.7
1.9
0.7


(a) Information from Africa.
(b) Reduced ascorbic acid
(c) Values in parentheses are imputed values.
Tr = trace.


26
23
72
2
20
0
5

61
65
20(b)
13
28
45
22
13
6
--
21
3(b)
(0)(c)

2
28
3
1

6
5
Tr
2





TABLE 14. STANDARD BROMATOLOGICAL ANALYSES OF ISTHMIAN ANIMAL PRODUCTS

[From Leung and Flores (1961)]


Composition in Terms of 100 Grams Edible Portion
Total
Food Mois- Carbo- Vit. A Thia- Ribo- Ascorbic
Energy, ture, Prot., Fat, hydrate, Fiber, Ash, Ca, P, Fe, Value, mine, flavin, Niacin, Acid,
Species cal % g g g g g mg mg mg mcg mg mg mg mg


Alligator (Cayman ?)
Anchovies (raw)
Armadillo
Bacalao, dried, salted
Bacalao, fresh, raw
Bagre
Beef, liver
Beef, raw and salted
Beef, very lean
Beef, very fat
Beef, dry and salted
Beef brains, raw
Beef stomach
Beef, tongue
Bonito, raw flesh
Bonito, roasted
Bonito, salted and dried
Bonito eggs, raw
Butter, unsalted
Chicken, young, raw
Chicken, mature, raw
Chicken, dark meat
Chicken, light meat
Chicken eggs, yolk
Chicken eggs, white
Clams
Corvina
Crab, raw
Crab (cooked jaiba)
Deer, roasted
Deer, dried and salted
Duck
Duck egg, whole
Duck egg, yolk
Fish, river (Colombia)
Fish, marine (Colombia)
Flounder
Herring
Iguana
Iguana egg
Lisa (striped mullet)
Lobster, raw
Octopus
Oysters, raw
Pejerey, raw
Pejesapo, parboiled
Pork lard
Pork, smoked ham


232 45.6 45.6
95 76.4 21.5
172 64.5 29.0
375 12.3 81.8
77 81.3 17.5
136 74.5 17.6
134 71.2 19.8
155 59.4 24.5
113 75.2 21.4
435 43.4 14.4
317 16.3 64.8
134 77.8 10.4
90 81.1 14.0
191 69.1 16.0
138 70.7 23.5
139 69.9 24.0
198 44.0 32.3
100 78.3 17.2
743 14.9 1.0
170 70.6 18.2
246 62.1 18.1
120 74.5 20.6
96 77.9 19.2
341 51.3 16.0
53 87.2 11.0
76 81.7 12.6
100 76.7 20.8
93 78.5 17.3
85 77.9 19.1
146 67.1 29.5
142 61.1 31.4
326 54.3 16.0
195 69.0 13.0
426 41.7 15.1
101 78.4 17.9
100 77.0 20.5
87 79.1 19.0
142 72.2 19.0
112 72.9 24.9
218 63.2 14.9
106 76.0 19.4
88 79.2 16.2
56 85.5 12.6
44 88.9 5.8
87 78.8 18.8
88 78.8 18.7
879 0.6 0.0
389 42.0 16.9


4.2 (0.0)(a)
0.4 (0.0)
5.4 (0.0)
2.8
0.3
16.8 (0.0)
3.9 3.6
5.6 (0.0)
2.4 (0.0)
41.4 (0.0)
4.5 (0.0)
9.6 0.8
2.7 1.4
13.2 0.9
4.2 (0.0)
3.7 0.8
5.1 3.4
3.0 (0.0)
84.0 (0.0)
10.2 (0.0'
18.7 (0.0)
3.6 (0.0)
1.5 (0.0)
29.2 2.0
0.2 1.0
1.6 2.0
1.2 (0.0)
1.9 0.5
0.4 (0.0)
2.2 (0.0)
0.9 (0.0)
28.6 0.0
14.2 2.7
38.7 2.9
2.7 0.0
1.4 0.0
0.5 (0.0)
6.7 --
0.9 0.0
15.2 4.3
2.6 (0.0)
1.9 0.5
0.3 (0.0)
0.5 3.5
0.8 (0.0)
0.3 1.3
99.4 0.0
35.0 (0.3)


0.0 4.6 1231 767 11.4 15 0.10


(1.7)
0.0 1.1
0.0 7.0
0.0 1.2
0.0 1.1
0.0 1.5
0.2 10.5
0.0 1.0
0.0 0.8
0.0 14.4
0.0 1.4
0.3 0.8
0.0 0.8
-- 1.6
1.6
15.2
-- 1.5
0.0 0.1
0.0 1.0
0.0 1.1
0.0 1.3
0.0 1.4
0.0 1.5
0.0 0.6
0.0 2.1
0.0 1.3
0.0 1.8
0.0 2.6
-- 1.2
-- 6.6
0.0 1.0
-- 1.1
-- 1.6
0.0 1.0
0.0 1.1
0.0 1.4
0.0 2.1
0.0 1.8
(0.0) 2.4
0.0 1.0
0.0 2.2
1.6
1.3
1.6
-- 0.9
0.0 0.0
0.0 5.4


20 220 1.4 40 0.20
30 208 10.9 0 0.10
50 891 3.6 0 0.08
10 194 0.4 0 0.06
32 194 0.6 -- 0.04
11 278 5.1 8660 0.26
50 272 7.9 0 0.08
16 179 4.0 0 0.07
7 170 2.4 0 0.06
93 161 (9.7) -- 0.02
12 200 3.2 175 0.15
60 50 2.2 70 0.01
16 142 1.5 0 0.08
28 258 0.7 -- 0.01
15 206 1.1 -- 0.01
112 164 6.1 -- 0.07
24 274 1.8 -- 0.07
19 18 0.2 (840) Tr
14 200 1.5 -- 0.08
10 201 1.8 20 0.06
9 190 0.9 -- 0.06
5 237 1.0 -- 0.06
117 466 6.0 -- 0.23
9 20 0.8 0 0.01
38 168 5.8 (30) 0.10
38 198 1.1 50 0.04
43 175 0.8 -- 0.16
200 140 1.9 -- 0.05
20 264 3.5 0 0.37
60 298 1.9 -- 0.09
15 188 1.8 -- 0.10
58 193 1.7 -- 0.13
145 430 4.7 -- 0.36
20 180 0.7 0 0.03
22 200 0.5 0 0.05
49 303 0.7 15 0.07
101 272 1.1 -- 0.02
25 252 3.4 225 0.05
421 439 2.1 425 0.14
16 173 1.0 -- 0.01
40 184 0.5 -- 0.13
39 109 2.5 -- 0.02
133 76 6.8 -- 0.04
105 311 0.7 -- 0.01
109 136 1.0 -- 0.04
0 0 0 0 0
10 136 2.5 (0) 0.70


0.30
0.51
0.40
0.45
0.07
0.08
2.37
0.22
0.20
0.14
0.25
0.23
0.09
0.31
0.05
0.04
0.13
0.40
0.01
0.16
0.14
0.15
0.06
0.33
(0.26)
0.18
0.14
0.08
0.22
0.28
0.34
0.24
0.55
0.66
0.08
0.10
0.05
0.15
0.24
0.60
0.10
0.06
0.07
0.38
0.05
0.11
0
0.19


6.3

6.0
10.9
2.2
1.6
8.9
6.1
2.9
2.6
(14.8)
3.1
0.6
3.1
12.8

6.2
2.8
0.0
9.0
7.7
6.4
12.9
0.1
0.1
1.3
3.1
2.8
1.8
7.4
10.0
5.6
0.1
0.1
3.0
2.8
1.5
3.6
8.2
0.5
5.2
1.9
1.3
7.1
4.5
1.2
0
4.0


(0)

0
0
2
0
11
0
(0)
0
0
14
(0)
0
0
0
0
10
0
(0)
2
5
4
0
0
10
1
2

0

(0)
0
0
0
0


(0)

0
0


0
0
0
0


- -- --0









TABLE 14. (Continued)


Composition in Terms of 100 Grams Edible Portion
Total
Food Mois- Carbo- Vit. A Thia- Ribo- Ascorbic
Energy, ture, Prot., Fat, hydrate, Fiber, Ash, Ca, P, Fe, Value, mine, flavin, Niacin, Acid,
Species cal % g g g g g mg mg mg mcg mg mg mg mg


Pork kidney
Pork blood sausage
Pork, fat
Pork, lean
Pork, liver
Pork, lung
Pork, sausage
Pork, skin
Pork, spleen
Pork, spareribs
Pork, feet
Pork, heart
Prawn
Rabbit
Ray
Robalo
Sawfish
Scallops, raw
Scallops, dried
Shrimp, raw
Shrimp, dried
Snapper, raw
Squab (pigeon)
Squid, raw
Squid, dried
Turkey
Turtle meat
Turtle egg


146
159
376
194
140
84
408
660
100
302
285
115
115
135
141
94
134
78
341
86
293
109
279
78
305
268
89
115


73.4 16.4
70.7 18.2
51.0 12.4
68.2 17.5
71.5 19.2
82.0 14.6
43.3 12.2
2.9 20.8
77.2 17.6
57.0 15.8
57.0 20.2
76.4 14.7
76.3 17.9
73.0 21.0
65.9 31.1
78.0 20.0
72.3 21.8
80.3 14.8
13.6 64.6
78.8 17.3
20.4 63.0
75.6 21.1
58.0 18.6
80.2 16.4
21.7 62.3
58.3 20.1
78.5 19.8
79.2 12.6


7.9
8.6
35.8
13.2
5.4
2.4
39.0
56.1
1.9
26.0
22.0
4.2
4.3
5.0
0.4
1.0
4.6
0.1
1.8
0.2
2.2
2.1
22.1
0.9
4.3
20.2
0.5
6.3


1.1
0.9
(0.0)
(0.0)
2.5
(0.0)
1.2
16.8
1.9
0.0
0.0
3.7
(0.0)
0.0
1.2
(0.0)
(0.0)
3.4
12.0
2.5
1.0
(0.0)
0.0


0.0

0.9


0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
(0.0)
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0



0.0
0.0


0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0


1.2
1.6
0.8
1.1
1.4
1.0
4.3
3.4
1.4
0.9
0.8
1.0
1.5
1.0
1.4
1.0
1.3
1.4
8.0
1.2
13.4
1.2
1.5
1.0
6.9
1.0
1.2
1.0


8 245 5.4
12 50 44.9
6 150 1.4
6 212 1.8
12 306 5.3
16 186 5.6
42 105 3.4
61 149 2.8
10 173 45.0
9 177 2.4
12 245 3.0
12 147 5.8
194 215 1.7
(12) (157) (3.2)
15 215 1.2
15 204 --
54 238 1.2
26 208 1.8
114 912 7.9
94 230 (1.6)
684 779 4.9
17 204 (0.8)
17 411 1.8
12 119 0.5
46 471 2.0
23 320 3.8

62 180 1.6


42C


30 0.35 2.88
20 0.02 0.05
0 0.32 0.18
0 0.85 0.22
)0 0.29 2.55
0.07 0.26
55 0.25 0.19
L5 0.03 0.20
0 0.12 0.34
(0) 0.77 0.18
(0) 0.98 0.24
0 0.28 1.06
0.08 0.15
(0.09) (0.19)
S -- 0.15
0.35 0.07
- 0.14 0.19
0 (0.04) 0.10
0 (0.13) 0.40
S 0.04 0.10
S 0.10 0.08
S 0.09 0.06
S 0.10 0.24
0.02 0.12
S 0.06 0.42
S 0.09 0.14

i5 0.28 0.31


--
--

--




6


(a) Parenthetical values represent imputed values.


7.6
1.6
2.4
4.0
13.7
3.2
2.9
3.8
2.4
4.1
5.2
5.1
2.4
(5.0)
3.8
0.09
4.1
1.4
5.2
1.5
7.2
2.5
5.6
(1.4)
4.7
8.0

0.1


9
1
0
0
14
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
0
(0)


0
--_
---





0 0Q

0


(0)
---




27 and 28


TABLE 15. RECOMMENDED AND ACTUAL PER-CAPITA PANAMANIAN
FOOD INTAKE

(After Escala, G., 1968)



1965 Intake/
Recommended Per-Capita Recommended
Intake, Intake, Intake,
Product g/day g/day %


Milk Products 300 112 37

Eggs 25 11 44

Meat 90 111 123

Legumes 30 46 153

Fresh vegetables 105 44 42

Fruits 120 91 76

Banana/plantain 150 163 109

Starchy roots 120 85 71

Rice 180 180 100

Sugar 50 71 142

Fats 30 27 90

Total 1200 941


--~~~- -~




A-I


APPENDIX A


DARIEN RECIPES


The following recipes have been extracted from many sources, especially Reina
Torres de Arauz (recipes numbered <362), Edith Bristan Luna (recipes marked El Real),
Alfredo Costales Samaniego [recipes marked Cuti, Truando, Salaqui, Coredo, Curiche, La
Nueva, Unguia, Arquia or numbered >361]. Recipes and entries marked Bolivar, Antioquia,
Huila, Narino, and Santander were translated from Rodriguez de Montes (1964), and those
marked Cartagena from the useful book by Roman de Zurek (1968). For clarification of some
of the terms, some entries have been added from Velasquez' (1966) and Santamaria's (1942)
dictionaries. Recipes followed by numbers were used in the computer dietary program,
with Numbers 1 through 361 from Arauz' Panamanian data and those over 361 from Costales'
Colombian data. Most of the numbers in the Costales recipes were assumed on the basis of
experience with the Panamanian recipes. The following rough conversion factors were
utilized.


Measures and Equivalents


1/8 cup = 30 grams
1/4 cup = 60 grams
1/2 cup = 120 grams
1 cup = 240 grams
1 teaspoon+ = 5 grams
1 tablespoons = 15 grams
1/4 pounds = 120 grams
1/2 pounds = 240 grams
1 pounds = 480 grams
1 ounces = 30 grams


The mention of specific product names does not constitute Battelle's endorsement
of these products.








A-2


ACEMA (Egg roll): A type of bread in Colombia,
called acemita in Cuba, where it is cooked with
an egg in the center. (Santamaria)


ACHIOTE PARA LA SAZON
Annatto Sauce

Soak the seeds in water until all the color
is extracted, then heat to reduce the solution to
a caramel consistency. Dry in the sun, adding oil
and spices, then wrap in corn leaves and bake.
(Darien)


ACIETE DE ACHIOTE (Annatto Sauce): Fry the Bixa
seeds in hot oil until the oil assumes a red
color.


ACO

(1) Toasted barley flour. (Colombia)
(2) Flour in general. (Santamaria)


ACOMPANAMIENTO: -Snacks like bread, cheese,
cookies, etc., to accompany chocolate, coffee,
or tea. (Colombia)


ACUANUS COCIDO EN LECHE DE COCO (Cuna) (001)
Chiton in Coconut Milk


454 g chiton
2 2 coconut milk


2 water


Boil chitons, stirring vigorously to remove
sand adhering to them. Remove meat and cook in
coconut milk for 2 hours. Green bananas may be
added. (San Blas)


AGUACATE CON MELAZA DE CANA
Avocado with Molasses


AGUA PANELA (405,416)
Brown Sugar Water

380 g brown sugar


2.3 k water


AGUA DE PANELA Y LECHE (362)
Brown Sugar Water with Milk


800 g panel


800 ml milk


AGUARDIENTE: Strong Colombian rum flavored with
anise.


AGUASAL: A broth consumed for breakfast.
(Santander)


AHULLAMA CON ARROZ

Boil squash and rice with salt and sugar. (Cuti)


AIGUASTE: A Central American sauce prepared from
seeds of calabash, hot pepper, annatto, flour,
and lard and used to dress tamales and iguana
stews. (Santamaria)


AJI: A spice prepared with hot pepper, onion, egg,
and tomato. (Santander)


AJIACO

(1) Soup made from beans, cassava, celery, and
plantain. (Santander)
(2) A soup with diced meats and vegetables, fla-
vored principally with hot pepper. (Cuba)
(3) A sauce made with hot pepper.
(4) A type of mondongo (tripe soup) heavily fla-
vored with hot pepper or garlic.


85 ml molasses


Mix together.


AGUACATE CON VINAGRE (463)
Avocado with Vinegar


200 g avocado


25 ml vinegar


Assumed recipe quantities estimated.


AGUACHACHA: In Central America, any poorly made
drink, e.g., chocolate or wine, that is too thin
or watery. (Santamaria)


AGUAMIEL
Brown Sugar Water


AJIACO CARTAGENERO DE CARNE SALADA


480 g fatback or
240 g fatback and
240 g lean salt pork
480 g yam


480 g cassava
480 g plantain
Tomatoes, onion,
-and garlic


Dice the meats and condiments and cook in
enough water to cover them. Simmer until thick.
Cover with a tomato-onion sauce and serve with
white rice or coconut and rice. During abstinence,
catfish may be substituted for meat.


AJIACO DE PAPA


1/2 chicken
1440 g sabanera potato
1440 g paramo potato
1440 g criolla potato


1 ear corn
Guasca (Galinsoga)
Capers
Cream


Aguapanela. (Santander)
The fermented juice of maguey or pulgue.
(Mexico)
A beverage made by boiling water with brown
sugar or plain sugar; poor people's guarapo.
(Venezuela)


Boil the chicken; remove from broth. Add
potatoes, corn, and guasca to strained broth and
cook until sufficiently thick. Add the chicken in
pieces, capers, and cream. Serve with raw avocado,
(Bogota)


200 g avocado


(1)
(2)

(3)










AJIES RELLENOS
Stuffed Peppers

Remove and save circular portions around the
calyces from six green peppers and clean out the
interior. Grind 120 g pork with one tomato, one
onion, and a little garlic, and add vinegar, hot
pepper, and salt. Soak breadcrumbs in salted milk
and mix with the mass. Stuff the peppers and re-
place the circular portions. Saute a second onion
and tomato with garlic in annatto-tinted lard,
adding water and hot pepper to make a sauce. Sim-
mer the stuffed peppers in the sauce. Alterna-
tively, the stuffed pepper can be breaded in egg
batter and fried. (Cartagena)


ALAJU: A paste made of almonds, honeys, walnuts,
etc. (Velasquez)


ALBONDINGAS
Meatballs


480 g dough
2 tomatoes
1 onion
60 g tomato paste
Salt and recado verde
to taste


480 g pork
480 g beef (ground)
5 g vinegar
84 g egg


Saute the ground beef with the spices while
stewing the pork to grind with the remaining
spices. Mix both meat masses, adding the egg
batter. Boil in the saut6 sauce and serve. (Do
not cover pot, or meatballs will fall apart.)
(El Real)


ALBONDIGAS DE BACALAO: Grated fish with bread
crumbs, garlic, onion, almonds, and hard boiled
eggs, made into a ball and fried. (Cuba)


ALBORONIA (BORONIA): Boiled and mashed plantain
and eggplant, coated with a sauce of tomato,
onion, garlic, and lard with annatto.
(Cartagena)


ALBOROTO: A confection made from toasted popcorn.
(Central America)


ALGERIA: Confection prepared from grated coconut
with honey or sugarcane. (Cuba, Santamaria)


ALFAJORES


(1) 240 g corn 1 sprig ginger
240 g honey

Toast the corn and grind. Heat honey and
grate ginger into it. When the mixture has
reached a syrupy consistency, add cornmeal little
by little until the mixture is dry. Roll into
balls of desired size and coat with toasted corn-
meal. (El Real)
(2) Bricks made of honey and flour (aco) broken
into pieces to take on trips. (Narino)
(3) A dry confection with sugar or brown sugar,
coarse flour or cornmeal or cassava, and red
pepper or ginger. (Cuba)


A-3
ALFANDOQUE


(1) A confection also known as alafajores or
caramelo.
(2) A type of brown sugar prepared with almonds.
(Colombia)


ALINOS
Mixed Spices

From Costales' description, this would seem to
be Colombia's equivalent to Panama's recado verde.
Colombia's bouquet of spices contains:


aji = hot pepper
ajo = garlic
comino = cumin
oregano = oregano
pimienta = black pepper.


(Sautata)


ALIOLE
Garlic Dressing

Grind 10 garlic cloves to a fine paste, adding
little by little 240 ml olive oil, spices, and an
egg yolk. (Cartagena)


ALMENDRA COCIDA (008)
Cooked Almond (Dipteryx)


907 g almonds


4 f water


Seeds are boiled for 2 hours after which the
edible cotyledons are removed.


ALMENDRADO: A meat stew with mashed almonds sim-
mered in a thick sauce. (Santamaria)


ALMOJABANAS (364)

(1) 1440 g corn 1440 g cheese
160 g eggs 30 g bicarbonate
460 g sugar (Choco)
(2) Made with sifted soaked cornmeal with milk,
cheese, and anise. (Bolivar)


ALOJA

(1) A beverage or chicha of the fruits of Prosopis.
(Argentina)
(2) A beverage of wheat or rice. (Huila)


AMASIJOS: Doughnuts, pastry?


ANCUCO: A confection made of peanuts or almonds in
boiled honey; a type of turron. (Bolivia)


ANCHI

(1) Pinole made from toasted barley or new whey.
(Chile)
(2) A beverage made from the above, beaten in water
with sugar or cane juice and adding lime.
(Argentina, Chile)
(3) Chaff from corn or malt used to make a chicha.








A-4


ANDULLO: Tamarindade. (Puerto Rico)


ANEJOS: Balls made with aged cornmeal, without
salt or sweetening, to serve with soups.
(Narino)


ANGU

(1) Okra. (Mexico)
(2) A mass of plantain mashed and cooked with
meat. (Costa Rica)


ARANDELA: Pastries to accompany chocolate,
coffee, or tea. (Colombia)


AREPAS
Griddle Cakes, Tortillas

(1) From corn masa is made a type of corn dish
similar to the famous arepa or maize cake of
highland Colombia and Venezuela. The arepa of
the Pacific Lowlands (also called cachin or
tatapu) is slightly larger than the small
roundish Antioqueno variety. It is fashioned
with the hands and baked in open coals or on
iron or clay plates. When made of fresh corn,
the cake is called majaja (West, 1955).
(Pacific Lowlands)
(2) Made from rice, aged corn, or angu. (Huila)
(3) (368) Cook the corn with lye and ashes until
it is soft. Then wash carefully and grind.
Place the mass on bijao leaves and cook at low
heat. Corn for arepas should be more or less
hard. Note the similarity between this and
hominy grits. [Sample sent to Battelle for
analysis.] (Salaqui)
(4) Dried corn (maize) is ground, the chaff is re-
moved, and the corn is then boiled and washed
once more (?) to remove last vestiges of the
chaff (afrecho). Then it is reground and
formed into a mass, shaped by hand into arepas
(flat cakes), and baked directly over the
embers or in a cauldron previously heated.
[Sample sent to Battelle for analysis.]
(Salaqui)
(5) Cook corn in lime and ashes (or a prepared
lye) until tender. Wash well, grind, and form
into very flat cakes. In order to store the
cooked corn, it is kept in water. (Unguia)


AREPA DE CHOCOLO (MAJAJA): Grind and bake tender
corn in the oven.


AREPA DE MAIZ: Corn, preferably white, is steeped,
then pounded or ground in a blender. Then the
chaff is floated off leaving a dough from which
round or flat balls are prepared and baked over
a metal tin. The husks are used for chicken and
hog food. (Cuti)


AREPA OCANERA: Cook unsalted white corn and then
grind, making round "hush puppies" with the
hands, the thinner the better. Place on a
plantain leaf over a hot object until the leaf
yellows. Turn and cook the other side. Place


in front of the hearth until it forms a crust.
Make a hole on one side and blow into it,


forming a large cavity. Heat a little longer.
Open and stuff with hot grated cheese. Serve hot
with coffee. (Santander)


AREPITAS DE DULCE: Cheese cookies or doughnuts
made with cornmeal, brown sugar, grated cheese,
and a dash of salt and aniseed, coated with lard
and fried. (Cartagena)


AREPITAS DE YUCA: Cassava cookies made by frying
a dough made from ground cassava, eggs, sugar,
aniseed, and a dash of salt. (Cartagena)


AREQUIPA: Rice pudding with milk and sugar.
(Colombia)


ARIQUIPE

(1) Dessert prepared from milk, maicena, rice, and
coconut. (Antioquia)
(2) Made from milk and sugar. (luila)
(3) Dessert of rice, sugar, and milk. (Colombia)


ARROZ (410): No recipe given. Occasionally the
word arroz is applied to cooked grains of corn.
In Colonial days it also applied to Chenopodium
quinoa.


ARROZ A LA VALENCIANA: Rice prepared with peas,
chicken, and tomato embellished with fried
potato. (Narino)


ARROZ BLANCO (009,010)
White Rice


680 g rice
907 ml water


20 g salt
57 ml commercial
cooking oil [or
palm oil (010)]


Wash rice and braise in hot oil. Add water
and salt. Cook for 30 or 40 minutes. (Darien)


ARROZ CON AJI
Rice with Peppers


960 g rice
water
2 red peppers,
large
6 small red
peppers, sweet


1 tomato
1 small onion
45 g cooking oil
5 g salt


Dice or mince vegetables and saute in oil.
Add salt and water. When water comes to a boil,
add washed rice and cook over high heat until
water evaporates. Lower heat, cover, and cook an
additional 15 minutes. (El Real)

ARROS CON ALMEJAS (011)
Rice and Clams


680 g rice
907 ml coconut milk
20 g salt
85 ml cooking oil


170 g clams (Donax)
28 g tomato paste
57 g onion
Pepper to taste









Fry clams lightly with part of the rice in
hot oil. Then add coconut milk and boil until
nearly dry. Cover until the rice swells (30 to
45 minutes).


ARROZ CON BACALAO (012)
Rice and Codfish


A-5


ARROZ CON CHIPI-CHIPI
Rice with Mollusk (fide Santamaria)

Boil the mollusks, in their shells, in suffi-
cient water to cover them in a covered pot until
the shells open. Extract the meat from the shells
and add to Arroz Guisado a la Cartagenera with the
water in which the mollusks were boiled.


907 g rice
237 g codfish


3 k coconut milk
20 g salt


Add rice, salt, and codfish to boiling
coconut milk and boil until nearly dry. Cover
until the rice swells.


ARROZ CON CHORIZO (016)
Rice and Sausage


454 g rice
57 ml cooking oil
57 g onion


57 ml annatto sauce
114 g sausage
680 ml water


ARROZ CON CABITOS DE TABACO
Rice with Tobacco Strings


480 g rice
480 g salted meat
1 2 water


960 g tomato
240 g onion
Lard


Braise, pound, and shred the meat. Dice the
onion and tomato and saute in lard, adding the
meat last to simmer until tender. Add the water
and the rice, without salt, until the water has
been absorbed. Cover for 1/2 hour. (Cartagena)


ARROZ CON CACAO
Chocolate Rice Dessert


120 g rice
240 ml coconut milk
120 ml water


1 g salt
15 g cocoa
Sugar to taste


Soak washed rice overnight. Add water and
boil until tender and dry. Add the coconut milk
in which the cocoa, sugar, and salt have been dis-
solved. Cook slowly in a double boiler. Serve
hot in dessert dishes or cap with coconut cream
and let freeze. (El Real)


ARROZ CON CAMARONES Y SALSA DE QUESO
Shrimp and Rice with Cheese Sauce

480 g rice 120 ml evaporated
120 g butter milk
720 g shrimp 56 g egg
240 g velvet cheese 60 g mayonnaise

Boil the shrimp in salt water, clean, and fry
in butter. Cook milk and cheese in double boiler.
Mix well-cooked rice with butter and keep over a
flame until serving time. Make a ring of rice and
place the shrimp in the center. Cover with the
cheese sauce and mayonnaise. Embellish with
parsley, boiled egg, and shrimp. (El Real)


ARROZ CON CHICHARRONES (015)
Rice and Pork Skin


454 g rice
907 ml water
30 g salt


113 g pork lard
113 g pork skin


Lightly fry the washed rice in the melted
lard, then add the other ingredients until the
mixture is nearly dry. Cover until tender.


Fry sausage in oil with diced onion adding
the annatto sauce and rice. Add water and salt
and cook slowly until rice swells.


ARROZ CON COCO
Rice and Coconut


(1) (013) 680 g rice
907 ml coconut
milk


20 g salt
10 g sugar


Boil the coconut milk with sugar and salt,
adding well-washed rice until the mixture is almost
dry. Cover the pot until rice swells (ca 30 to
40 minutes).

(2) Pepper is added to Arroz con Coco to kill the
"cold" of the coconut. (Antioquia)


(3) (014) 680 g rice
907 ml coconut
milk


20 g salt


Boil rice in coconut milk, adding the salt,
until the mixture is nearly dry. Cover until the
rice swells. (Cuna)

(4) For each person: 211 g plantain, 21 g coconut,
(Colombia)


ARROZ CON COCO Y LENTEJAS
Coconut Rice with Lentils

Saut6 240 g onion and add lentils soaked *
since the day before and cooked, finally adding
the rice and water, 2 2 water to 1 2 rice, until
the water is absorbed.


ARROZ CON COCO Y TITI
Rice with Coconut and Shrimp

Fry rice in coconut oil (made by cooking down
the coconut milk) until it is a light golden color.
Add coconut water with shrimp, salt, and a little
sugar. Boil briskly until nearly dry. Cover and
cook over very slow heat until done.


ARROZ CON DULCE
Rice Dessert

Boil rice. When nearly done add cinnamon,
cloves, and sugar. Add milk last.








A-6


ARROZ CON FRIJOLES
Rice and Beans

(1) 960 g rice
360 g beans


30 g cooking oil
5 g salt


ARROZ CON HABAS (020)
Rice and Limas


680 g rice
907 ml water
20 g salt


57 ml cooking oil
170 g cooked limas


Boil beans until tender. Add enough water to
cooked beans to allow for absorption by the addi-
tion of washed rice, salt, and cooking oil. When
rice is done, cover and lower heat. Cook for
another 15 minutes. (El Real)


Cook washed rice with the other ingredients
until nearly dry; then add precooked limas and
cover until the rice swells (cooking time 30 to
40 minutes).


(2) (017) 680 g rice
907 ml water
20 g salt


57 ml cooking oil
170 g cooked beans


ARROZ HERVIDO (021)
Boiled Rice


Boil washed rice with oil and salt until
nearly dry. Add cooked beans; cover until rice
swells. Cooking time: 30 to 40 minutes. (Darien)

(3) Frijol pintado (black beans?)


Coconut meat
Beans


Rice
Salt


680 g rice
907 ml water


20 g salt


Boil until nearly dry, then cover until rice
swells (cooking time 30 to 40 minutes).


ARROZ CON LECHE
Rice Pudding


Soak beans overnight and boil until tender.
Grate coconut setting the milk aside. Add beans
to cooked rice, coconut, coconut milk, and salt to
taste. Boil until the excess liquid evaporates.
(Unguia)


ARROZ CON GUANDU
Rice with Cowpeas


(1) 1 k water
960 g rice
360 g cowpeas


30 g cooking oil
15 g salt


240 g rice
960 ml milk
5 g vanilla
extract


1 stick cinnamon
480 g sugar


Soak washed rice in water for 1 hour, then
boil until done. Stir in sugar and add milk grad-
ually, stirring constantly. Add cinnamon stick
and vanilla extract. The pudding should have a
creamy consistency. (El Real)


ARROZ CON LECHE DE VACA (022)
Rice and Milk


Saut6 cowpeas in oil and then brown the rice
adding water and salt. When the water disappears,
lower heat, cover, and cook for an additional
15 minutes. (El Real)


113 g rice
227 ml fresh milk
113 ml water


3 g salt
Sugar to taste


(2) (018) 680 g rice
907 ml coconut
milk


20 g salt
57 ml oil
170 g green cowpeas


Boil the washed rice until nearly dry. Then
add milk, dissolving the salt and sugar, cooking
gently for a few more minutes.


Lightly fry the peas adding rice, salt, and
coconut milk. Cook until nearly dry, then cover
until the rice swells.


(3) (019) 680 g rice
670 g green
cowpeas


907 ml water
57 ml cooking oil
20 g salt


ARROZ CON LISA
Rice with Mullet


5 dried mullets
240 g diced onion
240 g cebollin
240 g diced tomato
Capers (optional)


960 g rice
2 k water
240 g diced green pepper
Garlic, hot pepper,
salt, spices, cumin,
lard with annatto


Cook the cowpeas in oil, then add water, salt,
and rice. Cover until rice swells. Cooking time
35 minutes.


ARROZ CON GUANDU Y COCO
Rice with Coconut and Cowpeas


960 g rice
360 g cowpeas


1 coconut
5 g salt


Boil cowpeas. Grate coconut; strain the milk
and meat into the water in which the cowpeas were
boiled. Boil again and add washed rice with salt,
stirring constantly until the liquid is absorbed.
Cover and cook over low heat for 15 minutes more.
(El Real)


Boil mullets in a little water, shred, and
remove the bones. Saute all the spices in lard,
adding finally the water and the rice to cook until
nearly dry. Cover and leave over a low heat for
1/2 hour.

ARROZ CON MENUDILLO
Rice and Giblets

Dice the giblets, neck, and tips of the wings
with two tomatoes, 1 onion, 10 small hot peppers,
cabbage leaves, and chives. Add 45 ml of vinegar.
Saute and add 1 k water with salt to taste. When
this is boiling, add 480 g rice, stirring until
almost dry. Cover for 1/2 hour, open, stir, and
cover for 1/2 hour more. (Cartagena)










ARROZ CON MOLONGOS
Rice and Palm Grubs

Place the grubs in water to boil until the
water evaporates, leaving the grubs to fry in
their own grease. Then add tomato, onion, hot
pepper, and annatto. Simmer and add 2 k water for
every liter of rice you wish to add. Cook until
most of the water is absorbed, then cover and let
set for 30 minutes. (Cartagena)


ARROZ CON PASAS
Rice with Raisins


960 g rice
6 small packages
raisins
1 small tin dried
prunes
60 g butter


A-7


1/2 raspadura (about
240 g brown sugar)
30 g cooking oil
5 g salt
1 stick cinnamon


Clean pieces of chicken and fry lightly in
oil, adding spices, catsup, and water until the
meat is covered. Marinate. Bone chicken and
place in same sauce for further cooking.

(2) 240 g diced chicken 480 g rice
120 g bacon 1 can peas
12 hot peppers 1 small can sweet
1 onion red peppers
1 clove garlic 680 ml water
1 can tomato paste Salt to taste

Saute thin-sliced peppers and garlic until
the grease turns pink. Add chicken and cook until
almost tender. Barely cover with water; when boil-
ing add salt. Cover and simmer until chicken is
tender. Remove meat and add rice, tomato paste,
and liquid from sweet peppers and peas. When rice
is tender add the chicken and peas. Cover and
leave on heat 5 minutes more. (El Real)


Soak raisins and prunes in warm water. Add
them to 960 ml water boiling in paila (heavy iron
pot used in Panama for cooking rice). Add brown
sugar, salt, cinnamon, and oil. Stir in the
washed rice and when the water has been absorbed,
add butter. Cover and cook 15 minutes more at low
heat. (El Real)


ARROZ CON PERICO: Rice pudding with coconut milk.


ARROZ CON PIMIENTO
Rice with Sweet Red Peppers


120 g rice
45 g lard


1 can pimiento morones
(sweet red peppers)
1/4 can cheese


Heat lard and fry rice. Then add onion and
ground peppers. Cook well, adding three glasses
of cold water. Salt to taste. When about done
add cheese, stirring well, and let thicken over a
slow fire. More water may be necessary. (El Real)


ARROZ CON PINA
Rice with Pineapple Drink


ARROZ CON PUERCO Y VEGETABLES
Rice with Pork and Vegetables


120 g lean pork
120 g fresh bacon
10 hot peppers
1 onion
2 tomatoes
1 g garlic


240 g diced celery
240 g shredded cabbage
2 grated carrots
30 g diced chives
480 g rice
Salt to taste


Dice and boil pork and bacon until the grease
is gone. As it cools, add peppers, tomatoes,
onions, and garlic. Add rice and enough water to
cover it. Salt to taste and cook until dry. Lower
flame and leave until rice swells. Add raw vege-
tables and let stand 5 minutes before serving.
(El Real)


ARROZ RELLENO: A rice and pork casserole with
onions, carrots, green peas, hard-boiled eggs,
tomato sauce, cheese, sour cream, and spices.
(Costa Rica)


ARROZ CON SOPA DE POLLO CONCENTRADA (024)
Rice and Powdered Chicken Soup


Peel of a large
pineapple
120 g rice
480 g sugar


1 can evaporated milk
5 g vanilla extract
1 small nutmeg grated


Boil pineapple peel and rice with plenty of
water for about 1 hour. Remove from fire, cool,
and strain. To the strained liquid add more water
(about 960 ml), re-strain over the pineapple pulp
and rice. Stir in sugar, vanilla, grated nutmeg,
and evaporated milk. Chill.


ARROZ CON POLLO (023)

(1) Chicken and Rice


680 g rice
907 ml water
20 g salt


57 ml cooking oil
85 g concentrated
chicken soup


Add the rice to boiling water with the other
ingredients until nearly dry. Cover until the
rice swells.


ARROZ CON VEGETABLES (025)


(1) 454 g rice
907 ml water
113 ml cooking oil


20 g salt
142 g vegetable soup
(canned)


Boil the rice, adding the soup, salt, and oil,
until nearly dry; cover until the rice swells.


454 g rice
227 g chicken
680 ml water
113 g pimiento
(Capsicum)
30 g lard


170 ml catsup
2 g garlic
85 g onion
57 g hot pepper


(2) 720
120
120
120


g rice

g green pepper
g celery
g carrot


120 ml oil
15 g salt
1200 ml water








A-8


Prepare a white rice, meanwhile dicing or
shredding the vegetables. Just before serving,
add diced vegetables and steam for 5 minutes.

A popular variation with a Chinese flavor is
made by adding 75 ml soy sauce and diced fried
pork or beef. (El Real)


(3) 960 g rice
30 g cooking oil
5 g salt


960 ml water
2 cans vegetable
soup


ARROZ FRITO CON CAMARONES
Fried Rice and Shrimp


906 g rice
480 g shrimp
960 ml water


5 g salt
15 g cooking oil


Fry shrimp in oil, add washed rice and brown.
Add water. When water evaporates cover and cook
an additional 15 minutes. (El Real)


Boil water and add vegetable soup. Boil for
3 minutes and add oil, salt, and washed rice.
When rice is done, lower heat, cover and cook an
additional 15 minutes. (El Real)


ARROZ CON ZAPALLO
Rice with Squash

(1) (026)


454 g rice
227 g squash
(Curcurbita
moschata)


15 g salt
2 water
57 ml cooking oil


Boil the squash separately with salt water.
Heat the oil adding the rice, cooked squash, and
other ingredients until nearly dry. Cover and
simmer until rice swells.


(2) 1 small squash
960 g rice
30 g cooking oil


5 g salt
960 ml water


Boil peeled and diced squash until it begins
to disintegrate. Add washed rice, salt, and oil.
Cook until the water evaporates. Cover and cook
another 15 minutes. (El Real)


ARROZ DE LECHE: A pudding of rice and milk.
(Santander)


ARROZ DE PESCADO DE COCO

Mix cooked rice with "sudado" fish and with
cooked grated coconut. (Antioquia)


ARROZ EN MANTECA
Medraga Dachudo Arro (Choco)

Wash rice. Heat lard or oil and onion; add
rice and fry. Add cold water to cover and cook
until dry, then cover with a lid. (Salaqui)


ARROZ FRITO
Fried Rice


1 k water
920 g rice


60 g oil
15 g salt


Fry washed rice in hot oil for 5 minutes.
Add water and salt and boil until the water is
absorbed. Cover pot. After a few minutes, stir
and heat for 10 minutes more.


ARROZ GUISADA A LA CARTAGENERA
Rice Cartagena


480 g rice
120 g onion
60 g diced sweet
pepper
60 g chives
2 k water


120
240
240
4
4


cabbage
tomato
lard
annatto
garlic


Saute the spices, after removing the seeds,
in the lard with annatto. Then add the water and
bring to a boil. Add the rice and stir over a low
fire until the mixture is almost dry. Cover and
leave over a low flame until ready to serve.


ARROZ PITITORIA: Rice and giblets. (Santander)


ARROZ SECO
Oiled Rice

(1) Boil washed rice with salt and onion. Let
water evaporate, adding oil. This is a fre-
quent meal when rice is plentiful. (Cuti)

(2) Cook rice in coconut juice (or mil pesos oil)
adding salt and onion. This meal, using canned
cooking oil, is a nightly meal, often topped
with game among the Darien bushmen. (Coredo)


ARROZ VOLADO


Coconut milk
Onion


Rice
Salt


Express the coconut milk by grating and
straining. Cook rice in a mixture of coconut milk
and water, adding onion and salt. Let wdter
evaporate.

Used frequently because oil is so expensive.
(Cuti)


ARVEJAS GUISADAS (027)
Stewed Peas


227 g dried peas
765 ml water
25 g salt


57 ml cooking oil
85 g salt
2 g garlic


Boil the washed peas for 30 minutes. Saute
condiments and add to peas; cook 15 minutes more.








A-9


ASADURA
Chitterling


(1) (407)


200 g pig tripe
1 Z water
10 g annatto
2 g cumin


2 g garlic
20 g onion
2 g pepper
20 g salt


Make hash of the pig viscera and boil with
annatto, cumin, garlic, onion, pepper, and salt.
(Cuti)

(2) Asaduras include the intestines, liver, cheeks,
and tongue. (Huila)


ATOLE: A corn gruel.


ATOLILLO: A dessert made from milk, eggs, cinna-
mon, etc. (Costa Rica, Puerto Rico)


ATOLLADO (HUACHO)
Stewed Rice

(1) (434) Cook rice in coconut juice and water with
onion and diced meat until the mixture has a
syrupy consistency. Palm oil (mil pesos) may
be substituted for coconut. (Coredo)

(2) The dish contains meat, rice, onion, annatto,
coconut juice or vegetable oil, salt, water,
and alinos (black pepper, cumin, garlic, hot
pepper, oregano). (Sautata)



ATOLLADO DE MARRANO (464)


454
980
2000
123
40
40


g pork
g rice
ml water
g onion
g coconut juice
g lard


50
3
3
3
35


annatto
garlic
culantro
cumin
salt


(Truando).

Assumed recipe quantities estimated.


AVENA (366)
Oatmeal


90 g oatmeal
380 ml water


805 ml milk
1 g cinnamon


(Colombia).


Cinnamon, about 1 stick per 1000 g is added,
especially in Colombia.


AYACA: More or less cylindrical corn tamales
stuffed with pork and peas. (Santander)


AYACO

(1) Soup made from flour, cassava, yam, plantain,
meat, fish, and panela. (Colombia)
(2) Dish made with fishheads, plantain, and
cassava. (Colombia)
(3) Typical dish with beef, chayotes or diced
ahuyama, annatto, hot pepper, etc. (Costa
Rica)


AZUCARADO DE CANELA
Cinnamon Candy


60 g brown sugar
30 g flour
5 g cinnamon


40 g melted margarine
or butter


Mix the first ingredients and then add butter,
stirring. This candy is used as an icing for vari-
ous batidos. (El Real)


BACALAO
Codfish


480 g codfish
1 onion


10 g tomato sauce
30 g cooking oil


Boil codfish in water to remove salt. Remove
from fire and soak in cold water. Heat oil in
frying pan and add remaining ingredients, then add
the boned and shredded codfish. Cook approxi-
mately 3 minutes. (El Real)


BACALAO CON PAPAS (029)
Codfish and Potatoes


227 g codfish
454 g potato
85 g onion


25 g garlic
227 ml water
85 ml catsup


Soak codfish in water overnight to remove the
salt. Put through two changes of water, boiling
10 minutes each time; drain the fish and break up
into smaller pieces. Fry the diced spices lightly;
add the fish, water, and diced potatoes; boil for
30 minutes. Add the catsup and let thicken.


BALA: Pound boiled green plantain on the stone
with the muller to a rubbery paste. Add salt or
dried meat for flavor. (West, 1957).


AVENA COCIDA (028)
Cooked Oatmeal


113 g oatmeal
454 ml water
170 ml milk


BAGRE A LA VIZCAINA
Catfish Biscaine


113 g sugar
1 g salt


Bring water to a boil adding oatmeal and salt.
Boil for 10 minutes. Add milk and sugar.


960 g salted catfish 120 g sweet red
960 g tomato pepper
240 g onion

Soak the meat overnight, clean, bone, and
peel. Cook a little. Clean and peel the tomatoes,
removing the seeds after scalding. Saute garlic











A-10


in hot oil then adding diced onions, finally add-
ing the tomato and fish with fresh cloves of
garlic, covering to simmer until done, adding some
of the red pepper just before removing from the
fire. Adorn with more red pepper and bread
crumbs. (Cartagena)


BATATAS ASADAS: Mashed sweet potatoes, baked in a
casserole with butter, cream, nutmeg, salt,
sugar, orange peel, and rum. (Colombia)


BATATAS PANAMENAS
Panamanian Sweet Potatoes


BAGRE CON HUEVO
Catfish Omelet


480 g catfish
3 eggs
480 g ripe tomato


960 g sweet potato
240 ml chicken broth
or bouillon


120 g diced onion
4 g garlic
30 g lard


Soak the catfish to desalt and boil for a
while. Then macerate and add onion, garlic,
tomato, hot pepper, and lard with annatto or saf-
fron. Simmer until the ingredients are done and
well mixed. Then beat three eggs and mix together,
frying like an omelet. (Cartagena)


1 g garlic
60 g butter or oleo
Salt to taste


Boil or bake the potatoes until done and then
peel and mash, adding hot chicken broth with
garlic and melted butter.


BATIDO DE MAMEY (HELADO DE MANY)


1 mamey
90 g sugar
8 ice cubes


240 ml water
240 ml rich milk


BAGRE CON TOMATO
Catfish and Tomato


480 g salted catfish
480 g ripe tomato
120 g diced onion


30 g lard, with
saffron or annatto


Desalt the catfish, boil, remove from the
water and macerate. Make a sauce from the tomato
and onion and add the pieces of meat and a little
colored lard and simmer until thick.


BALCHE: A fermented drink made from pineapple
rind or some acid fruit.


BANDERO


Boil cassava starch in water, stirring in
egg, cinnamon, and sugar. (Cuti)


BARBACOA: Barbeque


Mix all the above ingredients in blender.
Then, to make mamey ice cream add one package of
gelatin and put on ice. The peel of the mamey may
be thrown in for decor. (El Real)


BATIDO DE MANGO


240 ml water
240 g diced mango
120 g sugar


120 ml condensed milk
4 ml vanilla
10 ice cubes


Mix all above ingredients in blender.
(El Real)


BEBISTRAJO: An irregular and extravagant mixture
of drink. (Velasquez)


BECHAMEL: See Salsa Blanca


BEHUATE


460 g rice


BARBUDO FRITO
Fried Catfish


370 g panel


(Colombia).


For a single serving:


62.5 g catfish
(Colombia)


12.5 g lard (or
vegetable oil)


BARQUITOS (IIUEVOS RELLENOS)
Stuffed Eggs


6 eggs
60 g deviled ham
30 g mustard


120 g yellow cheese
1 sweet pepper


Boil the eggs for 15 minutes, then place in
cold water. Remove the yolks, being careful not
to break the whites. Mash and mix the yolks with
the other ingredients (except cheese) and place
the spread in the halved egg whites. Garnish the
eggs with cheese and red sweet pepper.

May be served with olives on toothpicks (like
oars) over lettuce or mashed potatoes dyed blue.
(El Real)


BERENJENA: Usually applies to eggplant in Latin
America but in Colombia sometimes applied to
pumpkin where the eggplant is called "pepino
morado".


BERENJENA CON TOMATE: Eggplant simmered with
tomato, onion, and banana. (Costa Rica)


BERENJENAS RELLENAS
Stuffed Eggplant

Grind 120 g pork with one onion and one
tomato, seasoning with salt, vinegar, a clove of
garlic, and a little hot pepper. Halve the egg-
plants, removing the central pulp and seeds.
Saute a second onion and tomato with garlic and
annatto-tinted lard, adding 250 ml water or brot]
Simmer six stuffed eggplants in this sauce until
it thickens. (Cartagena)











BICHE: Locally fabricated aguardiente. (Coastal
Colombia)


BIENMESABE: Although elsewhere in Latin America
this applies to a dessert made of almonds, eggs,
flour, butter, cinnamon, and sugar, in Colombia
the name applies to the akee, a poisonous food
unless properly cooked.


BINUELO (BUNUELO)

(1) Pastry made from coconut, corn, milk, panela,
and sugar. (Bolivar)
(2) Made from potato starch, cheese, and eggs
fried in lard. Served most frequently on
holidays. (Narino)
(3) Made from cheese, corn, eggs, and spices; often
served with syrup of figs on papaya. Also
made from butter, eggs, flour, fried and
drenched in a cinnamon-flavored syrup.
(Santander)


A-11


BISTEC DE TORTUGA
Turtle Steak

Fry tender portions of turtle, seasoned with
onion, garlic, lime, salt, and pepper, and cover
with a sauce of lard, tomatoes, and onions.


BIZCOCHO (032)
Biscuit


(1) 680 g flour
45 g baking powder
84 g egg


227 g sugar
228 ml milk
113 g butter


Little by little, mix all the ingredients,
place in a metal mold, and bake for 20 minutes.
Usually performed by one family in a village for
all the village.


(2) Cornmeal
Bicarbonate of soda
Grated lemon peel
Salt


Lard
Sugar
Water
Eggs


BISTEC
Beefsteak

(1) 480 g lean beef, thinly
sliced
1 tomato, minced
1 large onion, minced
1 bell pepper, minced


1 g garlic,
crushed
10 g tomato or
meat sauce
30 g cooking oil


Heat water and dissolve 240 g sugar in it.
Melt half of the lard. In a bowl, mix together
the cornmeal, shortening (melted), and syrup. Then
add lemon peel and salt. Knead into balls. Remix,
adding the remaining ingredients. Knead again
until it can be rolled out without breaking onto a
parboiled "bijao" leaf on which it is shaped.
Bake in oven. (Unguia)


Marinate the beef in seasonings; fry in the
oil, salt and pepper. Cover and steam for
5 minutes. (El Real)

(2) Braise pieces of meat in oil, salt, and alinos.
Green and/or ripe tomatoes and onions may be
thrown in. (Cuti)


BISTEC BLANCO: Fried steak smothered in a sauce
of onion, garlic, and hot pepper fried in the
steak's juices and a little lard.


BISTEC CASERO: Thin beef-loin slivers steeped in
vinegar, salt, garlic, tomato, and hot pepper
and browned in lard.


(3) Cornmeal
Eggs
Oil


Salt
Water


Age ground corn for 5 days, then wash and re-
grind, and sun dry. Make into dough with eggs,
salt, water, and lard or oil. Mold and place in a
closed metal container, heating above and below
with hot coals. (Coredo)


BIZCOCHO DE CHOCOLATE


360 g
15 g
15 g
2 g
30 g


flour
cornstarch
baking powder
salt
lard or butter


2
5
180
85
240


unbeaten eggs
g vanilla extract
g milk
g chocolate
g sugar


BISTEC DE HIGADO
Liver Steak


480 g fresh liver
1 large tomato
1 red or green
pepper


1 onion
Salt and pepper
30 g cooking oil


Mix the baking powder, flour, starch, and
salt. Homogenize the butter with the sugar. Add
the eggs, one by one, beating constantly. Add the
melted chocolate and vanilla. Add dry ingredients
alternately with milk. Bake on greased cookie
tins at 175 C for 30 minutes. When completely
cool, coat with sugar. (El Real)


Marinate liver in seasonings for 5 minutes.
Heat the oil in frying pan to brown marinated
liver; cover and cook for 5 minutes more. (El
Real)


BISTEC MOLIDO: Ground beef with onion, tomato,
garlic, salt, vinegar, hot pepper, and one egg.


BIZCOCHO DE UN HUEVO


420 g strained flour
60 g cornstarch
12 g baking powder
2 g salt
90 g butter


240 g sugar
1 egg (unbeaten)
15 g vanilla
180 ml milk


Mix and strain the flour, cornstarch, baking
powder, and salt. Beat the butter, adding the
sugar little by little until creamy. Add the egg
and beat well. Add the vanilla. Add the dry









A-12


ingredients alternating with small amounts of
milk. (El Real)


BIZCOCHUELO

(1) A prismatic cake covered with honey and beaten
egg whites. (Costa Rica)


(2) 240 g flour
4 eggs
180 g sugar


1 g vanilla
1 g Royal baking
powder


Separate the whites from the yolks. Beat
the whites, then the yellows. Add the flour
little by little. Finally add the vanilla;
place in tins lined with wax paper and bake at
350 F. (El Real)


BLANQUEADO: A dessert made from molasses, aniseed,
nuts etc. (Colombia)


BOCACHICO SALADO: See Cabrito.


BOCA DE PIXBAE
Peach Palm Hors d'Oeuvres

Boil peach palm fruits in salt water for
30 minutes. Peel, pit, and stuff with mayonnaise
or butter. (Hernandez, 1969).


BOCADILLO

(1) Grind ripe plantain and cook with sugar until
mixture nearly solidifies. (Cuti)
(2) Guava jelly wrapped in leaves. (Colombia)
(3) A coconut candy. (Honduras)


BOLA DE CHOCOLO
Cornballs


Commonly eaten with beans. Grind the tender
corn, add spices, and mix. Drop spoonsful of the
batter into boiling water. (Antioquia)


BOLITAS HORNEADAS
Baked Meatballs


480 g ground meat
120 g grated yellow
cheese
120 ml rich milk/
cream
240 g toast crumbs
30 g egg
3 g lime juice


1 diced sweet
pepper
30 g diced olives
10 g salt
4 g black pepper
960 g sliced bacon


Mix ingredients and make into balls. Wrap
half-slices of bacon around balls affixed with
toothpicks. Bake 25 to 35 minutes at 350 F.
(El Real)

BOLITAS DE CARNE EN VINO
Meatballs in Wine


Dice the meat grinding in the spices and
aggregating the other ingredients. Mash into balls
and fry in hot grease. In another container mix
250 ml wine with 10 g brown sugar, 1 cinnamon
stick, 10 g cornstarch, and a taste of salt; bring
to a boil. Introduce the meatballs and cover. Do
not stir with spoon; stir by agitating the pot.
As the liquid is absorbed, lower the fire, and
embellish with parsley or sweet red peppers. (El
Real)


BOLLERIA
Candied Plantain


3 plantains (ripe)
60 g cooking oil


240 g honey


Peel plantain and slice into long thin
slivers. Fry in oil. Boil honey separately, stir-
ring constantly, until threads form. Add to fried
plantain and cook 8 minutes more.


BOLLO DE ARROZ
Beca Todo, Becon-buda Yuda (Choco)


Rice Roll


Rice
Salt


Water


Hull the rice, soak, and dry. Grind by ma-
chine or stone metatee) and drop into boiling
water. Stir constantly to prevent settling or
clotting. Add salt and cook until it thickens.
Form into rolls, place on bijao leaves, wrap, tie,
and then bake in the oven or boil in water.
(Salaqui)


BOLLOS DE BANANO VERDE (BANANA ERRADA)

Grate ripe bananas, adding salt or sweetening;
wrap in leaves to cook or roast.


BOLLO CAPERO: Corn mixed with sweet potato and
baked in the oven. (Bolivar)


BOLLOS CACHACOS

Boil ripe plantain and pound, adding grated
panela. When thick, add butter or lard, wrap in
plantain leaves and bake. (Cartagena)


BOLLO CARIACO

Thresh and grind the corn, blowing away the
chaff. Prepare the bollo with cornmeal. (Bolivar)


BOLLOS DE CHOCOLO

Grind the ch6colo ninito; add butter and salt;
wrap in plantain leaves or husks, then cook.
(Antioquia)


240 g dark meat
240 g lean pork
1 pkg. recado verde


1/2 pkg. recado rojo
5 g salt
15 g blood sausage









BOLLOS DE CHOCOLO
Corn Rolls; Besca (Choco)


A-13
BOLLO DE MAIZ NEUVO
New Corn Rolls


Corn (green) Sugar to taste
Salt

Grind and boil the corn and form into a mass.
Divide the mass, place on leaves (samero), and
fold the point of the leaf forward so that the
mass is secure. Tie bundle tightly and boil.
(Salaqui)


BOLLO DE COCO: Made with cornmeal, coconut meat,
milk, sugar, grated cheese, and aniseed.
(Cartagena)


BOLLO DULCE

Make bollos with ground milk corn basted with
butter; add salt and sugar. Wrap in leaves for
cooking. (Bolivar)


BOLLO DE GUINEO MADURO Y MAIZ TOSTADO (033)
Corn-and-Banana Roll

907 g ripe banana 170 g toasted corn

Mash the banana and mix with toasted corn-
meal; ball up and wrap in leaves of Calathea and
roast over coals.


BOLLO DE GUINEO VERDE (034)
Green Banana Roll

907 g green banana 227 ml water

Slice green bananas and sun dry for several
days. Then pulverize, adding water to form a
dough. Wrap the dough in leaves (Calathea) and
boil for 1-1/2 hours.


BOLLO HARINADO

(1) Made with corn cut with sweet potato and
baked in the oven. (Bolivar)
(2) Made with cornmeal, sweet potato, grated
coconut, sugar, and aniseed. (Cartagena)


BOLLO LIMPIO

Clean corn by threshing and winnowing in the
wind; split in half, one-half remaining raw for a
while. When the first half is cooked, wrap in the
other half; wrap the new balls in the leaves of
palma amarga or in the original corn husks. Then
cook. (Bolivar)


1440 g fresh corn,
ground
5 g salt


8 inner husks from
ears of corn
240 g grated coconut


Add 2 k of cold water to the ground, fresh
corn and 1 of hot water. Add grated coconut and
salt to the resulting mush which is ladled into the
corn husks, wrapped, and tied firmly. Cook small
bundles in boiling water until done. (El Real)


BOLLOS DE MAIZ NUEVO
New Corn Fritters

Crush new corn with a wooden pestle until it
is mashed. Add a little salt and a lot of pimento
together with a whole egg. Drop the fritters into
boiling oil. They must be eaten at once (Larsen
and Larsen, 1964).


BOLLOS DE MAIZ SECO (035)
Dry Corn Balls


907 g corn
85 g lard
227 ml hot water


15 g catsup
20 g salt


Boil cleaned corn until tender, then grind,
mixing with pork lard, salt, and water to form a
dough. Wrap in corn husks and boil for 30 minutes,


BOLLOS DE MAIZ SECO
Maize Corn Rolls; Bechito beja (Choco)


Dried corn
Salt


Water


Grind the corn, remove the chaff, boil and
regrind. Form into a soft mass of dough seasoned
with salt. Form dough into rolls, wrap in bijao
leaves, and boil in water or bake. [Sample sent
to Battelle for analysis.] (Salaqui)


BOLLOS DE MAIZ TIERNO (036)
Young Corn Balls


25 ears corn
10 g salt


16 k water


Boil the ears, then grind the grains; strain
through a sieve. Wrap in corn husks and boil
again for 1/2 hour.


BOLLOS DE MAIZ VIEJO
Corn Meal Rolls


BOLLOS DE MAIZ


960 g crushed corn
30 g pork fat


Grind steeped corn into cornmeal and mix with
sugar water, adding a little salt. Mold portions
into leaves or husks (corn, coconut, Calathea,
hoja de lombriz) and cook in water. (Coredo)


Soften corn by soaking and grind. Add pork
fat (lard), salt, and aniseed, and knead until
soft and malleable. Form into rolls, wrap in young
sugarcane leaves, and drop into a large kettle of
boiling water. Cook until done. (El Real)


5 g salt
5 g aniseed









BOLLOS NEGRITO: Made with dried black corn and
brown sugar. (Cartagena)


BOLLOS DE PLATANO MADURO (037)
Ripe Plantain Rolls


750 g ripe plantain


5 k water


Add water to plantain and grind to form a
paste. Wrap in Calathea leaves and boil or roast
over the coals.


Mix together flour and grated cheese; add
beaten egg and a little syrup, and pinch of
salt. Mix well into a dough; fry in pork lard
or vegetable oil. (Cuti)


BUNUELOS DE FRIJOLES
Bean Fritters


Sugar
Ripe plantain
Cloves, nutmeg


Mash green and ripe plantain to a pulp and
remove seeds. Form into a mass with sugar and a
pinch of salt; grate coconut, cloves, vanilla, and
nutmeg. Wrap dough in parboiled bijao leaves and
bake in oven. Note: the seeds, believed to cause
stomachache, are removed.


BOLLOS DE PLATANO Y ARROZ (PATA CUARA ARRO
DANEBUDA)

Soak plantain and rice; boil and grind; wrap
in leaves and steam, boil or roast. (Salaqui)


BOLLOS DE YUCA: Balls made from boiled grated
cassava dough, wrapped in leaves, and boiled.


BOLON: Rustic Ecuadorian dish of mashed plantain
with lard, salt, and spices.


BOMBOTO: A dry wheat sweetbread. (Puerto Rico)


BONIATILLO: A dessert made of sweetened sweet
potatoes, without coconut.


BORONIA: See Alboronia.


BUNUELOS
Corn Fritters


(1) 168 g egg
1440 g corn
2 g vanilla
extract
15 g aniseed


12 g bicarbonate of soda
2 g cinnamon
480 g sugar
2 g salt


Pound, crush, boil, and grind corn; add
water until it forms soft mass. Add aniseed,
egg, vanilla, and sugar; mix well. Add bi-
carbonate of soda and let rise for 5 minutes.
Form into balls and fry. (Unguia)

(2) Mix together cornmeal, eggs, salt, and oil of
mil pesos. (Coredo)

(3) 53 g corn, 13 g sugar, 22 g aniseed, 1 g eggs.
(Costales' summary recipe)


Salt
Seasonings


Soak beans overnight and boil until tender.
Mash, season, and add egg. Form into balls and
fry. (Unguia)


BUNUELOS DE HUEVAS DE SABALO
Tarpon Egg Fritters

Clean the skin from the egg and mix onion,
tomato, chive, lime, and salt to make a batter to
fry in hot oil.


BUNUELOS DE MAICENA CON QUESO

Soak corn for 3 days. Grind and mix with
cheese, eggs, a dash of panela, salt, pinch of bi-
carbonate, and butter. Fry in lard. (Antioquia)


BUNUELOS DE NAME
Yam Fritters


960 g grated yam
105 g glour
15 g baking powder


4 eggs (beaten)
Salt
Grated cheese


(Cartagena)


BUNUELOS DE VIENTO

(1) A puffy fried fritter served with syrup
(Anon, 1966).


(2) 180 g flour
240 g water


140 g egg
15 g butter


Boil water, then add flour little by little,
avoiding lumps. Lower the fire and stir until
cool. Add eggs one by one, beating constantly.
Fry spoonsful of the batter in hot butter until
swelled. (El Real)


BUNUELOS PICAROS
Empty Croquette

Use the same dough as for making Carimanolas
and knead into finger-size strings, forming circles
with the ends crossing. Deep fry and coat with
sugar. (Cartagena)


A-14


(4) 480 g
115 g
140 g


corn flour
sugar
egg


Cheese
Butter


BOLLOS DE PLATANO
Plantain Rolls

Green plantain
Salt
Coconut


Beans
Eggs









A-15


BUTIFARRAS
Sausages


Dissolve ground toasted corn in water and
boil for a few minutes. Sweeten with molasses.


pork
bacon
hot pepper
aromatic pepper


5 g cinnamon
240 ml sherry
Salt to taste


Dice half the bacon and grind the other half
with the meat after removing all the skin and add-
ing the spices. Wash the intestines with lime
juice. After stuffing and tying knots at the
desired intervals, place in boiling salt water for
15 minutes. Puncture periodically so water can
escape. Remove the sausage and hang up to dry.


CABEZA DE GATO
Cat Head

Roast peeled plantains and while they are
still hot, mash them, mixing in pork skins and a
little salt.


CABI SALET: See Cafe Con Jugo De Cana


CABRITO (BOCACHICO SALADO)

Prepare sauce of hot pepper, tomato, onion,
and lime; place in an opened fish. Close the fish
and wrap it in greased leaves to cook. (Bolivar)


CACALOTE: Popcorn (Central America)


CACHAPA: A Venezuelan corn ball.


CACHIN (See Arepa).


CACHIRI: A beer made from sweet potatoes and
cassava. (Venezuela)


CACHURRA: Guava preserves. (Cuba)


CAFE CON JUGO DE CANA (428) (Cuna)
Cuna Coffee

15 g coffee powder 1500 ml sugarcane juice

Boil water a few minutes, add ground coffee
and sugar or cane juice. (Arquia)


CAFE CON LECHE (038)
Coffee with Milk


57 g powdered coffee


510 ml water


CAFE NEGRO (040)
Black Coffee


57 g powdered coffee
510 ml water


Sugar to taste


Boil water, add the coffee powder, strain
through rag, and allow to settle.


CAFE NEGRO (041)
Cuna Black Coffee

113 g powdered coffee 4 R water

Boil water, add powdered coffee, and let
settle. Add 30 g of brown sugar to each cup of
coffee.


CAFE NEGRO CON MELAZA DE CANA (042)
Black coffee with Molasses

85 g powdered coffee 170 ml molasses
507 ml water

Dissolve the molasses in boiling water, add
the powdered coffee, mix, and then strain through
a rag.


CAFIROLETA: A Cuban dessert made from sweet
potatoes, grated coconut, and sugar.


CAFONGO DE AREPA (CARISECA): A sweet pastry made
from cornmeal with panela, aniseed, cheese, and
coconut. It is formed into a cake and wrapped
in leaves for cooking. (Bolivar)


CAI CUATERSALET
Corn Cocoa

Add ground corn, and then cocoa to cooked
cane juice, stir, and serve as a beverage. (Arquia)


CAI SAGA
Corn Balls

Mix cornmeal in cane juice, cook until nearly
solid and moldable. Then wrap dough in leaves.
May be served as a snack to take on trips. Will
keep for up to 2 months. (Arquia)


CAI OBASALET (SIQUIGUA) (426)
Corn Jelly


Boil water, add powdered coffee, strain
through rag. For each cup of coffee, add 20 g
sugar and 15 ml milk.

CAFE DE MAIZ TOSTADO (039)
Toasted Corn Coffee

170 g toasted corn Molasses to taste
5 9 water


292 g cornmeal
1500 ml cane juice


1500 ml water


Cane juice and cornmeal are boiled to a jelly-
like consistency. Cinnamon and nutmeg may be
added. (Arquia)


- CAJETA: A candy. (Costa Rica)


720 g
240 g
10 g
10 g


_ __








A-16


CALDO DE TORTUGA (429)


CAKE DE COCO
Coconut Cake


g grated coconut
g strained flour
g sugar
g butter
g egg


4 g lime rind
(grated)
15 g vanilla
5 g baking powder


Melt the butter with the sugar. Add coconut,
beating until spongy. Add eggs, one at a time,
beating carefully. Add the remainder of the ingre-
dients. Place the batter in a greased and floured
tin and bake until done. (El Real)


CAKE DE NARANJAS


3000 ml water
500 g turtle
1000 g plantain
30 g salt


8 g oregano
100 g onion
100 g annatto
100 g sweet pepper


CALENTILLO: Drink made from the roots of sweeten-
ed Zingiber with pepper. (Bolivar)


CALIENTE: Hot toddy made from hot water, aguar-
diente, and toasted sugar. (Colombia)


CAMARONES AL CURRY


Grated peel of one
orange
300 g flour
5 g salt
240 ml milk


Beat the egg whites with the cream of tartar
until nearly hard, adding the yellows, one by one,
then little by little the sugar, grated orange
peel, and orange juice. Add flour (strained three
times), polvo Royal, salt, and milk. Bake in
greased and floured tins at moderate temperature.
Coat with orange marmelade. (El Real)


CAKE DE NUEZ
Nut Cake


25 g butter
80 ml condensed
milk
45 g chopped nuts


2 eggs
120 g flour
2 g baking powder


Beat the butter 20 minutes, adding the egg
yolks; then add condensed milk while beating; add
nuts, powder, and finally the beaten egg whites.
Grease a tin and introduce the dough, baking at a
moderate temperature for 20 to 25 minutes. (El
Real)


CALAGUASCA: A Colombian rum.


CALALU: Leaves of taro, purslane, squash, and
other greens cooked with lard, salt, and other
spices. (Puerto Rico)


CALDO DE CADERO: Soup made using the "poor
people's bone", i.e., a bone that has been used
several times. (Antioquia)


CALDO DE PLATANO (427)
Cuna Plantain Soup


2
30
30
1
3
240
120


onions
g oil
g flour
g curry powder
g salt
ml water
g raisins


2 cloves
5 ml lime juice
3 g lime peel,
grated
240 g shrimp
Pepper to taste


Saute onion slivers in cooking oil; add flour,
curry, salt, pepper, water, raisins, and cloves.
Cook until thick. Then add lime juice, peel, and
shrimp. Cover and boil for 10 minutes. Serve with
white rice, almonds, diced cabbage, and parsley.
(El Real)


CAMARONES FRITOS (043)
Fried Shrimp

454 g shrimp
113 ml cooking oil


4 k water
30 g salt


Boil the shrimp with salt for 30 minutes.
Peel and clean, then fry in hot oil.


CAMARONES GUISADOS (044)
Stewed Shrimp


198 g fresh shrimp
284 ml water
57 ml cooking oil
113 g onion


2 g garlic
85 g sweet pepper
85 ml catsup
25 g salt


Boil, peel, and clean the shrimp; fry lightly
in hot oil; add the other ingredients and simmer
for 20 minutes.


CAMARONES GUISADOS CON PAPAS (045)
Stewed Shrimp and Potatoes


227 g fresh shrimp
57 ml cooking
227 ml water
2 g garlic
454 g potato


113 g onion
85 g sweet pepper
Salt and pepper to
taste


907 g plantain
50 g annatto
3 g oregano


3 g culantro
35 g salt
3000 ml water


Parboil, peel, and clean the shrimp; braise
in hot oil; add other diced ingredients, water,
and catsup; then simmer.


480
480
360
180
175


4 eggs
1 g crerer (cream
of tartar?)
60 ml orange juice
30 g polvo Royal
240 g sugar









CAMARONES REVENTADOS

480 g shrimp
1 large tomato
1 red pepper
(sweet)


A-17


CANTURRON: Molasses candy. (Colombia)


1 sweet green pepper
1 large onion
Catsup, salt, and
pepper


CANUTOS


240 g flour
58 g egg yolk


120 g butter
5 g salt


Peel and clean the shrimp; season with salt
and pepper. Fry in hot oil. Remove shrimp and
add diced onion, pepper, and tomato to saute.
Place shrimp on top of the saute and cover with
catsup; cover and simmer for a few minutes. (El
Real)


CAMARONES SECOS CON PAPAS (046)
Shrimp with Potatoes


113 g dry shrimp
227 ml water
28 ml cooking oil
2 g garlic


15 g salt
28 g onion
57 ml catsup
454 g potato


Boil the shrimp with the diced spices. Then
add diced potatoes, catsup, and more water if
necessary; simmer.


CAMBOMBIA CON GUINEO: Boiled meat of the conch
with banana and coconut milk. (San Blas)


CAMOTE HERVIDO (047)
Boiled Sweet Potato


907 g sweet potato
5 t water


40 g salt


Wash and boil sweet potatoes in saltwater for
30 to 45 minutes until tender.


CANA: Sugarcane rum. (Colombia)


CANCHA: Roast corn. (South America)


CANDIL: Strained beverage made from beaten eggs,
milk, and brown sugar. (Bogota)


CANGREJO ASADO (048)
Roast Crab

River crabs are roasted on the open hearth.


CANGREJO COCIDO (432)

Wash the crabs, preferably blue crabs, and
boil in water. (Curiche)


CANGREJO CON GUINEO

Cook the crabs with bananas in coconut milk.
All the extractable meat is eaten, and the grease
is eaten like a gravy. (San Blas)


CANTUA: Cuban dish made from sweet potatoes,
sesame, coconut, and brown sugar.


Strain the flour and make a pile with a hole
in the center. Add the ingredients mixing well
with a fork. Add iced water, little by little,
until the dough sticks to the table. The dough
should be bland but not sticky. Roll out into
sticks and bake in the oven at 350 F. May be
filled with jelly, seafood, meat, etc.; occasion-
ally used between meals. (El Real)


CARACOLES ASADOS (049)
Roasted Snail

Roast mangrove snails over the open hearth.


CARAMELO: A candy lozenge made of sugar and other
ingredients. (Colombia)


CARATILLO: A Venezuelan beverage made from ground
rice, sugar, water, and aromatics.


CARATO:

(1) A beverage made from the soursop, sugar, and
water. (Puerto Rico)
(2) A beverage made from cornmeal, brown sugar, and
water. (Venezuela)
(3) A beverage made from fruit juice, water, and
sugar. (Venezuela)


CARCHI: Salted meat. (Colombia)


CARDUCHO: A soup containing only water, salt, and
spices. (Bolivar)


CARIMANOLAS
Cassava Croquettes


(1) 1800 g cassava
240 g cooking oil
480 g ground beef


Salt to taste
Butter
1 recado verde


Cook and mash the cassava; cool, then make
into a dough; add salt and butter. Season and
stew. Put a tablespoon of seasoned meat into
the middle of each cassava ball; wrap dough
around meat and cover balls with sifted flour;
deep fry until golden brown. Note: Highly
seasoned pork may be used for filling instead
of beef. (El Real)

(2) A croquette-type delicacy made of cooked
mashed cassava, wrapped around a savory fill-
ing of chopped seasoned fried pork, then fried
to a golden brown.


f __








A-18


(3) Ground spiced meat
Cassava


Salt
Lard


CARNE DE CERDO GUISADO (051)
Stewed Pork


Boil, mash, and mold cassava around the
ground meat. Then fry. (Cuti)


(4) Fish
Boiled eggs


Cassava
Flour/cornstarch


907
454
113
142
30


g pork
ml water
ml cooking oil
g onion
g salt


85 g hot pepper
113 g catsup
Oregano and pepper
to taste


Boil the cassava adding flour or starch to
give consistency. Mash and flatten into round
cakes. Fill the center of each cake with
flaked fish and chopped hard-boiled egg; seal
the turnover and fry in deep fat. (Unguia)


CARISECA (See Almojabana or Cafongo De Arepa):
A cornball baked in a tartar. (Bolivar)


CARIUCHA: A meat stew, preferably with paca or
agouti, with potatoes and garlic.


CARNE (439): Meat of unspecified type without
recipe.


CARNE ACARAMELADA
Carameled Chitterling

Bake pig tripe in the oven with sugar, butter,
and spices. (Antioquia)


CARNE ARREGLADA 0 COMPUESTA (419)
Ground Meat


Section and salt fresh pork; season with the
diced spices; let stand for several hours. Then
fry lightly in hot oil; finally add water and cat-
sup and simmer.


CARNE DE CERDO HERVIDA (052)
Boiled Pork


680 g pork
4 k water


30 g salt


Put previously salted pork to boil for about
30 minutes.


CARNE DE CONEJO FRITA (056)
Fried Paca


765 g paca
113 ml cooking oil


15 g salt


Fry the fresh meat for several minutes in hot
oil.


CARNE DE CONEJO GUISADA (057)
Stewed Paca


275 g cornmeal
275 rice meal
100 g pork
100 g beef


80 g pepper
2 g salt
100 g onion
30 g lard


680 g paca
1 Z water
113 ml cooking oil
57 g onion


2 g garlic
57 ml annatto
30 g salt


Mix previously cooked ground meat
other ingredients. Use as an additive
preparations or cook like meatballs to
other meals. (Cuti)


with the
to other
accompany


CARNE ASADO
Roast


Steep the meat for several hours with the
diced onion and garlic, and other condiments.
Then fry lightly, add the water and annatto, and
boil until the stew thickens.


CARNE DE CONEJO HERVIDA (058)
Boiled Paca


480 g meat
15 g catsup
5 g Worcester-
shire sauce
4 g oregano
3 g annatto


50 g diced onion
15 g vinegar
1 g garlic
Salt and pepper to
to taste


Steep the meat in the other ingredients for
2 hours before placing on the grill. Braise
quickly on the grill so the meat will not lose its
juices. (El Real)


CARNE DE CERDO FRITA (050)
Fried Pork


680 g pork
142 ml cooking oil


20 g salt


680 g paca


5 f water


Boil the meat 30 to 40 minutes. Add salt to
taste when eating.


CARNE DE IGUANA GUISADA (053)
Stewed Iguana


440 g iguana
454 ml water
25 g salt
85 g onion


2 g garlic
85 ml catsup
57 g sweet pepper
57 ml cooking oil


Marinate the meat with the spices for a
couple of hours, then fry in hot oil. Add water
and catsup and simmer.


Fry salted portions of pork in hot oil.









A-19


CARNE DE IGUANA GUISADA (054)
Cuna Stewed Iguana


CARNE DE NEQUE GUISADA (066)
Stewed Agouti


227 g iguana meat 57 ml catsup
680 ml water

Boil the iguana in the catsup water. Indivi-
duals salt to taste.


CARNE DE MACHO DE MONTE HERVIDA (060)
Boiled Tapir


907 g fresh tapir


7 R water


907 g agouti meat
57 g annatto sauce
3 g culantro


Season the meat with salt
in water; add culantro leaves.
thickens (about 45 minutes).


680 ml water
30 g salt


and annatto; place
Cook until sauce


CARNE DE PAJARO COCO GUISADA (067)
Stewed Ibis


Boil fresh portions of the meat in water with-
out salt for 2 hours. Add salt to taste.


CARNE MARRANO (408): Pork; no recipe given.


454 g ibis meat
1 k water
85 ml cooking oil
29 ml annatto
113 g onion


2 g garlic
25 g salt
Pepper and oregano
to taste


CARNE DE MONO FRITA (061)
Fried Monkey


Clean and quarter the bird; add diced culi-
naries; fry gently in the cooking oil; add water
and annatto; cook until thick.


285 g monkey meat
57 ml cooking oil


10 g salt


Smoke the meat over the hearth for 24 hours,
after cleaning. Fry in cooking oil.


CARNE DE MONO GUISADA (062)
Stewed Monkey


CARNE DE PAVA DE MONTE AHUMADA (068)
Smoked Guan


990 g guan
3 k water


15 g salt


Clean and stew the bird, then smoke over the
fireplace.


255 g smoked monkey
285 ml water
57 ml cooking oil


15 ml annatto
10 g salt
113 g diced onion


CARNE DE PAVA FRITA (069)
Fried Guan


Fry salted smoked monkey meat lightly in hot
oil; add diced onions. Then add the water and
annatto; simmer until thick.


oil.


CARNE DE MONO HERVIDA (063)
Boiled Monkey


284 g smoked monkey
10 g salt


340 g fresh guan
meat


113 ml palm oil


Gut, wash, and quarter the bird; fry in palm


CARNE DE PAVA GUISADA (070)
Stewed Guan


2 2 water


Boil the meat for 30 minutes in salt water.


397 g fresh guan
85 ml cooking oil
227 ml water


15 g salt
113 g onion
57 ml annatto


CARNE DE NEQUE AHUMADA (064)
Smoked Agouti


907 g agouti meat


5 2 water


Boil portions of agouti for 15 minutes and
then smoke over the fire.


CARNE DE NEQUE FRITA (065)
Fried Agouti


680 g agouti meat
30 g salt


113 g cooking oil


Salt fresh portions of meat; dry in sun for
2 days. Then fry in hot oil.


Steep the bird in the spices and add to hot
oil with diced onions. Add water and annatto and
simmer until thick.


CARNE DE PAVA HERVIDA (071)
Boiled Guan


680 g guan meat


5 2 water


Boil the quartered bird for 45 minutes. Salt
to taste.

CARNE DE PAVON FRITA (072)
Fried Curassow


990 g fresh
curassow


198 g oil
15 g salt


Clean, quarter, and wash the bird; fry in hot


oil,


I- -;~-iLm








A-20


CARNE DE PAVON HERVIDA (073)
Boiled Curassow


CARNE DE SAINO GUISADA (080)
Peccary Stew


454 g curassow meat


5 Z water


Boil cleaned portions of meat for 2 hours;
salt to taste.


CARNE DE PUERCO DE MONTE AHUMADO (075)
Smoked Peccary


1814 g fresh peccary
6 water


30 g salt


Gut, clean, and boil the peccary; place over
hearth to smoke.


CARNE DE PUERCO DE MONTE ASADA (074)
Roast Peccary

1814 g fresh peccary 40 g salt
meat

Quarter and clean the animal; barbecue over
the hearth.


CARNE DE RES FRITA (076)
Fried Beef


454 g dry beef
85 ml cooking oil


15 g salt
113 g onion


Salt and sun dry small slivers of beef for
2 days; wash and fry with the diced onions in hot
oil.


CARNE DE RES GUISADA (077)
Stewed Beef


454 g fresh beef
454 ml water
30 g salt
113 g onion
4 g garlic


85 ml oil
85 ml annatto sauce
Pepper and oregano
to taste


Season sectioned beef with spices for several
hours; fry in hot oil; add water to annatto sauce.
Simmer until thick.


CARNE DE RES GUISADA CON PAPAS (078)
Beef Stew with Potatoes


907 g beef
454 g potato
2 Z water
25 g salt


113 ml catsup
142 g onion
4 g garlic


Place sections of beef in salt and other
spices for 1/2 hour. Fry in hot oil briefly; add
water, catsup, diced potatoes; simmer until thick.


CARNE DE SAINO AHUMADA (079)
Smoked Peccary

907 g peccary 3 k water

Parboil the pig and smoke over the hearth.


907 g fresh peccary
680 ml water
113 ml cooking oil
142 g onion
4 g garlic


Baste the peccary with salt
fry with diced garlic and onion;
catsup. Simmer until thick.


CARNE DE SAINO HERVIDA (081)
Boiled Peccary


680 g fresh peccary
meat


35 g salt
85 g sweet pepper
113 g tomato paste
Black pepper and
oregano to taste


and spices; then
add water and


5 k water
30 g salt


Boil portions of cleaned peccary in salt
water for 30 to 45 minutes.


CARNE DE SAINO CON PAPAS (082)
Peccary and Potatoes

227 g fresh peccary 57 ml annatto sauce
meat 30 g salt
454 g potato 2 g garlic
680 ml water Salt and pepper
85 g onion

Place portions of meat in diced spices and
salt for 1 to 2 hours; fry in hot oil; add water,
diced potatoes, and annatto; simmer until thick.


CARNE DESHILACHADA
Shredded Meat


720 g meat (soup
left over)
1 tomato
1 onion
2 g garlic


1
20
15
30
60


g pepper
g salt
g tomato paste
g oil
ml water


Shred the meat and season with salt and gar-
lic. Saute the other ingredients; add the meat
and 60 ml water. Simmer in covered pot for
15 minutes. (El Real)


CARNE DE TUCAN GUISADA (083)
Stewed Toucan


454 g fresh toucan
meat
907 ml water


20 g salt
57 ml annatto


Boil portions of the meat in salt water; add
annatto. Simmer until thick.


CARNE DE VENADO AHUMADO (084)
Dry Smoked Deer


1814 g (meat and
bones) deer


3 f water


Parboil in water and then smoke over the
hearth.










CARNE DE VENADO FRITA (085)
Fried Venison

454 g salted venison 57 g cooking oil

Salt venison and sun cure for 2 days; fry in


hot oil.


CARNE EN POSTA: Pot roast.


CARNE GUISADA
Stewed Meat

(1)(375) 380 g beef or game
150 g onion
8 g garlic
8 g pepper


A-21


80 g annatto
15 g salt
280 g plantain


Wash meat in boiled water; cube, then boil
with plenty of onions, garlic, cumin, annatto,
and salt. Dice potatoes and cook until meat
is tender.


CARNE SALADA
Salted Beef

Cut thin slices of rump roast or loin so that
there is some fat and lean with each piece and
roll up in salt overnight. The following day,
flatten out the meat and let sun for 4 or 5 days.


CARNE SALADA ASADA
Roast Salted Beef

Desalt beef by washing and drying over the
fire and roast over the coals. Eat as is or sim-
mer in tomato, onion, and garlic sauce.


CARNE SALADA CON COCO
Roast Lean Beef

Cut beef in pieces. Wash to remove the salt.
In a frying pan, saute some garlic in lard, remove
the garlic, and add diced onion, strained tomato,
and coconut milk, and finally the pieces of beef.


(2) 48 g meat
35 g plantain


(Colombia)


CARNE IMPORTADA (059)
Corned Beef

227 g corned beef
85 g diced onion


129 cc water


CARNE SALADA CON PLATANO MADURO
Salted Beef with Plantain


Desalt and dice the beef and cook with a
saute of garlic, tomato, and onion in lard with
annatto. Then add browned plantain chips to the
mixture to simmer a moment.


57 ml cooking oil


Fry corned beef and diced onions in hot oil
for few minutes. This is one of the bushmen's
most frequent companions to rice when no game is
at hand.


CARNE SALADA CON TOMATE
Salted Beef with Tomato


960 g salted beef
1440 g tomato
240 g onion


20 g garlic
30 g lard


CARNE PUYADA
Punctured Beef


960 g beef 15 g garlic
240 g tomato Vinegar and salt
120 g onion to taste
30 g hot pepper

Remove the skin from the meat except where
there is fat. Steep the meat in a sauce of tomato,
onion, garlic, and hot pepper, poking holes in the
meat with the point of a knife. Now add the salt
and vinegar to steep for 2 hours. Fry until ten-
der, finally adding two cups of water and lard
with annatto, simmering until the sauce thickens.
(Cartagena)


CARNE RIPIADA ASADA
Roast Shredded Beef

Shred cured beef and fry it in hot lard until
it browns, or place it to simmer in a mixture of
tomatoes, onion, garlic, and lard. (Cartagena)

CARNE RIPIADA CON HUEVO
Shredded Beef with Egg

Add shredded beef, braised or roasted, to two
beaten eggs and cook until the eggs are hard.
(Cartagena)


Roast the meat over coals, pound, shred, and
wash to remove some salt. Saute the garlic in the
lard until brown. Remove the garlic and add the
diced onion to the lard to fry. Add strained to-
matoes, tomato juice, and the meat with a little
hot water. Simmer until tender.


CARNITA VOLTIADA
Hamburger

Cook ground meat in skillet until well done.
(Antioquia)


CASABE

(1) Cassava bread or tortillas. (Central America)
(2) Various gruels, akin to the Meso-American
atole, are made from the wet-ground maize
dough. "Casabe", e.g., is a thick insipid
soup of almost pure starch and water. If made
from green corn in the milk stage, it is
called "birimbi" in the Choco areas and
"champu" in the Tumaco and Esmeraldas areas.
(West, 1957).


CASADA: A beverage made from a bitter guava.
(Costa Rica)









A-22


CASANGA: A dessert made from figs, green papaya,
and lemon preserved in syrup or molasses.
(Colombia)


CASPETE: Sancocho. (Colombia)


CASPIROLETA: A strained beverage made of beaten
eggs, milk, and brown sugar. (Antioquia)


CAUNCHA: Toasted corn, ground, and sweetened.
(Colombia)


CAZANGA: Chayote cooked in milk. (Central
America)


CEVICHE
Marinated Fish

6 fillets, white 10 g salt
meat 10 g hot pepper
240 ml lime juice (2 peppers)
200 g diced onion 2 g black pepper

Dice fish after careful cleaning; cook for
3 hours with onion, salt, and pepper. Wash onion
in well-strained water; place in receptacle and
add remainder of spices. Mix well and refrigerate
until ready to serve. Serve on lettuce leaves
with boiled sweet potatoes. (El Real)


CEVICHE DE CAMARONES
Marinated Shrimp


1 onion
Salt and pepper to
taste


Brown the recado verde and other ingredients
in oil. Add 250 ml of water to make sauce. Add
fish and steam for 5 minutes. (El Real)


CAZUELA: Dessert made of sweet potatoes and other
roots with cloves, cinnamon and sugar. (Puerto
Rico)


CAZUELA DE CARACOLITOS EN GARBANZOS
Snail and Pea Casserole


360 g snails
240 g lean pork
30 g catsup
1 g garlic


120 g Parmesan
cheese
60 g cooking oil
240 g cooked peas


Soak peas overnight, peel, and cook for
45 minutes. Boil the snails in salt water until
tender. Strain and place in cold water. Dice
meat and saute in oil until brown; add the garlic,
catsup and 2 k water from the peas. Season with
salt and pepper and simmer until meat is tender.
Add peas, snails, and some of the Parmesan cheese.
Cook for 5 minutes. Sprinkle with the remaining
cheese. (El Real)


CEBOLLAS RELLENAS
Stuffed Onions

Boil four large onions in salt water, remov-
ing the outer peel. Remove the central cores and
mash with 120 g ground pork spiced with salt,
vinegar, tomato, onion, hot pepper, and sweet pep-
per, and add breadcrumbs soaked in milk with two
egg yolks. Stuff the onion shells with this mass
and brown in a frying pan for about 15 minutes,
later covering with broth to simmer until the
liquid is consumed. (Cartagena)


480 g shrimp
15 g vinegar
100 g chopped onion
1 g garlic
15 g mustard
15 g pickles


1 g oregano
5 g hot pepper
(1 aji)
Lime juice, salt/
pepper


Peel and dice raw shrimp. Wash in boiling
water. Strain and season with all ingredients ex-
cept the salt and lime juice. Steep for 1/2 hour,
then salt to taste. Cover with lime juice and let
stand; cover and place in refrigerator for at
least 6 hours before serving. (El Real)


CHALONA: Mutton.


CHAMPOLA: Soursop with water, milk, and sugar,
with or without ice.


CHAMPURRIADO: A beverage made with cola, rum,
aniseed or aguardiente, lime, and contraband
alcohol. (Antioquia)


CAMPUS

Break corn (maiz morocho) and leave in an
earthen pot for 8 days. On the eighth day, grind
very fine and cook in a bronze pot. Grind also
some maiz capio with ashes and cook. When the
maiz morocho is ready, add to a bucket of water a
branch of manzanilla, cedron, orange, cinnamon,
cloves, and conguona (perhaps a species of Pepero-
mia, known in Peru as "congona"). When this is
done, place a dash of this brew in cold water; if
it makes a bubble, it is ready. Later make a
patty of maiz capio and let cool. When cold, en-
velop in molasses (miel de panela) cooked with
cloves, cinnamon, milk, finely diced pineapple,
and juice of the naranjilla, and mix. (Narino)


CHAMPUZ: A savory ferment made from sweetened
corn or rice flour. (Colombia)


CHAMUCO: Drink made of toasted corn, cinnamon,
clove and milk. (Bolivar)


CAZON GUISADO
Steamed Dogfish


480 g dogfish
1 recado verde
(bouquet garni)
10 g tomato sauce








A-23


CHANCACA

(1) Brown sugar or panela.
(2) A pastry made from flour or cornmeal with
sugar or molasses. (Central America)


CHANCUCO

(1) An intoxicating beverage (the word also
applies to any contraband, like rum, tobacco).
(Narino)
(2) A guarapo made from sugarcane.


CHANGUA (CHINGUA): A broth with milk, onions, and
culantro or a broth with potatoes, eggs, and
tomatoes. (Santander)


CIIAPO: Mashed barley with broth or brown sugar.
(Ecuador)


CHAPUNA: A gruel of ground barley with broth.
(Ecuador)


CHAPURRADO: A beverage made by boiling Spanish
plums with sugar, water, and cloves. (Cuba)


CHARA: Barley and pork soup. (Narino)


Remove corn from cob and grind; strain to
remove the chaff, squeeze mass over an iron pot
until it has no liquid or chaff. Gradually add
more corn; when half of the corn is strained, add
water to the caldron. Drain corn through colander;
add brown sugar and place liquid on fire, stir-
ring constantly. Generally prepared 2 to 3 days
before being served. Considered to be highly
nutritious. Indian "chichas" are nonalcoholic
basic foods. (Salaqui)


CHICHA DE ARROZ (111)
Rice Gruel


113 g rice


3 9 water


Wash and boil rice for 20 minutes. Drink
plain or add sugar and milk.


CHICHA DE ARROZ Y CACAO (112)
Chocolate Rice Gruel


170 g rice
5 Z water


113 g toasted cocoa


Boil the rice for 15 minutes; add the ground
toasted cocoa and boil 15 minutes more.


CHICHA DE ARROZ Y JUGO DE CANA (113)
Sugarcane Rice Gruel


454 g rice


CHAYOTE HERVIDO (110)
Boiled Chayote


907 g chayote
2 R water


30 g salt


Boil the diced chayote with salt for
20 minutes.


10 k cane juice


Wash the rice and boil in cane juice for
30 minutes.


CHICHA DE ARROZ CON PINA (114)
Rice Pineapple Gruel


113 g rice
907 g pineapple rind


CHAYOTES RELLENOS
Stuffed Chayote


480 g seafood
(shrimp, squid,
lobster, clams,
etc.)
3 chayotes
30 g margarine
1 g salt and
pepper
120 ml water


30 g grated onion
15 g radish powder
120 g canned mush-
rooms
30 g flour
2 g salt
60 ml milk
60 g bread crumbs


5 water


Ferment the pineapple rinds in water for a
few days. Then boil with rice for 40 minutes.
Add sugar and milk to taste if desired.


CHICHA DE AVENA (115)
Oatmeal Gruel


227 g oatmeal
2 k water


85 ml condensed milk
85 g sugar


Wash and dice the seafood. Split the chay-
otes and discard the seeds. Coat with melted
margarine, salt and pepper, and place in oven with
120 ml water. Cook until tender at 350 F. Saute
the seafood for 3 to 4 minutes in margarine; add
onion, radish, mushrooms, and milk. Cover until
thick and then stuff the chayotes, coat with bread
crumbs and margarine and bake 25 minutes at 400 F.
(El Real)


CHICHA BELLISAJE
Choco Chicha

New corn Water
Sugar or brown sugar


Soak the oatmeal in cold water for 2 hours.
Add sugar and milk.


CHICHA DE AVENA Y CACAO (116)
Chocolate Oatmeal Gruel


227 g oatmeal
5 water


57 g cocoa
113 g sugar


Soak the oatmeal for 2 hours; then add cocoa-
and sugar.


CHICHA DE CHONTADURO (URRENAGA; Noanama): Chicha
made from peach palm seems to be drunk mostly








A-24
with the annual harvest festival. At times, sap
from a hallucinogenic plant called DAPA (Noanama)
is mixed with this chicha. (Reichel-Dolmatoff,
1960).


CHICHA DE CHONTADURO
Peach-Palm Beer


Peach palm fruits
(GuiZielma)


Sugar


Boil peach palm fruits, grind, and strain.
Then add sugar. The drink may be fermented.
(Unguia)


CHICHA DE COROZO Y GUINEO MADURO (117)
Banana Oil-Palm Gruel


454 g American oil-
palm pulp


907 g ripe banana
500 ml water


Boil the oil-palm pulp for 1 hour; add water
and grind and strain. Then add ground ripe ba-
nanas until the gruel thickens.


CHICHA DE GUANABANA
Soursop Drink


960 g soursop
480 g sugar


2 g vanilla extract
1 k water


Peel the guanabana, remove the seeds, and
strain pulp into 1 Z water. Stir well and serve
on ice. Canned milk may be added. (El Real)


CHICHA DE GUAYABA
Guava Drink

Mash and strain fruits of Psidiuw adding
sugar to taste and milk if desired.


CHICHA DE GUINEO MADURO, CACAO Y CAFE (119)
Banana-Coffee-Cocoa Gruel


2175 g ripe banana
170 g toasted
ground cocoa


85 g powdered coffee
8 k water


Boil the bananas for 1/2 hour; add cocoa and
coffee; mix well and strain.


Boil the bananas for 1/2 hour; mix and add
cocoa; stir and strain.


CHICHA DE GUINEO MADURO CON JUGO DE CANA
Y CACAO (121)
Chocolate Banana Sugarcane Gruel


980 g ripe banana
8 A cane juice

Boil the cane juice,
banana, for 1 hour.


142 g ground toasted
cocoa

adding the cocoa and


CLICHA DE GUINEO MADURO Y MAIZ TOSTADO (122)
Banana Corn Gruel


907 g ripe banana
227 g ground toasted
corn


7 water


Boil the bananas for 1 hour; mash and add the
toasted cornmeal; strain back into the same water
used for boiling bananas; boil for 2 hours more
until the gruel thickens.


CHICHA DE JORA: A fermented but scarcely intoxi-
cating beverage flavored with the leaves of
"chilacuan" (Carica sp.) (Narino)


CHICHA DE MADURO CON ARROZ [PIRIMBI (Choco)]
Corn and Plantain Drink

Grind rice with soaked plantain. Strain and
add water. Boil until thick. To drink, add cold
water. (Salaqui)


CHICHA DE MAIZ
Corn Drink

Grind the corn, remove the chaff, and boil
until the kernels are soft. Large quantities of
this beverage are prepared, sufficient for several
days' use. Some drink the chicha sweetened. After
fermenting a couple of days, the beverage becomes
"guate chicha". In Coredo the corn water is
sweetened with panela.


CHICHA DE MAIZ, CACAO Y JUGO DE CANA (123)
Corn Cocoa


CHICHA DE GUINEO MADURO CON CACAO (118)
Banana Chocolate Gruel


284 g toasted corn
113 g cocoa


8 R cane juice


(1)(118) 2175 g ripe banana
170 g ground
toasted cocoa


8 9 water


Boil the bananas for 1/2 hour, add ground
cocoa, stir constantly. Strain before serving.


(2)(120) 2175 g ripe banana
85 g powdered cocoa


8 t water


Boil the cane juice for 15 minutes; then add
the cocoa and toasted corn and boil for 30 minutes
more.


CHICHA DE MAIZ MOLIDO (124)
Ground Corn Gruel


284 g corn


8 9 water


Boil the ground corn for a few hours until
it thickens.









A-25


CHICHA DE MAIZ NACIDO
Corn Sprout Gruel


(1) 960 g dried whole 2 raspadura
kernel corn 960 g brown sugar

Soak corn overnight and drain following
morning. Set it out to sprout. On third day,
grind sprouting corn and strain through
5 k water. Cook in 5-gallon tin over low
heat, stirring occasionally, for 3 hours.
Cool and add brown sugar. Cover and set aside
for following day. If not refrigerated it will
ferment. (El Real)


(2)(125) 454 g dry corn


5 9 water


Pare off the corn and mash the grain; add
water and boil for 20 minutes.


CHICHA DE MAIZ TIERNO Y CACAO (130)
Tender Corn Gruel with Chocolate

25 ears tender corn 5 k water
113 g cocoa

Pare off the grains and grind; add to water
and strain. Add the powdered chocolate and boil
for 40 minutes.


CHICHA DE MAIZ TIERNO Y JUGO DE CANA (131)
Tender Corn Gruel with Cane Juice


Place the corn in an old container and
sprinkle frequently with water. After 4 or
5 days, when grains have germinated, grind
and add water. Drink, fermented or unfer-
mented.



(3) 960 g corn 960 g raspadura

Soak the corn overnight. Wash and place
in containers covered with Heliconia leaves
to germinate for 2 days. On the third day,
grind and boil for 1 hour. Let cool and add
more water. Strain and grind again two times.
Let stand for 1 day. Then boil with the
raspaduras. (El Real)


CHICHA DE MAIZ SECO Y CACAO (126)
Chocolate Corn Gruel


(1)(126) 510 g ground corn
10 9 water


198 g ground
toasted cocoa


Boil the water and add the cornmeal; boil
until it starts thickening; add the cocoa.


(2)(127) 545 g ground corn
170 g cocoa powder


8 R water


Dissolve the cornmeal in a little water and
add to boiling water; boil for 3 hours; add
the cocoa and boil another 1/2 hour.


CHICHA DE MAIZ SECO CON PANELA (128)
Sweetened Corn Gruel


170 g ground dry corn
113 g panela


4 water


Dissolve the cornmeal and add to boiling
water for 1 hour; sweeten with molasses or panela.


CHICHA DE MAIZ TIERNO (129)
Tender Corn Gruel


30 ears tender corn


5 water


25 ears tender
corn


907 ml cane juice


Remove and mash the grains; strain through a
moderate sieve. Mix in the cane juice and boil
for about 1 hour.


CHICHA DE MAIZ TOSTADO Y JUGO DE CANA (132)
Toasted Corn Gruel with Cane Juice

454 g ground toasted 6 9 water
corn

Boil the cane juice for 1/2 hour; add the
ground corn and let boil for another 60 minutes.


CHICHA DE MARANON
Cashew Apple Chicha

Mash cashew apples in water and sweeten to
taste.


CHICHA DE NANCE (133)
Nance Chicha


454 g nance
(Byrsonima)


3 water
113 g sugar


Squeeze the fruits in the water; remove the
seeds from the pulp. Sweeten and drink. Better
chilled.


CHICHA DE NARANJA (134)
Orangeade


113 g sugar
2 9 water


420 g oranges


Express the juice and mix with sugar and
water.


CHICHA DE OJO: A chicha producing a greasy foam.
Made from corn, panela, and cloves. (Santander)


CHICHA DE PANELA (135)
Panela Chicha


454 g panela


4 water


Dissolve the panela in water and drink.









A-26


CHICHA DE PAPAYA

(1) Papaya Drink


1 ripe papaya
300 g evaporated
milk


480 g sugar
5 g vanilla
extract


Peel and mash papaya; add sugar, evapo-
rated milk, and vanilla extract. Chill with
ice before serving. (El Real)

(2) 907 g papaya pulp (136)
4 k water 142 g sugar

Squeeze out the papaya juice in water and
sweeten.


CHICHA DE PIXBAES Y JUGO DE CANA (137)
Sweetened Peach-Palm Drink


CHICHA DE SANDIA
Watermelon Drink


1 watermelon
300 g evaporated
milk


480 g sugar


Cut watermelon in half and scoop the pulp
into a bowl; make sure no seeds fall into bowl.
Add sugar and evaporated milk; beat well and
chill. (El Real)


CHICHA DE TAMARINDO (144)
Tamarind Drink

113 g tamarind pulp 142 g sugar
2 water

Mix the pulp in with the water and add sugar.


454 g peach-palm
pulp


907 ml cane juice


CHICHA DE TRUPA (143)
Oil-Palm Gruel


Boil the peach palm fruits for 60 minutes;
macerate and cook the pulp in the cane juice for
15 minutes or until it thickens.


CHICHA DE PLATANOS MADUROS (138)


907 g ripe plantain


3 t water


Roast the ripe plantain over the coals;
macerate in cold water.


CHICHA DE PLATANO MADURO Y CACAO (CHUCULA) (139)

2175 g ripe plantain 170 g toasted cocoa
8 A water

Boil the plantain for 30 minutes; mash, add
the cocoa; and strain.


CHICHA DE PLATANO MADURO Y CACAO (140)
"Instant Chucula"

2175 g ripe plantain 170 g toasted cocoa

Roast the ripe plantains over coals; macerate,
mixing in the ground cocoa to form a mixture to
be preserved in leaves of Calathea. When desired,
eat as a candy, or mix with cold water to form a
beverage.


CHICHA DE PLATANO MADURO Y MAIZ TOSTADO (142)
Plantain-Corn Gruel


2000 g ripe plantain
113 g toasted corn
grains


8 R water


Boil ripe plantain for 35 to 40 minutes. Add
the ground toasted corn, and mix the batch in a
mortar. Then add to the water in which the plan-
tains were boiled; strain before drinking.


40 fruits of trupa 2 k water
(Jessenia polycarpa)


Wash the fruits and macerate in water; strain
before drinking.


CHICHA DE UVITA DE PLAYA
Sea Grape Chicha

Mash and strain 1000 g of Coccoloba fruits in
2 R water, strain, sweeten, and cool.


CHICHARRONES (145)
Pork Skins


907 g pork skin


85 g pork lard


Heat the lard and fry the skin.


CHICHEME
Corn Chicha


(1) 1440 g crushed corn
2 orange leaves
1 coconut


480 chaff from the
same corn


Crush the corn and boil in at least 15 k
water. Add grated and strained coconut with
corn chaff to thicken the chicha and the
orange leaves for flavor. Boil over low heat
for 4 hours. (El Real)

(2) Drink made from corn, milk, and sugar.
(Central America)


CHICHEME (ARROZ CON LECHE)
Rice Pudding

Cook rice in coconut juice (or a solution of.
powdered milk); add cinnamon, cloves, and sugar or
brown sugar. (Coredo)








A-27


CHICHEME DE MAIZ
Corn Pudding


CHIVE: A nutritive gruel of corn and/or cassava
flour in water. (Central America)


(1)(146)


284 g ground dry
corn
7 R water


Sugar and milk to
taste


Boil the cornmeal for 2 hours. Add sugar
and milk to taste before serving. Coconut
milk may be substituted for milk. (Darien)


(2) Ground corn
Coconut juice
Sugar (brown)


Cinnamon
Cloves/nutmeg


CHOCAO DE GUINEO
Banana and Coconut Dessert


6 ripe bananas
480 g coconut milk


30 g flour
1 fresh ginger root


Peel and cube bananas and boil with 1 cup
water; add grated ginger. Gradually add 1 cup of
the coconut milk with the flour to the mixture.
Stir constantly until the desired thickness is
achieved. Add ginger to aid digestibility. Add
10 g coconut milk to each serving.


Place refined ground corn in water and
coconut juice. Add sugar and spices. (Coredo)


CHIGUIL: A dough of cornmeal, eggs, lard, and
cheese, wrapped in corn husks and steamed.
(Ecuador)


CHILAQUILA: Corn tortilla filled with meat,
cheese, hot pepper, and spices. (Costa Rica)


CHILATE: A beverage made from toasted corn, choc-
olate, and hot pepper. (Central America)


CHOCAO DE PLATANO MADURO (147)


990 g ripe plantain
57 g ginger


2 9 coconut milk
113 g sugar


Boil the plantain in coconut milk, and add
ginger. Save the coconut cream to top each serv-
ing. Salt may be added.


CHOCOLATE
Hot Chocolate

(1)(148)


113 g imported cocoa
powder


CHILINDRON: Stewed goat.


CHILMOLE: A stew with hot peppers, orange, and
onion as spices. (Central America)


CHINANGO (Choco)


Boil cane juice for 24 hours or so and store
to ferment for 2 weeks or more in empty gas drums.
(Paganini, p.c. 1967)


CHINCHIBI: Ginger beer. (Central America)


CHINGALITO: A mixture of aguardiente and chicha.
(Colombia)


CHINGUA (CHANGUA) (Santander)


CHIRICA: A milk pudding. (Central America)

CHIRPINOL: Sauce made from toasted cornmeal, hot
pepper, and squash seed and used on fish.
(Costa Rica)

CHIRRINCHE (Narino): Contraband aguardiente.


CHIRULIO: An omelet with corn or cornmeal,
annatto, hot pepper, and salt. (Honduras)


CHISA FRITA: A beetle grub (cuzo) fried like
bacon. Only the greasy anterior half is eaten.
(Colombia)


680 ml water
114 ml canned milk


Dissolve the cocoa in a little water and
add to boiling water; cook for about 10 min-
utes; add canned milk and sugar for taste.

(2) Boil chocolate in brown sugar water; add milk
to taste. (Cuti)


CHOCOLATE CON LECHE DE COCO (149)
Cocoa with Coconut

85 g imported cocoa Sugar to taste
2 k coconut milk

Boil the coconut milk with trace of water;
add the cocoa, dissolved in water; add sugar to
taste.


CHOCOLO (CHOCLO, CHOGLO): Tender milk corn.


CHORIZO
Sausage

Stuff the intestines with ground meat and
spices such as onion, garlic, cumin, lime, and
vinegar and fry the sausage. (Antioquia)

CHOROTE

(1) Beverage made of toasted corn, cinnamon, clove
and milk. (Bolivar)
(2) Chocolate made only from cocoa and brown-sugar
water. (Venezuela)
(3) A coffee-like beverage made from corn, pigeon
peas, palm hearts, or some such vegetable.
(Puerto Rico)








A-28


CHUCULA

(1) Mix ripe plantains with coconut milk and grind
on stone to prepare chucula; (often a fiesta
dish). Cook and beat to a smooth, watery
paste. (West, 1957).
(2) Beverage made of cornmeal, ripe plantain, and
ground cocoa (sometimes, a coffee is substi-
tuted or added with cocoa). (Cuna)


CHUYACO: Colombian dessert made from soursop,
sugar, wine, and cinnamon powder.


CLARO: The clear part of mazamorra, sometimes
given to travelers who request water, because it
is hot and better quenches the thirst.
(Colombia)


CLARO (458)
CHUCULA DE PLATANO Corn Drink; Behuate (Choco)


Boil the plantain until it disintegrates.
Strain and drink, with or without sweetening.
(Cuti)


CHUCULA DE PLATANO MADURO
Ripe Plantain Gruel


Ripe plantain
Grated coconut
Nutmeg


Cinnamon
Cloves


Boil the plantain until it is soft; mash with
a wooden pestle. To the mass add grated coconut,
cinnamon, cloves, and nutmeg and cook until thick.
(Unguia)


CHUCUNES (Narino): A type of sugarcane ferment.


CHUCURA
Choco Plantain Gruel

Cook small pieces of peeled plantain until
tender. Chocolate may be added. Macerate the
mixture in the mortar and drink, hot or cold.
(Salaqui)


CHUPE: South American escalloped potatoes often
with pimentos and eggs.


CHUPE DE CAMARONES Y PAPAS (150)


113 g dry shrimp
454 g potato
567 ml water
57 ml annatto


113 g onion
25 g salt
4 g garlic
112 g egg


Dried corn
Grated coconut


Sugar/brown sugar


Crush the corn; add water, straining off the
chaff. Grated coconut may be added. Boil until
the corn is tender and then sweeten. Lye or soda
is sometimes added. (Salaqui)


CLARO DE ARROZ
Rice Drink


Hulled rice
Salt/sugar to taste


Water


Boil rice in plenty of water until done. Add
sugar and remove the mixture from the fire.
(Salaqui)


COCADA
Coconut Candy


(1) 1 large coconut
240 g honey


2 g vanilla extract


Peel and grate coconut. Boil honey until
threads form; add grated coconut and cook
10 minutes more stirring constantly; add
vanilla. Pour on cold wet surface and allow
to cool before cutting.


(2) 1 cinnamon stick
1 coconut


720 g sugar
480 g water


Put the water in a pan with the cinnamon
and sugar and boil until thick; add grated
coconut. Let thicken and roll into balls or
cookies. Place on a moist surface and flatten,
covering with waxed paper. (El Real)


Boil and dice the eggs. Then cook the shrimp
and spices; add the diced potatoes and eggs; cook
40 minutes.


(3)(087)


907 g coconut meat


CHUPE DE HUEVOS Y PAPAS (151)


227 ml molasses


Cook grated coconut slowly in molasses.


454 ml water
227 g potato
4 eggs


57 ml catsup
113 g onion
Pepper to taste


COCADAS DE AJONJOLI
Sesame Candy


Dice the boiled eggs and add to water with
the diced potatoes and other ingredients; cook
30 to 35 minutes.


CHURRASCO: Charcoal-broiled meat.


Brown sugar or sugar


Sesame


Boil brown sugar or sugar until the syrup
forms into balls. Add sesame. Four over a clean,
damp surface and harden into candy. (Unguia)









A-29


COCIDO DE ARDILLA (088)
Squirrel Stew


680 g squirrel 113 ml annatto
3 water 15 g salt

Boil the quartered meat with salt and annatto
for at least 30 minutes.


COCIDO DE CARNE DE NEQUE (089)
Agouti Stew


454 g fresh agouti
meat


2 k water
30 g salt


COCIDO DE PESCADO Y PLATANO VERDE (100)
Fish and Plantain Chowder


284 g fresh fish 113 g onion
1500 ml water 2 g garlic
454 g green plantain Cooking oil
57 ml annatto

Fry the cleaned fish in hot oil; boil the
green plantain until tender; then mix with the
spices and boil the chowder for 35 minutes more.


COCIDO DE PESCADO Y YUCA (101)
Fish and Cassava Chowder


Boil the agouti portions in salt water for
about 1 hour.


COCIDO DE CONCHUDO (095)


454 g conchudo
1 k water


15 g salt


Wash, peel, and remove the black alimentary
line from the crustacean, then boil in salt water
for 35 minutes.


COCIDO DE NEQUE CON PLATANO Y GUINEO VERDE (090)
Agouti, Banana, and Plantain Stew


425 g fresh agouti
meat
907 g green plantain


907 g green banana
4 R water


454 g fresh fish
990 g cassava
25 g salt
6 Z water


142 g onion
113 ml annatto
2 g garlic


Boil peeled slices of cassava vigorously with
the spices for 45 minutes. Add fish and boil for
15 minutes more.


COCIDO DE SAINO CON GUINEO VERDE (092)
Green Banana and Peccary Stew


454 g peccary
4 k water


907 g green banana


Boil the green banana for about 1 hour; add
portions of peccary meat and boil for about
30 minutes more.


Boil the green banana and plantain until al-
most tender; then add portions of agouti, and boil
for a few more minutes.


COCIDO DE PERDIZ CON PLATANOS Y GUINEOS VERDE (091)
Tinamou, Banana, and Plantain Stew

227 g fresh tinamou 907 g green banana
meat 4 9 water
907 g green plantain

Boil the green banana and plantain until
almost tender; add the portions of meat and cook
for a few more minutes.


COCIDO DE PESCADO SECO (102)
Dried Fish Chowder

907 g dried fish 25 g salt
4 9 water

Bring the salt water to a boil and add the
fish; boil for about 30 minutes.


COCIDO DE PESCADO Y GUINEOS VERDES (096)
Fish and Green Banana Chowder


COCIDO DE SAINO Y PLATANO VERDE (093)
Green Plantain and Peccary Stew


454 g peccary meat
5 9 water
20 g salt


113 g annatto
142 g onion
950 g green plantain


Boil the peccary meat with salt and spices.
Then add diced green plantain and boil for
45 minutes more.


COCIDO DE SARDINAS (103)
Sardine Chowder

227 g salted sardines 2 R water
(freshwater)

Boil the fish for 25 to 35 minutes.


COCIDO DE VENADO CON PLATANO VERDE (094)
Green Plantain and Venison


340 g dry venison
1500 ml water
454 g green plantain
35 g salt


57 ml annatto
113 g onion
2 g garlic


425 g smoked fish
3 k water


907 g green banana


Boil the green banana for 1 hour; add the
fish and bring to a boil for 15 minutes.


Mix meat and spices and boil for few minutes;
add green plantain and annatto and cook until
tender.

COCKTAIL INFANTIL: Consists of 6 bottles of
Luxcola, 1 bottle of Frescola, ginger, 1/2 bottle
of rum, 1/2 bottle of wine, cherries, cup of
syrup and dash of bitters. (Antioquia)


r _








A-30


COCO LOCO: A cocktail with a shot of gin in half
a glass of coconut milk with ice.


COLIMASI (COLIN NISA) (Cuna) (424)
Chicken Stew


COCTEL DE CAMARONES
Shrimp Cocktail

480 g shrimp
125 g diced onion
45 g lime juice
5 g salt


454 g chicken
652 g taro
709 g plantain
113 g onion


2 g pepper
60 g catsup
5-10 g Worcester-
shire sauce


10 g culantro
5 9 water
652 g cassava
30 g salt


Boil taro and cassava in water to which
chicken, onion, and achiote have been added.
(Arquia)


Dice all ingredients and soak in lime juice
for at least 2 hours. Serve with soda crackers.
(El Real)


CONCHUDOS FRITOS (106)
Fried Shellfish


990 g conchudo


COCTEL DE OSTIONES
Oyster Cocktail


Sauce:
240 g catsup
30 g vinegar
5 g hot sauce
15 g diced celery


15 g diced onion
15 g Worcester-
shire sauce
3 g salt


Serve over raw or steamed oysters. (El Real)


COJONGO

Age shucked corn for 5 days. Extract the
starch and age the dough. Cut in pieces or make
into cornballs wrapped in Canna leaves. Eat with
soups. (Narino) Also made with mashed plantains.
(Colombia)


COLACHI: Mexican dish of squash, corn, and cheese.


COLADA: Rice with milk. (Colombia)


170 ml mil peso oil
(Jessenia)


Remove the carapace from the conchudo and fry
in the palm oil.


CONCOLON (105): Spanish colloquialism for the
toasted rice which sticks to the pot.


CONEJO: Sugar candy. (Colombia)


CONGRI: Rice and black beans. (Cuba)


CONSERVA: Prepared with milk, sugar and essences,
sometimes from various fruits. (Bolivar)


CORNUCOPIAS DE JAMON
Ham Cornucopias

90 g cream cheese
15 g diced onion


15 g sliced pickles
240 g sliced ham


COLADA DE AVENA

Dissolve the oatmeal in water and then boil
with milk, cinnamon, and sugar. (Antioquia)


Mix the cheese with the pickles and onions;
season lightly with salt and pepper. Spread on
the ham slices and roll up like cornucopias.
(El Real)


CORTAO (See Virolico).


COLADA DE CHOCOLO


Grind the tender corn; add salt, onion, and
butter. Cook and serve with fried ground meat.
(Antioquia)


COLADA DE MAIZ Y JUGO DE CANA (104)
Corn and Sugar Gruel


990 g ground corn


5 k cane juice


Grind corn and soak in water. Strain through
a sieve and throw away the residue. Boil cane
juice until it starts thickening and then add
cornmeal.


COLADO DE PLATANO: A thinner gruel than chucula;
made from sun-dried plantains ground to a powder
on the stone, mixed with water and cooked.
(West, 1957)


COSCOJO(A)
Fried Plantain Chips

Thinly slice green plantain and fry in oil or
lard. (Unguia)


COSTILLAS DE CERDO FRITAS: Fried pork ribs, first
steeped in lemon juice and salt, then covered
with water to boil away, then fried in their own
grease. (Cartagena)


COVED
Cuna Boiled Plantain

Boil pieces of plantain in generous quantities
of water. Then grind the plantain that has not
gone into solution to yield a beverage. Add cane
juice. (Arquia)









CREMA DE CAMOTE

480 g sweet potato 240 g pineapple juice
120 g condensed milk

Boil sweet potato in lightly salted water;
mash and strain. Mix and beat the ingredients
until homogeneous; place over stove for 5 minutes.
Pour in individual dishes and cover with whipped
cream or meringue. (El Real)


CREMA DE MAIZ
Cream of Corn


A-31


CREMA DE PLATANO CON PINA (109)
Cream of Plantain with Pineapple


170 g plantain flour
454 ml water
85 ml condensed milk


113 g sugar
57 g pineapple rind


Add flour dissolved in a little water to a
boiling infusion of pineapple rind. When the
infusion starts thickening, add the sugar and milk.


CREPAS
Pancakes


85 ml condensed milk
113 g sugar


Dissolve the corn flour in a little water.
Place the solution in the cooking water; stir
until it thickens, then add the milk and
sugar.

(2) 6 ears corn 1 k milk
1 egg yolk 15 g butter
1 g bicarbonate Salt and pepper
1 k water to taste

Remove the grains from young corn and
grind. Stir the mush in water and strain. In
another container, bring the milk to a boil,
with the salt, pepper, and soda. Then add
the strained corn and boil for 10 minutes.
Finally add the egg yolk and butter.


(3) 480 g ground
cornmeal
240 g powdered milk


240 g sugar
1 cinnamon stick


Add the cinnamon to boiling water and
gradually stir in cornmeal which has been dis-
solved in cold water. Slowly add powdered
milk to boiling mixture, then add sugar. Cool
before serving. Should have thick and creamy
consistency. (El Real)


CREMA DE PLATANO (108)
Cream of Plantain

113 g plantain flour 170 ml condensed milk
454 ml water 142 g sugar

Dissolve the plantain flour in boiling water.
Add sugar and milk when ready to serve.


CREMA DE PLATANO CON COCO
Cream of Plantain with Coconut

480 g plantain flour 480 g sugar
1 coconut 2 cinnamon sticks

Boil 1/2 R water and add cinnamon sticks.
Dissolve plantain flour in cold water and add to
boiling water, stirring constantly. Stir in sugar
and continue stirring until mixture thickens.
Serve hot or cold as a dessert, adding to each
portion 10 ml of coconut milk. (El Real)


360 g strained flour
1 g salt
3 eggs


360 ml milk
15 g melted butter


Strain the flour and salt in one container;
beat eggs and milk together in another container.
Mix the two ingredients continuously until the
batter is smooth. Then fry the batter in butter
into small thin pancakes. (El Real)


CROQUETAS DE PAPAS
Potato Croquettes


960 g potato
30 g butter


4 eggs
Pepper, nutmeg, salt


Mash boiled potatoes with butter, raw egg
yolks, pepper, nutmeg, and salt until a doughlike
consistency is attained. Mold into the desired
shape, dip in beaten egg whites with oil, then
bread with crumbs and brown in hot lard. Adorn
with parsley. (Cartagena)


CUAJADO: A dish made of meat, herbs or fruits,
with eggs and sugar (Velasquez, 1966).


CUAJADO DE CAMARONES
Shrimp Salad


480 g shrimp
120 g egg
240 g tomato


60 g onion
240 g potato
30 g butter


Boil the shrimp in salt water, peel, and
clean. Stew the diced potatoes in salt water.,
Make a sauce from the onions, tomatoes, and butter
and mix with the potatoes and shrimp to cook about
10 minutes more. First beat the whites of half
the eggs, adding the yellows little by little.
Add the other eggs to the shrimp mixture and place
in a buttered container. Cover with the rest of
the eggs and bake 30 minutes at 350 F. (Cartagena)


CUATIRRE (Cuna): A beverage made of rice flour
and cocoa.


CUBITOS DE PAPAYA: Diced papaya, sprinkled with
sugar and vanilla and fried until the water is
driven off.


CUCA: A pastry made from flour, eggs, and sugar.
(Puerto Rico)


(1)(107)


170 g cornmeal
454 ml water


P-~ -~--^








A-32


CUCHUCO

(1) Soup made from corn, barley, or wheat, usually
ground to a flour. (Santander)
(2) Soup made with flour, pork, potatoes, peas,
lima beans, and cabbage with a dash of celery,
chives, lettuce, and culantro.
(3) Pork and barley soup. (Colombia)


CUCUBA: Bread made from sun-dried plantain.
(Venezuela)


CURIA: A sweet potato beer. (Venezuela)


CUSCUS: A typical corn soup. (Cali)


CUY

Husk corn in hot water getting rid of all the
silks. Wash and grind corn with cumin, garlic,
onion, and salt. Form into balls and place on a
stick to roast over open flames. Serve with rice
and large potatoes with peanut butter (see Papas
Encapotadas). (Narino)


DEDALES DE QUESO
Cheese Pretzels


480 g flour
180 ml milk
240 g grated cheese


60 g butter
3 g salt
20 g baking powder


Strain the dry ingredients, adding to the
butter and working with a fork. Spread out on a
board coated with flour and make thumb-sized
pretzels. Bake in a hot oven for 10 minutes.


DELICADO: Diverse types of crackers made from
wheat flour. (Narino)


DULCE ALIADO: A bicolored candy, white below,
colored above, made from various fruits, e.g.,
mora, cidra, pineapple. (Santander)


DULCE DE ALMENDRA
Almond Candy

Almonds (or guava, papaya, pineapple, or
plantain)
Cinnamon Nutmeg
Cloves Sugar

Cook the fruit with sugar or brown sugar,
adding cinnamon, cloves, and nutmeg, until a
syrupy consistency is attained. Often consumed
during Easter week. (Cuti)

Dulces are also made from ahuyama, ariquipe,
calabash, carrots, coconut, frijol, guandul, guava,
mamey, palmito, papaya, peach palm, pineapple,
plantain, tomato, wild figs, wild papayas, etc.


DULCE DE ARROZ (CHICHEME)
Rice Balls

Grind steeped rice and cook with a lot of
brown sugar; then add cinnamon, cloves, and nut-
meg; cook until it reaches a bland consistency.
When it thickens it can be made into balls. Eaten
during Easter week. (Cuti)


DULCE DE CHIGUACAN
Chiguacan Chicha

Milk is cut with a few flowers of the chigua-
can, perhaps a wild papaya, and stirred with
panela until thick. (Narino)


DULCE DE FRUTA PAN
Candied Breadfruit

Mix the cooked seeds and peel, and mash with
coconut milk. Strain liquid off and cook it with
sugar, cloves, cinnamon, and nutmeg. Such sweets
are used only on special occasions and may keep
for 1 to 2 weeks.


DULCE DE LAS TRES LECHES
Rice Pudding

Steep coconut and rice in milk; add sugar and
cinnamon before cooking. (Antioquia)


DULCE DE NAME
Yam Pudding

Cook the yam with panela, clove, and cinna-
mon. (Bolivar)


DULCE DE NAMPI
Yam Pudding

Cook the yam with panela; add coconut milk,
cinnamon, cloves, and nutmeg until syrup forms.
(Cuti)


DULCE DE NOCHEBUENA: A dessert elaborated from a
mixture of fruits including species of Carica
and Citrus. (Huila)


DULCE DE PALMITO
Candied Palm Heart

Dice the terminal bud of the palm and boil
until tender; add panela to sweeten. (Bolivar)


DULCE DE PASTA
Hard Candy

Dry candies, cut into slices or squares.
They may be made from pineapple with rennet,
cassava, and flour; from rice and lime; from milk.
with flour, brown sugar, and coconut; from plan-
tain or banana with sugar; from citron, guava, and
plantain, etc. (Santander)








A-33
DULCE DE PLATANO
Candied Plantain

(1) Split the plantains and remove the dark cen-
ter, filling with pieces of butter and brown
sugar. Pour sherry over the plantains and
bake 1 hour at 350 F. If the liquid evapo-
rates before the plantains are soft, add a
little water (Ilernandez, 1969).

(2) Boil plantain with brown sugar until it
becomes syrupy. Add cinnamon and nutmeg and
cook a little more. This is common during
Easter week and other special occasions. (Cuti)


DULCE DE PLATANO VERDE
Candied Green Plantain

Peel, dice, and cook plantain; then mash with
a pestle. Add sugar or brown sugar to taste.


DULCE DE PLATICO

Sweets used as syrups like dulce de mango,
guayaba, breva, lechosa, oranges, papaya, higo,
icaco, calabash, pineapple, durazno, pera,
toronja, badea, etc. The fruit sweets are pre-
pared with sugar. Others like milk, rice sweets,
etc., are prepared with panela. (Santander)


DULCE DE RASGUNADO: Luxurious Christmas candies
based on various fruits. (Bolivar)


DULCE DE YUCA
Candied Cassava

Boil grated cassava in a little water with
sugar or panela; add cinnamon and cloves. (Coredo)


ECLER DE NANCE
Byrosonima Eclairs


EMBARRAO
Scrambled Egg

Mix unbeaten egg with lard and scramble.
(Santander)


EMBUTIDO: Large pork sausage filled with minced
meat. (Panama)


EMPANADA

(1) Meat tarts enveloped in masa and spiced and
fried to a crisp.
(2) Deep-fried corn dough stuffed with meat,
potatoes, rice, peas, garlic, spices, etc.
(Huila)


EMPANADAS DE ANEJO DE MAIZ MOROCHO

Break the corn grains and age for 3 weeks.
Grind into a fine meal and add to a bucket of
water until doughballs form. Spread into tortillas
and fill with a paste made from ground meat, onion,
cinnamon, egg, and cumin. Seal the ends and deep-
fry. (Narino)


EMPANADAS DE CARNE DE CERDO (152)
Pork Tamale


545 g cornmeal
25 g. salt
85 g sweet pepper


113 g onion
227 g ground pork
Pepper and cooking oil


Cook the ground corn until tender. Grind in
with the ground pork and other ingredients. Roll
out the mass in flour on the table, keeping the
pork in the center of the flour ball. Fry in hot
oil for 6 minutes.


EMPANADAS DE MAIZ
Corn Tamale


Filling:


240 g Byrsonima juice
720 g cornstarch


1 egg yolk
Salt and sugar


(1) Ground meat
Corn
Alinos
Salt


Dissolve the cornstarch in the fruit juice;
add salt and sugar; cook in a double boiler until
thick. Add egg yolk and dissolve in a little
water.

Crust:


20 g sugar
4 eggs
5 g salt


250 ml water
1 g flour
120 g lard


Heat the butter with the salt and water; add
sugar, beating in the flour when mixture is boil-
ing. Beat vigorously and add the eggs, one by
one. Bake in a moderate oven for 1/2 hour. (El
Real)


ELOTE: Tender ear of corn. (Central America)


Knead cornmeal dough with or without eggs
and add salt and lard. Roll out on a plane
surface. Place the meat mixture in the center
and envelop in dough. Fry in lard or vege-
table oil. Fish may be substituted for the
meat. (Cuti)

(2) Mix cornmeal or flour with eggs, salt water,
and palm oil; mold into balls and fry in palm
oil. (Coredo)

EMPANADA DE MAIZ CON AJIACO: Corn tortilla
stuffed with rice, meat and potatoes. (Antioquia)

EMPANADA DE MASA
Tamale


480 g
120 g
240 g
30 g
28 g


dough
mashed plantain
meat, cooked
lard
egg


50 g tomato
50 g onion
3 g salt
Pepper, hot pepper,
and vinegar


Eggs
Onion
Lard or oil


_









Grind the meat, adding tomato, onion, and
spices; saute. Mix the dough with the mashed
plantain, egg, and salt. Flatten out the dough to
envelop portions of the meat. Fry or bake. (El
Real)


EMPANADA DE TUNA (153)
Tuna Tamale


454 g flour
15 g baking powder
10 g salt


A-34


284 g canned tuna
113 ml water
25 g lard


ENSALADA
Salad

Cut up and mix lettuce, avocado, potato, peas,
beets, cabbage, and "taque" (this could refer to
the fruit of the Caryodendron). (Santander)


ENSALADA DE AGUACATE
Avocado Salad


(1) 6 avocado
120 g celery


1 small diced onion
60 ml French dressing


Using the dough for the tamale, wrap the
other ingredients in the center. Fry in hot oil.


EMPANADILLAS: Thin tortillas filled with sweets
or preserves. (Narino)


ENCURTIDO PARA SAZONAR COMIDAS
Pickled Hot Sauce


Vinegar
Garlic
Large hot pepper


Small hot pepper
Pimento
Onions


Mince the garlic, pimento, peppers, etc.,
into the vinegar; boil, and keep in a covered jar
to use for seasoning foods. (Unguia)


ENLUSTRADO: A type of sugar-coated biscuit.
(Costa Rica)


ENMANTECADO (417)
Clove Toast


1000 g
120 g
10 g


flour
molasses
cloves


56 g egg
85 g lard
454 ml water


Make a dough with wheat flour, brown sugar,
and syrup; boil with cloves. Add eggs and lard.
Bake small pieces in pots with coals over and
under them. Note: Not to be confused with the
Mexican enmantecado (amantecado), an ice prepared
with milk, water, and sugar.


ENROLLADO DE PINA
Pineapple Turnover


fresh pineapple
sugar
brown sugar
granulated sugar
margarine
powdered sugar


240
45
7
4
4


g strained flour
ml cool water
g baking powder
g salt
eggs


Cook fresh pineapple with the sugar. Grease
a mold and sprinkle with sugar. Strain the flour,
salt, and baking powder. Beat the whites of the
eggs, creating a moist meringue; then beat the
yolks until they thicken, adding granulated sugar
and water little by little. Combine the other dry
ingredients with the beaten eggs, alternating
between whites and yellows. To the tins, with
margarine and sugar, add the pineapple, and cover
with dough. Bake until brown (ca 20 min at 350 F)
(El Real)


Quarter one avocado; mash up others with
the above ingredients as a stuffing for the
quartered avocado. Embellish with parsley or
cooked shrimp. (El Real)


(2) 1 large avocado
15 g olive oil
5 g chopped onion


5 g vinegar
Salt and pepper


Peel and dice avocado and toss with the
remaining ingredients. (El Real)

(3) Mix ripe avocado with cumin, diced egg, garlic,
onion, pepper, salt, and vinegar. (Cuti)


ENSALADA DE AHUYAMA
Ahuyama Salad

Boil the ahuyama until tender with a little
salt and dice. Scald diced onion and steep in
vinegar. Add to the diced ahuyama, saving the
vinegar to make a dressing, one part vinegar to
two parts oil, with a little salt and pepper.
(Cartagena)


ENSALADA DE CAMARONES Y AGUACATE
Shrimp and Avocado Salad


480 g
300 g
75 g


shrimp
avocado
tomato catsup


5 g pickle relish
5 g mustard
75 g mayonnaise


Boil, peel, clean, and halve the shrimp.
When cool, add to diced avocado, and top with the
mixture of sauces. Sometimes the avocado is
halved and stuffed with the shrimp. (Cartagena)


ENSALADA CRIOLLA
Country Salad

Boil potatoes, large onions, and eggs, slice
and add to sliced tomato and lettuce. Mash the
egg yolks with oil, adding a dash of salt, vinegar,
and hot pepper. Make a dressing of vinegar and oil
oil (1:2) and steep the salad. Finally add the
egg yolk dressing, stirring to mix. (Cartagena)


ENSALADA DE GALLINA
Chicken Salad


1
240
720
1
1
60


chicken
g celery
g potato
large can peas
large can carrots
g diced olives


15
60
240
3
60


g capers
g pickle relish
g mayonnaise
apples
g French
dressing


240
80
120
240
30
120










Stew the chicken in a little water with salt.
Cool and dice. Follow same with the potatoes and
carrots. Wash and dice the celery and apples.
Mix together seasoning with the French dressing
and half the mayonnaise. Arrange in portions over
leaves of lettuce with mayonnaise. Adorn with the
peas and parsley. (El Real)


A-35


ENSALADA DE ZANAHORIAS Y REMOLACHA (155)
Beet and Carrot Salad


454 g carrot
454 g beet
5 g salt
57 ml cooking oil


10 ml vinegar
85 g mayonnaise
Pepper


Dice the boiled vegetables and mix in with
the other ingredients.


ENSALADA DE LEGUMBRES
Vegetable Salad


Dice and mix carrots, string beans, beets,
cabbage, tomato, onion, egg, oil, and salt; add
dash of lemon. (Cuti)


ENSALADA DE LENTEJAS
Lentil Salad

Stew 240 g lentils in salt water. When ten-
der, place them in a strainer and wash by passing
hot water over them. Soak diced onions in vinegar
for 2 hours to remove some of the odor. Make
dressing with 15 g vinegar and 30 g oil with a
little salt. Mix everything together.


ENSALADA DE PALMITO
Palm Heart Salad

Dice the cabbage of the palmito amargo and
cook with lime to remove the bitterness. (Bolivar)


ENSALADA DE PAPAS (154)
Potato Salad


907 g potato
170 g mayonnaise
15 ml vinegar


20 ml cooking oil
Salt
Pepper


Boil and dice the potatoes, then mix with the
other ingredients.


ENSALADA DE PAPAS CALIENTE
Hot Potato Salad


6 medium potatoes
6 slices bacon
1/2 onion, diced
6 sliced, skinless
sausages


90 ml vinegar
2 hard-boiled eggs
Salt
Pepper


Fry the bacon, and saute the onion and sausage
in the bacon grease. Mix everything and add the
diced eggs, potatoes, vinegar, and salt. (El Real)


ENSALADA DE RABANO
Radish Salad

2 bunches radishes
1 head lettuce
15 g vinegar


ENSALADA DE ZAPALLO (156)
Ahuyama Salad


680 g ahuyama
1500 ml water
35 g salt
142 g mayonnaise


5 g pepper
15 ml vinegar
28 ml cooking oil


Boil the peeled ahuyama in salt water until
tender; cool and dice and season; mix in the
mayonnaise.


ENSALADA VERDE: Garden salad.


ENTREMES DE PEJIBAYE: See Boca de Pixbae


ENVUELTO

Strain ground corn through a "zuzunga" to
remove the.indigestible chaff after grinding in a
"piedra moledera". Mold a kind of tamale from the
dough, finely ground and lightly fermented. Wrap
tightly and tie in a bijao leaf with thongs of
palm. Bake in the coals or boil. These may be
preserved for months by smoking over the hearth.
True tamales, perhaps an introduction, are some-
times made with a meat, fish, or chile sauce
filler. This is the most common corn food of the
Pacific lowlands. (West, 1957)


ENVUELTOS DE ANEJO

Prepare corn, aged for 1 or 2 weeks; grind,
strain, amass, and cook in wrapped leaves. (Huila)


ENVUELTOS DE ARROZ

Macerate and boil steeped rice in coconut
juice with salt until homogeneous. Roll the dough
into balls and wrap in leaves and boil. (Coredo)


ENVUELTOS DE CHOCOLO


30 g French dressing
960 g water


Soak cleaned radishes and selected lettuce
briefly in a weak vinegar solution. Strain,
arrange, and adorn with French dressing. (El Real)


(1) Make dough with ground corn and agua de panela,
butter, and salt. Wrap in leaves and cook.
(Huila)


(2) Mix the dough from peeled tender corn with
sugar and butter. Steam in wrapped husks.
cornballs may be stuffed with cheese or
sausage. (Narino)

ENVUELTOS DE MAIZ MOTE


Mix peeled corn with new growth of arracacha
(crece de arracacha) and cheese. (Narino)


The









A-36
ENVUELTOS DE MOTE

Peel the corn grains and soak for 3 or 4 days;
grind, drain, and amass; add butter, diced onion,
and spices. Wrap in leaves and heat. (Huila)


ENVUELTOS DE PLATANO

Wrap macerated ripe plantain in bijao and
roast over the coals. (West, 1957)


ENVUELTOS DE YUCA

Wrap cassava flour, cinnamon, cheese, and
panela in Cania leaves and cook. (Narino)


ENYUCADO
Cassava Candy


(1) 480 g grated cassava
240 g grated coconut
240 g sugar


5 g anise
60 g margarine
120 g cheese


Mix the ingredients and place in a greased
and floured pan. Annoint the dough with lard,
butter, margarine and bake at 375 F. Let mold
cool for 5 minutes. Take out and cut in the
desired shapes and sizes. (El Real)

(2) Mix together grated cassava, sugar, and grated
coconut. Place in a narrow container and bake
from both sides. (Coredo)


ESCABECHE: Pickled fish.


ESQUITE: Popcorn. (Central America)


ESTIRADO: A type of fudge made from brown sugar.
(Colombia)


ESTOFADO: Stewed meat.


FIDEOS (421)
Noodles

1000 g noodles
6000 ml water


25 g salt


FIFI: Roast plantain. (Choco)


FILOTE: Tender ears of corn. (Choco)


FLAN
Custard


(1) 168 g egg
135 g sugar
720 ml milk


2 g salt
3 g vanilla


Make caramel by burning 240 g sugar moistened
with 30 ml water. Beat the eggs and add the
rest of the ingredients and strain. Coat the
bottom and sides of the molds with the mixture
and place in a double boiler in a moderate
oven for about 1 hour. (El Real)

(2) Commonly made from pineapple, milk, coconut,
and orange. (Rodriguez de Montes, 1964)
(Antioquia)

FORORO: Cornmeal gruel sweetened with panela.
(Venezuela)


FRANGOLLO

(1) Wheat cooked in meat. (Peru, Chile)
(2) An alga simmered in milk. (Chile)
(3) A candy made from plantain flour. (West
Indies)


FRESCO: Beverage made from barley, pineapple,
orange, lime, or carrot. (Rodriguez de Montes,
1964) (Antioquia) (Normally applies to any
cold iced drink or bottled soda pop.)


FRIJOLES (412)


FIAMBRE
Pork Salad


(1) 960
120
120
240
15
112


pork
bread crumbs
cream
milk
butter
beaten egg


15 g capers
Olives and/or raisins,
optional
Tomatoes, onion, garlic,
and hot pepper for
saute


Fry the pork in its own grease with tomato,
onion, garlic, hot pepper, and salt. Then
grind. Grind and mix with the other ingredi-
ents, and bake in greased muffin tins. Eat
cold. (Cartagena)

(2) Salad of pork, lettuce, avocado, and chile
peppers. (Mexico)

(3) Cold cuts of various meats, eaten the evening
before All-Saint's Day. (Guatemala)


125 g beans
5 g cabbage
30 g lard

(La Nueva)


FRIJOLES CON PLATANO
Beans with Plantain

46 g beans
39 g peeled plantain

(Colombia)



FRIJOLES CON PUERCO (157)
Pork and Beans


60 g onion
30 g salt


500 cc water


Heat and serve.









A-37


FRIJOLES GUISADOS (158)
Stewed Beans


545 g beans
3 R water
20 g salt


85 ml cooking oil
4 g garlic
113 g sweet pepper


Boil the beans for 1-1/2 hours. Braise the
diced spices in hot oil; add to the beans and boil
another 1/2 hour.


FRITAS: Made from young corn, flour, plantain, or
potatoes coated with egg batter. (Santander)


FRITANGA: Fried Pork. (Colombia)


FRITAS DE BANANO VERDE
Mampara (Choco)

Grate ripe bananas and add salt or sweeten-
ing. Make patties and fry in hot lard (manpi).
(Salaqui)


FRITURA DE MAIZ NUEVO
Corn Fritters


Mix and strain the flour, baking powder, salt,
and sugar. Add eggs, vanilla, and butter, mixing
well. Roll out the dough on a table to 3 mm thick,
sprinkling with flour. Bake in greased tins at a
moderate temperature (375 F) 12 to 15 minutes.
(El Real)


GALLETAS DE SODA (181)(Soda Crackers): Darien
imports soda crackers from Panama while San Blas
imports them from Colombia.


GALLETAS DE VINAGRE


720 g
45 g
28 g
5 g


flour
vinegar
egg
nutmeg


240 g sugar
180 g butter
2 g bicarbonate


Beat the butter adding the sugar little by
little. Add the egg and the vinegar, beating
vigorously. Add the flour with the bicarbonate
and nutmeg. Place on a baking tin. Bake for
10 minutes at 350 F. (El Real)


GALLINA GUISADA (182)
Stewed Chicken


30 g sugar
3 g vanilla extract
1 g salt


Mix well in a blender and fry by the spoonful
in hot oil over a moderate fire until brown. (El
Real)


FRITURA DE ZAPALLO
Squash Fritter


480 g mashed boiled
ahuy ama
120 g flour
5 g salt


56 g eggs
1 g cinnamon powder
30 g sugar


Beat the eggs well and add to the zapallo;
mix spices in. Fry small portions in hot oil.


FRUTA DE PAN FRITA (159)
Fried Breadfruit


990 g breadfruit


142 ml cooking oil


Fry thin slices of breadfruit in hot oil.


FUFU: A dough made from well-mashed fruits or
roots such as plantain or yam. (Colombia)


GACHA: Flour, boiled in salt water, and dressed
with honey, milk, and other spices. (Colombia)


GALLETAS (GALLETITAS) DE AZUCAR
Sugar Cookies


720 g strained flour
5 g baking powder
1 g salt
300 g sugar


240 g lard or butter
3 eggs
7 g vanilla extract


454 g chicken
709 ml water
30 g salt
85 ml catsup


85 ml vinegar
142 g onion
4 g garlic
113 g sweet pepper


Season the diced chicken with diced spices
for 1/2 hour, then saute, add water and catsup,
and simmer until thick.


GAMUZA: Chocolate with cornmeal and sugar or
chocolate and flour with beef liver. (Colombia)


GARAPINA: Beverage made from pineapple rind.
(Puerto Rico)


GASEOSA: Bottled soda pop. (Colombia)


GAZPACHO ANDALUZ: An old Spanish soup, taken cold
during the hot summer months, and loaded with
garlic, which is supposed to alleviate the per-
son suffering from the heat (Perez-Arbelaez,
1956).


GELATINA (160)
Gelatin


113 g powdered
gelatin


454 ml water


Dissolve the gelatin in boiling water and put
in a cold place to coagulate.


GENOVAS: A sausage prepared from ground spiced
meat in pig tripe. It is eaten raw after
8 days. (Santander)


480 g ground new corn
28 g egg
14 g egg yolk


~I '









GLORIADO: Hot toddy made of rum, sugar, and hot
water. (Costa Rica)


GOFIO: Toasted cornmeal used to make porridge.
(Ecuador)


GOLLERIAS (GOLLORIA)
Plantain Candy

(1)(161) 990 g dried
green plantain


Thin slice green plantains and sun-dry for
several days. Then boil in molasses to candy.

(2) Fry thin rounds of plantain in lard or oil,
removing any excess grease. Coat with hot
honey spiced with cinnamon and cloves.


GUACAMOLE: Spicy Mexican avocado spread, believed
by some to augment the production of semen,
served occasionally in Panama and Colombia.


GUACHASCA: Vegetable soup, often with corn,
cabbage, sweet potatoes, and ahuyama. (Chile)


GUACHASUA: A soup of sweet potatoes with algae.
(Chile)


GUACHO DE ARROZ CON ALMEJAS (162)
Clam and Rice Chowder

454 g clams (Donax) 4 g garlic
907 g rice 142 ml annatto
3 P water 113 ml cooking oil
113 g onion

Cook the rice with the salt and oil. Fry the
clams lightly in hot oil with the spices, and then
add to the rice soup.


GUACHO DE ARROZ CON CHICHARRONES (163)
Porkskin Chowder


454 g rice
227 g pork skin
2 R water


20 g salt
113 g cooking oil


Boil the rice; add the fried pork skins; cook
for 30 minutes.


GUACHO DE ARROZ CON COCO Y PESCADO (183)
Fish-Rice Soup


454 g rice
907 ml coconut milk


312 g smoked fish


A-38


Boil the rice for 30 minutes in the coconut
oil and then add pieces of fish.

(2) (165,172)


454 g rice
227 g smoked fish


1 Z water


Boil the rice, adding pieces of smoked fish,
until tender (ca 35 minutes).


170 ml molasses


GUACHO DE COCALECA (166)
Bivalve Chowder


454 g rice
113 g dried bivalve
85 ml cooking oil
454 ml water
227 ml coconut milk


113 g onion
4 g garlic
113 ml annatto
20 g salt


Sun-dry the meat for 4 days, then soak over-
night. Boil for 1/2 hour and add sauted spices,
rice, coconut milk, and more water if necessary.
Cook until tender.


GUACHO DE GUINEO VERDE Y PESCADO AHUMADO (167)
Smoked Fish Chowder


2175 g green banana
907 g smoked fish


5 i water


Boil the green bananas until tender. Add
fish and boil another 1/2 hour, beating
occasionally.


GUACHO DE GUINEO VERDE Y TORTUGA (168)
Turtle Chowder


2175 g green banana
907 g turtle meat


5 k water


Boil the green bananas until tender and add
parboiled turtle meat; cook another 1/2 hour, mix-
ing occasionally.


GUACHO DE MANSITA (169)
Clam Chowder


454 g rice
454 ml water
227 ml coconut milk
25 g salt
227 g mansita
(mollusk)


57 g annatto
113 g onion
4 g garlic
Pepper to taste


Cook the rice with salt and let dry. Fry the
mollusk lightly with the spices. Mix with coconut
milk and boil for about 10 minutes more.


Cook the rice in the coconut milk with small
pieces of fish until tender.


GUACHO DE ARROZ CON PESCADO AHUMADO
Fish Chowder


(1)(164) 454 g rice
227 g smoked fish


907 ml coconut milk


GUACHO DE OSTION (170)
Oyster Chowder

907 g rice
907 ml water
454 ml coconut milk
170 g oyster
30 g salt


85 g hot pepper
113 g onion
85 g tomato
57 ml catsup
113 ml cooking oil









A-39
Wash the rice well and cook with salt and oil.
Clean the oysters and boil until tender. Saute
the spices and add part to the rice and oysters,
then add the coconut milk; cook for a few more
minutes; then add the remainder of the spices.


GUACHO DE PESCADO (171)
Fish Chowder


907 g rice
327 g cooked beans
907 ml water
227 ml coconut milk
30 g salt


142 g onion
4 g garlic
142 g sweet pepper
113 ml catsup
454 g fish


GUARAPO
Cider

(1) Expressed sugarcane juice, sometimes freshened
with lemon juice; may be drunk straight or
allowed to ferment. (Wassen, 1935).

(2) Made of rice, corn, pineapple peel, or "arroz
de Cristo", i.e., the rice sticking to the
cane presses. (Rodriguez de Montes, 1964).

(3) Made from the Arracacha. (Huila)

(4) Fermented drink prepared from pineapple rinds,
cane juice, grape peels, or palm sap.


Cook rice with oil and salt until water evap-
orates; add cooked beans and coconut milk. In
separate pan, saute and simmer fish and spices
with a little water. Serve the fish and spices
over the rice and beans.


GUACHO DE SARDINAS (173)
Sardine Chowder


454 g rice
680 ml water
227 ml coconut milk
142 g cooked beans


133 g sardines
85 ml catsup
30 g salt
142 g onion


Cook rice with oil and salt until nearly dry;
add cooked beans. Add the sardines to the sauted
spices, place over the rice, and serve.


GUACHUCHO: An alcoholic beverage, usually made
from potatoes. (Chile)

GUAGUBTUE
Cuna Yam

Boil and peel yam; add oregano, culantro, hot
pepper, cumin, salt, and frequently cassava and
plantain. (Arquia)


GUANABANA (174) (Soursop): Fruit eaten or made
into beverages and jellies.


GUANDOLO (See Guarapo) (Santander)


GUANDOY: Guarapo. (Colombia)


GUANDUES GUISADOS (175)
Stewed Pigeon Peas


454 g pigeon peas
907 ml water
20 g salt


113 g onion
4 g garlic
57 ml cooking oil


Boil peas for 50 minutes. Saute the other
ingredients and add to the peas; cook for
30 minutes more.


GUANIME: Cornmeal tamale. (Puerto Rico)


GUARAPILLO: A tea made from Smilax roots, used to
treat syphilis. (Honduras)


GUARAPO DE MAIZ
Fermented Corn Drink


New corn
Brown sugar or
sugar


Water


Allow to ferment to a high alcoholic content.
Prepared only for festive occasions. (Salaqui)


GUARU (GUARRU)

(1) Rice is cooked in plain water, adding cloves,
nutmeg, and brown sugar. (Coredo)

(2) Drink made from corn and water with sugar or
panel added. Sometimes it is made with rice.
At other times, juices or essences are added.
(Huila)


GUASPARRIA: See Aguardiente


GUATA: See Guateyuca


GUATAFE: Dish made from plantain and cassava with
fish heads. (Bolivar)


GUATE
Corn Drink


Sweet corn


Sugar


Cut corn from the cob and boil with plenty of
water; add sugar. Should be thin and clear in
color. Ferment for several days. After 2 days'
fermentation, it is called "guate chicha". (Unguia)


GUATEYUCA: Thick soup of diced cassava with
omelet. (Antioquia)


GUAVA (176) (Ice-cream Bean): The sweet pulp
around the seeds is eaten out of the hand,
especially toward the end of the dry season and
the beginning of the rainy season.











GUEDAR MASI-NUTACALET
Cuna Peccary Stew

Stew the peccary using large quantities of
plantain, yam, taro, cassava, sweet potatoes,
oregano, culantro, salt, and achiote. (Arquia)


GUINAPO: Malt beverage prepared from germinating
corn, dried, sun-cured, and ground. (Peru)


GUINEO MADURO (179) (Ripe Banana): Bananas,
weighing about 56.7 g each, are frequently eaten
as desserts and between meals.


GUINEO MADUROS ASADOS (180)
Roast Ripe Bananas

Roast the ripe banana over the hearth for a
few minutes.


GUINEOS VERDES ASADOS (177)
Roasted Green Bananas

Peel bananas and roast over the hearth.


GUINEOS VERDES HERVIDO (178)
Boiled Green Banana


907 g green banana


5 9 water


Boil and peel green bananas without salt for
45 minutes.


GUIRILA: Milk corn tortilla. (Honduras)


GUISADITO: A stew made with soup bones, ground
lung, cornballs, and spices. (Cartagena)


GUISO DE CARE
Beef Stew


480 g lean meat
Salt and Pepper
10 g tomato sauce


1 g garlic
1 small onion


A-40


Steep the quartered animal in lemon, pepper,
onion, garlic, tomato, salt, and pepper for about
4 hours. Then dip the portions in a flour-egg
batter and brown. When brown, add the spices and
the cup of brandy and cook slowly until the meat
is tender.


GUISO DE GALLINA
Stewed Hen

Stew the sectioned hen with alinos, cabbage,
culantro, cumin, oregano, greens, salt, and toma-
toes. Add diced carrots and sweet potatoes.
Finally add annatto and a dash of lime. (Cuti)


GUISO DE TORTUGA
Turtle Stew


480 g turtle
56 g onion
28 g green pepper
28 g lemon or lime


2 g garlic
240 ml coconut milk
Salt and pepper to
taste


Clean and portion the neck and legs of the
turtle and steep in lemon, garlic, onion, green
pepper, salt, and pepper for a few hours. Fry the
turtle lightly and then add the marinating ingre-
dients and the coconut milk. Cook until the meat
is tender.


GUISO DE YUCA CON PLATANO
Cassava and Plantain Stew


120
120
120
120
960
960
10
120


salt pork
fresh pork
salted beef
fresh beef
cassava
plantain
catsup
onion


240 g tomato
4 g garlic
24 g hot pepper
2 g culantro
5 ml vinegar
Salt and pepper to
taste


Remove most of the salt from the salted meats
and place in 1/2 k cold water. After 45 minutes
add all the spices except the culantro and cook
over moderate heat until the meat is tender. Peel
and dice the vegetables and cook them until they
are tender, remove from the stew, mash slightly,
and return to the stew, adding the culantro.


Brown beef and add seasonings until it forms
its own juice. Add two cups of water and continue
cooking. If meat is not tender by the time water
is consumed, add more water. Season with salt and
pepper. (El Real)


GUISO DE CONEJO PINTADO
Stewed Paca


paca
lemon
green pepper
egg
flour
onion


56 g tomato
5 g garlic
240 ml brandy (cognac
or wine)
Salt and pepper to
taste


HABAS GUISADAS (184)
Stewed Limas

369 g lima beans
25 g salt
113 g onion


907 ml water
4 g garlic


Boil the limas for 30 minutes. Add garlic
and onion and boil for 30 minutes more.


HACU: Pinole. (Peru)


HAMCHI: Toasted barley. (Chile)


960 g
28 g
28 g
28 g
28 g
56 g









A-41
HAYACAS
Tamales

30 cornmeal balls 25 g salt
1440 g pork 2 large onions
60 ml vinegar 2 large tomatoes
5 g sugar Pepper
2 bottles milk Panela
30 g catsup Raisins
6 hardboiled eggs Capers

Dissolve the cornmeal balls in the two
bottles of milk, strain, and add the vinegar, salt,
and sugar. Dice the pork and place in a frying
pan to simmer with salt, pepper, onion, catsup,
and brown sugar. On a plantain leaf, place
30 g of dough, flatten, and in the center place
15 g of the pork stew with a little sauce, a slice
of boiled egg, 5 raisins, and 3 capers. Cover
with 15 g dough, and wrap and tie the tamale.
Boil for 1/2 hour. (Cartagena)


HERVIDO: A beverage made from aguardiente, boiled
water, lime, and sugar, mixed and boiled for a
few minutes. Serve hot. (Narino)


HICOTEA GUISADO


Turtle is first simmered in onion, garlic,
hot pepper, tomatoes, and cumin until tender, and
finally topped with coconut milk, salt, and pepper.
(Cartagena)


HIGADELE: A dish prepared from beef liver and
green and ripe plantain. (Bolivar)

HIGADO DE RES FRITO (185)

454 g liver 113 g onion
10 g salt Pepper to taste

Season the liver with salt and diced onion
for 1/2 hour. Fry in hot oil.


HIGADO A LA ITALIAN


480 g beef liver
60 g margarine
15 g flour
30 g white wine


120 g water or broth
5 g garlic
15 ml lime juice
60 g diced mush-
rooms (canned)


Slice liver thick; season with salt and
pepper. Brown on both sides in margarine and
remove from frying pan. Add flour, wine, and
broth to frying pan; add parsley and garlic and
simmer a few minutes. Add mushrooms, lime juice,
and the remainder of margarine. Pour the resul-
tant sauce on hot liver. (Don't let liver get
cold as it gets hard.) (El Real)


HOGADO

Grind toasted peanuts into a meal; moisten
and fry with onion, annatto, and lard. Hogados
may also be made with cucurbits (pepeas de
calabazo). (Narino)


HOJALDAS: See IHojaldres, I-ojuelas


IIOJALDRES (HOJALDAS)

(1)(186) 454 g flour
227 ml water
Cooking oil


10 g salt
15 g baking powder


Sift the flour and make a hole in the cen-
ter of pile; place other ingredients. Mix and
mass and roll out as thin as possible; fry in
hot oil.

(2) A spongy bread, shaped like half an orange,
made with flour, egg, lard and sugar. (Cuba)


HOJUELA (413)


1000 g wheat flour
56 g beaten egg


25 g salt
454 ml water


Mix the dough and roll out in a thin mass on
flat surface; fry in lard or vegetable oil. (Cuti)


HONGOS: Envueltos de anejo without stuffing.
(Narino)


HORCHATA

(1) An emulsion, commonly made with seeds of
Cucurb'itaceae or almonds.

(2) Sesame Drink


Sesame
Sugar


Vanilla extract


Grind the sesame; mix with water and stir
well. Strain mixture; add sugar and vanilla.
(Unguia)


HORCHATA DE ARROZ DE CASTILLA: A beverage is made
by grinding and straining rice. Also made from
barley, oats, beets, and various fruits.
(Antioquia)


HORCHATA DE COCO
Coconut Milk


3 R coconut milk
1 k cow's milk


Sugar to taste


Extract, strain, and cool the coconut milk
from the ripe coconut and mix with cow's milk and
sugar to taste.


HUACHO CON PESCADO (436)
Fish-Rice Soup


227 g fish
454 g rice
113 g onion
4 g cumin


57 g annatto
227 ml palm oil
25 g salt and spices
454 g water


Cook rice in spring water and coconut juice
until soft; add annatto, onion, pimienta, poleo,








A-42


salt, and fish. Oysters and/or lobsters may be
substituted for fish. (Curiche)


HUACHO DE ARROZ


Cinnamon
Cloves
Milk


Rice
Sugar


Prepare rice as in arroz con dulce but with
less water so that the mixture becomes viscous.
Use sugar or panela. (Cuti)


HUEVAS DE SABALO: Tarpon eggs are mashed and
mixed with salt, pepper, hot sauce, onion, toma-
to, butter, and cornmeal dough, wrapped in corn
husks, and boiled for about 1 hour. They are
also eaten fried and made into bunuelos.
(Cartagena)


HUEVIVEN


Cinnamon
Clove
Eggs


Nutmeg
Rice
Sugar


Grind the rice into a flour; mix with egg,
cinnamon, ground cloves, nutmeg, and sugar. Put
in a metallic container and roast, putting hot
coals above and below. (Cuti)


HUEVOS A LA CABALLA: Sunny-side eggs on a steak.
(Antioquia)


HUEVOS BATIDOS: Scrambled eggs. (Colombia)


HUEVOS CHIMBOS: Beaten egg yolks, baked in the
oven and soaked in syrup.


HUEVOS COCIDOS: Medium boiled eggs.


HUEVOS DUROS: Hard boiled eggs. (Colombia)


HUEVOS EN CALDO: Eggs more or less poached in a
simmering ranchero sauce of saut6d onion, garlic,
tomato, chives, hot pepper, and finally sprin-
kled with a few drops of lime juice.


HUEVOS CON PURE DE PAPAS
Eggs in Mashed Potatoes

Spread out mashed potatoes in a shallow-
bottomed Pyrex dish and make holes in the surface,
each to accommodate an egg. Break an egg into
each hole, cover with catsup and sprinkle with
cheese. Bake in the oven until done. (Cartagena)


HUEVOS COPETONES
Cheese-Egg Toast

Soften salted bread in milk, coat with butter,
and place in the frying pan. Place some raw eggs


on top and cover with grated cheese and place in
the oven briefly. Ham may be added. (Cartagena)


HUEVOS EN TORTA: Fried eggs. (Narino)


HUEVOS ESCALFADO: Poached eggs.


HUEVOS PASAOS: Soft-boiled eggs. (Narino)


HUEVOS PERICOS: Scrambled eggs. (Antioquia)


HUEVOS PERDIDOS: Scrambled eggs. (Narino)


HUEVOS RELLENOS: Stuffed eggs. (Cartagena)


HUEVOS REVUELTOS: Scrambled egg. (Panama)


HUEVOS RUSOS: Eggs stuffed with mustard, capers,
butter, pepper, vinegar, and salt, annointed
with uncooked egg and then fried and served in
nests of lettuce leaves. (Cartagena)


HUEVOS TIBIOS: Soft-boiled eggs. (Panama)


HUEVOS DE GALLINA FRITOS (188)


Eggs
Cooking oil


Salt to taste


Fry chicken eggs in hot oil; add salt to
taste.


HUEVOS DE GALLINA HERVIDOS (189)
Boiled Eggs


Eggs
Salt to taste


Water


Boil the eggs for 2 to 3 minutes; add salt
when ready to serve.


HUEVOS DE IGUANA AHUMADOS (187)
Smoked Iguana Eggs

Boil the eggs for a few minutes; then smoke
in shell over hearth.


HUEVOS DE TORTUGA AHUMADOS
Smoked Turtle Eggs

(1) (190) Boil the eggs about 7 minutes; smoke
over the hearth.

(2) Turtle eggs (huevos de hicotea) are prepared
in omelets, sometimes mixed with chicken eggs.
(Bolivar)


HUMITA: Tamale









A-43


ICHACUAGUATOME
Cuna Meat Stew

In copious water, boil bananas; add meat,
lard, salt, annatto, hot pepper, and cumin.
(Arquia)


Boil the leaves for a few minutes and serve
with sugar to taste.


INFUSION DE HOJAS DE AGUACATE (194)
Avocado Leaf Tea


IGUANA ADOBADA
Stewed Iguana


960 g iguana
240 g tomato
120 g onion
120 g green pepper


20 g annatto oil
2 g garlic
Salt and pepper to
taste


Boil the cleaned iguana in salt water until
the meat is tender but not pithy. Then skin,
portion, and simmer in water with the other ingre-
dients until the water almost cooks away.


IGUANA CON COCO
Iguana with Coconut


1 iguana
240 g coconut milk
Tomato sauce
1 recado verde
(bouquet garni)


1 onion, chopped
Salt and vinegar to
taste


Thoroughly wash iguana; boil until tender.
Add recado verde and other seasonings, then coco-
nut milk. Use this as a sauce. (El Real)


IGUANA GUISADA CON SUS HUEVOS (055)
Stewed Iguana with Eggs

454 g iguana 4 g garlic
113 g iguana egg 113 ml annatto sauce
20 g salt 85 ml cooking oil
142 g onion

Steep portions of the meat in salt and spices
for 1/2 hour. Lightly fry meat in cooking oil;
add water, annatto, and eggs. Simmer until thick.


INFUSION DE CANELA (191)
Cinnamon Tea


454 ml water
2 g cinnamon bark


Sugar to taste


Boil the bark for a few minutes; serve with
sugar.

INFUSION DE CANELA Y CLAVO DE OLOR (192)
Clove-Cinnamon Tea


907 ml water
5 g cinnamon


5 g cloves
Sugar to taste


Boil the spices a few minutes. Serve with
sugar to taste.


INFUSION DE HIERBA DE LIMON (193)
Lemongrass Tea


907 ml water
Leaves of lemon
grass


Sugar to taste


454 ml water
5 tender leaves of
avocado


Sugar to taste


Boil the leaves a few minutes; serve with
sugar to taste.


INFUSION DE HOJAS DE GUANABANA (195)
Soursop Tea


907 ml water
113 ml condensed
milk


113 g sugar
Soursop leaves


Boil the leaves a few minutes, adding milk
and sugar on serving.


INNA
Cuna Sugar-Corn Drink

Express cane juice and boil; withdraw foam
and dredges. Add ground corn and cook. The re-
sultant beverage is ready to drink. Sugar or
brown sugar may be added. White corn is most fre-
quently used; but red, purple, or whole corn may
be used. This is consumed daily. Sugar may be
added. (Arquia)


INNA CUADA
Cuna Chicha

Soak and clarify tender corn grains in a
vessel; cook with water and/or cane juice. Three
kinds of chicha: (1) Inna saiegua chicha
simple corn juice, (2) Inna ochi chicha dulce -
corn juice with sugar, (3) Inna cabil chicha
embriagadora fermented sweetened corn juice.
(Arquia)


INNALOCHIGUA (IMALOCHIGUA)
Cuna Guarapo

Cook ground corn in a mixture of water and
cane juice. When the syrup thickens, add water to
extract the chaff. (Arquia)


INNA SOLE (INNA-DUA)
Cuna Black Chicha

Let boiled black corn and cane juice ferment
2 or 3 days. (Arquia)


INSULSO: Corncake (arepa) with sugar baked in
oven. (Huila)


IXGUA: Cassava or sweet-potato bread. (Mexico)














Cinnamon
Grated coconut


Mix rice and coconut meat; add water,
sugar, cinnamon. Boil until mixture thickens
into jellylike consistency. (Unguia)

(2) Cook rice flour in milk or coconut juice.
Add cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, and sugar.
(Coredo)


JALEA DE MANGO
Mango Jelly

Boil 10 mangoes for 20 minutes and mash
through a sieve. Place the mango pulp, juice from
one lemon, and 2 cups sugar to boil until clear,
stirring regularly.


JAMAICA: Beverage prepared by steeping the
calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa. (Central America)


JAMON FRITO (196)
Fried Ham


113 g ham


oil.


57 ml cooking oil


Fry the imported ham in the imported cooking


JAMONADA FRITA (197)
Fried Spam


170 g canned Spam 57 ml cooking oil

Fry the Spam in the oil.


JAMONADA FRITA EN SALSA DE CEBOLLA (198)
Spam with Onions

160 g Spam 57 ml catsup
113 g onion 10 g salt
57 ml annatto 57 g oil

First fry the onion rings and then the Spam
in the same oil. Add other ingredients and cover
for about 5 minutes' simmering.


JAMONADA GUISADA (199)
Stewed Spam


284 g Spam
28 g lard
198 ml water


57 ml catsup
4 g garlic
113 g onion


Dice the Spam and sautd with the spices in
hot oil. Add water and catsup and boil until
thick.


JAPONES: Beef loin stuffed with pork, lamb or
some other meat, eggs and spices. (Santander)


JARABE

(1) Syrup

120 g sugar


120 ml water


JALEA DE ARROZ
Rice Jelly

(1) Rice
Sugar


(1) 240 g pork
1 g recado rojo
1 g black pepper


1/2 onion
Salt to taste


Dice and saute the pork and blend with
other ingredients. Grind until pastelike.
Raisins may be added to this barbeque. (El
Real)

(2) Mexican dish made with chicken breasts,
giblets, olives, capers, raisins, almonds,
tomato, chiles, garlic, onion, and annatto
sauteed in lard and served with diced hard-
boiled eggs.

(3) A Chilean national dish.


JOCOADA: Mexican dish made from curdled milk or
sour cream.


JOCOATOLE: A porridge made from milk corn, often
with chocolate and coconut added. (Mexico)


JOCOQUE: Mexican sour-cream dish.


JOJOTO: Boiled corn tamale, often with butter,
milk and sugar. (Venezuela)


JOMOTE: Boiled cornmeal without seasoning.
(Bolivia)


JUANESCA

Boil a pot of rice, corn, beans, peas,
potatoes, squash, and ullucos. In another pot,
heat fish and milk. Add the cooked vegetables to
the second pot and stir until thick. Serve in a
deep platter with slices of hard-boiled egg and
plantain. (Narino)


JUGO DE CANA (200)

The expressed juice of sugar cane is drunk
fresh off the press or after boiling or fermenta-
tion.


Do not boil, but mix, heating if necessary,
until sugar has gone into solution. (El Real)

(2) Any warm sweet beverage.
(3) Vegetable juice with sugar.


JAYOCO: Tender corn ball. (Santander) (Jayaca
in Venezuela)


JECHO: Store-bought aguardiente. (Coastal
Colombia)


JIGOTE


A-44









A-45


JUGO DE FRUTA DE LATA (201): Canned fruit juice.


KAOLIQUA: A red soup made from fish and peppers
fed to the water carriers in the Cuna ceremony
for girls reaching puberty (McKim, 1947).


LADRILLO: Cookie.


LANGOSTA A LA CARTAGENERA
Cartagena Lobster


1 medium lobster
2 diced onions
15 g catsup
3 tomatoes
30 g butter


5 g Worcestershire
sauce
30 g bread crumbs
Salt to taste


LECHONA ASADA
Barbequed Pig

Season a roast pig, with or without stuffing,
for 2 days, then put in oven. (Huila)


LENGUA CON VEGETABLES
Tongue with Vegetables


1 cooked tongue
50 g onion
50 g sweet pepper

Saute the onion
and tongue. Add the
thick. (El Real)


360 g mixed vegetables
Spices (recado rojo)
15 g lard or butter

and pepper, add the recado
vegetables and cook until


LENGUA DE RES (447): Beef tongue.


Boil the lobster in salt water. Extract the
meat, saving the shell. Dice the meat and prepare
a sauce with well-ripened tomatoes, onion, and
butter; cook until the tomatoes fall apart. Then
add the lobster meat, stir well, and season with
salt, hot sauce, Worcestershire sauce, and add the
bread crumbs. Stuff the shell with this mixture,
coat with beaten egg and butter and brown lightly
in the oven.


LENGUA EN VINO
Sherried Tongue


1 tongue
1/2 bottle of sherry
2 onions
2 tomatoes
1 sweet pepper


5 g salt
5 g sugar
Nutmeg
Pepper
Parsley, chives


LANGOSTA CON COCO Y CURRY
Curried Lobster


960 g lobster
420 ml coconut milk
120 g butter
15 g flour


2 g garlic
15 g curry powder
1920 g cooked rice
Salt to taste


Brown the garlic and flour in a skillet with
the melted butter and add the coconut milk, salt,
and curry dissolved in a little milk. Simmer
awhile and add the meat. Serve hot with white
rice. (Cartagena)


LECHE DE COCO (202)
Coconut Milk


360 g coconut milk 510 ml water

Grate the meat and squeeze in water to ex-
press the milk. Strain before using.


LECHE DE VACA HERVIDA (204)
Boiled Cow's Milk

Boil the cow's milk a few minutes before
drinking.


LECHE KLIM (203)
Klim

80 g powdered klim 227 ml boiled water

Beat the powdered klim in boiled water until
it dissolves.


Boil the tongue for 10 minutes then clean
well. Place in pressure cooker with a cup of
water; add onions, tomatoes, pepper, parsley,
chive, and salt and cook for 15 minutes; let pres-
sure subside. Place tongue in another pot and add
wine; cook over a slow fire adding sugar; heat
until thick or wine is absorbed. Cool slice and
serve. (Often served with canned asparagus, peas,
and mayonnaise.) (El Real)


LENTEJAS
Lentils


240 g lentils
240 g tomato
120 g onion


2 g garlic
Salt to taste


Soak the lentils for a few hours and then
cook until tender, barely covered with water.
Dice the other ingredients and add in the last few
minutes. (Cartagena)



LENTEJAS GUISADAS (205)
Stewed Lentils


454 g dried lentils
2 k water
15 g salt
57 ml oil


2 g garlic
113 g onion
57 g sweet pepper


Boil the lentils for 45 minutes. Saute the
spices and add to the lentils with salt; cook for
15 to 20 minutes.


LIMON (206) (Lime): Cuna Indians sometimes suck
the juice straight from the lime.


_~~ _r ____ __









MABI: A bark beer. (Puerto Rico)


LIMONADA (208)
Limeade


113 g sugar
4 limes


2 f water


Squeeze out the juice in the sugar water and
stir. Molasses may be substituted for sugar in
the recipe.


LIMON CON SAL (207) (Salted Lime): Cuna Indians
sometimes eat lime with salt.


LLICTA (LLIPTA)

(1) A paste composed of calcified quinoa
(Chenopodium) with potatoes, cactus ? (Cardon),
Cassia, or tender corn used like a chewing
gum.

(2) Baked flour and potato cake. (Peru)


LLOCO

(1) Dry sliced ahuyama. (Chile)
(2) Pork skin. (Chile)


LOCRO: Soup with cornmeal, meat, spices, etc.


LOGRO (LOCRO): Potato soup. (Colombia)


LOMO


960 g shoulder loin
30 g salt
1 large garlic


60 g tomato paste
3 g sugar
30 g lard or grease


Brown the meat with hot grease in a covered
pot. Saute with tomato sauce, garlic, sugar, and
pepper. As it browns, baste the loin. Cover and
cook slowly 40 to 50 minutes. When tender, slice.
(El Real)


LOMO DE PUERCO CHIRICANO
Chiriqui Pork Loin


1840 g filet of pork
Water
Lemon juice
Garlic


Onions
Pimentos
Salt
Rum


Cut fat off meat. Soak meat for 3 hours in
salt water and lemon juice. Then impregnate with
garlic; pour lemon juice over it and cover with
slices of onion. Let stand for 10 minutes with
pimentos and chopped garlic. Add one or more
spoonsful of dry Chiriqui rum to the juices. Cook
in a slow over for 2 to 2-1/2 hours (Larsen and
Larsen, 1964).


LONGANIZA: A kind of long sausage. (Huila)


LULADA: A beverage made with Solanum quitoensis.
(Colombia)


MACARRONADA


240 g noodles
120 g butter
120 g Parmesan
cheese
1 onion


240 ml catsup
252 g egg
1 tomato
Chives and salt


Boil the noodles with salt, chive, onion, and
tomato. Beat the eggs well. Grease a casserole
and make a layer of beaten egg, a layer of cooked
noodles, another layer of catsup, then butter and
cheese, etc., topping it off with a final layer of
eggs and grated cheese. Bake for 40 minutes until
brown. When cool, serve like slices of cake over
lettuce leaves. (El Real)


MACARRONES (209)


907 g macaroni
6 A water


397 g meat sauce
25 g salt


Boil the noodles for 15 minutes; drain and
add the meat sauce.


MACARRONES AL HORNO


240 g noodles
22 g salt


480 g salsa blanca
360 g grated cheese


Boil and strain the noodles. In a greased
casserole, place a layer of noodles, then a layer
of cheese, then a layer of salsa blanca. Make
another three layers, and cover with pieces of
bread or with butter. Bake at 375 F until the
bread is browned and the sauce is making bubbles.
(Note: It is best to prepare the white sauce
while cooking the macaroni so that it can be used
hot.) (El Real)


MACARRONES CON SALSA DE TOMATO (210)


454 g macaroni
3 k water


20 g salt
85 ml catsup


Boil the noodles in salt water for 20 minutes.
Drain and add the catsup.


MACARRONES CON TOCINO


480 g macaroni
30 g grated Parmesan
cheese
120 g bacon
120 g canned tomato


1 onion
1 g garlic
1 branch parsley,
diced
2-3 bay leaves


Boil enough water to handle the macaroni,
introducing the salt and noodles as it boils.
Dice and fry the bacon in its own grease. When
brown, saute the onion, garlic, parsley, and bay
leaves, stirring well; finally, add the tomato and
salt. Add water and cook until the onion is done.
Use this sauce, when it thickens, to coat the
strained noodles, and cover with sliced cheese.
(El Real)


A-46









MACHA: Barley flour.


MACHICA: A sweetened gruel of toasted corn in
Peru, of barley in Ecuador.


MACHITO: Fried chitterlings (Mexico) or a piece
of bread (Guatemala).


MACHORRUCIO: Beverage made from strained cornmeal.
(Colombia)


MACHUCO


(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)


A dish of meat, rice, cassava, and plantain.
(Bolivar)
Cooked green plantain in water with coconut
juice and salt. (Cuti)
A beverage made from diced potatoes and spices.
(Colombia)
An important beverage made from the pulp of
Spanish plums, milk, tomatoes, sugar, etc.
(Antioquia)


A-47
MADUN SOLE
Cuna Cornballs

Macerate black corn in water and let stand
2 days. Change water and let stand for 2 days
more. Regrind the mass, wrap in leaves, and boil
in water. (Arquia)


MADUN TIVIALET
Cuna Cassava

Grate cassava roots with salt and fry in lard
to make small breadstuffs. (Arquia)


MAEJUANA (MAJUANA): A bean or pea soup, made by
boiling the legume until tender, then adding
peeled plantain, and replacing the water with
coconut milk, with a little salt and sugar, to
cook briefly. (Cartagena)


MAICENA: Cornstarch (Unguia); a food prepared
from cornstarch.


MADU-MADUN
Nadu Sile (Cuna) (422)


3260 g plantain 630 g ground corn
primitiveo) 8 k water

Peel ripe plantain without washing; mash in a
mortar (sualbate) with a pestle (orsal) and mix
with cornmeal until they are nearly homogeneous.
Bake in a leaf. A frequent dish during the corn
harvest. (Arquia)


MADUN
Cuna Roasted Bananas

Remove the coals from the fire leaving only
the ends of the smoldering logs. Fan until they
glow. Stand peeled green bananas on end, leaning
on the ends of the logs, turning every few minutes
until they are baked through (20 minutes).
(Mulatupu)


MADUNPIRPIRE
Cuna Cornbread

Make cornmeal into dough; add water and
coconut juice. Wrap the dough in leaves and bake.
(Arquia)


MADUNSAC
Cuna Plantain Cocoa


Plantain


Cocoa


Boil peeled plantain and add ground cocoa.
Stir to blend. When men go to hunt or farm, this
is taken as the base for a beverage; river water
is added. (Arquia)


MAIZ CAPIO


Toast and grind the corn. Strain and add
panela and spices. This mixture is used to take
on trips. (Elsewhere, maiz capio is more like a
variety, sometimes called maiz japio, and called
maiz6n in Antioquia and Caldas. It is considered
to be a tenderer variety produced in colder
terrain.)


MAIZ ENVUELTO
Wrapped Corn Rolls


Young corn
Eggs
Salt
Sugar


Butter
Cloves
Nutmeg


Cut the corn from the cobs; grind and prepare
into a mass without straining. Add eggs and a
pinch of salt and sugar. Then wrap the balls or
rolls in the green corn husks; tie and cook in
boiling water. The mass may be strained before it
is formed into balls after adding butter, cloves,
and nutmeg. (Unguia)


MAIZ TIERNO ASADO A LA BRASA (211)

Roast husked ears of corn over the hearth.


MAJAJA: See Arepa.


MAJARETE: A dish made of corn or rice flour with
milk and sugar; similar to mazamorra. (West
Indies)


MAJUANA: "Mote de frijoles" with green or yellow
plantain. (Bolivar)


____ __ _L








A-48
MAMA IOGUALET
Cuna Roast Cassava

Roast peeled cassava roots over hot coals and
serve with salt. (Arquia)


MAMA TIVALEDI
Cuna Fried Cassava

Fry pieces of peeled cassava in vegetable
oil. (Arquia)


MAMA TUGUALET
Cuna Boiled Cassava

Boil peeled cassava. (Arquia)


MAMEY (212)
Mamey

The pulp is eaten, straight or in jellies,
especially toward the end of the dry season.


MAMPARA: Choco fried green bananas.


MAMPOSTIAL: Dessert made with coconut and sugar.
(Puerto Rico)


MANA: Chicha de arracacha. (Huila)


MANGO (213)
Mango

Each mango has about 125 g edible pulp.


MANJAR

(1) Food, victuals.
(2) Dish made from the breast of fowl mixed with
sugar, milk, and rice flour.
(3) Manjar de Angeles: Dessert of milk and sugar.
(4) Manjar Divino: A sweet prepared from orange,
milk, and cornstarch. (Bolivar)
(5) Manjar Imperial: A dish made of milk, egg
yolks, and rice flour.


MANJARILLO

Sift wheat flour; add milk and panela.
(Narino)


MANSITA GUISADA (214)


907 g mansita (man-
grove mollusk?)
454 ml water
30 g salt
57 ml annatto


57 ml oil
113 g onion
4 g garlic
Pepper to taste


Boil in hot water to clean and open the
valves. Take out the meat to separate the sand;
saute with the spices; add the annatto and water
and simmer until thick.


MARAPA: Fermented beverage made from Spanish
plums. (Venezuela)


MARIALUISA: Bakery biscuit. (Bolivar)


MARQUESOTA: Cookie made with corn or rice flour,
sugar, and eggs. (Central America)


MASA
Corn Balls

Cornmeal mush is sold in markets for making
tamales filled with cooked chicken or pork, olives,
and prunes, then wrapped in a leaf, tied with a
string, and heated in boiling water. Crumbled
native white cheese may be added to masa to make
corn fritters.


MASA DE ARROZ
Arro Beca Ruda (Choco)

Grind cooked rice, mat into balls, and fry in
hot lard. Pretzel-like figurines may be formed.
(Salaqui)


MASA DE MAIZ
Nebeca (Choco)
Corn dough


Dried corn (maize)
Lard


Salt


Prepare dough in same manner for arepas, add-
ing a little lard and salt. Form into flat cakes
and fry in hot lard. [Sample sent to Battelle for
analysis.] (Salaqui)


MASA FRITA
Hushpuppies

Steep and grind white corn; float off the
chaff to form a dough. Mix with eggs and fry in
little balls. (Cuti)


MASA FRITA DE ARROZ
Fried Rice Balls

Mix rice flour with a little water and salt;
add eggs and oil (pork lard or palm oil). Mold
into small balls and fry. (Coredo)


MASA FRITA DE MAIZ
Fried Corn Balls

Mix flour with salt and a little water. Add
eggs and lard or palm oil. Mold with the hands
and fry. (Wheat flour, cassava starch, may be
used as well as cornmeal.) (Coredo)


MASA FRITA DE CASSAVA

Mix cassava starch with a little salt and
water; add beaten eggs and palm oil. Mold into
small balls and deep fry in palm oil. (Coredo)










A-49


MASATO
Plantain Beer


MAYONESA OSTER
Blended Mayonnaise


(1) A beverage made from boiled diced panela to
which pineapple is added. The beverage is
also called chichaa". Similar chichas are
prepared from carrots, rice, corn, tomato, and
rinon (Venezuelan term for species of Annona).
(Narino)

(2) Rice masato is strengthened with guarapo made
from aguapanela and pineapple rind or roasted
cassava. (Santander)

(3) Another recipe calls for rice, water, sugar,
geranium leaves, and clove or vanilla.

(4) It may be significant that only the Indians
have adopted (or retained?, depending on
whether or not the plantain is indigenous to
America?) plantain beer. Made also of corn or
Castilla rice with corn. (West, 1957) (Huila)

(5) Sweetmeat with meat or coconut meat, flour,
corn, or sugar. (Colombia)

(6) Cassava beer. (Peru)


MASI IOGUILARI
Cuna Stew

Boil meat for a few minutes and then add
cassava, oregano, culantro, hot pepper, cumin,
achiote, and yam (Dioscorea). Cook until the
cassava liquefies. (Arquia)


MASI NUTACALET
Cuna Meat Stew

Boil the meat with plantain and the root vege-
tables (yam, taro, cassava). Later, add tomatoes,
hot pepper, cumin, oregano, culantro, and annatto.
The Cuna name for the animal is used as a prefix
in the name of variants of this stew. (Arquia)


MAS-LOGUALET
Cuna Roast Plantain

Peel the plantain called "masi" and roast
vertically in front of one of the burning logs.
Scrape off the ashes and charred outer portions to
eat. (Arquia)


MATABURRO: Strong rum.
America)


(Colombia, Central


MATECOCO
Coconut Candy


Cinnamon
Cloves
Corn


Coconut milk
Sugar


Boil cornmeal in coconut milk; add the spices
later. (Cuti)


28 g egg
2 g salt
2 g mustard


10 g lime juice
240 g salad oil
2 g pepper


Put all the ingredients except the oil in the
blender. Blend slowly for 20 seconds; speed up
the blender; add oil slowly. Stop the motor
briefly, then blend anew. Place in a clean con-
tainer. Place yolk of an egg in the blender.
Blend slowly for 5 seconds, speeding up and adding
the other mixture. Sometimes 15 g of catsup is
added. Keep in a cool place. (El Real)


MAZAMORRA: Cornmeal gruel with potatoes, onion,
salt, and lard. (Santander)


MAZAMORRA CON LECHE
Corn Mush

Peel maiz morrocho; split and strain the
grains and cook. Add the chuya (the white water
formed in splitting the grains). Add a dash of
bicarbonate. When tender, serve with milk and
grated panela. (Narino)


MAZAMORRA DE ARROZ CON HABAS (215)


454 g rice
2 R water
30 g salt
227 g cooked limas


57 ml annatto
57 ml oil
113 g onion
4 g garlic


Cook the rice with water, oil, and salt until
almost tender; add cooked limas. Saute the spices
to serve on top of the rice and beans.


MAZAMORRA DE ARROZ Y MADURO


Cinnamon
Milk


Plantain
Rice


Wash and cook rice with ripe plantain and
cinnamon. Boil until the plantain disintegrates,
finally adding milk. (Cuti)


MAZAMORRA DE CHOCOLO

Grind tender corn, strain, and boil with
panela, cloves, cheese, milk, butter, and coconut.
(Antioquia)


MAZAMORRA DE GUINEO VERDE Y LECHE DE COCO (216)


907 g sun-dried
green banana
340 ml coconut milk


170 ml water
142 g sugar


Powder the dried banana and boil with the
.other ingredients for 20 minutes.









A-50
MAZAMORRA DE GUINEO VERDE Y PESCADO (217)

995 g green banana 709 g fresh fish
5 k water

Boil thin slices of green banana for
30 minutes; add diced fish and boil for 25 minutes
more.


MAZAMORRA DE GUINEO VERDE CON PUERCO DE MONTE (218)
Banana-Peccary Porridge

995 g green banana 680 g smoked peccary
6 9 water

Boil thin slices of banana for 35 minutes;
add diced smoked peccary to cook until tender.


MAZAMORRA DE HARINA DE PLATANO VERDE (221)
Plantain Porridge

454 g green plantain 680 ml water
chips 85 g panela

Grind the plantain chips into flour and dis-
solve in a little water; add to a pot of boiling
water; cook until thick; add grated panela.


MAZAMORRA DE MAIZ MOLIDO Y PESCADO (219)
Corn-Fish Porridge

907 g dried ground 980 g smoked fish
corn 7 9 water

Dissolve the corn flour in boiling water
until it thickens; add diced smoked fish and cook
a few minutes more.


MAZAMORRA DE MAIZ NUEVO CON NANCE
Corn Gruel with Nance

960 g nance 480 g sugar
960 g cream of fresh 480 g milk
corn

Mash and strain the nances adding enough
water to make 4 cups liquid. Mix this liquid
with cream of corn and cook over low heat, stir-
ring constantly. When it begins to thicken, add
milk and the sugar. Continue stirring until
thickened. (El Real)


MAZAMORRA DE MAIZ SECO Y CARE DE SAINO (220)
Peccary Porridge


Cook grated green plantain in coconut milk
with spices. Add fish. (Coredo)


MAZAMORRA DE PLATANO
Ca (Choco)

(1) Boil green plantain and then macerate in a
blender. Reheat and add milk, cinnamon, and
sugar or brown sugar. (Cuti)
(2) Mix in pieces of plantain with meat (usually
pork previously cooked), annatto, onion, and
salt. Cook until the meat is tender. For
Choco girls the soup is used for a ceremonial
bath, but head or meat of the peccary is
required. (Salaqui)


MAZAMORRA DE PLATANO VERDE Y JUGO DE CANA (222)
Green Plantain Porridge

907 g plantain flour 5 k cane juice

Grate the plantain chips and dry in the sun
for a few days. Boil the flour in cane juice for
15 minutes.


MAZAMORRA DE SAL
Corn Gruel


Corn (chocolo, green
or young corn)
Salt
Onions


Meat (any type)
Potatoes
Dried peas


Grind either green or dry corn removed from
ears; sift. Boil with onions, meat, diced
potatoes, and dried peas (previously softened by
soaking).

MAZATO

(1) Mashed ripe plantain allowed to acidify before
eating. (South America)
(2) Cornmeal carried along on expeditions for the
preparation of instant gruels. (Mexico)


MAZORCA ASADA
Roast Corn on the Cob

Husk the corn and remove the cornsilk; place
ears directly on the fire. (Salaqui)


MAZORCAS DE MAIZ TIERNO HERVIDAS (223)
Corn on the Cob


907 g cornmeal
7 k water


680 g smoked peccary


25 ears tender corn


5 0 water


Husk the corn and boil for 30 minutes.


Boil the peccary portions with cornmeal until
tender, constantly stirring.


MAZAMORRA DE PESCADO
Fish Porridge


Fish
Plantain
Coconut milk


Alinos
Annatto
Onion


MAZORCA COCIDA
Boiled Corn on the Cob

Place ears of corn in cold water and boil
until tender. Place pinches of salt in mouth when
eaten. (Salaqui)









A-51


MECHADO


MOGOLLA: Grits. (Colombia)


Fish (crab/shrimp)
Coconut juice
Alinos


Onion
Salt


Wash and cook the fish until it starts to
fall apart. Separately cook onions and spices
with coconut juice. Then add the fish and cook
until part of the water evaporates, leaving it
ready to serve as a main dish with plantain, rice,
or cassava. (Coredo, Curiche)


MEMELA

(1) Corn tortilla, baked in plantain leaves,
usually with curd and brown sugar. (Honduras)
(2) A large elongated tortilla. (Mexico)


MEMBRILLO HERVIDO (224)
Boiled Membrillo

995 g pulp of membrillo (Gustavia)

Boil green fruit pulp for 20 minutes.


MENUDO: Tripe.


MICHA: Italian bread. (Panama)


MIELMESABE: Virolico


MIL PESOS, ACEITE DE
Palm Oil

Place the fruits of Jessenia polycarpa in a
boat (chingo), mash, and add boiling water, con-
tinuing to mash. Cover boat with leaves to keep
out extraneous matter. After 2 to 3 days, dis-
lodge seeds, strain liquid, and place in large pot
(balde) to boil for several hours; stir with ladle
made of nispero. Remove oil that has risen to
top; the milky residue is drunk as a beverage
called "yucuta". (Curiche)


MINGUI: A fermented beverage. (Honduras)


MISTELA

(1) A drink made of wine, water, sugar, and
cinnamon. (Velasquez, 1966)
(2) A beverage made from syrup and dried orange
peel (perhaps orange marmelade) strained and
mixed with pure alcohol. (Huila)


MIXTA: Meat, rice, and beans. (Puerto Rico)


MOCHILA: A Honduran dish of plantain and coconut
milk.


MOFONGO: Dish made from mashed plantain. (Puerto
.Rico)


MOGUE CAIBACA TUALEDI
Cuna Ahuyama

Add small pieces of ahuyama to sugarcane juice
and cook for awhile. (Arquia)


MOGUE LOGUIDARE
Cuna Ahuyama with Plantain

Boil ahuyama with plantain and add oregano,
lard, and salt. Cook until viscous. Coconut meat
and juice and annatto may be added. (Arquia)


MOI
Cuna Ahuyama

Place grated coconut in a bowl of water. Stir
until the water is milky; strain and bring to a
boil. Add diced ahuyama and cook until soft. Beat
thoroughly (McKim, 1935).


MOLDE DE MACARRONES


120 g noodles
140 g breadcrumbs
45 g butter
240 ml milk
240 g grated cheese


15 g diced onion
30 g diced red sweet
pepper
84 g egg


Boil the noodles in salt water; strain, rinse,
and strain again. Add rest of ingredients except
for the whites of the eggs. Then beat egg whites
and add. Place all in a hot mold and bake for
45 minutes at 350 F. Serve embellished with sliced
tomato or Neapolitan sauce. (El Real)


MOLE: Famous Mexican dish of chile, sesame, and
turkey. (Central America)


MOLE DULCE: Mole with sugar replacing chile.
(Mexico)


MOLE VERDE: Mole with green chiles and tomato.
(Mexico)


MOLIDOS
Cornballs with salt and sugar.


MOLLETE
Loaf Bread


480 g flour
15 g baking powder
3 g salt
60 g sugar


2 eggs
240 ml milk
45 g lard


Strain the flour, baking powder, and salt into
a conical pile. Beat the margarine and add the
sugar. Add the whole eggs and then the milk. Add
the flour and beat only until the dough is formed.
Spoon into greased muffin tins. Bake 25 minutes
at 375 F. (El Real)


T--~Y- -- .__. ..~i








A-52


MONDONGO
Tripe Soup


1440
1
1
20
120
120


g beef tripe
peperoni
can tomato sauce
capers
g Parmesan cheese
g bacon


50
1

5
1480
480


g onion
can olives and oil
green pepper
g salt
packet recado rojo
g butter


Clean the tripe and brush with lime and bi-
carbonate; dice and wash in hot water. Cook in
pressure cooker for 30 minutes with salt water.
Aside, saute the onions and add the other ingredi-
ents. Add the saute to the pressure cooker and
cook with the tripe for 15 minutes more. To
stretch soup, add potatoes, carrots, chick-peas,
and other vegetables, canned or fresh. (El Real)


MONJA: A Mexican alcoholic beverage of fermented
water, honey, aniseed, and wormwood.


MONTUCA: Corn tamale. (Honduras)


MORCILLA (Blood Sausage): Pork blood, rice,
potatoes, onion, tomato, cumin, and pepper
wrapped in pig or beef tripe. See Rellena.
(Colombia)


MORO: A biscuit of flour and eggs, covered with
syrup or sweetening. (Colombia)


MOROEMIAGUA (Cuna)

Add cane juice and ground corn without the
chaff to chucula; cook as a beverage. This is a
historical beverage, rarely used by the present
populace. (Arquia)


MORONGA: Sausage. (Central America)


MORTADELA FRITA (225)
Fried Bologna


170 g bologna


57 g oil


Slice the bologna thinly and fry for a few
minutes.


MOSTACHUELOS A LA GOURMET


180
180
240
120
480
1


g mostachuelo
g evaporated milk
g tomato soup
g cheese
g ground meat
chicken breast


1 g garlic
1 sprig parsley
1 beaten egg
120 g margarine
Salt and pepper


Dice the chicken breasts and saute in 60 g
margarine. Add ground meat, garlic, and parsley;
cover and simmer 20 minutes. In another dish, mix
the soup and milk with thin sliced cheese and heat
until the cheese melts. In a greased tin, place
the mostachuelos, one of meat, the other of sauce.
Alternate stuffing. Cover with rolled bread,


1 beaten egg, and 60 g sliced margarine. Bake for
25 minutes at 325 F. (El Real)


MOTE

(1) Cook peeled corn in salt water.
(2) Cook grains of corn in water until they pop
open when they are ready to serve. (Coredo)


MOTE DE AHUYAMA: Boil and peel plantain and
ahuyama; mash and simmer in a sauce of tomato,
onion, and lard with annatto, saving a little
for topping.


MOTE DE BAGRE

Dice catfish and boil until tender; add yam,
cassava, and plantain. (Bolivar)


MOTE DE CANDIA CON MOJARRAS: A fish gumbo made
with mojarra, okra, plantain, yam, cassava,
onion, tomato, garlic, hot pepper, and spices
cooked in coconut milk. (Cartagena)


MOTE DE FRIJOLES
Bean Stew


Cassava
Yam
Dried beans


Green and ripe banana
Coconut


Soak beans overnight. Chop the other ingre-
dients and add to the softened beans with salt to
taste. Boil until the beans are done. (Unguia)


MOTE DE FRIJOLES

(1) Cook beans with plantain and alinos until
soft. (Cuti)
(2) Cook beans with chunks of meat in coconut
juice. (Colombia)
(3) Prepared from white beans, pigeon peas.
(Bolivar)


MOTE DE NAME: Made with yam and cheese. (Bolivar)


MOTE DE PALMITO

Remove the bitterness of the palmito.amargo
by boiling with lime juice. Dice and cook with
yam, cheese, and coconut juice. (Bolivar)


MOTE DE PALMITO AMARGO


1 large palm heart
1920 g yam
480 g onion


60 g garlic
480 g pork lard
Salt to taste


Soak in three or four changes of lime water
to remove the bitterness; dice and boil the palm
heart, finally adding the diced yam, onion, garlic,
and salt, stirring to prevent sticking or burning.
Just before serving anoint with hot lard.
(Cartagena)










MUTE: A soup of corn with beef tripe. Elsewhere
equivalent with "mazamorra de maiz". One com-
plicated recipe calls for stomach and hooves of
beef, pork ribs, cooked cornmeal, ahuyama,
cabbage, potato, noodles, carrots, chick-peas,
and capers. (Santander)


NACARIGUE: A pinole with meat. (Honduras)


NACATAMAL: Tamale. (Central America)


NALUBGUNE (Cuna)

Boil peach palm fruits in salt water. Fre-
quent in July (and perhaps other months). (Arquia)


NALUM INNA (Cuna)

Boil peach palm fruits in plain or sweetened
water to make a plain or sweet chicha. (Arquia)


NAME FRITO (227)
Fried Yam


907 g yam
3 k water


20 g salt
57 ml oil


Boil the yam for 30 minutes and then fry in
hot oil.


NAME HERVIDO (228)
Boiled Yam

907 g yam
2 9 water


25 g salt


Boil diced yam in salt water for about
30 minutes.


NAME RELLENO
Stuffed Yam

Briefly boil a peeled yam in salt water so
that it does not become too tender. Cut off the
tip and excavate a hole in the yam; stuff with a
sausage-like mixture of ground pork, hard-boiled
eggs, onion, tomato, garlic, salt, and capers,
replacing the "top" of the yam. Make a sauce of
onion, tomato, lard with annatto, and a little
water, and simmer the stuffed yam in the sauce
until well done on all sides.


A-53


NARANJA (226)
Orange

Oranges, weighing about 85 g each, start
bearing in December.


NATILLA
Corn Candy


Sugar
Brown sugar


Corn


(1) Grind the corn into meal and add water.
Strain and boil with sugar and cinnamon, stir-
ing constantly until thick enough to cut when
cooled. (Unguia)

(2) A dessert made of green corn, coconut, cinna-
mon, and sugar. (Bolivar)


NATILLA

(1) Grind rice into flour; cook in milk with a
little water. Add cinnamon, cloves, and nut-
meg. When these are lacking, add aromatic
pepper and anise. (Cuti)

(2) Corn may be used instead of rice. (Truando)

(3) A custard, composed of boiled milk, eggs, and
sugar, which may be thickened with flour or
starch. (Velasquez, 1966)

(4) Grind tender corn, strain and cook in water
with coconut juice. Sweeten and add cinnamon
and cloves. (Coredo)

(5) A kind of gelatin made from ground corn,
strained and cooked with cinnamon, butter,
cloves, panela, cheese, and coconut. (Rodriguez
de Montes, 1964)


NEQUE: Contraband rum. (Bolivar)


NIACHI: Hot blood, served with various spices.
(Chile)


NINOS ENVUELTOS
Cheese Pretzels


240 g flour
240 g native cheese
15 ml whipped cream
10 g butter


15 g lard
28 g egg
Salt and sugar to
taste %


NAMPI HERVIDO (229)
Boiled Yampi


907 g yampi
2 R water


20 g salt


Boil diced yampi in salt water for
35 minutes.


Make a dough from all the ingredients except
the cheese and roll out very thin. Cut the cheese
into little sticks and envelop in the dough in
spirals. Fry in hot lard.


NISKLET
Cuna Soup


Meat (deer, turtle,
wild pig, etc.)
Fish any kind of
seafood


Plantain
Grated Coconut
Cassava
Rice or corn on cob









A-54
Boil the meat or fish about 6 hours or until
tender, along with above ingredients. Meat is
served separately from the soup. Lemon, salt, and
red peppers are used in the soup or put on the
meat for seasoning. The soup is normally eaten
out of one large bowl by all the participants at
the same time. After the soup, or along with it,
is the meat or fish which is sitting on small
plates by each person or in two or three plates on
the table. There is also a bowl of roasted green
bananas on the table. There are two or three
small bowls with salt, cut lemons, and red peppers
which are used at the individual's discretion.
(Williams, p.c. 1967). (Mulatupu)


NUGUA (425)
Cuna Dove Soup

454 g dove
2 water


454 g plantain
10 g salt


OBTUGUALET
Cuna Corn on the Cob

Boil shucked tender corn in water. (Arquia)


OCHI (Cuna): A chocolate and cornmeal beverage,
frequently taken for breakfast.


OLLETA: Venezuelan dish with duck or chicken,
corn, cassava, bacon, brown sugar, cloves,
pepper, salt, and vinegar.


OLLOCADA: Stewed ulluca with tomato, onion, and
cheese. (Narino)


OLMADUN
Cuna Corn Balls


Boil plantain; add dove meat and salt. This
meat is recommended for sick people.


NU MADUN
Cuna Corn Balls

Make cornmeal dough with boiled cane juice.
Spread on leaves so a little of the water evapo-
rates. Wrap the balls in leaves (urua) and boil.


NUTA: Soup. (Narino)


OB IOGUALET
Cuna Roast Corn

Husk and roast tender corn on the embers;
eaten daily during the corn harvest. (Arquia)


OBMADUNTIAVALET
Cuna Hushpuppy

Mix ground corn with salt water; fry in
vegetable oil. (Arquia)


OBSELOGE
Cuna Roast Ears

Roast corn ears on the ashes; serve chucula;
usually eaten as a snack. (Arquia)


OBSICHIT-PALIMA-CUATERIMASI
Cuna Corn Gruel

Grind black corn and boil in water with cane
juice. Mix with chucula to drink. Used as a
stimulant at night for those who need to stay
awake because of some sickness in the family.
(Arquia)


OBSUNALEDI
Cuna Popcorn

Place grains of the pilop variety of corn
over the coals until they pop. The ashes on the
popcorn from the coals are also eaten. (Arquia)


Grind white or yellow corn; add water to the
cornmeal and wrap dough in leaves of urua closed
at the ends. Place over fire and roast until done.
This is a frequent foodstuff during the corn
harvest. (Arquia)


OROZ CUATERI
Cuna Meat Soup

Boil meat in water; add onion, annatto, rice,
and spices. Keep on the fire until nearly dry and
white. (Arquia)


OROZ LICUA (Cuna)
Meat-Rice Soup

Boil meat in water; add rice, oil, onion,
annatto, and salt. (Arquia)


OROZ TIOGUALET (Cuna)
Cuna Rice

Cook rice in salt and water or coconut juice.
This is a daily dish when rice is abundant.
(Arquia)


OSTIONES RELLENOS: Oyster shells stuffed with,
oyster meat marinated in a mixture of catsup,
lime juice, hot sauce, and Worcestershire sauce.
(Cartagena)


OSTRAS AL NATURAL: Raw oysters eaten from the
shell with lime juice. (Cartagena)


OSTRAS GUISADAS (230)
Stewed Oysters


570 g oyster meat
85 ml oil
15 g salt
57 ml annatto


2 g culantro
227 ml water
57 g catsup


Braise the oysters and add annatto, catsup,
and culantro; simmer for about 10 minutes. Then
add water and cook for about 20 minutes until
thick.











OTAYA: A watery unseasoned mixture of hominy and
grits, identical to the highland mazamorra of
Colombia and Venezuela (West, 1957).


OTOE HERVIDO (231)
Boiled Taro


907 g taro
2 k water


A-55


25 g salt


Boil in salt water 20 to 30 minutes until
tender.


PACIENCIAS: A pastry made with wheat flour,
butter, sugar, eggs, almond, and lime. (Colombia)


PAMBAZO

(1) Sweet bread. (Narino)
(2) Cornmeal bread with butter, sugar, and aniseed.
(Honduras)


PAN (232)
Bread


1000 g flour
454 ml water


1 pkg dried yeast
25 g salt


Sift the flour and mix the ingredients to
form a dough. Bake in oven until bread separates
from sides of tin.


PAN CON MANTEQUILLA (234): Locally baked bread
PAELLA PANAMENA from imported products with imported butter.
Panamanian Paella


boned chicken
lean pork
squid
lobster
clams
rice
razor clams
sausage
oil
onion
green pepper


30 g garlic
240 g peas
480 g tomato
60 g tomato paste
60 g tomato catsup
60 g olives
60 g petit pois
Salt, pepper, parsley,
and scallions to
taste


Separately fry the chicken, pork, and sau-
sage. Boil and peel the lobsters and clean and
slice the squid and razor clams. Cook the other
clams with parsley and scallions. Make a sauce
with the liquid from the peas and nearly half of
the fresh tomatoes, onions, and peppers. After
the chicken is fried, add one cup of water, and
the other half of the tomatoes, onions, and pep-
pers to cook over a low heat.

Fry the rice after careful washing, and then
add the liquids from the seafoods. Add the meats
and previously cooked sauces and the tomato
purees. Finally add the peas and olives to cook
rapidly for 10 minutes. Then cover and cook slow-
ly for 45 minutes.


PALITO DE LIMON: Rum and wine. (Bolivar)


PAN DE ACHIRA
Cannaroot Bread

Extract starch from the roots to make bread.
(Huila)


PAN DE ARROZ (MAIZ)
Rice Bread

Age the rice (corn) 3 days. Add cheese and
salt to the rice to form a dough. Cook new growth
of arracacha. Bake in an oven. (Narino)


PAN DE CUAJADA: Bread made with
one part starch, and two parts
and salt. (Colombia)


one part cornmeal
curd, with eggs


PAN DE ESTACA: Cornmeal balls, (Colombia)


PAN DE GUINEO
Banana Bread


120 g bananas
30 g diced cherries
30 g diced nuts
60 ml sour milk
120 g butter


50 g eggs
360 g sugar
2 g salt
920 g flour
S8 g baking soda


PALITOS DE QUESO
Cheese Pretzels


480 g flour
60 g butter
20 g baking powder


180 ml milk
240 g grated cheese
3 g salt


Make a homogeneous mixture of all the ingre-
dients, roll out, and cut into short sticks. Bake
in a hot oven for 10 minutes.


PALITOS DE YUCA FRITOS: Thin twists of boiled
cassava, deep fried in very hot oil. (Cartagena)


PALOMITA: Popcorn. (Central America)


Beat the dough ingredients sifting in the
flour and soda; mix until homogeneous. Add the
fruits and sour milk last and bake in greased tins
for about 1 hour at 300 F.


PAN DE HORNO: Sweet bread made from ground plan-
tain, corn, cheese, molasses, spiced with pap-
rika and cloves, wrapped in leaves and baked in
the oven. (Colombia)


PAN DE YUCA
Cassava Bread

(1) Mix cassava flour with beaten eggs, salt water,
and palm oil. Form into balls or small loaves
and bake on all sides. (Coredo)


960
240
480
480
960
1200
240
240
90
240
120










(2) Cassava bread also made with cheese, cassava
flour, eggs, butter, and lard. (Narino)


PANDERO: A bread made with flour, butter, sugar,
eggs, and some form of liquor, made into balls
and baked in the oven. (Colombia)


A-56
PAPAS FRITAS (235)


227 g peeled potato 287 ml oil
15 g salt

Slice and fry the potatoes in hot oil.


PAPAS RELLENAS: Potatoes stuffed with rice, meat,
PANECILLO DE MAIZ (233) and eggs. (Huila)


907 g corn flour
227 ml water
20 g salt


85 g pork lard
2 eggs


PAPAYA (236)
Papaya


Soak the corn in water for 15 days, changing
the water daily. Grind and sun dry the meal for
a few days. Sift the meal, and mix the ingredi-
ents in the center of the pile until a uniform
dough is obtained. Wrap in leaves and bake in an
aluminum receptacle.


PANELA (418)
Raw Brown Sugar


Boil the cane juice in a copper caldron;
pour the syrup into rectangular wooden forms to
crystallize, producing the familiar panela blocks.
Wrap for storage and transport in bijao leaves.
Panela has become one of the most important energy
foods in the lowlands of Pacific Colombia, and the
Negro canoeman or miner is rarely satisfied with-
out a chunk of panel to munch on throughout the
day. (West, 1967) Panela from Colombia reaches
Panama via the Colombian boats peddling their way
through San Blas.


PANETELA: A kind of biscuit. (Puerto Rico)


PANOCHA

(1) Prepare like biscochos, from aged cornmeal and
eggs with oil of the mil pesos palm excluding
salt. (Curiche)

(2) An Arepa de chocol (young corn cake), wrapped
in plantain leaves baked in ashes. (Rodriguez
de Montes, 1964) (Antioquia)


PANUCHO


(1)

(2)

(3)


A dessert prepared from cassava, coconut milk,
and sugar. (Puerto Rico)
Sandwich made from two tortillas filled with
diced meat and beans. (Mexico)
Cassava balls with coconut milk and salt,
cooked in leaves.


PAPAS ENCAPOTADAS

Coat large boiled potatoes with a paste pre-
pared from peanuts ground with milk and onions.
(Narino)


The fruit is eaten straight or made into
jellies or beverages.


PAPELON: Brown sugar.


PAPILLA: A dessert made from sweet potatoes,
eggs, etc. (Peru)


PAPIN: A gelatinous dish made from cornstarch and
sugar. (Costa Rica)


PARGO EN POLVO DE PAN Y QUESO
Breaded Snapper in Cheese

Bread portions of snapper coated with beaten
egg and parsley in bread crumbs with Parmesan
cheese and fried.


PARVA: Cracker or cookie dough. (Antioquia)


PASTA PARA DOS PASTELES


1320 g flour
480 g butter, lard,
or margarine


240 ml water
1 egg yolk


Mix the flour with the lard. Add a dash of
salt to the water; egg yolk is added optionally.
Add water to form a paste that will not stick to
the hand. This dough can now be baked as piecrust,
empanada crusts, or as containers for various
stuffings. (El Real)


PASTEL

(1) A rice tamale prepared with butter the day
before, stuffed with pork, and cooked in
Calathea leaves (Caceres).

(2) A corn dough stuffed with pork or chicken and
cooked in leaves. (Bolivar)

(3) Pasteles may be made from rice with meat and
egg. Some are made from just cassava.
(Bolivar)

(4) Made with wheat flour, meat, egg, and rice.
(Santander)









PASTEL DE CASABE

Make a moist spicy minced pork barbeque and
place small casabe tortillas in greased tins.
Alternate layers of barbeque and casabe over the
tortilla, pouring any remaining juice from the
barbeque on top of the layered cake. Top with
grated cheese. Bake for 20 minutes.


A-57


Boil the rice in water and add other ingre-
dients. Add a can of tomato sauce and lard or oil,
Form into balls, wrap in cabbage leaves, and cook
again. (Unguia)


PASTICHE
Spaghetti


PASTEL (0 TAMALES) DE MAIZ


Corn
Alinos
Lard/oil
Braised meat
Onion salad


Peppers
Garlic
Tomato
Cabbage
Salt


Mix meal dough with oil, hot pepper, alinos,
salt, vinegar, onion, and cebollin. Mold the
dough around the braised meat and salad and wrap
the tamale in leaves and steam. (Cuti)


PASTEL DE MANZANAS
Apple Pie


4 large apples
120 g granulated
sugar
2 g powdered
cinnamon


15 g butter/margarine
30-45 g cornstarch
Crust (see pastel)


Peel and slice the apples. Make sauce of
sugar, cinnamon, and cornstarch and mix with the
apples. Pour sauce into half pie crust. Place
slices of margarine over the apple pudding and
cover with the remaining dough. Make breathing
lines in the dough. Put meringue or egg yolk or
cream on top and bake at 375 F for 25 to
35 minutes. (El Real)


PASTEL DE QUESO
Cheese Cake


1/2 pkg graham 45 g sugar
crackers 8 g nutmeg
30 g butter

Mix the ingredients, mold, and heat in the
oven. (El Real)


PASTELILLOS DE FRIJOLES BLANCOS
Bean Patties


240 g white beans
2 eggs


5 g salt


Soak the beans overnight. Husk the beans and
beat with the eggs and salt in the blender; add
water if necessary until you have a dough. Fry
until brown in hot oil. (El Real)


PASTELITOS DE ARROZ
Rice Patties


480 g thin noodles
480 g ground beef
2 large tomatoes
2 bay leaves
120 g tomato paste
100 g egg yolks
240 g condensed milk


60 g cornstarch
(maicena)
120 g margarine
120 g grated Parmesan
cheese
Salt and pepper


Cook the noodles with salted water, bay
leaves, and spoonful of oil. Discard the water,
and add another spoonful of oil. Saute the toma-
toes, and add to browned ground beef in 60 g
margarine and 1 cup of water; simmer until water
is consumed. In a separate pan heat the milk with
1 cup of water and 2 g salt; add cornstarch. When
cornstarch is setting, add 7 egg yolks beaten with
a little water and 60 g margarine. Mix noodles
with a portion of meat and cheese and place in a
greased casserole; cover with the remaining meat
sauce and cheese. Bake for 30 minutes at 350 F.
(El Real)


PATACONES

Slice ripe plantains and fry in lard or oil.
After cooking, cool and pound into patties; refry
the patties. Eaten two or three times a week.
(Cuti)


PATACONES DE PLATANO
Plantain Patties

(1) Peel some very green hard plantains. Cut into
fairly thick rounds and sprinkle with salt;
beat the rounds with a wooden spoon. Drop
slices into boiling oil and cook until they
are yellow (Larsen and Larsen, 1964).

(2) Cut into thick disks; fry, pound, then refry.
(Truando)


PATAGORRILLO: Chitterlings or diced tripe.
(Colombia)


PATATA (411): Refers to Solanum or Ipomoea.


PATITA DE PUERCO
Pigs Feet


1920 g pigs feet
1 can tomato paste
4 g garlic
1 large onion


15 g recado rojo
1 g celery salt
1 g oregano
120 ml oil


Tomato sauce
Carrots
Beets
Potatoes
Lard/vegetable oil


Clean and split the feet; boil until tender.
Then saute in hot oil with onion, recado, tomato
paste, and other spices. Boiled potatoes may
accompany the pigs feet. (El Real)


Rice
Parsley
Cabbage
Culantro
Onions








A-58


PAVO ASADO
Roast Turkey


PESCADO FRITO (242)(243)
Fried Fish


Clean and steep for 2 days with bicarbonate
and lime juice using turkey seasoning, recado
verde, and salt. Bake at 500 F for a while; then
lower to 300 F and bake a while. (El Real)


PEBRE: Dish based on meat, string beans, onion,
and red pepper. (Bolivar)


PELONGO: Bollo de maiz (Bolivar)


PEPINO: Stuffing with egg, rice, and meat.
(Santander)


PEPITORIA

(1) A dish made of all the edible parts of a bird,
or giblets. Gravy contains egg yolk.
(2) A dish made from squash seeds and panela.
(Mexico)


PERICO: Small portion of dark coffee with milk.
(Santander)


PERRERREQUE: A sweet corn tamale. (Central
America)


907 g fresh fish
113 ml oil
15 g salt


2 limes
Bread crumbs


Marinate the fish briefly in salt and lime
juice and bread with crumbs or flour. Fry in hot
oil.


PESCADO GUISADO (244)
Stewed Fish


680 g fresh fish
227 ml water
113 ml catsup

Saut6 the gutted
other ingredients and
minutes.


PESCADO GUISADO (245)
Stewed Fish

680 g fresh fish
57 g onion
227 ml water

Sautd the gutted
other ingredients and
minutes.


113 g onion
25 g salt
85 ml oil

fish in hot oil; add the
the water and boil for a few


2 g garlic
113 ml annatto
20 g salt

fish in hot oil. Add the
water and boil for a few


PESCADO AHUMADO (237)(238)
Smoked Fish


PESCADO RELLENO Y DESHUESADO
Stuffed Boned Fish


907 g fresh fish

Smoke for a few days over the hearth.


PESCADO ASADO (239)
Roast Fish


454 g gutted fish
1 g garlic


35 g salt


Rub the fish with garlic and salt, then cook
over the coals.


PESCADO ENTOMATADO
Fish and Tomatoes


960 g fish
2 large tomatoes
1 onion


60 g cooking oil
1 packet recado verde
(bouquet garni)


Brown fish in cooking oil; finely chop other
ingredients and add to fish, mixing carefully so
the fish is not torn; cover and cook for 5 minutes
more. (El Real)


1440 g corvina
240 g can sardines
240 g cooked shrimp
30 g margarine
1 large garlic
1 medium onion
1 tomato
30 g diced olives
1 g garlic


30 g catsup
15 g Worcestershire
15 g capers
15 g vinegar
120 g bread crumbs
30 g pickled mustard
Salt, pepper, lime
juice, and hot sauce


Clean and bone the fish; steep in brine lime
juice. Dice and mix the shrimp and sardines,
pepper, onion, tomato, bread crumbs, and margarine
and saute for 5 minutes. Add olives, capers, and
other pickles and relishes. Season with salt and
pepper and let cool. Stuff the fish, anoint with
margarine and mustard and bake well in oven at
325 F. (El Real)


PESCADO SECO GUISADO (246)
Stewed Dried Fish


227 g dried or salted
fish
85 ml oil


57 g catsup
680 ml water
15 g salt


PESCADO FRESCO HERVIDO (240)(241)
Boiled Fresh Fish


907 g fresh fish
2 k water


24 g salt


Wash the fish, dry, and saute in hot oil.
Add catsup and salt; cover and simmer for about
10 minutes. Add water and cook 20 minutes more.


PESCADO SUDADO: Steamed fish (Nariio)


Boil ingredients for about 30 minutes.









A-59 PILONCILLO: Panela.


PESUNA: Pigs feet (446)


PINOLILLO


PETO
Corn Pudding


Boil and grind corn without chaff. Add milk,
sugar, cinnamon, nutmeg, and cloves. (Cuti)
A type of mazamorra made from corn. (Huila)
Corn soup. (Santander)


90 g unsweetened
chocolate
240 g toasted corn
4 Z water
1 large stick cinna-
mon


2 cans evaporated
milk
1440 g sugar
5 ice cubes


PICADILLO
Hash


(1) 480 g ground beef
1 diced onion
1/2 diced bell pepper
15 g oil
2 cans tomatoes
15 g white raisins


5 g capers (well
drained)
1 diced egg white
1440 g cooked rice
4 browned bananas
Salt and pepper


Saut6 the onion and bell pepper. Add the
ground beef, tomatoes, raisins, capers, salt,
and pepper. Cook, stirring over a slow fire
until almost dry. Place on a heated platter;
adding the diced egg white. Place the cooked
rice on the other side of the platter, adorn-
ing with the bananas. Accompany with a side
dish of black bean sauce. (El Real)

(2) Juice with diced fruits. (Antioquia)


(3) Minced meat. (Velasquez)


PICADILLO CON SALSA DE FRIJOLES NEGRO
Black Bean Hash


240 g black beans
720 g water
225 g smoked ham
2 g salt
1 medium onion,
diced


10 g diced green
pepper
1 g garlic
10 ml cooking oil


Boil the beans for 3 minutes; remove from
fire and cover to soak overnight. Add the ham and
salt and cook for about 2 hours until tender, add-
ing more water, if necessary. Saute the spices in
hot oil and add to the beans. (This is often used
as a side dish for white rice and for the hash
simply called "picadillo".)


PICADITO: Relish, sauce.


PICHON DE RES
Spiced Beef Blood

Add beef blood, sprinkled with lime, to oil
with spices, such as cumin, parsley, and pepper.
(Santander)


PICO DE GALLO

(1) Sauce prepared from cactus fruits, onion, and
hot pepper. (Mexico)
(2) A dessert made from diced oranges, paprika,
hot pepper, salt, and sometimes with sugar
and/or grated coconut.


Boil the cinnamon in water; add corn and
chocolate to dissolve. Cook over a slow flame for
30 minutes. Leave to cool, adding the sugar and
milk. Strain and add the ice to dissolve, then
serve. (El Real)


PINA (247) (Pineapple): The fruit is eaten as is
or made into jellies or beverages.


PINADA: Pineapple juice (Narino)


PINOLE

(1) Beverage made from parched corn, ground and
mixed with sugar and water.
(2) An aromatic powder used in making chocolate.


PINUEGUA: Pulverized stems of the "pinuegua"
(perhaps a wild pineapple) are taken with salt
and lemon juice to augment the appetite and
improve the health. (Arquia)


PIONONO: A cylindrical sponge cake with cream.
(Costa Rica)


PIPIANA: Diced papaya with coconut milk and
spices. (Puerto Rico)


PIPO

(1) An alcoholic beverage so strong as to be poi-
sonous.
(2) A contraband aguardiente made from fermenting
leaves of Agave.
(3) Aguardiente prepared with alcohol and gasoline.
(4) Champurriado.
(5) PIPO MACHO: alcohol and cola with malt and
eggs.
(6) PIPO ORDINARIO: alcohol and cola. (Antioquia)


PIQUILLO: A salpicon (salmagundi) of fruits;
"Fruit cocktail". (Santander)


PIRIMBI (Choco): Chicha de maduro con arroz.
(Salaqui)


PISCA: Broth with hard-boiled eggs. (Venezuela)


(1)

(2)
(3)









A-60 PLATANO COCIDO


PISTOL


(1) 120 ml oil
1 onion
1 sweet pepper
480 g tomato


2
480
2


chayotes
g diced potato
beaten eggs


Boil peeled plantain in copious water and
salt. Bananas are similarly cooked but in the
peel. (Coredo)


Brown the potatoes in hot oil. Saute the
onion, adding diced pepper and sliced chayote.
Cook until the chayotes are done. Then add
sliced tomatoes with salt and pepper. Before
removing from flame, add the fried potatoes
and beaten eggs.

(2) A thick broth given to the sick.

(3) Tomatoes and red pepper fried with oil.


PISTON: A small but thick corn tortilla.
(Honduras)


PITARRILLA: Corn chicha. (Costa Rica)


PITRAQUE: A coffee substitute made from toasted
corn. (Venezuela)


PLATANO CON CARNE DE SAINO (390)
Peccary Stew


1920 g plantain
250 g peccary


30 g onion


PLATANO FRITO
Fried Plantain


89 g plantain

(Colombia)


12.5 g lard (vegetable
oil)


PLATANO MADURO ASADO (249)
Roast Plantain

Roast the plantains, peeled or unpeeled, over
the coals.


PLATANO MADURO FRITO
PIXBAES HERVIDOS (248) Fried Plantain
Boiled Peach Palm Fruits


4800 g peach palm
fruits


9 k water
113 g salt


Boil the fruits about 45 minutes.


(1)(250) 907 g ripe plantain


113 ml oil


Fry thin slices of plantain in hot oil.


PIZZA

Mix 480 g flour, 5 g salt, and 15 g baking
powder, then add 240 ml water. Put 45 g cooking
oil on top of the dough mass and mix in gradually,
keeping the oil to the top. Flatten out into the
pizza crust. On the crust, put 240 g diced tomato,
with pepper and oregano. Then top this with
cheese, ham, and sardines. Let rise for 10 minutes
and then place in oven in a greased Pyrex dish.
(El Real)


(2)(251) 907 g ripe plantain


113 ml palm oil


Fry sliced plantain in hot palm oil.



PLATANO MADURO HERVIDO (252)
Boiled Plantain

Boil portions of ripe plantain for about
30 minutes or until done.


PLATANO MADURO Y MIEL (253)
PLATANO (409): Plantain. Plantain and Molasses


PLATANO ASADOS CON KOLA
Fried Plantain with Cola


375 g ripe plantain
142 ml molasses
1 sprig of cinna-
mon


Place slices of ripe plantain in a frying pan
greased with butter; add sugar and Cola beverage.
Fry until brown, turning so as to brown on both
sides. (Cartagena)


PLATANOS ASADOS CON LECHE DE COCO
Coconut-Fried Plantain


Mash diced ripe plantain with the butter and
add to the other ingredients; cook slowly for
30 minutes.


PLATANO NATURAL: Ripe plantain is sometimes eaten
straight.


720 g plantain
120 g coconut milk


15 g butter
Sugar to taste


PLATANO PRINGADO


Bake a peeled plantain over the ashes and
then scald with hot palm oil. (Colombia)


57 ml water
28 g butter








A-61


PLATANO RELLENO CON QUESO
Stuffed Plantain


4 ripe plantains
60 g molasses
250 g butter


30 g white cheese
30 g sugar


Peel the plantains and split longitudinally.
Extract the heart and replace with grated cheese.
Butter the plantain, place in tin, and put in the
oven. When it is half-cooked, place the molasses
and sugar on the cheese and continue to bake.
(El Real)


PLATANO EN TENTACION
Baked Ripe Plantain (Plantain Temptation)


(1) 2 ripe plantains
1 stick cinnamon
120 g milk


15 g softened butter
30 g honey


Fry cut plantains in butter over a low heat.
Add cinnamon stock, honey, and milk, turning
the plantains until golden brown. (El Real)

(2) Peel five very ripe bananas (sic) and place
them in a buttered dish. Mix together 240 ml
water, 45 g cane sugar and 15 ml sweet red
wine. Pour the mixture over the "bananas" and
put them in a very hot oven. Turn every
15 minutes until the sauce becomes very thick.
(Larsen and Larsen, 1964).


PLATANO VACIO
Plain Plantain

Peel plantains under water, then scrape and
wash under water (to avoid blackening). Boil with-
out meat (liga). A common dish among the poorer
Choco Indians.


PLATANO VERDE ASADO (255)
Green Plantain Roast

Roast the peeled green plantain over the fire.


PLATANO VERDE FRITO
Fried Green Plantain

(1)(256)


907 g green plantain


113 ml oil


Deep-fry disks of peeled green plantain.


PLATO DE NOCHEBUENO: A festival Christmas eve
dish of fritters along with sectioned figs,
papayas, limes, tree tomatoes, etc. The plate
is decorated with orange, gelatin raspberries,
manjar, and hojaldres.


POLLO GUISADO

Cook chicken pieces until tender with cabbage,
garlic, coconut juice, cumin, oregano, onions,
pepper, squash, culantro, and tomato. (Cuti)


POLVORON: A biscuit that "melts in your mouth".
(Central America)


PONCHE: A beverage of wheat and corn with sugar
and cinnamon. (Santander)


PONCHE: BATIDO DE HUEVOS: Eggnog. (Bolivar)


PONCHE DE CERVEZA NEGRA


480 g beer
112 g egg

Beat the eggs in a
sugar, and beer, little
necessary. (El Real)


PONCHE DE CERVEZA RUBIA


720 g beer
120 g lemon juice


120 g condensed milk
240 g sugar

blender, adding cold milk,
by little. Add ice if


60 g:grapefruit juice
120 g jarabe


Make the jarabe (equal amounts of sugar and
water) but do not boil the ingredients after the
sugar is dissolved. Other ingredients, when mixed
with the jarabe, should be mixed cold.


PONQUE: Pancake. (West Indies)


PONTEDURO: A candy made from toasted corn,
molasses, and squash seeds. (Mexico)


POROTOS GUISADOS (259)
Stewed Beans


454 g dried beans
3 k water
85 ml oil


113 g onion
4 g garlic
30 g salt


113 ml mil
pesos oil


PLATANO VERDE HERVIDO (258)
Boiled Green Plantain

907 g green plantain 35 g salt
3 water

Boil diced green plantain for about
30 minutes.


Soak the beans for a few hours. Dice and
saute onion and garlic in hot oil; add beans and
salt; boil for another hour, adding more water if
necessary.


POSTA CON CEBOLLITOS: Pot roast with flour,
onions, salt, vinegar, and tomatoes. (Cartagena)


POSTA DE CARNE MECHADA: Pot roast coated with
flour and stuffed with ham, bacon, onion, toma-
toes, garlic, hot pepper, vinegar, bay leaves,
salt, and pepper. (Cartagena)


(2)(257)


907 g green plantain


r









POSTA NEGRA: Pot rump roast. (Cartagena)


POSTA NEGRA CON VINO: Pot rump roast with sherry.
(Cartagena)


POSTRE: Dessert

POTAJE: Pottage, boiled foods.


A-62


PUERCO HORNAO
Baked Pig

Remove entrails from uncooked animal and
stuff with potatoes and rice. Bake over a slow
fire for 20 hours. (Narino)


PULIQUE: Guatemalan dish of meat, rice, hot pep-
per, tomato, and annatto.


POZO DE PLATANO MADURO PUPUSA: Cheese and corn empanada. (Honduras)
Ripe Plantain Drink


4 ripe plantains 1 9 coconut milk

Boil ripe plantains in water until tender;
mash into a puree. Gradually stir in the coconut
milk and add salt to taste.


POZOLE

(1) Pig's head boiled with spiced corn. (Costa
Rica)
(2) Corn gruel like mazato.


PULPA DE COCO (260): In general, a coconut con-
tains 360 g edible pulp (Torres de Aradz,
p.c., 1968).


PURE DE AHUYAMA: Mashed ahuyama, prepared by boil-
ing, dicing, mashing, and adding vinegar, oil,
and diced onion. (Cartagena)


PURE DE NAME (262)

(1) Yam Puree


PRENADA


455 g green banana
389 g ripe banana
36 g grated coconut


1000 g yam
35 g salt


2 g nutmeg
0.5 g cinnamon
18 g sugar


(Colombia)


PRISTINO: A type of doughnut served with honey on
holidays. (Ecuador)


PRINGADA: Toasted bread steeped in gravy.
(Velasquez, 1966)


PUCHERO


(1)

(2)


A beverage made of sweetened milk and wine.
(Antioquia)
A Colombian stew containing beef, chicken,
sausages, salt pork, onions, pepper, parsley,
garlic, green pepper, cabbage, tomatoes,
potatoes, scallions, carrots, chick-peas, and
hot pepper.


170 ml milk
142 g butter


Boil the yam until tender. Mash, adding the
butter and milk.

(2) Mothers, ready to wean their children, give
them a puree, made by pulverizing the roots of
Dioscorea. The children average about 18 g/
day. (Unguia)


PURE DE OTOE (261)
Taro Puree


850 g taro
3 A water


30 g salt
85 g margarine


Boil the taro until tender. Mash, adding the
margarine.


PURE DE PAPAS
Mashed Potatoes


(1)(263) 907 g potato
30 g salt


142 ml evaporated milk
113 g butter


PUDIN DE PAN Y LIMON

240 g milk
480 g bread crumbs
28 g egg yolk
180 g sugar


Peel and boil potatoes until tender. Mash,
adding the milk and butter.


60 g margarine/butter
10 g lime peel
10 g lime juice


(2) 720 g potato
120 ml milk
15 g salt


45 g butter
1/2 g black pepper


Heat the milk and add the butter. Beat the
egg yolks with the sugar, later adding little by
little to the milk mixture. Now add the bread
crumbs, with the lime peel and juice. Prepare a
meringue with the whites of the two eggs and
30 g sugar and cover the pudding. Brown in the
oven. (El Real)


Boil 250 ml water and add salt. Add halved
potatoes to the boiling water and cook until
tender. Strain and mash, adding other ingre-
dients; mix well. (El Real)








A-63


PURE DE PLATANOS VERDES (264)
Plantain Puree


822 g green plantain
142 ml oil


3 Z water
30 g salt


Boil green plantains until tender in salt
water. Mash, without peels, adding the oil.


PUSANDAO: A sancocho, made from meat, plantain,
and potatoes, served on leaves at the beach.
(Narino)


PUYA: Coffee without sugar. (Puerto Rico)


QUECHE: Potatoes cooked in hot sand. (Colombia)


QUESADILLA: Fried hushpuppy, filled with cheese
and sugar. (Central America)


QUESO
Cheese

Place the milk in a basin with beef rennet
until it starts to curdle. Form into balls, grind,
and add salt. Wrap in cheesecloth. (Santander)


QUESO AMARILLO (265): Imported yellow cheese.


QUESO BLANCO (266)
White Cheese


10 k milk
1 curdling pill


25 g salt


Put the pill in to curdle the milk. Extract
the whey by squeezing in the hands. Add the salt
and homogenize, placing in molds. (Sometimes made
from leaves of plantain.)


QUIBEBE: Stewed ahuyama.


QUIMBOLIYO: Small tamale made from flour, sugar,
and eggs. (Ecuador)


QUISPINO: A bread made from millet. (Peru)


RASPAO: Milk with grated ice. (Bolivar)


RASPADURA: Brown-sugar bricks. (Darien)


RECADO VERDE: A bouquet garni used in most Panama
soups and stews. Said to consist of basil,
coriander, culantro, garlic, onion, parsley,
pepper, scallion, thyme, and tomato cooked in
oil or butter. Dried packets are sold in all
Darien villages. Very similar, if not equal, to
Colombia's alinos.


REFRESCO: A dish consumed during weddings, con-
sisting of ponque or mantecados with wine or
brandy. (Santander)


RELLENA

(1)(420) Blood sausage


1000 g lard
400 g onion
40 g salt
800 ml blood
400 g rice


100 g tripe
4 g cumin
8 g garlic
100 ml water


Add above ingredients to the pig's blood;
mix and stuff inside the intestines. Cook
until no blood exudes from a prick. This is'
often prepared for sale and is consumed two or
three times a week. Sugar and vinegar may be
added. (Cuti)

(2) Pork sausage with rice and spices (yuyo).
(Narino)


RELLENO
Pie Filling


240 g sugar
120 g cream cheese
5 g vanilla


112
240
30


g egg
g cream
g flour


Beat the yolks of the eggs with the cheese,
sugar, flour, and salt. Then add the cream and
finally the beaten egg whites. Place in pie tins,
lined with crust (see Pastel de Queso) and bake
for 1 hour at 350 F. (El Real)


RELLENO DE PAVO
Turkey Stuffing

Chop 1000 g of fresh lean pork with 1 onion,
1 tomato, a few leaves of culantro and 5 g each of
oregano, Worcestershire sauce, soy sauce, and
vinegar. Salt and pepper to taste, mixing every-
thing well; place in the refrigerator for 4 hours.
Then cook over medium heat until the meat is ten-
der. When cool, grind the mixture adding 240 g
raisins, 12 olives, 4 hard-boiled eggs, and 60 g
capers with their juice. Mix well and stuff
inside the Thanksgiving turkey; roast in the usual
fashion. This recipe was suggested for a 7-kilo
bird. (Hernandez, 1969)


REPOLLADO

Boil the cabbage and steep in milk with bread
crumbs and grated cheese. (Narino)


REPOLLITAS DE YUCA

Boil cassava in salt water until done. Then
grind into a fine flour adding beaten egg yolks.
Make into cakes and brown in a buttered tin in the
oven. When cool, open on one side and stuff with
hot ground pork.


RECHIN: Any burnt dish. (Colombia)








A-64


REPOLLO: A cole slaw made with cabbage, green
pepper, vinegar, sugar, salt, pepper, paprika,
and mayonnaise. (Cartagena)


REPOLLO RELLENO
Stuffed Cabbage

Boil a large cabbage briefly in salt water,
removing and straining before it gets tender.
Strain, cool, and remove the core. Grind or dice
480 g lean pork with tomato, onion, garlic, salt,
vinegar, and capers. Add this mixture to diced
potatoes and the cabbage core and boil with a
little water over a slow fire. Stuff this mass
into the cabbage and cover with leaves, tying
carefully. Place in a pot of water seasoned with
salt, vinegar, tomato, onion, and annatto-tinted
lard, cover, and simmer for about 1/2 hour.
(Cartagena)


REQUEMA: Pulverized burnt honey, used to give
color and flavor to coffee. (Antioquia)


REQUESON
Cottage Cheese

After rendering the cheese, boil the whey.
Milk may be added. (Antioquia)


RESACA: Best quality aguardiente. (Colombia)


RESBALADERA: A sweet gruel made from rice flour
and sugar. See Chicha de Arroz.


REVOLTILLO (393)

(1) An Omelet


235 g egg
35 g lard


10 g salt
20 g onion


(Colombia)

(2) A fish stew made with diced fish in coconut
juice with spices. (Bolivar)


REVOLTILLO DE AJI
Pepper Omelet

Beat the eggs with salt and add pimiento;
mix and fry. (Cuti)


REVOLTILLO DE PESCADO
Scrambled Eggs with Fish

Boil, bone, and shred the fish. Add eggs,
seasonings, and onions. Cook in a frying pan
until tender and flaky. (Unguia)


Boil the shrimp in salt water and peel.
Meanwhile saute the onion with the butter in a
frying pan and add pieces of tomato when the
onions start to brown. Add the shrimp and simmer
for awhile. Beat the eggs, adding a dash of salt,
and add to the simmering mixture. (Cartagena)


REVOLTILLO DE CANGREJOS: Crab omelet, with crab
substituted for shrimp in the same recipe as for
shrimp omelet. (Cartagena)


REVOLTILLO DE CHORIZOS: Sausage omelet, made from
peeled sausage, with onion, garlic, tomato,
lard, and annatto, topped with the beaten eggs.
(Cartagena)


REVOLTILLO DE HICOTEA (GARAPACHO): Turtle omelet,
prepared by skinning the feet, stewing with
tomato, garlic, hot pepper, onion, and cumin,
finally mixing in the beaten eggs to cook, salt-
ing to taste. (Cartagena)


REVOLTILLO DE PAPAS
Potato Omelet


480 g potato
3 g garlic
75 g egg
60 g onion


15 g olive oil or
lard
3 g salt


Soak the diced potatoes in salt water for a
while. Saute the onion and garlic until they are
nearly transparent. Add the diced potatoes to the
saute, stirring until the potatoes are tender.
Then add beaten eggs and scramble.


REVOLTILLO DE TOMATE

Chop up tomatoes, onions and spices in beaten
eggs. Fry in lard or oil. (Cuti)


RIGUE

(1) A corn tortilla. (Honduras)
(2) A corn gruel.


ROMPOPE: Beverage prepared from beaten egg yolks,
sugar, milk, vanilla, cinnamon, and cognac or
sherry.


ROMPOPO: Ron Pope.


RONDON (394)


800 g potato
800 g fish/meat
100 g carrots
30 g coconut milk


50 g flour
50 g onion
1 g garlic
1 g cumin


REVOLTILLO DE CAMARONES
Shrimp Omelet


960 g fresh shrimp
480 g tomato
240 g onion


224 g egg
15 g butter
Water and salt


RON POPE: A punch prepared from eggs, cinnamon,
nutmeg, cloves, aguardiente, and milk. (Narino)









A-65


ROPA VIEJA


(1) 2400 g sliced beef
240 g onion
240 g green pepper


1 g garlic
4-5 tomatoes
Spices


SABAYA: Mazamorra de maiz with pieces of bacon,
jerkey, and other spices. (Chile)


SAGRAPA: Corn porridge. (Colombia)


Boil the meat until tender. Cool and tear
into shreds. Fry the onions, peppers, toma-
toes, and garlic until they are all cooked.
Mix the meat and vegetables together and cook
for 15 minutes.

(2) A meat dish made of shredded beef that has
been boiled and cooled; mixed with fried
onions, garlic, tomatoes, and green peppers
and simmered for 20 minutes. It is usually
served with white rice, baked plantain, or
fried cassava.


ROSCAS AMERICANAS
Doughnuts


SAGU
Arrowroot

Dissolve the arrowroot starch and add milk,
cinnamon, and water. (Antioquia)


SAISI: Diced potatoes boiled in chicha and spiced
with hot pepper. (Bolivia)


SALCHICHA CRIOLLA: Sausage prepared by grinding
pork loin with salt, vinegar, hot pepper, and
bacon crumbs stuffed in intestines and boiled.
(Cartagena)


30 g butter
2 g salt
1 g powdered cinna-
mon
20 g baking powder


Place the batter in the refrigerator until
wanted. Roll out onto table and sprinkle with
flour. Cut into doughnuts and fry in deep fat at
375 F. Coat with sugar when done. (El Real)


ROSERO: A cold dessert made from water, pineapple
chunks, syrup, and aromatic spices, garnished
with orange leaves; served especially during
religious holidays. (Ecuador)


ROSETA: Toasted grain of corn or popcorn coated
with sugar or salt.


ROSQUETES

(1) The pastry (doughnut) called "cotudo" in
Bogota. (Santander)
(2) A thick corn ball with butter and milk and
often wrapped in corn husks. (Central America)


ROSQUILLA: A kind of very sweet cake made in a
spiral shape, made from maiz capia. (Narino)


RUYA: Soup of plantain, cassava, arracacha,
ahuyama, beans and cornmeal. (Santander)


SABALO GUISADO CON COCO
Stewed Tarpon with Coconut


SALCHICHA DULCE
Sweet Sausage


454
1
60
4
240
1
4


g lean pork
g garlic
g onion
g nutmeg
g Malaga wine
g allspice
g clove


1
1
180
10
5
180


g black pepper
g cinnamon
ml water
g parsley
g salt
g panela


Grind-the pork with garlic, onions, parsley,
powdered condiments, and 15 ml wine. Mix and let
stand 2 hours. Roll into marble-sized balls. In
a heavy frying pan place the water, cinnamon
sticks, cloves, and panela. When this boils, drop
in the meatballs and add the wine. Cook slowly,
stirring often until the meatballs have absorbed
the liquid and are dark brown. Remove and pierce
with toothpicks for serving. (Hernandez, 1969).


SALCHICHAS ATORMENTADAS

Beat 8 eggs and place half of the batter in a
greased frying pan with 6 diced Vienna sausages,
then cover with the remainder of the batter. When
the underside has congealed, flip over and fry on
the other side. Serve sprinkled with petit-pois
and a little catsup.


SALCHICHAS FRITAS (267)
Fried Sausage


170 g sausage


57 g lard


Open a can of imported sausages and fry
lightly in imported lard.


6 large fillets
480 g tomato
1 large coconut


120 g hot pepper
120 g diced onion
Salt


Place the fillets in the mixture of diced
onions and tomatoes, seeds and all. Add enough
coconut milk to cover the fish, saving the first
milk extracted. Simmer the fillets for 1/2 hour
and then add the first coconut milk, just before
removing from the fire, ready to serve. (Cartagena)


SALMON GUISADO (268)
Stewed Salmon

113 g imported
canned salmon
113 ml water
85 g onion


28 g catsup
57 g lard
Pepper


Sautg the salmon in hot oil. Add the spices
and water; boil until thick.


2 eggs
180 ml milk
1 g nutmeg
240 g sugar
840 g flour








A-66
SALPICON

(1) Ground meatball, cooked and then buttered.
(Bolivar)
(2) Fruit cocktail. (Santander)
(3) An iced fruit juice. (Ecuador)
(4) Beef browned with onions, simmered with greens
and spices, and garnished with hard-boiled
eggs. (Costa Rica)


SALSA BLANCA (BECHAMEL)
White Sauce

(1) Melt 60 g good-quality butter in a frying pan.
When melted, add 15 g flour, salt, and white
pepper, stirring constantly. Add 240 ml hot
milk and simmer, carefully stirring. Strain,
adding a dash of nutmeg and sugar. Curry
powder dissolved in milk may be added, as may
be mustard, or beaten egg with grated Parmesan
cheese. (Cartagena)

(2) Made like the above but with 45 g butter,
45 g flour, and 240 ml milk or vegetable juice.
(Cartagena)


SALSA DE ACHIOTE (269)
Annatto Sauce

907 g annatto seeds 454 g pork lard
2 water

Place the seeds in a receptacle with a little
water. Strain and boil the water, collecting the
red coloring which floats to the top. Add the
coloring to the lard, mix, and wrap in little
balls in corn husks. A simpler preparation often
used is to add the seeds to hot oil.


SALSA DE ALCAPARRAS: A sauce made of 120 g melted
butter and 15 g mashed capers. (Cartagena)


SALSA DE LIMON CON AJIES PICANTES (270)
Hot Lime Sauce


142 g hot pepper


1 k lime juice


Mix ingredients in a bottle to use as a sauce
at the table.


SALSA DE PAPAYA VERDE
Green Papaya Chutney


480
60
60
30
120


g green papaya
ml vinegar
g onion
ml oil
g tomato


2 g sugar
5 ml soy sauce
8 g cloves
Salt and pepper to
taste


Boil diced green papaya until tender, then
drain. In another pan, bring the spices to a boil.
Macerate and add the papaya to make a sauce suit-
able for any roast.


SALSA DE TOMATOES NATURALES
Tomato Sauce

Dice 6 or 7 large tomatoes and place in a fry
pan with 1 bay leaf, thyme, diced onion, and 2 or
3 garlic cloves. Simmer slowly without adding
water, seeing that the tomatoes don't stick. Mash
or blend and strain, and place the puree back in
the pan with a little butter and oil, seasoning
with salt, pepper, and a little sugar. This sauce
can be used with fish, meats, and bollos, or it
can be used in the place of catsup in other
recipes. (Cartagena)


SALSA FRANCESA CONDIMENTADAS


240 ml cooking oil
60 ml vinegar
2 g grated garlic
10 g sugar


3 g mustard
1 g white pepper
10 g salt
5 g Worcestershire
sauce


Beat together for 3 minutes all the ingredi-
ents except the garlic. Place in a sauce bottle,
adding the garlic. Keep refrigerated. Beat a
little before using. (El Real)



SALSA FRANCESA ESPECIAL
French Dressing


60 g wine vinegar
60 g orange juice
120 g catsup


180 g oil
10 g salt
1 g mustard


Beat all the ingredients together and use to
season salads and vegetables. (El Real)


SAMBROTE: Revoltillo. (Costa Rica)


SAMBUMBE: Country dish made with plantain or
ahuyama, salt, vinegar, and onion. (Colombia)


SAMBUMBIA

(1) Molasses water with sugar. (Puerto Rico)
(2) Ferment of toasted barley and brown sugar.
(Mexico)
(3) Sweetened pineapple-ade. (Mexico)
(4) A complicated and extravagent beverage, often
adulterated. (Colombia, Puerto Rico)
(5) Doctored-up mazamorra. (Colombia)


SANCO: See also Sango.

(1) Porridge made from toasted flour of corn or
wheat, with lard, salt, oregano, diced onions
and a little water. (Argentina)


SANCOCHO

(1) A soup made of plantain, tomatoes, onion,
potatoes, cassava, cabbage, and beef. In some
places called "puchero". (Antioquia)









A-67
(2) A dish based on fish or meat. Cook the vege-
tables like cassava and plantain, throwing out
the water and adding coconut water with the
meat and spices (onion, tomatoes, and garlic).
(Bolivar)

(3) Panama's traditional soup is made from a large
stewing chicken, plus cassava, yam, taro,
sliced corn on the cob, plantain, potatoes,
and onions, flavored with salt and pepper and
a leaf of culantro.

(4) May be based on fish or meat (liga; the meat
portion of the soup). This may also contain
plantain, sepa, ahuyama and cassava, and
spices (ajo, cumin, pimienta, achiote). Among
poor people, plantain may be the only
vegetable. (Truando)

(5) Boil meat with the following washed vegetables:
plantain, cassava, sweet potato, string beans,
onions, cabbage, oregano, sweet pepper, hot
pepper, cumin, culantro, annatto, salt, lard,
and lime. (Cuti)

(6) In a Route 25 summary, Costales suggests for
each person to be served: 108 g pork, 56 g
plantain, 7 g onion.

(7) 55 g plantain, 35 g meat, 50 g cassava, 10 g
sweet potato, 46 g yam.

(8)(396) 975 g pork, 500 g plantain, 60 g onion,
2 g oregano, 35 g salt, 2 Z water. (Colombia)

(9)(415) 295 g cassava, 230 g plantain, 620 g pork,
2 water (La Nueva)


SANCOCHO DE MARRANO (460)
Pork Stew


454 g pork
227 g plantain
227 g yam
227 g cassava
25 g salt


57 g achiote
4 g cumin
3 k water
2 g garlic


SANCOCHO DE PESCADO
Fish Stew


(1) (437)


900
600
500
4
4


g fish
g plantain
g cassava
g culantro
g cumin


100 g annatto
200 ml palm oil
100 g onion
30 g salt
1 9 water


(2) (462)


1000 g fish
2 9 water
200 g plantain
3 g pepper
200 g corn
200 g cassava
200 g yam
3 g cumin


100
100
50
3
50
30
3


g ahuyama
g onion
g annatto
g culantro
g lard
g salt
g garlic


SANCOCHO DE PLATANO (435)
Meatless Stew


200
200
100
100
100
100
100
200


plantain
cassava
yam
taro
sweet potato
potato
onion
palm oil


2
25
100
25
5
5


Boil plantain with cassava,
Then add remaining ingredients.
(Assumed recipe)

SANCOCHO DE SAINO (461)
Peccary Stew


454
3
227
227
227
113


peccary
water
taro
plantain
yam
cabbage


113
57
5
25
57
5


k water
g pepper
g annatto
g salt
g garlic
g cumin


yam, and taro.
(Coredo)


onion
annatto
culantro
salt
lard
garlic


SANGLOMISQUE: A dessert-like omelet of cheese,
eggs, and sugar. (Colombia)

SANGO

(1) Corn soup. (Narino)

(2) A soup, similar to a Central American pozole,
among the Pacific lowland Negroes prepared
with hominy grits, meat, onions, and chile
sauce. (West, 1957)


SARDINAS ASADAS (271)
Roast Sardines


950 g river
"sardines"

Clean and gut the fish
coals on a spit.


25 g salt


and roast over the


SARDINAS EN CONSERVA (272): Canned preserved
sardines.


SARIL LIQUER

Pick the fruits and remove the seeds. Wash
pulp and cook for 1/2 hour with a piece of ginger.
Add sugar while the mixture is hot; let it cool.
May be bottled and kept for 2 to 3 weeks if
whiskey is added. Serve cold with lots of ice
(Larsen and Larsen, 1964).


SELELE

(1) A dish of plantain, cassava, and fish.
(Bolivar)
(2) A soup of salted meat, spareribs, beans, yams,
plantain, and cassava. (Cartagena)









A-68


SELELE CON CANGREJOS
Crab Soup

Boil soaked beans with crab meat, yams,
cassava, and plantain.


SELOGE
Cuna Baked Banana

Bake the banana in the peel over the coals.
Peel and serve with salt and fish. A very fre-
quent dish. (Arquia)


SENDECHO: Beverage made from germinating corn.
(Mexico)


SERENATA: Salad with plantain, sweet potato, and
bacalao with oil, vinegar, and onion. (Puerto
Rico)


SEVICHE


(1) Corbina
Red or yellow
peppers


Onions
Lemon juice


Season corbina with tiny red and yellow
peppers and onions sliced paper thin; marinate
overnight in lemon juice. (Shrimp and
scallops, as well as other species of fish may
be substituted.)

(2) Cut up 2 lb corvina into bite-size pieces.
Place in glass container with lime juice
5 g sugar, a dash of Worcestershire sauce, and
salt and pepper to taste. Add 2 medium onions,
sliced very thin and 4 or 5 little yellow hot
peppers without seeds, slivered very thin.
Mix, cover the bowl, and marinate in the re-
frigerator overnight. Panama, Bolivia,
Ecuador, and Peru all claim this as their very
own dish, but it is Panama's most popular bite-
size food. (Hernandez, 1969)


SEVICHE DE CAMARONES
Shrimp Marinate


Scald the mollusk and steep overnight in a
mixture of the above, being sure that there is
enough lime juice to cover all the meat.


SIA SALET (Cuna)(397)
Chocolate with Cane Juice


(1) 3 cane juice
(Arquia)

(2) 1500 ml cane juice
1 water
(Arquia)


35 g cocoa


35 g cocoa


SIETEPOTAJES: Eaten on Holy Thursday: soup, rice,
chicken, macaroni, a salad made of carrots,
lettuce, beets, culantro, and eggs; tortas and
dessert. (Santander)


SIMPLE: The last run of aguardiente of poor
quality. (Colombia)


SOATA: Breadfast dish of corn with the leaves of
calabaza. (Colombia)


SOBADA: Costa Rican candy made from brown sugar.


SOBRADOS: Leftovers. (Colombia)


SOCONUSCO: A pinole made with a good grade of
chocolate. (Central America)


SOCROCIO: Foamy panela cooked in a greased tin.
(Ecuador)


SOMPOPO: Meat basted with butter or lard.


SOPA BORRACHA (Drunken soup): A rich sponge cake
soaked in rum and garnished with raisins and
prunes after they have been marinated in sherry.


480 g boiled shrimp
120 g diced onion
30 g diced hot
pepper
5 g salt


60 ml olive oil
60 ml lime or lemon
juice
60 ml mustard


After boiling and cleaning, dice the shrimp
and marinate overnight with the other ingredients.


SEVICHE DE CONCHUELAS
Scallop Marinate


480 g scalded scallop
30 g diced hot pepper
10 ml vinegar
56 g onion
1 g garlic
240 ml lime juice


1 g oregano
25 g catsup
30 ml olive oil
5 g mustard
5 g pickle relish
Salt and pepper to
taste


SOPA DE ALMEJAS CON NAME (273)
Clam and Yam Soup


284 g clam
3 k water
85 ml annatto
113 g onion


10 g salt
822 g yam
2 g garlic


Boil clams for 10 minutes; add spices and
diced yams; boil until tender.


SOPA DE ARROZ (460)
Rice Soup

(1) Cook the rice, add the alinos, potatoes or
sweet potatoes, and salt. When this is ready,
make an omelet and crumble it into the soup.
This is eaten when there is no meat on hand.
(Cuti)









A-69
(2) Put meat in boiling water until it is partial-
ly done. Add washed rice, lard, salt, onion,
annatto, cumin, and garlic until it is soft
and thick. (Salaqui)

(3) The recipe may call for rice, peas, potatoes,
and meat. (Santander)


SOPA DE CAMARONES SECOS (277)
Dried Shrimp Soup


142 g dried shrimp
2 k water
57 ml annatto
1 pkg chicken con-
centrate


20 g salt
142 g onion
2 g garlic


SOPA DE ARVEJA CON RABO DE PUERCO
Pea Soup


Boil the dried shrimp with the spices. Add
powdered soup and boil a few minutes more.


480 g split peas
480 g pig's tail


480 g potato
1 recado verde


SOPA DE CAMARONES SECOS CON NAME (276)
Shrimp and Yam Soup


Boil pig's tail until tender, changing the
water at least twice to remove excess salt. Add
the split peas with the recado verde and 5 minutes
later, the potatoes. Simmer until the peas are
done. (El Real)


SOPA DE BACALAO CON NAME (274)
Codfish and Yam Soup


454 g dried codfish
5 g salt
850 g yam
2 g culantro
85 g onion


2 g garlic
113 g sweet pepper
85 ml annatto
3 A water


Remove the salt from the codfish by soaking
overnight. Cook for 10 minutes, then add the
other ingredients and diced yam; boil for 1 hour.


SOPA DE BERROS: A soup made with boiled and
mashed potatoes and watercress in chicken broth
with butter and hot sauce. (Cartagena)


SOPA DE CAMARONES
Shrimp Bisque

480 g shrimp 480 g taro
1 pkg recado verde 480 g cassava

Cook the shrimp, saving the water. Chop the
heads of the shrimp finely and pass through a
strainer with the shrimp water. To this liquid,
add the finely chopped recado verde, the taro, and
cassava. Boil until the vegetables are almost
done; then add the shrimp and simmer until the
vegetables are tender. (El Real)


SOPA DE CAMARONES Y CAMOTE (275)
Shrimp Sweet Potato Soup


454 g river shrimp
5 R water


15 g salt
907 g sweet potato


Stew the shrimp in salt water. Add diced
sweet potato; boil for about 45 minutes.


113 g dried shrimp
454 g yam
2 k water
57 g catsup


113 g onion
2 g culantro
113 g sweet pepper


Boil the yam with the spices until almost ten-
der. Then add the dried shrimp and boil for
15 minutes more.


SOPA DE CARNE

Boil meat with coconut juice, cabbage, and
onion; add annatto, cumin, culantro, diced cassava,
garlic, and salt. (Coredo)


SOPA DE CARNE DE CONEJO PINTADO CON NAME (278)
Paca and Yam Soup


454 g dried paca meat
3 Z water
2 g culantro
227 g yam
57 g catsup


10 g salt
113 g diced onion
2 g garlic
Pepper and oregano
to taste


Soak meat to remove salt and boil with spices
for 35 minutes. Add catsup and diced yam. Boil
until tender.


SOPA DE CARE DE MONO Y PLATANO VERDE (281)
Monkey and Plantain Soup


454 g smoked monkey
4 k water
15 g salt


113 g onion
255 g green plantain
113 ml annatto


Boil the monkey with the salt for 15 minutes.
Then add the spices and green plantain and boil
for 30 minutes.


SOPA DE CARNE DE PAVA CON YUCA (284)
Curassow-Cassava Soup


950 g curassow
990 g cassava
7 Z water


142 ml annatto
142 g onion
4 g garlic


Boil the curassow. Later, add the spices and
boil for 15 minutes. Add diced cassava and boil
until tender.








A-70


SOPA DE CARNE DE RES CON ARVEJAS (287)
Beef Pea Soup


Salt the beef and boil with the spices and
diced plantain for 40 minutes.


454 g beef
227 g yellow peas
3 k water
15 g salt


57 ml oil
113 g onion
2 g garlic


Simmer the beef for 30 minutes. Sautd the
other ingredients and add to beef. Simmer
60 minutes more.


SOPA DE CARNE DE RES CON NAME (293)
Beef and Yam Soup


454 g beef
57 g catsup
2 k water
57 g noodles
255 g yam


113 g onion
2 g garlic
10 g salt
2 g culantro


Boil the beef and spices for 15 minutes. Add
everything but the noodles and boil for 2 hours
more. Finally add the noodles, and more water, if
necessary.


SOPA DE CARNE DE RES CON NAME Y CHAYOTE (289)
Beef, Yam, and Chayote Soup


454 g beef
3 k water
227 g yam
227 g chayote
57 ml catsup


113 g onion
2 g garlic
113 g sweet pepper
Pepper and oregano


Boil the meat for 30 minutes; then add the
vegetables, and spices; boil until the vegetables
are tender.


SOPA DE CARNE DE RES CON NAME Y YUCA
Beef, Yam, and Cassava Soup


454 g beef
3 R water
227 g cassava
227 g yam
57 ml catsup


113 g onion
2 g garlic
2 g culantro
57 ml oil


SOPA DE CARNE EN CONSERVE (286)
Canned Meat Soup


454 g meat soup
(canned)


680 ml water


Heat the water and add the contents of the
can to boil for 10 minutes.


SOPA DE COCALECA SECA CON NAME (298)
Bivalve Soup with Yam


454 g bivalve
454 g yam
3 water


85 ml annatto
142 g onion
10 g salt


Boil the bivalve for 15 minutes. Add spices
and diced yam and boil until tender.


SOPA DE CODILLO DE CERDO CON NAME (290)
Pig's Feet and Yam Soup


454 g pig's feet
907 g yam
20 g salt
3 Z water


142 g onion
113 g catsup
4 g garlic


Boil the knuckles with the spices for
20 minutes. Then add peeled diced yam; boil
30 minutes more.


SOPA DE CONCHUDOS Y PLATANO VERDE (299)
Shellfish and Plantain Soup

454 g conchudo 113 ml annatto
(fluvial) 5 k water
907 g green plantain 142 g onion
25 g salt

Wash and stew the conchudos in salt water.
Add the spices and diced green plantain; boil about
45 minutes.


Boil the meat with onion and garlic for
30 minutes. Add diced vegetables and catsup and
boil for 60 minutes more.


SOPA DE CARNE DE RES Y PAPAS (294)
Beef and Potato Soup


SOPA DE FRIJOLES (401)

160 g beans
40 g lard
10 g cabbage
(Colombia)


8 g onion
300 ml water


1814 g beef (meat
and bones)
680 g potato


30 g salt
113 g onion
1 g garlic


Wash the meat, and braise with the salt and
onions for 15 minutes over a slow fire. Then add
water and diced potatoes and boil for 30 minutes.


SOPA DE FRIJOLES CON CAMARONCITO
Dried Shrimp and Bean Soup


480 g beans
30 g small dried
shrimp
480 g taro


1 recado verde
1 plantain (green)
Salt to taste


SOPA DE CARNE DE RES Y PLATANO (288)
Beef Plantain Soup


1280 g beef
3 9 water
25 g salt


57 g onion
2 g culantro
454 g green plantain


Soak dried shrimp in water for awhile. Cook-
beans until tender. Saute recado verde and dried
shrimp; add the taro and the plantain and cook
until vegetables are tender. (El Real)




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