• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Bird dietary
 Tinamidae
 Podicipediae
 Diomedeidae
 Procellariidae
 Hydrobatidae
 Phaethontidae
 Pelecanidae
 Sulidae
 Phalacrocoracidae
 Anhingidae
 Fregatidae
 Ardeidae
 Cochleariidae
 Ciconiidae
 Threskiornithidae
 Anatidae
 Cathartidae
 Accipitridae
 Falconidae
 Cracidae
 Phasianidae
 Numidadae
 Aramidae
 Rallidae
 Heliornithidae
 Eurypygidae
 Jacanidae
 Haematopodidae
 Charadriidae
 Solopacidae
 Phalaropodidae
 Stercorariidae
 Laridae
 Rynchopidae
 Columbidae
 Psittacidae
 Cuculidae
 Tytonidae
 Strigidae
 Steatornithidae
 Nyctibiidae
 Caprimulgidae
 Apodidae
 Trochilidae
 Trogonidae
 Alcedinidae
 Momotidae
 Galbulidae
 Bucconidae
 Capitonidae
 Ramphastidae
 Picidae
 Dendrocolaptidae
 Furnariidae
 Formicariidae
 Rhynocryptidae
 Cotingidae
 Pipridae
 Tyrannidae
 Oxyrunicidae
 Hirundinidae
 Corvidae
 Cinclidae
 Troglodytidae
 Mimidae
 Thurdidae
 Zeledoniidae
 Sylviidae
 Motacillidae
 Bombycillidae
 Ptilogonatidae
 Cyclarhidae
 Vireolaniidae
 Vireonidae
 Coerebidae
 Parulidae
 Icteridae
 Tersinidae
 Thraupidae
 Fringillidae
 Acknowledgement
 Bibliography






Group Title: Bioenvironmental and radiological-safety feasibility studies : Atlantic-Pacific Interoceanic canal
Title: Bird dietary
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00082068/00001
 Material Information
Title: Bird dietary
Series Title: Bioenvironmental and radiological-safety feasibility studies : Atlantic-Pacific Interoceanic canal
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Duke, James A.
Publisher: Battelle Memorial Institute
Publication Date: 1968
 Subjects
Subject: Caribbean   ( lcsh )
Panama Canal
Canal Zone
Spatial Coverage: North America -- Panama -- Panama Canal Zone
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00082068
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Bird dietary
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Tinamidae
        Page 7
    Podicipediae
        Page 7
    Diomedeidae
        Page 8
    Procellariidae
        Page 8
    Hydrobatidae
        Page 8
    Phaethontidae
        Page 9
    Pelecanidae
        Page 9
    Sulidae
        Page 10
    Phalacrocoracidae
        Page 11
    Anhingidae
        Page 11
    Fregatidae
        Page 12
    Ardeidae
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Cochleariidae
        Page 14
    Ciconiidae
        Page 14
    Threskiornithidae
        Page 15
    Anatidae
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Cathartidae
        Page 18
    Accipitridae
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Falconidae
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Cracidae
        Page 25
    Phasianidae
        Page 26
    Numidadae
        Page 27
    Aramidae
        Page 28
    Rallidae
        Page 28
    Heliornithidae
        Page 29
    Eurypygidae
        Page 30
    Jacanidae
        Page 30
    Haematopodidae
        Page 30
    Charadriidae
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Solopacidae
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Phalaropodidae
        Page 35
    Stercorariidae
        Page 35
    Laridae
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Rynchopidae
        Page 38
    Columbidae
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Psittacidae
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Cuculidae
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Tytonidae
        Page 45
    Strigidae
        Page 45
    Steatornithidae
        Page 46
    Nyctibiidae
        Page 47
    Caprimulgidae
        Page 47
    Apodidae
        Page 48
    Trochilidae
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Trogonidae
        Page 54
    Alcedinidae
        Page 55
    Momotidae
        Page 56
    Galbulidae
        Page 56
    Bucconidae
        Page 57
    Capitonidae
        Page 57
    Ramphastidae
        Page 58
    Picidae
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Dendrocolaptidae
        Page 61
    Furnariidae
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Formicariidae
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Rhynocryptidae
        Page 67
    Cotingidae
        Page 68
    Pipridae
        Page 69
    Tyrannidae
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Oxyrunicidae
        Page 78
    Hirundinidae
        Page 78
    Corvidae
        Page 79
    Cinclidae
        Page 80
    Troglodytidae
        Page 80
        Page 81
    Mimidae
        Page 82
    Thurdidae
        Page 82
        Page 83
    Zeledoniidae
        Page 84
    Sylviidae
        Page 84
    Motacillidae
        Page 84
    Bombycillidae
        Page 85
    Ptilogonatidae
        Page 85
    Cyclarhidae
        Page 85
    Vireolaniidae
        Page 85
    Vireonidae
        Page 86
    Coerebidae
        Page 87
    Parulidae
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    Icteridae
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Tersinidae
        Page 95
    Thraupidae
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
    Fringillidae
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
    Acknowledgement
        Page 105
    Bibliography
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
Full Text



BMI-171-017


BIOENVIRONMENTAL AND RADIOLOGICAL-SAFETY FEASIBILITY STUDIES

ATLANTIC-PACIFIC INTEROCEANIC CANAL








BIRD DIETARY

by

James A. Duke*

Battelle Memorial Institute
Columbus Laboratories



May 29, 1968





Prepared under Battelle Memorial Institute,
Columbus Laboratories, Atomic Energy Commission
Prime Contract No. AT(26-1)-171









*Present address: Box 2034, Balboa Heights, Canal Zone






BATTELLE MEMORIAL INSTITUTE
Columbus Laboratories
505 King Avenue
Columbus, Ohio 43201

















BIOENVIRONMENTAL AND RADIOLOGICAL-SAFETY FEASIBILITY STUDIES


ATLANTIC-PACIFIC INTEROCEANIC CANAL








BIRD DIETARY

by

James A. Duke*


Battelle Memorial Institute
Columbus Laboratories



May 29, 1968






Prepared under Battelle Memorial Institute,
Columbus Laboratories, Atomic Energy Commission
Prime Contract No. AT(26-1)-171









*Present address: Box 2034, Balboa Heights, Canal Zone






BATTELLE MEMORIAL INSTITUTE
Columbus Laboratories
505 King Avenue
Columbus, Ohio 43201












BIRD DIETARY

James A. Duke



Birds may alienate man by eating some of the plants and animals that
reach him directly in food chains, but they benefit man immensely by eating
insects that are even more destructive of man's food organisms. Birds constantly
work on the suppression but not the extermination of insects. Van Tyne and Berger
(1959) summarize the food habits of birds:

Birds, as a group, seem to feed mainly on animals
and only a small proportion of the birds of the world
have become sufficiently specialized to utilize plant
food firsthand. One indication that plant eating is a
secondary specialization is found in the fact that most
plant-eating birds start their newly hatched young on an
animal diet, then gradually change them to a plant diet.
Only a few birds--such as that highly specialized plant-
feeding family, the pigeons--do not start their young on
animal food. Pigeons feed their small young on a special
secretion ("pigeon's milk") from the crop. A specialized
condition is found in certain highly vegetarian cardueline
birds (e.g., the American Goldfinch, Spinus tristus) which
bring to the young in their crop a finely chopped mass of
seeds, apparently already partly digested.

Birds will even eat fruits that are generally regarded as poisonous to
man. Occasionally birds have become intoxicated from overeating poisonous or
fermented fruits. Among some reputedly poisonous fruits and seeds ingested by
birds we may cite Capsicum, Hura, Malouetia, Phytolacca, Rourea, and Solanum.
South American chachas, which feed on poisonous seeds of Rourea glabra, are said
to be poisonous to man. The Venezuelan bird called "pajuil" eats the seeds of
Malouetia tamaraquina, and its bones are then believed poisonous to dogs.

As with other animals, man included, birds feed on what is abundant and
easily secured. Olson and Blum (p.c. 1967) report that Cecropia, a mainstay with
most of the frugivorous animals, is a mainstay with most of the frugivorous birds.

A number of seeds not only pass through birds unharmed, but exhibit
improved germination after having done so. Among such seeds are Amaranthus,
Berberis, Elaeodendron, Ficus, Ilex, Pimenta, Polygonum, and Rosa.

All Panama birds are considered safe to eat, if overcooked, but few
people would eat a buzzard. There have been survival situations where buzzards
were consumed. Eggs are, of course, a more easily procured source of protein for
the survivalist, but are a potential source of Salmonella. Darienitas short on
meat in the bush eat eggs of the following: choma, code, codorniz, gavilan,
kika, loro, paloma, paisana, pavon, perdiz, perico, rabi blanca, titiribi (perico
parade), titibu, and torcaza. (Colloquial names which have been equated with
scientific names will be found in the index.) Under favorable conditions, they


_~ _j_ ~_~_I __ ___









would prefer to hatch out the eggs for pets or to increase the protein value of the
egg. Several species of birds are eaten rather regularly by the Darienitas as will
be pointed out, and many of these same species are migrants to the United States,
where they may also be consumed. According to Breland (1963), "...with few excep-
tions, almost all species of birds that occur in relatively large numbers have been
used for food at one time or another."

Bristan (p.c. 1967) equates some Colombian names with his Darien names
for the birds commonly eaten on the Rio Nercua (the Darien precedes the Colombian
name): change = changon; chocho = pechi blanco; cordoniz = perdiz de rastrojo;
code = chilaco; guacaverde = cariceca; lorito = catanica; martin pena = martin
pescador; paisana = guacharaca; paloma = the same; pava and pavon = the same;
perdiz a the same; pichi = patra; pico prieto = paleton; pico verde = pichi.

Among Darienitas, birds as a rule are sancochado (stewed), and the Indian
methods of preparation are much the same, although they are not as religious about
gutting the birds before cooking. Darienitas eat the innards of few birds, e.g.,
chicken. The Choco mostly stew their birds, usually gutting them. Among the
Bayano Cuna (Bennett, 1962) birds are plucked but seldom gutted before being
cooked, usually boiled, as they are in Mulatupu (Williams, p.c. 1966). Among the
Mulatupu and the Mandinga Cuna, one finds chickens, muscovy ducks, pigeons, and
turkeys cultivated but they are apparently badly molested by vampires. From
natives, eggs are rare gifts of gratitude, being largely reserved, as are the
birds themselves, for special fiestas. It is not surprising among any of the
ethnic groups to find domesticated game birds, such as chachalachas and curassows.

A recent Panama law forbids killing the following birds: Cairina
moschata, Chamaeptes unicolor, Crax rubra, Crypturellus soui, Dendrocygna
autumnalis, Harpia harpyja, Penelope purpurascens, Pharomachrus mocinno, and
Tinamus major.

At one time or another milliners have utilized the feathers of albatross,
condors, egrets, herons, hummingbirds, and terns. In Panama, macaw feathers are
still important in local commerce. Due to the humid climate of Panama, guano
rarely accumulates as it does in the xeric islands off Ecuador and Peru. However,
in the Pearl Islands I have observed small islands so laden with guano as to
appear snow-covered.

Birds figure heavily in the medicines of the San Bias. Ashes of birds,
especially talking birds, are dabbed on the tongue to help one learn a foreign
language. Birds' nests are placed in bath water to impart weaving skills. Beaks
of vultures are used to impart hunting skills. In Piria, hunters keep the heads
of eagles; scrapings off these heads are supposed to impart knowledge of the
location of the quarry.

Among the predators of birds and eggs are man, marsupials, monkeys,
other birds, reptiles, and rodents. Chapman (1929) mentions the following mammals
as enemies of birds in this order: tayra, grison, opossum, coati, skunk, ocelot,
yagouroundi, puma, monkey. Among the reptile enemies are snakes, iguanas,
alligators, crocodiles, and turtles, all of which are eaten by man, thus
theoretically placing any bird's egg in man's food chain, once removed. Bird foes
of birds are hawks and owls which are rarely, if ever, eaten by man, although the
hawk's eggs are eaten by certain Darienitas.

Lack (1954) presents the following information: land birds (weight


between 100-1000 g) eat 5 to 9 percent their body weight daily; songbirds (10-90 g)









eat 10 to 30 percent of their weight daily; hummingbirds (2-3 g) eat 200 percent
of their weight daily. Kendeigh (1934) says that adult seedeaters eat 10 percent
their body weight daily, while insectivores, more likely to be radionuclide-
accumulators, eat 40 percent their weight daily.

In April, 1966, Messrs Fred Folger and Ken Olson studied the birds of
Boca Lara near Santa Fe. Species seen in their studies are presented in Table 1
along with data on their feeding.


TABLE 1. BIRDS OF SANTA FE, APRIL, 1966


Species


Dietary Data


TINAMIDAE
Little Tinamou

ARDEIDAE
Little Blue Heron


ACCIPITRIDAE
White Hawk
Semiplumbeous Hawk
Ornate Hawk-Eagle

COLUMBIDAE
Gray-chested Dove
White-tipped Dove
Blue Ground-Dove
Ruddy Ground-Dove

PSITTACIDAE
Orange-chinned Parakeet
Blue-headed Parrot

CUCULIDAE
Squirrel Cuckoo

NYCTIBIIDAE
Nyctibius

CAPRIMULGIDAE
Lesser Nighthawk
Common Nighthawk
Band-tailed Nighthawk
Pauraque


Mainly fruit or seeds; some insects.


Fish; also amphibians, reptiles,
crustacea, insects, mollusca,
rodents, young birds.

Mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians,
fish, mollusca, various invertebrates,
carrion.


Seed, fruit, acorns, etc.; a few
species also eat insects, worms,
snails.




Fruit, nuts, grains; nectar and other
vegetable matter.


Insects, snails, small invertebrates;
fruits,

Insects.


Insects.


APODIDAE


- -- -- -


Insects.







4


TABLE 1. (Continued)


Dietary Data


TROCHILIDAE
Blue-throated Goldentail
Rufous-breasted Hermit
Green-crowned Woodnymph
Tawny-bellied Hermit
Long-tailed Hermit
Black-throated Mango
Blue-chinned Sapphire
Sapphire-throated Hummingbird
Blue-chested Hummingbird
Purple-chested Hummingbird
White-vented Plumeleteer

TROGONIDAE
White-tailed trogon

ALCEDINIDAE
Green Kingfisher
Green and Rufous Kingfisher

MOTMOTIDAE
Blue-crowned Motmot

BUCCONIDAE
White-whiskered Puffbird

RAMPHASTIDAE
Keel-billed Toucan
Collared Aracari

PICIDAE
Lineated Woodpecker

DENDROCOLAPTIDAE
Olivaceous Woodcreeper
Streak-headed Woodpecker
Plain Brown Woodcreeper

FORMICARIIDAE
Black Antshrike
Mouse-colored Antshrike
Slaty Antshrike
Dusky Antbird
White-flanked Antwren
Rufous-winged Antwren
Dusky Antbird
Bare-crowned Antbird
Chestnut-backed Antbird


Wagner (1946), studying 19 species of
hummingbirds, reports, "...a given
species may feed mainly on nectar or
mainly on insects, depending on the
time of year."









Insects and small fruits; small
lizards, frogs.

Fish, crustacea, insects, amphibians,
reptiles, or even small birds or
mammals.

Worms and fruits, insects, spiders.


Insects, grasshoppers, worms, etc.


Fruit, large insects, nestlings of
smaller birds, lizards, etc.


Insects.


Insects, spiders, amphibians.


Insects.


Species


_ __ __


_ _









TABLE 1. (Continued)


Dietary Data


Black-faced Antthrush
Bicolored Antbird
Spotted Antbird
Ocellated Antthrush


PIPRIDAE
Red-capped Manakin
Golden-headed Manakin
Golden-collared Manakin

COTINGIDAE
Bright-rumped Attila
Rufous Mourner
Masked Tityra

TYRANNIDAE
Black-tailed Flycatcher
Variegated Flycatcher
Streaked Flycatcher
Gray-capped Flycatcher
Great Crested Flycatcher
Brown-crested Flycatcher
Tropical Pewee
Empidonax
Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher
Dusky-capped Flycatcher
Northern Royal Flycatcher
Olivaceous Flatbill
White-eyed Pygmy-Tyrant
Greenish Elaenia
Eastern Wood Pewee
Short-crested Flycatcher
Yellow-margined Flycatcher
Southern Bentbill
Paltry Tyrannulet
Ochre-bellied Flycatcher

HIRUNDINIDAE
Mangrove Swallow
Rough-winged Swallow

TROGLODYTIDAE
White-breasted Wood-Wren

TURDIDAE
Gray-cheeked Thrush


Fruit; some insects.




Fruit; insects.




Insects; fruit; small mammals, reptiles,
amphibians, and fish.























Insects; rarely berries.



Insects, spiders, etc.


Varied (animal and vegetable).


Species


LIL~r~rr~.r~3-~CIIlr~l~~ _










TABLE 1. (Continued)


Dietary Data


VIREONIDAE
Yellow-green Vireo (?)

PARULIDAE
Bay-breasted Warbler
Northern Waterthrush
Canada Warbler
Yellow Warbler

COEREBIDAE
Blue Dacnis

THRAUPIDAE
Fulvous-vented Euphonia
Thick-billed Euphonia
Golden-masked Tanager
Blue-and-black Tanager
Crimson-backed Tanager
White-shouldered Tanager
Gray-headed Tanager
Plain-colored Tanager

FRINGILLIDAE
Black-backed (or Blue-black)
Grosbeak
Variable Seedeater


Insects; some fruit.


Insects; fruits, nectar.






Fruits, insects, nectar.


Fruits, flowers, insects.










Typically seeds; some plant food and
some insects.


This dietary of Panama birds is a compilation from the studies of
Eisenmann (1952, 1955, unpubl. ms.), Eisenmann and Loftin (1967), Loftin (p.c.),
Sturgiss (1928), Wenzel and Tipton (bird parasites, 1966), and Wetmore (1965),
with food chain information gathered by the author in the field and from the
literature. Child, Eisenmann, and Loftin (p.c.), studying the Darien avifauna in
March and April, 1967, reported finding few species there that did not occur near
the Canal Zone; e.g., Black Oropendola, Blue-and-yellow Macaw, and the Golden-
headed Manakin.

The following symbols are used in the text:


Colombian Spanish
Choco
Costa Rican Spanish
Cuna
Darien Spanish
Jamaican Negro


P Panamanian Spanish
p.c. Personal communication
S Spanish
(') Information personally obtained
(*) Migratory species or race


Species


C
Ch
CR
Cu
D
J


L








TINAMIDAE

Tinamous

Tinamus major: Great Tinamou; Perdiz de Arca (S); Putu (Cu); Congolona (CR)

This is a favorite game bird which lives, nests, and feeds on the ground,
eating fruits (e.g., Brosimum, Guatteria, Pseudolmedia), seeds, succulent leaves,
and insects. Frequently nests between tree buttresses. The breast is large for
the body, the flesh pale and translucent, so the bird is heavily hunted for its
excellent flesh and large eggs.

Nothocercus bonapartei: Highland Tinamou; Perdiz Serrana (S)

This rare upland bird is found in western Panama.

Crypturellus soui: Little Tinamou; Perdiz de Rastrojo (S); Suira (Cu);
Three-hour Bird (J)

Analyzing six stomachs, Wetmore (1965) found that the greater part of food
was seeds (Panicum, Paspalum, Scleria, Amaranthus, a spurge, oxalis, mallow,
grape, Passiflora, Styrax, and Solanum). Minute quantities of roach, ant, beetles,
Heteroptera, gravel, and the bones of a small frog were also found. C. boucardi,
a northern relative, was found to feed on Acacia, Aspidosperma, Brosimum,
Cryosophila, Dracaena, Drypetes, Forchhammeria, Manilkara, Maytenus, Pouteria,
Protium, Pseudolmedia, Rinorea, Sabal, Spondias, Swietenia, and Trophis.
Armitermes, Atta, and Eciton or Labidus, plus various Coleoptera and Lepidoptera
were some of the insects consumed, along with a few frogs and lizards.

Probably eaten by all ethnic groups. A Choco guide, Rosarillo, said he was
going to eat one netted at Boca Lara, salted, baked, and stuffed with onions, hot
peppers, and other spices.

Parasitized by Amblyomma, Microlynchia, and Ornithoica.


PODICIPEDIAE

Grebes

Podiceps dominicus: Least Grebe; Tigua (S); Patillo (CR)

Makes floating nests out of reeds. This bird is an expert diver, feeding on
fish, insects (e.g., aquatic beetles, dragonfly larvae), and other small animals.

Podilymbus podiceps: Pied-billed Grebe; Buzo, Sormormujo, Patico (S)

Feeds mostly on crustaceans, fish, frogs, mollusks, insects, and other small
animals. Some roots and seeds are also consumed (Oberholser, 1938). All grebes
ingest their own feathers, perhaps to cushion against the fish bones and insect
chitin until these are dissolved.








TINAMIDAE

Tinamous

Tinamus major: Great Tinamou; Perdiz de Arca (S); Putu (Cu); Congolona (CR)

This is a favorite game bird which lives, nests, and feeds on the ground,
eating fruits (e.g., Brosimum, Guatteria, Pseudolmedia), seeds, succulent leaves,
and insects. Frequently nests between tree buttresses. The breast is large for
the body, the flesh pale and translucent, so the bird is heavily hunted for its
excellent flesh and large eggs.

Nothocercus bonapartei: Highland Tinamou; Perdiz Serrana (S)

This rare upland bird is found in western Panama.

Crypturellus soui: Little Tinamou; Perdiz de Rastrojo (S); Suira (Cu);
Three-hour Bird (J)

Analyzing six stomachs, Wetmore (1965) found that the greater part of food
was seeds (Panicum, Paspalum, Scleria, Amaranthus, a spurge, oxalis, mallow,
grape, Passiflora, Styrax, and Solanum). Minute quantities of roach, ant, beetles,
Heteroptera, gravel, and the bones of a small frog were also found. C. boucardi,
a northern relative, was found to feed on Acacia, Aspidosperma, Brosimum,
Cryosophila, Dracaena, Drypetes, Forchhammeria, Manilkara, Maytenus, Pouteria,
Protium, Pseudolmedia, Rinorea, Sabal, Spondias, Swietenia, and Trophis.
Armitermes, Atta, and Eciton or Labidus, plus various Coleoptera and Lepidoptera
were some of the insects consumed, along with a few frogs and lizards.

Probably eaten by all ethnic groups. A Choco guide, Rosarillo, said he was
going to eat one netted at Boca Lara, salted, baked, and stuffed with onions, hot
peppers, and other spices.

Parasitized by Amblyomma, Microlynchia, and Ornithoica.


PODICIPEDIAE

Grebes

Podiceps dominicus: Least Grebe; Tigua (S); Patillo (CR)

Makes floating nests out of reeds. This bird is an expert diver, feeding on
fish, insects (e.g., aquatic beetles, dragonfly larvae), and other small animals.

Podilymbus podiceps: Pied-billed Grebe; Buzo, Sormormujo, Patico (S)

Feeds mostly on crustaceans, fish, frogs, mollusks, insects, and other small
animals. Some roots and seeds are also consumed (Oberholser, 1938). All grebes
ingest their own feathers, perhaps to cushion against the fish bones and insect
chitin until these are dissolved.







8


DIOMEDEIDAE

Albatrosses

Wanderers which rarely approach land, they feed on cuttlefish and other
marine animals.

Diomedea exulans: Wandering Albatross; Albatros Errante (S)

Diomedea irrorata: Galapagos Albatross; Albatros Galapagiueio (S)

Diomedea chrysostoma: Gray-headed Albatross; Albatros Cabecigris (S)


PROCELLARIIDAE

Shearwaters, Petrels

These birds feed mostly on marine life, mainly on fish and squid,
especially at night. Young are sometimes taken for food. Flesh is strong-
tasting, improved by treating with salt and lime juice. Shearwater cadavers are
eaten by vultures; young are sometimes eaten by humans (Pearson et al, 1942).
Many Procellariiform birds eject a bright orange or red oily fluid when stimu-
lated. This oil is readily digestible by mammals, including man, and it is
regularly used by the Maoris of New Zealand. It is effective in the treatment of
bronchitis (Murphy, 1936).

Puffinus pacificus(*): Wedge-tailed Shearwater; Pardela del Pacifico (S)

Puffinus griseus(*): Sooty Shearwater; Pardela Sombria (S)

This bird is important for its flesh and oil in New Zealand, where it is
known as the mutton bird. Murphy (1936) reports the following dietary items:
fish and swimming crustaceans sometimes reported, cuttlefish, anchovies, squid,
and crab larvae (including Pinnixa and Cancer).

Puffinus lherminieri: Dusky-backed Shearwater; Audubon's Shearwater

Formerly this bird, called "diablotin" in Granada, was consumed in the West
Indies, where dried and salted adults and young birds in the down were offered
for sale. Remains of crustaceans have been found in the stomachs of several
specimens. The bird breeds in Bocas del Toro.

Pterodroma phaeopygia(*): Dark-rumped Petrel; Fardela (S)

This is a migrant from the Galapagos Islands.


HYDROBATI DAE

Storm Petrels; Danzarinas, Painos (S)

These, the smallest of sea birds, feed on marine animals, fragments of


fish, fish oil, minute crustacea, although some seaweed is occasionally found in
the stomach. Crebs (p.c. 1967) notes that they are a favorite food in the







8


DIOMEDEIDAE

Albatrosses

Wanderers which rarely approach land, they feed on cuttlefish and other
marine animals.

Diomedea exulans: Wandering Albatross; Albatros Errante (S)

Diomedea irrorata: Galapagos Albatross; Albatros Galapagiueio (S)

Diomedea chrysostoma: Gray-headed Albatross; Albatros Cabecigris (S)


PROCELLARIIDAE

Shearwaters, Petrels

These birds feed mostly on marine life, mainly on fish and squid,
especially at night. Young are sometimes taken for food. Flesh is strong-
tasting, improved by treating with salt and lime juice. Shearwater cadavers are
eaten by vultures; young are sometimes eaten by humans (Pearson et al, 1942).
Many Procellariiform birds eject a bright orange or red oily fluid when stimu-
lated. This oil is readily digestible by mammals, including man, and it is
regularly used by the Maoris of New Zealand. It is effective in the treatment of
bronchitis (Murphy, 1936).

Puffinus pacificus(*): Wedge-tailed Shearwater; Pardela del Pacifico (S)

Puffinus griseus(*): Sooty Shearwater; Pardela Sombria (S)

This bird is important for its flesh and oil in New Zealand, where it is
known as the mutton bird. Murphy (1936) reports the following dietary items:
fish and swimming crustaceans sometimes reported, cuttlefish, anchovies, squid,
and crab larvae (including Pinnixa and Cancer).

Puffinus lherminieri: Dusky-backed Shearwater; Audubon's Shearwater

Formerly this bird, called "diablotin" in Granada, was consumed in the West
Indies, where dried and salted adults and young birds in the down were offered
for sale. Remains of crustaceans have been found in the stomachs of several
specimens. The bird breeds in Bocas del Toro.

Pterodroma phaeopygia(*): Dark-rumped Petrel; Fardela (S)

This is a migrant from the Galapagos Islands.


HYDROBATI DAE

Storm Petrels; Danzarinas, Painos (S)

These, the smallest of sea birds, feed on marine animals, fragments of


fish, fish oil, minute crustacea, although some seaweed is occasionally found in
the stomach. Crebs (p.c. 1967) notes that they are a favorite food in the







8


DIOMEDEIDAE

Albatrosses

Wanderers which rarely approach land, they feed on cuttlefish and other
marine animals.

Diomedea exulans: Wandering Albatross; Albatros Errante (S)

Diomedea irrorata: Galapagos Albatross; Albatros Galapagiueio (S)

Diomedea chrysostoma: Gray-headed Albatross; Albatros Cabecigris (S)


PROCELLARIIDAE

Shearwaters, Petrels

These birds feed mostly on marine life, mainly on fish and squid,
especially at night. Young are sometimes taken for food. Flesh is strong-
tasting, improved by treating with salt and lime juice. Shearwater cadavers are
eaten by vultures; young are sometimes eaten by humans (Pearson et al, 1942).
Many Procellariiform birds eject a bright orange or red oily fluid when stimu-
lated. This oil is readily digestible by mammals, including man, and it is
regularly used by the Maoris of New Zealand. It is effective in the treatment of
bronchitis (Murphy, 1936).

Puffinus pacificus(*): Wedge-tailed Shearwater; Pardela del Pacifico (S)

Puffinus griseus(*): Sooty Shearwater; Pardela Sombria (S)

This bird is important for its flesh and oil in New Zealand, where it is
known as the mutton bird. Murphy (1936) reports the following dietary items:
fish and swimming crustaceans sometimes reported, cuttlefish, anchovies, squid,
and crab larvae (including Pinnixa and Cancer).

Puffinus lherminieri: Dusky-backed Shearwater; Audubon's Shearwater

Formerly this bird, called "diablotin" in Granada, was consumed in the West
Indies, where dried and salted adults and young birds in the down were offered
for sale. Remains of crustaceans have been found in the stomachs of several
specimens. The bird breeds in Bocas del Toro.

Pterodroma phaeopygia(*): Dark-rumped Petrel; Fardela (S)

This is a migrant from the Galapagos Islands.


HYDROBATI DAE

Storm Petrels; Danzarinas, Painos (S)

These, the smallest of sea birds, feed on marine animals, fragments of


fish, fish oil, minute crustacea, although some seaweed is occasionally found in
the stomach. Crebs (p.c. 1967) notes that they are a favorite food in the









Caribbean, where adults and young are taken from their nest burrows at night.
Petrels have the potentially bad habit of picking up fine, potentially radioactive
cinders from the surface of the ocean.

Halocyptena microsoma(*): Least Petrel; Golondrina de Mar Menuda (S)

Oceanodroma tethys: Wedge-rumped Petrel; Danzarina (S)

Farther south, it is preyed on by the Galapagos Short-eared Owl.

Loomelania melania(*): Black Petrel; Golondrina de Mar Negra (S)

Principal food at its breeding grounds seem to be the larvae of spiny
lobsters. Its prime natural enemies are falcons, cats, rats, and mice.

Oceanites gracilis(*): White-vented Petrel, Graceful Storm Petrel; Golondrina
de Mar Chica (S)


PHAETHONTIDAE

Tropicbirds; Aves del Tr6pico (S)

According to Wetmore (1965), Panama has the only breeding colony of the
Red-billed Tropicbird in all of Central America. It feeds on squids and flying
fish; near shore picks up crabs; is often molested by frigate birds,

Phaethon aethereus: Red-billed Tropicbird; Rabijunco (S)

Food consists mostly of fish and squid. Principal enemies are man and cats.
Hundreds were salted and dried annually to be eaten by the fishermen of Cape Verde.
The plumes have been used in the millinery trade and were used by the Carib
Indians in their hair or pierced noses.

Phaethon lepturus: White-tailed Tropicbird

Adults often contain nothing but cephalopods, but at Ascension Island crabs
are said to be the staple. Remains of flying fish and sea urchins are also
reported. For the first 10 or 15 days, offspring receive only pteropods and other
soft-bodied marine animals. From 15 to 30 days, the food is 90 percent squid, the
remainder being mostly fish. In Bermuda the principal natural enemy is the roof
rat. Report of this species in Panama is in error (Wetmore, 1965).


PELECANI DAE

Pelicans; Pelicanos (S)

Pelecanus occidentalis(*): Brown Pelican; Alcatraz, Cuado (S); Canario, Gaban (C);
Corki (Cu); Old Joe (J)

No bird seems more common in the brackish waters around La Palma and Isla
Mosquito than the Brown Pelican, oftentimes so common as to appear capable of
producing quantities of guano, but undoubtedly the high rainfall of the island
prevents any sizeable accumulation. On the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of Panama
and Colombia, I have seen hundreds of pelicans flying single file, just over the









Caribbean, where adults and young are taken from their nest burrows at night.
Petrels have the potentially bad habit of picking up fine, potentially radioactive
cinders from the surface of the ocean.

Halocyptena microsoma(*): Least Petrel; Golondrina de Mar Menuda (S)

Oceanodroma tethys: Wedge-rumped Petrel; Danzarina (S)

Farther south, it is preyed on by the Galapagos Short-eared Owl.

Loomelania melania(*): Black Petrel; Golondrina de Mar Negra (S)

Principal food at its breeding grounds seem to be the larvae of spiny
lobsters. Its prime natural enemies are falcons, cats, rats, and mice.

Oceanites gracilis(*): White-vented Petrel, Graceful Storm Petrel; Golondrina
de Mar Chica (S)


PHAETHONTIDAE

Tropicbirds; Aves del Tr6pico (S)

According to Wetmore (1965), Panama has the only breeding colony of the
Red-billed Tropicbird in all of Central America. It feeds on squids and flying
fish; near shore picks up crabs; is often molested by frigate birds,

Phaethon aethereus: Red-billed Tropicbird; Rabijunco (S)

Food consists mostly of fish and squid. Principal enemies are man and cats.
Hundreds were salted and dried annually to be eaten by the fishermen of Cape Verde.
The plumes have been used in the millinery trade and were used by the Carib
Indians in their hair or pierced noses.

Phaethon lepturus: White-tailed Tropicbird

Adults often contain nothing but cephalopods, but at Ascension Island crabs
are said to be the staple. Remains of flying fish and sea urchins are also
reported. For the first 10 or 15 days, offspring receive only pteropods and other
soft-bodied marine animals. From 15 to 30 days, the food is 90 percent squid, the
remainder being mostly fish. In Bermuda the principal natural enemy is the roof
rat. Report of this species in Panama is in error (Wetmore, 1965).


PELECANI DAE

Pelicans; Pelicanos (S)

Pelecanus occidentalis(*): Brown Pelican; Alcatraz, Cuado (S); Canario, Gaban (C);
Corki (Cu); Old Joe (J)

No bird seems more common in the brackish waters around La Palma and Isla
Mosquito than the Brown Pelican, oftentimes so common as to appear capable of
producing quantities of guano, but undoubtedly the high rainfall of the island
prevents any sizeable accumulation. On the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of Panama
and Colombia, I have seen hundreds of pelicans flying single file, just over the







10


water. It is a gregarious bird, nesting in coastal scrub and mangrove and feeding
almost exclusively on fish, less than 1 percent of which is desired by man. In
Peru, the anchovy, Engraulis ringens, is a most important food, although much
larger fish are taken (e.g., mullets more than 30 cm long, needlefish, Tylosurus,
and eels). Apparently the bird is not eaten in Darien, but it is said to be eaten
in Pedro Gonzalez (Pearl Islands). Diving birds almost invariably come up facing
the other direction. They pretend they catch a fish on their unsuccessful sallies
(Crebs, p.c. 1967). In shallow water, pelicans, especially the younger ones, swim
with the mouth open at the surface of the water, thrusting it forward when a fish
is sighted. The birds are robbed of their food by frigate birds and laughing gull
gulls; vultures and gulls eat the eggs and fledglings. Injured nestlings may be
eaten by their siblings. Young pelicans are fed by regurgitation, the mother
expelling a foul-smelling fish soup into her "bowl". When alarmed, the young
regurgitate their meal, a fact of which hungry kelp gulls and Indians in need of
bait take advantage. In old times, the bottom of the throat was used for tobacco
pouches. Veraguas hunters of old apparently made a deer call by stretching a
cobweb over one end of the wing bone. The San Bias Indians string segments of
hollowed wing bones, especially the ulna, as necklaces. Peruvians use the egg
albumen to clarify wine; Chileans have used the pouch to make lanterns. It is
parasitized externally by Olfersia.


SULIDAE

Boobies, Gannets; Bobas, Piqueros (S)

These birds are underwater fishers (to as deep as 27 m), important guano
sources, and were eaten by Wafer's companions in the 17th century (1903). The
eggs are occasionally eaten in the Cayman Islands. According to Wetmore (1965),
boobies are fishermen of the sea, seldom or never crossing the barrier presented
by the Isthmus of Panama.

Sula nebouxii: Blue-footed Booby; Camanty (S)

This bird breeds in the Pearl Islands and is common on islets off the Pacific
Canal terminus, although unrecorded from the Atlantic side (Murphy, 1936).

Sula dactylatra: Masked or Blue-faced Booby; Boba Borrega (S)

Stomachs contain squid and fish, especially flying fish.

Sula sula: Red-footed Booby; Boba Blanca (S)

Bulk of its food consists of flying fish, up to 15 cm long. Cephalopods are
also eaten.

Sula leucogaster: Brown Booby; Piquero Moreno (S)

The young are fed squid and fish. Stomach analyses in the Bahamas revealed
flying fish, halfbeaks, flatfish, parrot fish, and large prawns. Crabs sometimes
eat the eggs and food that the adults regurgitate.






11


PHALACROCORACI DAE

Cormorants; Cuervos Marinos (S); Pato Chancho (CR)
P"to Cuervo (C); Tope (Ch); Toto (Cu); Crow (J)

The amine in Spanish means marine ravens; in Costa Rican Spanish, it is
literally pig duck. This gregarious fisherman pursues fish underwater; occasionally
produces guano. Young are fed from the throats of the parents, into which they.
vigorously thrust their bills.

Phalacrocorax olivaceus: Olivaceous Cormorant, Neotropic Cormorant; Cuervo
Marino (S)

According to Wetmore (1965), the number on the Gulf varies considerably front
season to season, governed apparently by the abundance of schools of small fishi.
On the Rios Tuira and Chucunaque, they are mostly found above tidewater, and these
appear to be young birds, attracted to the easier fishing in the clearer waters;
they are slow-witted enough to be captured by El Real children who swim up under-
water and grab them. Darien Negroes and Choco Indians eat the birds guisado or
stewed, after skinning them. Cormorants eat fish, crustaceans, and marine worms.
They occasionally dive underwater to elude maurauding frigate birds. In the Gulf
of Uraba, hundreds of these fly single file just over the water in the dry
season (1). A few of the Pearl Islands appear to be covered with snow, this being
guano produced by hundreds of cormorants, frigate birds, and pelicans also seen on
the islands. Chinese have trained cormorants to fish for them, with a ring around
their necks to prevent their swallowing the larger fish. Efficient fishers, them-
selves requiring 800 g of fish a day, they can catch 150 fish in an hour. Murphy
(1936) notes a manuscript stating that a cormorant caught 22 eels in 10 minutes.
His analyses in Peru revealed the following fish: Scorpaena histrio, Chromis crusma,
Epinephalus labriformis; also there were sand fleas (Emerita), barnacles (Balanus),
crabs, chitons, other mollusks, and algae. These he notes may have been contained
in the partially digested fish. They also eat spiny catfish.

Ectoparasitized by Olfersia.


ANHINGIDAE

Snakebirds; Cuervos de Aguja (S)

Anhinga anhinga: Anhinga; Cuervo de Aguja (S)

Anhingas become completely soaked when fishing underwater and are rather
easily caught by Darien youngsters. They feed on fish (bream, mullet, sunfish, in
the United States) and occasionally on lizards and insects and their larvae.
Grass tops and seeds have been found in the stomachs. Martin et al (1961)
summarize the diet as follows: primarily fish, then crayfish, crabs, shrimps,
aquatic insects, tadpoles, water snakes, and small terrapins. In Darien, the
Negroes regularly eat them stewed, after skinning the bird. The flesh is
esteemed by some people. At Caserio la Nueva on the Truando River, where the bird
is apparently eaten, young children gig the anhinga with long spears (.). The
bird is easily confused with the cormorant but differs in having a longer neck,
twisted in an S-configuration, more gray in its collor pattern, and a straight,
serrated beak. It is ectoparasitized by Blankaartia.






11


PHALACROCORACI DAE

Cormorants; Cuervos Marinos (S); Pato Chancho (CR)
P"to Cuervo (C); Tope (Ch); Toto (Cu); Crow (J)

The amine in Spanish means marine ravens; in Costa Rican Spanish, it is
literally pig duck. This gregarious fisherman pursues fish underwater; occasionally
produces guano. Young are fed from the throats of the parents, into which they.
vigorously thrust their bills.

Phalacrocorax olivaceus: Olivaceous Cormorant, Neotropic Cormorant; Cuervo
Marino (S)

According to Wetmore (1965), the number on the Gulf varies considerably front
season to season, governed apparently by the abundance of schools of small fishi.
On the Rios Tuira and Chucunaque, they are mostly found above tidewater, and these
appear to be young birds, attracted to the easier fishing in the clearer waters;
they are slow-witted enough to be captured by El Real children who swim up under-
water and grab them. Darien Negroes and Choco Indians eat the birds guisado or
stewed, after skinning them. Cormorants eat fish, crustaceans, and marine worms.
They occasionally dive underwater to elude maurauding frigate birds. In the Gulf
of Uraba, hundreds of these fly single file just over the water in the dry
season (1). A few of the Pearl Islands appear to be covered with snow, this being
guano produced by hundreds of cormorants, frigate birds, and pelicans also seen on
the islands. Chinese have trained cormorants to fish for them, with a ring around
their necks to prevent their swallowing the larger fish. Efficient fishers, them-
selves requiring 800 g of fish a day, they can catch 150 fish in an hour. Murphy
(1936) notes a manuscript stating that a cormorant caught 22 eels in 10 minutes.
His analyses in Peru revealed the following fish: Scorpaena histrio, Chromis crusma,
Epinephalus labriformis; also there were sand fleas (Emerita), barnacles (Balanus),
crabs, chitons, other mollusks, and algae. These he notes may have been contained
in the partially digested fish. They also eat spiny catfish.

Ectoparasitized by Olfersia.


ANHINGIDAE

Snakebirds; Cuervos de Aguja (S)

Anhinga anhinga: Anhinga; Cuervo de Aguja (S)

Anhingas become completely soaked when fishing underwater and are rather
easily caught by Darien youngsters. They feed on fish (bream, mullet, sunfish, in
the United States) and occasionally on lizards and insects and their larvae.
Grass tops and seeds have been found in the stomachs. Martin et al (1961)
summarize the diet as follows: primarily fish, then crayfish, crabs, shrimps,
aquatic insects, tadpoles, water snakes, and small terrapins. In Darien, the
Negroes regularly eat them stewed, after skinning the bird. The flesh is
esteemed by some people. At Caserio la Nueva on the Truando River, where the bird
is apparently eaten, young children gig the anhinga with long spears (.). The
bird is easily confused with the cormorant but differs in having a longer neck,
twisted in an S-configuration, more gray in its collor pattern, and a straight,
serrated beak. It is ectoparasitized by Blankaartia.







12


FREGATIDAE

Frigate Birds; Tijeretas de Mar (S); Tijereta (C); Bane (Cu)

Fregata magnificens: Magnificent Frigatebird; Tijeretas de Mar (S)

Dives on terns, cormorants, gulls, boobies, robbing them of their food, but
occasionally does its own fishing, sometimes even catching sea snakes. Sometimes
preys on the young of terns, swallowing them whole. At sea, feeds on flying fish
and surface fish; also eats young turtles, and catches the offal discarded by
fishermen cleaning their fish. Fish reported in addition to the flying fish are
halfbeaks, herring, and mullet. Sometimes they have been used like carrier
pigeons. In the Lesser Antilles, they were hunted for their fat, which was used
for rheumatism, paralysis, and dropsy. Some fishermen in the Caribbean claim
that the frigate bird makes small characteristic circles in the air as it trails
marlin and sailfish. Often nests in mangrove swamps. Apparently the frigate bird
is not usually eaten in eastern Panama, but Wetmore (1965) has eaten it. It is
ectoparasitized by Olfersia.


ARDEIDAE

Herons; Garzas (S)

Herons feed on fish, small reptiles, other aquatic animals, and insects.
Herons particularly exhibit a peculiarity shared with parrots; i.e., "powder down"
patches, usually yellow, on the breast and pelvic regions. Contrary to popular
opinion, these do not emit a light at night, luring fish to their destruction.

Ardea herodias(*): Great Blue Heron; Garz6n Cenizo (S); Grullo (Ch); Sihuar (Cu)

This migrant from North America feeds on fish, including catfish and shrimp,
frogs, snakes, mice, eel, grasshoppers, locusts, rodents, crayfish, and tadpoles.
In the U. S., has been known to capture a black bass weighing a pound or more.

Ardea cocoi: White-necked (Cocoi) Heron; Garz6n Moreno (S)

A South American species extending to Darien, it is not uncommon on the Rios
Tuira and Chucunaque, where it largely replaces the Great Blue Heron.

Pilherodius pileatus: Capped Heron; Garza Real (S); Martinete, Carga Manteca (Ch);
Chosuaco (CR); Coquito (Rio Indio, C.Z.)

Watching for food along the water's edge, this bird stands motionless or
walks slowly and stealthily; veeds on fish, frogs, lizards, crabs, tadpoles,
snakes, mammals, and insects.

Butorides striatus: Striated Heron; Chicuaco (S)

Occurs on the Chucunaque and Tuira; shrimp, fish, crabs, and insects have
been found in the stomach.







12


FREGATIDAE

Frigate Birds; Tijeretas de Mar (S); Tijereta (C); Bane (Cu)

Fregata magnificens: Magnificent Frigatebird; Tijeretas de Mar (S)

Dives on terns, cormorants, gulls, boobies, robbing them of their food, but
occasionally does its own fishing, sometimes even catching sea snakes. Sometimes
preys on the young of terns, swallowing them whole. At sea, feeds on flying fish
and surface fish; also eats young turtles, and catches the offal discarded by
fishermen cleaning their fish. Fish reported in addition to the flying fish are
halfbeaks, herring, and mullet. Sometimes they have been used like carrier
pigeons. In the Lesser Antilles, they were hunted for their fat, which was used
for rheumatism, paralysis, and dropsy. Some fishermen in the Caribbean claim
that the frigate bird makes small characteristic circles in the air as it trails
marlin and sailfish. Often nests in mangrove swamps. Apparently the frigate bird
is not usually eaten in eastern Panama, but Wetmore (1965) has eaten it. It is
ectoparasitized by Olfersia.


ARDEIDAE

Herons; Garzas (S)

Herons feed on fish, small reptiles, other aquatic animals, and insects.
Herons particularly exhibit a peculiarity shared with parrots; i.e., "powder down"
patches, usually yellow, on the breast and pelvic regions. Contrary to popular
opinion, these do not emit a light at night, luring fish to their destruction.

Ardea herodias(*): Great Blue Heron; Garz6n Cenizo (S); Grullo (Ch); Sihuar (Cu)

This migrant from North America feeds on fish, including catfish and shrimp,
frogs, snakes, mice, eel, grasshoppers, locusts, rodents, crayfish, and tadpoles.
In the U. S., has been known to capture a black bass weighing a pound or more.

Ardea cocoi: White-necked (Cocoi) Heron; Garz6n Moreno (S)

A South American species extending to Darien, it is not uncommon on the Rios
Tuira and Chucunaque, where it largely replaces the Great Blue Heron.

Pilherodius pileatus: Capped Heron; Garza Real (S); Martinete, Carga Manteca (Ch);
Chosuaco (CR); Coquito (Rio Indio, C.Z.)

Watching for food along the water's edge, this bird stands motionless or
walks slowly and stealthily; veeds on fish, frogs, lizards, crabs, tadpoles,
snakes, mammals, and insects.

Butorides striatus: Striated Heron; Chicuaco (S)

Occurs on the Chucunaque and Tuira; shrimp, fish, crabs, and insects have
been found in the stomach.






13


Florida caerulea: Little Blue Heron; Garceta Azul (adult), Garceta Blanca
(juvenile) (S)

This bird is often found in mangrove swamps; e.g., from Boca Sabana to
Santa Fe. Eats crabs, crayfish, fish, frogs, insects, lizards, shrimp, and
tadpoles; occasionally hunts lizards in the fields. In Panama stomach analyses
reveal Coleoptera, crayfish, grass seeds, mole crabs, Orthoptera, shrimp, and
spiders. Intestines are infected with the trematodes Apharyngostrigea ibis and
Lypersomum sinuosum at Panama Viejo.

Casmerodius albus: Common or Great Egret; Garza Blanca (S); Garz6n (C)

Small shrimp and fish were found in stomach analyses in Colombia, where the
bird is hunted for its meat. According to Martin et al (1961) aquatic insects,
crabs, crayfish, fish, frogs, lizards, shrimp, and snails are its principal diet.
Ectoparasitized by Ornithoica.

Leucophoyx thula: Snowy Egret; Garceta Blanca (S)

Loftin (p.c. 1967) states that a nestling he banded in Florida was recovered
in Changuinola (Bocas del Toro) seven years later. Birds banded in Louisiana and
Mississippi have been recovered in Panama. They usually feed like other herons,
but Wetmore (1965) has seen them successfully dive on a school of minnows.
According to Martin et al (1961), this bird feeds primarily on aquatic and
terrestrial insects, crabs, crayfish, fish, frogs, shrimp, and snails; secondarily,
on mice, reptiles, and other small mammals. Snowy Egrets, like Cattle Egrets, work
with cattle, attracted mostly by the Acrididae and Tettigoniidae flushed by the
cattle. The bird is ectoparasitized by Olfersia.

Bubulcus ibis: Cattle Egret; Garcilla Bueyera (S); Garza (C)

A common bird in Panama pastures, it feeds on insects stirred up by the
cattle; also eats frogs and small birds (Dendroica coronata, D. stricta).

Hydranassa tricolor: Tricolored (Louisiana) Heron; Garza Pechiblanca (S)

One banded in South Carolina was retaken in the lower Tuira. It is a
solitary fisherman, sometimes darting after minnows; often lives in mangroves,
e.g., along the Rio Sabana. Crabs, small fish, and shrimp have been found in its
stomach. Other foods include cutworms, grasshoppers, lizards, and worms.

Agamia agami: Chestnut-bellied Heron, Agami Heron; Garza Pechicastana (S)

Although rare, this bird has been reported from Rios Tuira, Sambu,
Chucunaque, and Tuquesa.

Nycticorax nyctiocorax(*): Black-crowned Night-heron; Zorro de Agua (S);
P~jaro Gallina (El Real, Darien); Chocuacua (CR)

One banded in Michigan was shot at Rio Hato. The bird is eaten by Darien
Negroes, prepared like duck. It is largely a nocturnal mangrove inhabitant.
Wetmore (1965) reports that in Darien it is called "huraia" (shy one), probably
because of its secretive habits. Near Pacora it is called "chala". Feeds on
beetles, crabs, crayfish, crustaceans, dragonflies, eels, small fish, frogs,
leeches, mollusks, salamanders, shrimp, snakes, tadpoles, worms, and rarely


aquatic plants. It is ectoparasitized by Blankaartia.







14


Heterocnus mexicanum: Bare-throated Tiger-bittern; Jorralico, Martin Pena (CR)

Shelters in swampy woodlands and mangroves and is easily procured with sticks
and stones. Eats crabs and fish.

Tigrisoma lineatum: Rufescent Tiger-heron, Banded Tiger-bittern; Garzatigre Rayada,
Garza Vaca, PAjaro Vaca (S); Martin Pena (CR)

Found in the Tuira-Chucunaque basins, in swampy forests and mangroves. One
shot on the Rio Tuquesa contained a partly armored fish [probably huacuco (Wetmore,
1965)].

Tigrisoma fasciatum: Fasciated Tiger-heron

One taken at the Rio Tacarcuna was filled with Loricariidae and huacuco;
another had eaten a large water bug (Wetmore, 1965).

Botaurus lentiginosus(*): American Bittern; Avetoro Pasajero (S)

Has been recorded only from the Canal Zone. Feeds on crayfish, fish, frogs,
insects, especially grasshoppers, lizards, locusts, mice, mollusks, and snakes.

Ixobrychus exilis(*): Least Bittern; Garza Enana (S)

Migrant and local races frequent freshwater marshes, fish being the principal
food. Martin et al (1961) notes that it eats less fish than the American Bittern,
mainly taking amphibians, crustaceans, and insects. Beetles, fish, flies and other
insects, frogs, leeches, lizards, snails, and even occasionally small birds and
mammals are listed as the diet (Oberholser, 1938).


COCHLEARIIDAE

Boat-billed Herons

Cochlearius cochlearius: Boat-billed Heron; Garzota Cuchara (S); Bocacho (P);
Chocuacua (CR); Cuchara (D); Gaig Matar (Cu)

By day it roosts in mangroves and marshes. Wetmore (p.c.) states, and Choco
Indians agree, that it is a nocturnal feeder, scooping up aquatic animals. Some
Panamanians call it "bocacho", thinking it evil due to its ugly looks. One
collected near Gatun had a stomach full of shrimp. It is ectoparasitized by
Ambylomma dissimile and Ambylomma spp.


CI CONIIDAE

Storks; Cigue'as (S)

Mycteria americana: Wood Ibis (Wood Stork); Gaban, Grulla (P)

Found on the Tuira and Chucunaque, nesting in swamps and mangroves. Eats
mainly aquatic insects, crabs, crayfish, fish, and snails (Martinlet al, 1961);
also takes young alligators, beetles, dragonflies and other insects, frogs,
grackles, rats, snakes, turtles, and worms.







14


Heterocnus mexicanum: Bare-throated Tiger-bittern; Jorralico, Martin Pena (CR)

Shelters in swampy woodlands and mangroves and is easily procured with sticks
and stones. Eats crabs and fish.

Tigrisoma lineatum: Rufescent Tiger-heron, Banded Tiger-bittern; Garzatigre Rayada,
Garza Vaca, PAjaro Vaca (S); Martin Pena (CR)

Found in the Tuira-Chucunaque basins, in swampy forests and mangroves. One
shot on the Rio Tuquesa contained a partly armored fish [probably huacuco (Wetmore,
1965)].

Tigrisoma fasciatum: Fasciated Tiger-heron

One taken at the Rio Tacarcuna was filled with Loricariidae and huacuco;
another had eaten a large water bug (Wetmore, 1965).

Botaurus lentiginosus(*): American Bittern; Avetoro Pasajero (S)

Has been recorded only from the Canal Zone. Feeds on crayfish, fish, frogs,
insects, especially grasshoppers, lizards, locusts, mice, mollusks, and snakes.

Ixobrychus exilis(*): Least Bittern; Garza Enana (S)

Migrant and local races frequent freshwater marshes, fish being the principal
food. Martin et al (1961) notes that it eats less fish than the American Bittern,
mainly taking amphibians, crustaceans, and insects. Beetles, fish, flies and other
insects, frogs, leeches, lizards, snails, and even occasionally small birds and
mammals are listed as the diet (Oberholser, 1938).


COCHLEARIIDAE

Boat-billed Herons

Cochlearius cochlearius: Boat-billed Heron; Garzota Cuchara (S); Bocacho (P);
Chocuacua (CR); Cuchara (D); Gaig Matar (Cu)

By day it roosts in mangroves and marshes. Wetmore (p.c.) states, and Choco
Indians agree, that it is a nocturnal feeder, scooping up aquatic animals. Some
Panamanians call it "bocacho", thinking it evil due to its ugly looks. One
collected near Gatun had a stomach full of shrimp. It is ectoparasitized by
Ambylomma dissimile and Ambylomma spp.


CI CONIIDAE

Storks; Cigue'as (S)

Mycteria americana: Wood Ibis (Wood Stork); Gaban, Grulla (P)

Found on the Tuira and Chucunaque, nesting in swamps and mangroves. Eats
mainly aquatic insects, crabs, crayfish, fish, and snails (Martinlet al, 1961);
also takes young alligators, beetles, dragonflies and other insects, frogs,
grackles, rats, snakes, turtles, and worms.






15


Jabiru mycteria: Jabiru; Garz6n Soldado, Galan sin Ventura .(CR); Dabgala (Cu)

This bird is rare in Panama.


S' THRESKIORNITHIDAE

Ibises, Spoonbills; Cocos, Garzas Paletas (S)

Mesembrinibis cayennensis: Green (Cayenne) Ibis; Corocoro (S)

This bird is secretive in the mangroves of Rios Mandinga, Chucunaque, and
Tuira; probably feeds on crustaceans, fish, and vegetable matter.

Theristicus caudatus: Buff-necked Ibis; Bandurria ComOn (S)

Two were recorded from Pacora.

Eudocimus albus: White Ibis; Coco Blanco, Chiron, Cococoro (D); Mutpep (Cu)

This bird is rather common in coastal swamps of the Pacific side and the
Pearl Islands, Rio Tuira, and Rio Sabana. Feeds almost entirely on animal matter,
aquatic insects (cockroaches), crabs, crayfish, cutworms, fish, grasshoppers,
snails, and snakes. The delicate meat is prized for food.

Plegadis falcinellus: Glossy Ibis; Morito, Coco Negro (S)

Feeds almost entirely on animal matter, mainly aquatic insects, crabs,
crayfish, cutworms, fish, grasshoppers, snails, and snakes.

Ajaia ajaia: Roseate Spoonbill; Garza Paleta, Pato Cuchara, Tambaco (C)

Apparently restricted to the Pacific side, this bird feeds on ponds, swinging
the bill from side to side, sifting out mollusks and other food, e.g., crabs,
crayfish, fish, insects, shrimp, and snails (periwinkle shells found in stomachs).
In Colombia parasitized by tapeworms 3 cm long.


ANATIDAE

Ducks; Patos (S); Padu (Cu); Patu (Ch)

Ducks, both cultivated and wild, are eaten in Darien and San Bias.
Plumage is removed by putting the duck in cold water and then in boiling water.
Graham (1947) recommends clipping the wing tips, removing the large feathers,
leaving the down exposed. Then pourlon molten paraffin. When it hardens, it can
be peeled off with the down. .Others recommend singeing followed by thorough
washing. Graham recommends stuffing the duck with chayotes (a form of squash) and
basting with orange juice.

Dendrocygna viduata: White-faced Tree-duck; Jacamillo, Piche Careto (CR)


This is a rare resident.






15


Jabiru mycteria: Jabiru; Garz6n Soldado, Galan sin Ventura .(CR); Dabgala (Cu)

This bird is rare in Panama.


S' THRESKIORNITHIDAE

Ibises, Spoonbills; Cocos, Garzas Paletas (S)

Mesembrinibis cayennensis: Green (Cayenne) Ibis; Corocoro (S)

This bird is secretive in the mangroves of Rios Mandinga, Chucunaque, and
Tuira; probably feeds on crustaceans, fish, and vegetable matter.

Theristicus caudatus: Buff-necked Ibis; Bandurria ComOn (S)

Two were recorded from Pacora.

Eudocimus albus: White Ibis; Coco Blanco, Chiron, Cococoro (D); Mutpep (Cu)

This bird is rather common in coastal swamps of the Pacific side and the
Pearl Islands, Rio Tuira, and Rio Sabana. Feeds almost entirely on animal matter,
aquatic insects (cockroaches), crabs, crayfish, cutworms, fish, grasshoppers,
snails, and snakes. The delicate meat is prized for food.

Plegadis falcinellus: Glossy Ibis; Morito, Coco Negro (S)

Feeds almost entirely on animal matter, mainly aquatic insects, crabs,
crayfish, cutworms, fish, grasshoppers, snails, and snakes.

Ajaia ajaia: Roseate Spoonbill; Garza Paleta, Pato Cuchara, Tambaco (C)

Apparently restricted to the Pacific side, this bird feeds on ponds, swinging
the bill from side to side, sifting out mollusks and other food, e.g., crabs,
crayfish, fish, insects, shrimp, and snails (periwinkle shells found in stomachs).
In Colombia parasitized by tapeworms 3 cm long.


ANATIDAE

Ducks; Patos (S); Padu (Cu); Patu (Ch)

Ducks, both cultivated and wild, are eaten in Darien and San Bias.
Plumage is removed by putting the duck in cold water and then in boiling water.
Graham (1947) recommends clipping the wing tips, removing the large feathers,
leaving the down exposed. Then pourlon molten paraffin. When it hardens, it can
be peeled off with the down. .Others recommend singeing followed by thorough
washing. Graham recommends stuffing the duck with chayotes (a form of squash) and
basting with orange juice.

Dendrocygna viduata: White-faced Tree-duck; Jacamillo, Piche Careto (CR)


This is a rare resident.







16


Dendrocygna bicolor(*): Fulvous Tree-duck; Yaguaso Colorado (S)

An accidental migrant, this duck feeds on seeds (e.g., Echinochloa, Melilotus,
Oryza, Polygonum, Zea).

Dendrocygna autumnalis: Black-bellied Tree-duck; G'uichichi (P); Iguasa (C);
Pichi (CR)

This common resident of the lower stretches of river and brackish marshes is
popularly domesticated, kept in pairs. It is good as a game bird, often feeding
on corn, rice, and other seeds. In captivity at Summit Gardens, it eats banana,
lettuce, and papaya. Some tree-ducks nest in bromeliads.

Cairina moschata: Muscovy; Pato (S); Pato Real, Pato Arisco (C)

A resident, it is domesticated among the natives of Darien and San Bias and
is the most prized by Panamanian hunters. Feeds on seeds, e.g., pickerelweeds,
rice, sedges, sesame, roots of cassava. Also reported in Leopold's survey (1959)
are small fish, insects, small reptiles, water plants, termites, mangrove crabs,
water lily seeds (near Panama), and seeds of Fimbristylis.

Sakidiornis sylvicola: South American Comb-duck; Pato Crestudo (S)

This resident is fairly common on the Chucunaque.

Anas platyrhynchos(*): Mallard; Anade Real (S)

This duck is an accidental migrant from the north. According to Martin et al.
(1961), the mallard is primarily vegetarian, but does ingest aquatic beetles and
their larvae, nymphs of dragonflies, and adults and nymphs of aquatic bugs. An
efficient grain-feeder, it is fond of corn, rice, sorghum, and wheat but also eats
grasses, duckweed, pondweed, smartweed, and rushes. It is very effective in
mosquito control. Proctor et al (1967) report on the viability of various animal
and plant disseminules recovered from the feces of mallards.

Anas acuta(*): Pintail; Pato Rabudo (S)

An irregular winter migrant, it is occasionally abundant. The duck (and
elsewhere its eggs) is taken for food. It is also eaten by coons and mongoose.
Carr (p.c. 1966) suggests that it will settle into any atomic blast holes, eating,
and then fly north with a radioactive load. The bird is primarily vegetarian,
feeding chiefly on grass (e.g., sedges, smartweed) and water plants (duckweed
included) taking some mollusks (especially univalves), crustaceans (especially
crabs and crayfish), aquatic beetles and their larvae, and other insects; rarely
fish, frogs, hydroids, leeches, and worms. One of its favorite haunts is a rice
stubble field. Grain-fed pintails are the fattest, and perhaps the tastiest, of
the ducks.

Anas discors(*): Blue-winged Teal; Cerceta Ala-azul, Patillo (C)

This common migrant is mostly hunted by jacklight--still hunters waiting n,
the dark for the splatter announcing the arrival of the birds. The gun must be
fired immediately after turning on the light as the birds fly away. Annual takes
at the La Jagua Hunting Club ranged from 85 in 1938 to 257 in 1942. Grass tops and
seeds have been found in stomach analyses in Panama. In Colombia, where the meat
is much prized, crabs and small snails are found. According to Martin et al (1961),





17


animals make up about 25 percent of the diet, one-half of this being snails,
other mollusks, some insects, especially larval forms, and rarely crustaceans.

Anas cyanoptera(*): Cinnamon Teal; Cerceta Colorado (S)

This rare winter migrant eats small quantities of animal matter, about half of
the animal matter being insects; e.g., beetles, bugs, dragonfly nymphs, and fly
larvae. It also eats seeds and vegetative portions of plants; e.g., bulrush,
spikerush, and wigeon grass.

Spatula clypeata(*): Northern Shoveler; Pato Cuchara (S)

An irregular winter migrant, it scoops up mud for organic material (which may
well be contaminated in blast holes). According to Martin et al (1961), about 25
percent of the diet is animal matter, mostly mollusks (especially univalves),
various aquatic insects (especially bugs, beetles, dragonfly nymphs), and
crustaceans. Worms, fish, and small frogs are also taken. Carr intimates tlat the
shoveler will settle into blast holes, shovel up contaminated mud, and fly north
with its radioactive load.

Mareca americana(*): American Widgeon (Baldpate); Pato Calvo (S)

This fairly common winter visitor is a pest in the north, eating tender
alfalfa, sprouting grains and truck crops in irrigated farms, but it is also fond
of many waterweeds: e.g., wild celery, pondweed, and grasses. Occasionally takes
small quantities of mollusks, insects, crustaceans, small fish, and other water
animals.

Aythya affinis(*): Lesser Scaup; Pato Pechiblanco (S)

This common winter visitor dives in quiet ponds but is rare in tidal and
torrential streams. Diet is about one-third animal; i.e., mollusks (especially
snails), dragonfly nymphs, other aquatic insects, and crustaceans.

Aythya collaris(*): Ring-necked Duck; Pato de Collar (S)

This duck is a rare winter visitor. In Louisiana, food consists of seeds,
bulbs, leaves, and other parts of plants such as wild rice and pondweeds, together
with water insects and their larvae, snails, crayfish, small frogs, and fishes.

Oxyura dominica: Masked Duck; Pato Tigre, Paitillo (C)

This fairly common resident is much hunted for its meat. Seeds were found in
a Colombian stomach analysis; the duck is said to feed primarily on aquatic plants
and their seeds.

Oxyura jamaicensis: Ruddy Duck

An upland migrant not yet reported from Panama but found in Colombia, it
eats crustaceans, fish, insects, mollusks (snails, mussels), and worms. Sometimes
almost exclusively carnivorous, it is usually one-third meat-eating. Eats roots
seeds, leaves, and stems of grasses and other aquatic plants such as duckweed and
water lilies.


____ _1







18


CATHARTIDAE

American Vultures; Buitres Americanos (S)
Zopilote (CR); Gallinazo (P); Mula, Mursip (Cu)

Vultures and hawks are a nuisance within a 10-mile radius of Albrook,
where they are said to average one bird:plane contact or near miss per week
(Loftin, p.c.). The beaks are used medicinally by the Cuna.

Sarcoramphus papa: King Vulture; Rey de los Zopilotes, Gallinazo Rey (S);
Angosotorro (Ch); Cacique, Cacic6n (P)

A forest-favoring carrion-eater whi-c may be lured by fish entrails, this bird
is not likely to be eaten by humans. It is usually the first to feed on carrion,
the smaller vultures waiting their turn. It is least common of the vultures in
Darien's cuipo forest in March (Child, p.c.). Brains and eyes are reputed to be
used by the Darien Choco to make a "perfume" attracting woman to man. It is
ectoparasitized by Olfersia.

Coragyps atratus: Black Vulture; Gallinazo (C); Zopilote (P, CR); Zamuro (northern
South America)

This is the most common of the vultures in Darien's cuipo forest in March
(Child, p.c.). It is an efficient carrion-remover, perforce feeding on carrion
because claws and beak are too weak to rip open live animals, except an occasion;'
newborn calf. They do not pay as much attention to small cadavers as the turkey
vulture. This vulture will also eat avocado, coconut meat, and other palm fruits,
and when accustomed to hamburger in captivity, will reject carrion. It is
remarkably free of ectoparasites and resistant to botulism. Wetmore (1965) no'el.
that in some villages dependent on rain water, vultures may pose a problem by
their droppings polluting the metal roofs and washing into the cisterns. Generally
protected, they may still be carriers of animal diseases, moving from the carcasses
of dead infected animals to live ones in corrals. Near the coast they watch for
dead fish cast up by the waves. They might find fishing especially good after the
proposed nuclear cratering, feeding on radioactive fish bodies, and then defecating
on someone's roof, hence contaminating their rain water. They are ectoparasitized
by Amblyomma and Olfersia.

Cathartes aura(*): Turkey Vulture; Aura, Catana, Noneca (P); Gallinazo (C);
Zonchiche (CR)

Some races migrate in bands numbering in the tens of thousands, those coming
from South America crossing from the lower Atrato Basin in Colombia to the Pacifi,
side in Darien. In Panama, there are both local and migrant races. These
migrators apparently do not pause to feed.

Not so much a city dweller as the black vulture, and preferring its carrion a
little fresher, this one will not eat its brother's cadaver. Seeds of the corozo
have been found in the gut. It also fishes for fish cadavers at beaches. It has
been observed killing and eating young pigs as they are born. Live young c', kens,
herons, and ibises, mammals, and reptiles are also reported. It is ectoparasil zed
by Olfersia.






19


Cathartes burrovianus: Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture; Guala (C)

This vulture is common at Pacora and La Jagua marshes and expected in the
swamps along the lower Sabana and Tuira. Wetmore (1965) notes that it seems to
prefer fish (perhaps alive) to mammal carrion. Has been observed with dead
lizards.


ACCIPITRIDAE

Eagles, Hawks, Kites; Gavilanes, Aguilas (S); Kigini (Cu)

Wetmore (1965) notes that the majority of Panama hawks are harmless,
feeding on crabs, frogs, large insects, lizards, harmful rodents, and snakes.
Some hawks are regular migrants during the northern winter. Eagles are prominent
in the medicine of the Cuna, who apparently do not eat them or any carnivorous
bird. One Cuna word for marriage is translated "eagle-eating".

Elanoides forficatus(*): Swallow-tailed Kite; Gavilin Tijereta, Tijereta (C, CR)

Migrant and local races catch insects (including cicadas, cottonworms,
crickets, dragonflies, grasshoppers, and wasps) on the wing: they also eat frogs,
lizards, snakes, and occasionally birds, including hawks, eggs and nestlings (Skutch,
1965). Sometimes they take nest and all, removing the edible contents while soaring.
They also take the larvae from wasps' nests. In Surinam, they subsist largely on
insects; e.g., Fulgoridae, Membracidae, and Pentomeridae, together with female
leaf-cutting ants (Atta).

Ictinia plumbea(*): Plumbeous Kite; Gavilan Plomizo (S)

Although this is a fairly common migrant from the north, there are also
local races breeding in Panama; it feeds mainly on insects (especially Orthoptera,
also beetles and dragonflies) and catches cicadas on the wing. Insects and
sparrows have been found in the stomach analyses. Prefers to hunt in pastures
with scattered trees, especially Cecropia.

Rostrhamus sociabilis: Everglades Kite (Snail Kite); Gaviltn Caracolero (S)

Frequents freshwater marshes feeding on apple snails (Pomacea), not ingesting
the shells.

Helicolestes hamatus: Slender-billed Kite; Gavil~n Piquidelgado (S)

It is known only from around Paya in Darien, where it probably feeds on
apple snails (Pomacea zeteki).

Harpagus bidentatus: Double-toothed Kite; Gaviltn Bidente (S)

Feeds on large insects,(e.g., Acrididae, Cicadidae, Phyllidae) and lizards,
picking at its prey without swallowing it whole.

Leptodon cayanensis: Cayenne Kite; GavilAn Cabecigris (S)

Stomach analysis from Cana, Darien, showed 55 pupae and 38 adult wasps
(Odynerus pachyodynerus) and fragments of Azteca. In Surinam, Lreported to eat






20


a wide variety of insects, occasionally a frog or a bird's egg. Slud (1964) has
seen them eating snakes. It is ectoparasitized by Ornithoctona.

Chondrohierax unicinatus: Hook-billed Kite; Gaviltn Piquiganchudo 'S)

A forest resident, this bird feeds primarily on frogs and large land snails
(in Cuba, the kite feeds primarily on Polymita).

Accipiter bicolor: Bicolored Hawk; GavilTn Pantal6n (S)

This rare resident feeds primarily on birds and has been observed attacking
thrushes and cuckoos.

Accipiter superciliosus: Tiny Hawk; Gavilancito Enano (S)

A rare forest resident collected on Rio Tuira, this bird feeds on birds,
e.g., arrocero.

Accipiter striatus(*): Sharp-shinned Hawk; Gavilancito de Pasco (S)

This migrant from the north is rare in Panama, hunting small birds, e.g.,
blackbirds, grackles, larks, sandpipers, sparrows, and woodpeckers, in pastures
and secondary growth. Examination of 1,039 stomachs (Velox, p.c.) revealed 106
empty, 28 with mice and other rodents, 45 with insects, 16 poultry and game, and
844 with small birds. Lizards and frogs are also reported.

Buteo albonotatus: Zone-tailed Hawk; Gavilgn Negro (S)

Although rare, it has been collected in San Blas and the Pearl Islands; is
probably a bird feeder.

Buteo nitidus: Gray Hawk; Gaviltn Gris (S)

Has not yet been reported from Darien. Feeds on frogs, lizards, mice, and
rats; occasionally birds. According to Skutch (1965b), it prefers lizards
(Sceloporus) and then birds and fledglings.

Buteo brachyurus: Short-tailed Hawk; Gavilin Cola Corta (S)

A rare resident, it feeds on birds, e.g., brown robins, and lizards (Ameiva),

Buteo platypterus(*): Broad-winged Hawk; Gaviltn de Pasco (S); GavilTn (C)

Migrates by the thousands over Panama in March and October (Crebs, p.c.
1967). In Panama, feeds largely on Orthoptera, occasionally lizards; also
reported to catch birds (ani). Occasionally catches minnows in small pools that
are drying out. Acriididae have been found in stomach analyses. Carries
Hippoboschidae. Slud (1964) reports its feeding on crabs, lizards, and snakes.
Also eats batrachians, beetles, caterpillars, crawfish, and small mammals.

Buteo jamaicensis(*): Red-tailed Hawk; Guaraguao (S)

Feeds on rodents and other small mammals and some worms, reptiles,
amphibians, and arthropods. Both resident and migrant races occur in Panama. In
Arizona, it has been noted feeding, unharmed, on rattlesnake.





21


Buteo swainsoni(*): Swainson's Hawk; Irol (P); Pajaro del Norte (S)

A migrant from the north, it usually occurs in great flocks passing along the
central mountains of Darien, in company with broad-winged hawks, turkey vultures,
ospreys, marsh hawks, and peregrine falcons, not stopping in the Isthmus for food.
These migrations are so regular that the Cuna Indians call the moon of September
"kigini", or hawk. Questionably observed near Santa Fe in March (Child, p.c.
1967).

Buteo magnirostris: Roadside Hawk; Cuiscui (Cu)

Most commonly seen hawk of the tropical zone, its principal food is lizards,
large Orthoptera and other insects, small birds, and mice. Observed catching an
ani at Santa Fe (1). In one Colombian stomach analysis, only insects were found.
It is ectoparasitized by Amblyomma.

Leucopternis albicollis: White Hawk; Gaviltn Blanco (S)

This fairly common resident feeds on basilisks, frogs, lizards, small mammals
(mice, possums, rats), Orthoptera, and snakes. Slud (1964) suggests it has a
preference for coral snakes, which it swallows whole. This is possibly the species
used by the inland Cuna to mark off their boundaries. Sometimes there is a
monument with a sculpture of the hawk on top. Also to be found are cadavers of
the bird stretched across the trail. The best way for the newcomer to translate
this sign is "No Trespassing" ('). Child and Eisenmann (p.c.) observed that the
bird is relatively common in Darien's cuipo forest in March. It is ectoparasitized
by Lynchia.

Leucopternis semiplumbea: Semiplumbeous Hawk; Gaviltn Cenizo (S)

A resident, it is more common in Darien than elsewhere. Insects have been
found in the stomach; the bird has been observed catching antbirds, frogs,
lizards, and jungle rats. In April at Boca Lara, one was caught in a mist net
that our guides had ingeniously strung up between two trees 30 feet above the
ground. The hawk was obviously after one of the smaller birds already trapped
in the nets ('). Slud (1964) has noted it attracted to the birds attracted to the
army ants.

Leucopternis plumbea: Plumbeous Hawk; Gavil6n Azul (S)

This rare resident of montane forests is seen in Darien's cuipo forest in
March (Child and Eisenmann, p.c.) and is suspected of feeding on reptiles.

Leucopternis princeps: Barred Hawk; Gaviltn Rayado (S)

This bird is a rare resident of montane forests. A Costa Rican stomach
yielded a snake.

Heterospizias meridionalis: Savanna Hawk; Gaviltn Acanelado (S)

A resident savana "bebe humo", i.e., fire-follower, it feeds on insects,
lizards, and mammals flushed by the fire.






22

Parabuteo unicinctus: Bay-winged (Harris') Hawk; Gavilin Andapid (S)

There is no authenticated Panama record for this savanna hawk, purportedly a
chicken thief which also eats carrion and has been observed to eat Leomys.

Busarellus nigricollis: Black-collared Hawk; Gavilin de Ci6naga (S)

This marsh-dwelling resident feeds on fish.

Buteogallus urubitinga: Greater Black Hawk; Cocolino (S)

A fairly common resident dwelling near streams, it feeds primarily on frogs,
secondarily on lizards (especially basilisks).

Buteogallus anthracinus: Common Black Hawk; Gavilin Cangrejero, GavilAn Guapipe (S)

This common mangrove hawk feeds primarily on crabs, e.g., in the mangroves
near Cucunati and Sabana (.). It is sometimes accused of being a chicken thief,
perhaps unjustly. Mammal remains have been reported in stomach analyses, with the
usual crabs; has also gathered dowitchers. It is ectoparasitized by Lynchia.

Urubitornis solitaria: Solitary Eagle; Aguila Solitaria (S)

This is a rare resident of heavy forest.

Spizaetus tyrannus: Black Hawk-Eagle; Aguila Crestuda Negra (S)

A forest resident, this bird has not yet been reported but perhaps is common
in Panama; it has been observed eating iguana. It is ectoparasitized by Amblyomma.

Spizaetus ornatus: Barred Hawk-Eagle; Aguila de Penacho (S)

An uncommon resident, this bird is said to feed on reptiles and birds.
Wetmore (1965) observed one feeding on ringed kingfisher on the Rio Pucro.

Spizastur melanoleucus: Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle; Aguila Blanca y Negra (S)

This rare resident, not yet reported for Darien or San Bias, will eat
oropendola, skunk, and toucan.

Morphus guianensis: Crested Eagle; Aguila Momuda (S)

A rare resident, it is said to feed on large birds, iguanas, and small
monkeys.

Harpia harpyja: Harpy Eagle; Harpia (S); Aguilucho (CR)

This rare resident preys on agouti, coati mundi, small deer, macaws and other
large birds, marmosets, small monkeys, opossums, porcupine, and sloths. Schneider
(p.c. 1966) notes that this is the worst enemy of the sloth; it is also an enemy
of the anteater Cyclopes. A frightened one dropped a Coendou he had just killed
on the upper Membrillo (').






23


Circus cyaneus(*): Marsh Hawk; GavilAn Sabanero (S)

A northern migrant, it feeds on amphibians, birds, insects, mice and other
small mammals, and reptiles.

Ischnosceles caerulescens: Crane Hawk; Guino (S)

This rather uncommon resident feeds mostly on frogs, lizards, and small
snakes, which it fishes from epiphytes along the borders of streams.


PANDIONIDAE

Ospreys; Aguila Pescadoras (S); Gavil~n de Playa,
Aguila de Mar (P); Uabu, Vabu (Cu); Nehubu Amparracomia (Ch); Sabalero (D)

Pandion baliaetus(*): Osprey; Aguila Pescadora (S); GavilTn Mareno (C)

A northern migrant, this bird stays in Panama from October-November until
March-April. Crebs (p.c. 1967) suggests that it may occur year-round in the Canal
Zone. Feeds on fish, captured near the water surface, occasionally robbing an
eagle of its prey. Rarely eats birds, frogs, insects, or snakes. Occasionally
eaten by the Negroes of Colombia. In feeding on larger fish, the osprey strips
the fish of the flesh, discarding the head and bones. Birds banded in New York,
New Jersey, and Maryland have been recovered in Panama, so they might well discard
radioactive boluses far from Panama.


FALCONIDAE

Falcons, Caracaras; Halc6nes, Caranchos (S); Cacao (CR)

Because of their rapidity and cunning hunting ability, falcons have been
trained by man as hunting accomplices. Most are carnivorous (some take any flesh,
living or dead), and a few are insectivorous.

Herpetotheres cachinnans: Laughing Falcon; Vaquero, Guaco (CR, P); Cao (P);
Veco (Cu)

This fairly common resident feeds primarily on snakes, even coral snakes
(e.g., Erythrolamprus aesculapii) ('). Hunts the snakes by alighting on the
ground, spreading one wing, whose stiff feathers ward off the snake's strikes
until the falcon seizes it with one foot near the head. It is regarded as a witch
by the Cuna, who will not shoot it in the belief that a wounded bird would tell a
snake to attack the Indian who shot it.

Micrastur mirandollei: Slaty-backed Forest-Falcon; Halc6n Gateador (S)

A rare forest resident, this falcon feeds on birds, lizards, and green snakes.

Micrastur semitorquatus: Collared Forest-Falcon; Halc6n del Monte Collarejo (S)

This fairly common resident feeds mostly on birds and lizards, stripping off
the flesh and discarding the bones and feathers. It is especially fond of
chachalachas and has been netted, as has the following, while attacking birds
caught in mist nets (Loftin, p.c. 1967).






24


Micrastur ruficollis: Barred Forest-Falcon; Halc6n de Monte Rayado (S)

A fairly common resident, it feeds mainly on birds and secondarily on lizards;
slugs, batrachians, and small lizards have been observed in stomach analyses. It
has been observed taking a fledgling blue-black grosbeak. More than other raptors,
it is attracted to the birds attracted to the army ants.

Polyborus plancus: Crested Caracara; Carancho, Guaranguano [(P) Pacora region of
Panama Province]; Carga Huesos (CR)

This scavenger and predator is especially fond of newborn lambs. Eats dead
fish in drying pools, injured birds, animals killed by autos, small chickens and
ducks, turtles, rabbits and other small mammals; also seeks out turtle nests to
eat the eggs. Wetmore (1965) observed one molesting a cormorant at Rio Chico. It
is ectoparasitized by Eutrombicula.

Milvago chimachima: Yellow-headed Caracara; Chimango, Aguirre [(P) Pearl Islands];
Gaviln Garrapatero [(P) Code Province]; Guaracho [ (P) Azuero
Peninsula]

A common savanna resident, it is chiefly a carrion eater, but also picks the
ticks off cattle; eats small birds (is sometimes accused of being a chicken thief),
fledglings, large insects, lizards, and small mammals; and chases crabs on the
beaches.

Daptrius americanus: Red-throated Caracara; P~jaro Brujo (S); Cacao, Deslenguado,
Hablador [(P) Bocas del Toro Province]; Pai Ka Ka [(Cu) Armila,
San Blas]

This locally common resident in Darien was found in cuipo forest during March
(Child, p.c.). One of the witch birds, it is supposed to bring bad luck if killed.
Largely feeds on the larvae of wasps and bees, and adults of Trigona; sometimes
consumes fruits and seeds. It is ectoparasitized by Ornithoctona.

Falco peregrinus(*): Peregrine Falcon; Halc6n Peregrino (S)

A winter resident (October-April), this bird lives near water feeding primarily
on aquatic birds (e.g., gallinules) and occasionally killing maliciously, that is,
not for food. Has been observed molesting bats, ducks, gallinules, gulls, crab
hawks, ibis, jacanas, teals, vultures, and willets. Can be tamed and taught to
hunt for its master.

Falco deiroleucus: Orange-breasted Falcon; Pechi-castano (S)

This rare resident has been observed eating Aztec Parakeet in Costa Rica
(Slud, 1964).

Falco rufigularis: Bat Falcon; Halc6n Cazamurcil1agos (S)

A fairly common resident, toward sunset it hunts flying beetles and other
insects; in the dark, it hunts bats. Wetmore (1965) has observed it hunting
dragonflies on the coast of Darien. It also eats cicadas and moths. Small birds,
especially when they are feeding young, are a principal dietary item. Beebe (1924)
made some detailed observations in Venezuela where he watched a pair for five
months. The diet included 33 mammals (5 species),,163 birds (56 species), 19
insects (14 species), a lizard, a snake, and a frog. Most insects were butterflies






25


(including Morpho and a swallowtail); mammals were mice and bats. In addition to
wood warblers, tanagers, and finches, there were 17 swallows of 5 species, 34
hummingbirds, ranging from emeralds to hermits, and 26 swifts of 8 species, 3 of
them collared swifts, very crafty and speedy birds with a wing span almost as
great as the falcon's. Feathers of the birds were usually plucked before eating,
but Slud (1964) reports seeing the bird eating on the wing.

Falco sparverius(*): Sparrow Hawk (Kestrel); Cernicalo (S); Camale6n (CR)

This rather common winter migrant feeds largely on grasshoppers (Acrididae),
lizards, mice, and rarely a bird. Ameiva, iguana, grasshoppers, and small spiders
have been reported in stomach analyses. Analyses of 398 stomachs showed 269
containing insects; 149, mice; and 69, birds. This hawk is ectoparasitized by
Lynchia.


CRACIDAE

Curassows, Guans; Pavones, Faisanes (S)

Crax rubra: Great Curassow; Pavon (male), Pava Rubia (female) (S); Samo (Ch);
Sigli (Cu); Granadera (CR)

A forest resident, this is one of the prized game birds, commanding about
$1.00 on the Yaviza market. It is common in the unsettled areas of Route 17, but
disappears when man moves in. Apparently it feeds on all sweet fruits [e.g.,
Chione, Quercus) on the tree and fallen to the ground. It also eats some insects
and green leaves (e.g., lettuce and cabbage at Summit Gardens (!)] People tend to
believe that the bones should not be given to dogs as they are supposed to cause
them to go mad. It is raised for the pot by all ethnic groups in Darien and San
Blas. In Colombia, the feathers are used for dusters. In Darien, the Negroes
prepare curassow much as they prepare chicken. Preyed on by cats, mustelids,
perhaps kinkajous, and frequently thousands of ticks and other ectoparasites (e.g.,
Amblyomma).

Penlope purpurascens: Crested Guan; Pava Cimba (S)

This forest resident retreats from hunting pressure. Feeds largely on fruits
such as Bumelia, Cecropia, Chione, Didymopanax, Ficus, Guatteria, Quercus, and
Spondias, often eating fallen fruits dropped either by them or other frugivores.
It also ingests green leaves and insects occasionally. The meat is tough and dark
but sought by all Darien and San Blas hunters. Wetmore (1965) recommends broiling,
or cutting up and parboiling, then cooking with rice. Command $1.00 apiece in
Yaviza. Eggs are eaten by monkeys. It is ectoparasitized by Amblyomma.

Chamaeptes unicolor: Black Guan; Pava Negra (S)

A frugivorous, uncommon forest resident, it is not known from eastern Panama.
The tender flesh is reported excellent.

Ortalis garrula: Chestnut-winged Chachalacha; Fais~n (S); Cocleto (D); Buriso (Ch);
Chinquin (Cu)

This resident is better adapted than its relatives to secondary growth,
feeding on fruits in the trees and also scratching like a chicken on the ground.


Fruits reported include Achras, Bumelia, Diospyros, Ficus, Sabal, and Vitis. One






26


Mexican stomach analysis showed the bird to be full of Lantana leaves. It probably
grubs for insects. In Mexico, the bird is hunted by stalking its cackling sounds,
but occasionally in the thorn forests, a couple of hunters are stationed while a
couple more circle out a kilometer or so and return, slowly, beating on trees with
their machetes, the birds moving on ahead of them but stopping in nearly every tree
en route (Leopold, 1959). Often nests in Cecropia trees and eagerly seeks the
fruits of Simarouba glauca. Known as chinquin to the Cuna, who hunt it for food.
When it sings at dusk or thereafter in the rainy season, Darien natives believe the
next day will be dry. This was first pointed out to me in the Santa Fe area, and
the following day was the first dry day I experienced in a week. Tame chachalachas
are not infrequent; e.g., at a Choco Indian house in Sambu and at a Chinese
merchant's house in Yape (!). The bird eats scraps just like a chicken and is
cooked like a chicken.


PHASIANIDAE

Quails, Pheasants, Peacocks; Codornices, Faisanes, Pavos Reales (S)

Graham (1947) recommends cooking these birds as follows: after cleaning,
wipe with wine or sour orange juice, stuff, and bake pound for pound like a turkey.
Care should be taken in cleaning, especially if one has cut hands, as some quail
have tularemia. The San Bias from Ustupu often give quail soup to their infirm.

Colinus cristatus: Crested Bobwhite; Codorniz, Perdiz (S)

A rather common resident savanna species in western Panama, this bird feeds
on seeds, fruits, and insects, and is a popular food item. In 1948 they were
trapped for the Panama market, where they sold for 10 cents each. In southeastern
United States, ants take up to 15 percent of the eggs and fledglings of the
bobwhite quail. The toll may be higher in Panama.

Odontophorus gujanensis: Marbled Wood-Quail; Gallito del Monte Jaspeado,
Corcorovado (S); Ugurr (Cu); Perro Mulato (D)

This fairly common resident occasionally feeds on berries or drupes dropped
to the ground by other birds or monkeys. Wetmore (1965) reports that four-fifths
of the stomach contents in a Cana, Darien, specimen consisted of starchy seeds,
with a few harder ones that may have served to grind the others; also there were
a dozen or more millipedes, 6 ants, 2 roaches, a spider, and bits of beetles and
beetle larvae. The Cuna hunt it for food.

Odontophorus guttatus: Spotted Wood-Quail; Gallito del Monte Pintado (S)

This forest resident has not been reported from Darien. Mexican crop
analyses yielded bulbs, small rootlets, insects and their pupae and larvae
(mostly Diptera and Coleoptera), miscellaneous seeds and fruits. In Vera Cruz,
Mexico, birds flushed by dogs fly to low perches and sit there stupidly. The
natives capture them by fashioning a long-handled noose out of a pole and a vine,
and snaring them around the neck. When the birds occasionally duck out of the
noose, the Indians bark like dogs and the birds quickly re-alight (Leopold, 1959).





27


Odontophorus erythrops: Rufous-breasted Wood-Quail; Gallito del Monte
Pechicastano (S)

A rare resident, it is ectoparasitized by Eutrombicula, Odontacarus, and
Trombicula.

Rhynchortyx cinctus: Banded Wood-Quail; Gallito del Monte Menor (S)

This is a rather rare forest resident in San Bias and Darien. Slud (1964)
reprints an excerpt stating that the bird feeds mostly on worms, insects and
larvae, and perhaps on seeds.

Gallus gallus: Chicken; Gallina (S); Eterre (Ch); Kanir (Cu)

As is well known, chickens serve both for food and sport in Latin America.
At Easter, Darien fortunetellers drop a raw egg in a glass of water, the picture
forming as the white coagulates foretelling the future. There is a confusing
array of chicken terminology among the Spaniards, who usually make soups or stews
of their chickens: pollito--very young rooster; gallito--young rooster; gallo--
rooster; gallo fino--game cock; gallina--hen. The hen is favored for stews and
commands about 40 cents per pound in El Real. Chickens are apparently more
frequent among the Choco and Negroes than among the Cuna. Almost every Choco
house has its chickens and the peculiar conical "cat-proof" chicken houses. Inland
Cuna have similar conical chicken houses. One of the favorite feeding spots of
the Darien chickens is the rice pilons, where they sift through the chaff. Their
diets are often enlivened with termite nests. Chickens are omnivorous, feeding on
excrement, grain, grubs, insects, kitchen scraps, roots, seedlings, worms, etc.
They are ectoparasitized by Amblyomma, Eutrombicula, and Ornithonyssus.

Meleagris gallopavo: Turkey; Pavo de Corral (S); Samo (Ch); Sigli (Cu)

Though frequently cultivated by the San Bias Indians, it is rarely, if ever,
found among the Choco and Negroes. Some of the mestizos have a few. White
varieties seem to outnumber the normal variety in Darien and San Bias ('). Turkeys
find their way to the Panama market around Christmas, when a 12-pounder commands
about $10.00.


NUMIDADAE

Guinea Fowl

Numida melegris: Guinea Fowl; Gallina de Guinea (S)

An exotic game bird widely hunted in Cuba and Hispaniola, especially in bushy
savannas; it was released in Panama from Haiti stock but apparently did not persist.
I have seen none in Darien.






28


ARAMIDAE

Limpkins

Aramus guarauna: Limpkin; Carrao, Chir6n (D)

This rare resident on the Tuira and Chucunaque eats the apple snail, Pomacea
zeteki. Feeds, often nocturnally, on mollusks, especially snails and mussels, also
frogs, insects, lizards, and worms. Some people regard the flesh as excellent.


RALLIDAE

Rails, Gallinules, Coots; Cocalecas, Gallinetas de Agua (S); Caicate (Ch)

Rails command about 75 cents each on the market at Yaviza.

Amaurolimnas concolor: Uniform Crake; Rasc6n Castano, Chigagua (S)

A rare resident reported from Darien and San Blas. Seeds and insects found
in stomach.

Aramides cajanea: Gray-necked Wood Rail; Cocaleca Gris, Code, Chilicote (S);
Cocaleca (CR); Mangrove Hen (J)

This fairly common resident feeds on crabs, fruits, large insects, roaches,
and seeds; said to follow antbirds occasionally. Can be caught easily with the
jacklight and baited with either fruit or meat. Wetmore (1965) has eaten the meat
noting that taken in the mangroves, where their diet is largely crab, has an
offensive odor. They are hunted to some extent. Ectoparasitized by Blankaartia.

Aramides axillaris: Rufous-crowned Wood Rail; Cocaleca Cabecicastaina (S)

This mangrove resident has not yet been reported from Darien; it feeds on
fiddler crabs.

Porzana flaviventer: Yellow-breasted Rail; Cocalequita Enana (S)

This bird is a resident of marshes in central and western Panama.

Porzana carolina(*): Sora; Cocalequita Pasajera (S)

This northern migrant differs from other North American rails in the quantity
of plant material consumed (e.g., grasses, sedges, smartweeds). Animal food
consists of beetles and other insects, crustaceans, snails, and spiders (Martin
et al, 1961). Highly esteemed for food, it was formerly taken at night with
nothing more than a torch and stick in Carolina rice paddies (Pearson et al, 1942).

Laterallus albigularis: White-throated Rail; Carrasquedora (S)

This is the most common resident rail in the Republic. Wetmore's (1965)
examinations revealed that 90 percent of the food was vegetable, containing
unidentified fibers, seeds of Euphorbia, Fimbristylis, Panicum, Scleria, and
Solanum. Animal food contained ants, flies, Orthoptera and various beetles, and
spiders.






28


ARAMIDAE

Limpkins

Aramus guarauna: Limpkin; Carrao, Chir6n (D)

This rare resident on the Tuira and Chucunaque eats the apple snail, Pomacea
zeteki. Feeds, often nocturnally, on mollusks, especially snails and mussels, also
frogs, insects, lizards, and worms. Some people regard the flesh as excellent.


RALLIDAE

Rails, Gallinules, Coots; Cocalecas, Gallinetas de Agua (S); Caicate (Ch)

Rails command about 75 cents each on the market at Yaviza.

Amaurolimnas concolor: Uniform Crake; Rasc6n Castano, Chigagua (S)

A rare resident reported from Darien and San Blas. Seeds and insects found
in stomach.

Aramides cajanea: Gray-necked Wood Rail; Cocaleca Gris, Code, Chilicote (S);
Cocaleca (CR); Mangrove Hen (J)

This fairly common resident feeds on crabs, fruits, large insects, roaches,
and seeds; said to follow antbirds occasionally. Can be caught easily with the
jacklight and baited with either fruit or meat. Wetmore (1965) has eaten the meat
noting that taken in the mangroves, where their diet is largely crab, has an
offensive odor. They are hunted to some extent. Ectoparasitized by Blankaartia.

Aramides axillaris: Rufous-crowned Wood Rail; Cocaleca Cabecicastaina (S)

This mangrove resident has not yet been reported from Darien; it feeds on
fiddler crabs.

Porzana flaviventer: Yellow-breasted Rail; Cocalequita Enana (S)

This bird is a resident of marshes in central and western Panama.

Porzana carolina(*): Sora; Cocalequita Pasajera (S)

This northern migrant differs from other North American rails in the quantity
of plant material consumed (e.g., grasses, sedges, smartweeds). Animal food
consists of beetles and other insects, crustaceans, snails, and spiders (Martin
et al, 1961). Highly esteemed for food, it was formerly taken at night with
nothing more than a torch and stick in Carolina rice paddies (Pearson et al, 1942).

Laterallus albigularis: White-throated Rail; Carrasquedora (S)

This is the most common resident rail in the Republic. Wetmore's (1965)
examinations revealed that 90 percent of the food was vegetable, containing
unidentified fibers, seeds of Euphorbia, Fimbristylis, Panicum, Scleria, and
Solanum. Animal food contained ants, flies, Orthoptera and various beetles, and
spiders.






29


Laterallus exilis: Gray-breasted Rail; Cocalequita Pechiceniza (S)

A rare resident, this bird has been reported from San Bias.

Gallinula chloropus: Common Gallinule; Gallineta de Agua (S)

This common resident of floating islands of aquatic vegetation picks out bits
of succulent vegetation. On the Chagres, the common gallinule is more common on
open water in mats of Elodea and Naias, on which it feeds, while the purple
gallinule is more common back in the grass zone closer to terra firma, feeding on
aquatic insects, grasshoppers, and locusts. The common gallinule often plays havoc
with grain fields, especially corn and rice. Insects, mollusks, and worms are also
consumed. The bird tends to roll up in aquatic leaves when in danger and can be
caught by hand. The flesh is tender and well-flavored.

Porphyrula martinica: Purple Gallinule; Polla Sultana, Gallito (S); Cocaleca de la
Laguna, Cullirota (C)

This bird is a common resident in freshwater marshes. Wetmore (1965) states
that the food is insects and spiders and that the bits of vegetation found in the
stomach contents are probably accidentally swallowed while ingesting other items.
Martin et al (1961), however, say that the percentage of vegetarian food varies
seasonally from 35 to 85. They also note that the chief animal foods are aquatic
beetles and bugs, then some mollusks, caterpillars, flies and their larvae,
Hymenoptera, various nymphs, and spiders. In August, 1963, tadpoles, aquatic
insects, flowers of giant cutgrass, sporophylls of royal fern, flowers of Nymphaea,
and mulberry fruits are recorded. Other authors report rice and ripe bananas as
items of diet. The meat is said to be quite edible.

Fulica americana(*): American Coot; Gallineta Cenicienta (S)

This common freshwater migrant swims and dives for food like a duck.
According to Martin et al (1961), most of the animal food is aquatic insects
(beetles, bugs, dragonflies, etc.), crustaceans, fish, univalve and bivalve
mollusks, spiders, tadpoles, and worms. It fishes in the submerged vegetation and
also ingests some buds and seeds. In Mexico, it seems to be more vegetarian,
eating mostly seeds, fruits, and leaves (e.g., Eichhornia, Heteranthera, and
Potamogeton), occasionally damaging alfalfa and winter grains (Leopold, 1959).
Mexicans probably bag more coots than ducks for their home consumption.


HELIORNITHIDAE

Finfoots; Zambullidores (S)

Heliornis fulica: Sungrebe; Patico de Agua Cedia (Ch)

A local resident of quiet forest streams (e.g., the Tuira), this bird feeds on
crustaceans, fish, and insects. Seeds and insects were reported in a Colombian
stomach analysis. Said to be eaten by the Choco Indians and Costa Rican peasants.







30


EURYPYGIDAE

Sunbitterns

Eurypyga helias: Sunbittern; Pairta de Tierra (S); Abanico (P); Primavera (D);
Gallina de Agua (CR); Tibana (Venezuela)

This resident of freshwater streams and marshes is reported to feed on insects
and seeds; however, Wetmore's (1965) analysis of a specimen from Rio Ucurganti
yielded around 20 snails, the elytron of a beetle, and leg bones of a small
batrachian. A Gatun specimen had been feeding on river crab (Pseudothelphusa),
another had two spiders, a Heteropteran, moths, two scarabaeids, and another
beetle (Temnochila). A Honduras specimen contained shrimp and smaller crustaceans.
In parts of Panama it has been hunted out. The meat is of good flavor, but
apparently it is little hunted now because of small size coupled with the high
price of bullets in Panama. It is ectoparasitized by Ornithoctona.


JACANIDAE

Jacanas

Jacana spinosa: Middle American Jacana; Gallito de Agua Castano (S); Cirujano (CR)

This resident of western Panama nests in water plants, the eggs sometimes
being played in water in a rough platform nest of grass and bamboo.

Jacana jacana: Wattled Jacana; Gallito de Ci6nagas (S); Gallito de Agua Barbudo,
Lagunero (D); Rasca Tortilla [(P) Los Santos Province]

A common freshwater resident, this bird often feeds on Nymphaea or
Najas pads, chasing moving food. Feeds on fish, small insects, seeds and other
vegetable matter (e.g., grasses, water lettuce), and snails.


HAEMATOPODIDAE

Oystercatchers

Haematopus palliatus: American Oystercatcher; Ostrero Blanco (S)

This local resident along the Pacific coast feeds on barnacles, clams, crabs,
fish, insects, limpets, mussels, oysters, sea urchins, sea worms, shrimp, and
snails (e.g., Nerita).


CHARADRIIDAE

Plovers; Chorlitos (S)


For food habits, see Table 2.







30


EURYPYGIDAE

Sunbitterns

Eurypyga helias: Sunbittern; Pairta de Tierra (S); Abanico (P); Primavera (D);
Gallina de Agua (CR); Tibana (Venezuela)

This resident of freshwater streams and marshes is reported to feed on insects
and seeds; however, Wetmore's (1965) analysis of a specimen from Rio Ucurganti
yielded around 20 snails, the elytron of a beetle, and leg bones of a small
batrachian. A Gatun specimen had been feeding on river crab (Pseudothelphusa),
another had two spiders, a Heteropteran, moths, two scarabaeids, and another
beetle (Temnochila). A Honduras specimen contained shrimp and smaller crustaceans.
In parts of Panama it has been hunted out. The meat is of good flavor, but
apparently it is little hunted now because of small size coupled with the high
price of bullets in Panama. It is ectoparasitized by Ornithoctona.


JACANIDAE

Jacanas

Jacana spinosa: Middle American Jacana; Gallito de Agua Castano (S); Cirujano (CR)

This resident of western Panama nests in water plants, the eggs sometimes
being played in water in a rough platform nest of grass and bamboo.

Jacana jacana: Wattled Jacana; Gallito de Ci6nagas (S); Gallito de Agua Barbudo,
Lagunero (D); Rasca Tortilla [(P) Los Santos Province]

A common freshwater resident, this bird often feeds on Nymphaea or
Najas pads, chasing moving food. Feeds on fish, small insects, seeds and other
vegetable matter (e.g., grasses, water lettuce), and snails.


HAEMATOPODIDAE

Oystercatchers

Haematopus palliatus: American Oystercatcher; Ostrero Blanco (S)

This local resident along the Pacific coast feeds on barnacles, clams, crabs,
fish, insects, limpets, mussels, oysters, sea urchins, sea worms, shrimp, and
snails (e.g., Nerita).


CHARADRIIDAE

Plovers; Chorlitos (S)


For food habits, see Table 2.







30


EURYPYGIDAE

Sunbitterns

Eurypyga helias: Sunbittern; Pairta de Tierra (S); Abanico (P); Primavera (D);
Gallina de Agua (CR); Tibana (Venezuela)

This resident of freshwater streams and marshes is reported to feed on insects
and seeds; however, Wetmore's (1965) analysis of a specimen from Rio Ucurganti
yielded around 20 snails, the elytron of a beetle, and leg bones of a small
batrachian. A Gatun specimen had been feeding on river crab (Pseudothelphusa),
another had two spiders, a Heteropteran, moths, two scarabaeids, and another
beetle (Temnochila). A Honduras specimen contained shrimp and smaller crustaceans.
In parts of Panama it has been hunted out. The meat is of good flavor, but
apparently it is little hunted now because of small size coupled with the high
price of bullets in Panama. It is ectoparasitized by Ornithoctona.


JACANIDAE

Jacanas

Jacana spinosa: Middle American Jacana; Gallito de Agua Castano (S); Cirujano (CR)

This resident of western Panama nests in water plants, the eggs sometimes
being played in water in a rough platform nest of grass and bamboo.

Jacana jacana: Wattled Jacana; Gallito de Ci6nagas (S); Gallito de Agua Barbudo,
Lagunero (D); Rasca Tortilla [(P) Los Santos Province]

A common freshwater resident, this bird often feeds on Nymphaea or
Najas pads, chasing moving food. Feeds on fish, small insects, seeds and other
vegetable matter (e.g., grasses, water lettuce), and snails.


HAEMATOPODIDAE

Oystercatchers

Haematopus palliatus: American Oystercatcher; Ostrero Blanco (S)

This local resident along the Pacific coast feeds on barnacles, clams, crabs,
fish, insects, limpets, mussels, oysters, sea urchins, sea worms, shrimp, and
snails (e.g., Nerita).


CHARADRIIDAE

Plovers; Chorlitos (S)


For food habits, see Table 2.







30


EURYPYGIDAE

Sunbitterns

Eurypyga helias: Sunbittern; Pairta de Tierra (S); Abanico (P); Primavera (D);
Gallina de Agua (CR); Tibana (Venezuela)

This resident of freshwater streams and marshes is reported to feed on insects
and seeds; however, Wetmore's (1965) analysis of a specimen from Rio Ucurganti
yielded around 20 snails, the elytron of a beetle, and leg bones of a small
batrachian. A Gatun specimen had been feeding on river crab (Pseudothelphusa),
another had two spiders, a Heteropteran, moths, two scarabaeids, and another
beetle (Temnochila). A Honduras specimen contained shrimp and smaller crustaceans.
In parts of Panama it has been hunted out. The meat is of good flavor, but
apparently it is little hunted now because of small size coupled with the high
price of bullets in Panama. It is ectoparasitized by Ornithoctona.


JACANIDAE

Jacanas

Jacana spinosa: Middle American Jacana; Gallito de Agua Castano (S); Cirujano (CR)

This resident of western Panama nests in water plants, the eggs sometimes
being played in water in a rough platform nest of grass and bamboo.

Jacana jacana: Wattled Jacana; Gallito de Ci6nagas (S); Gallito de Agua Barbudo,
Lagunero (D); Rasca Tortilla [(P) Los Santos Province]

A common freshwater resident, this bird often feeds on Nymphaea or
Najas pads, chasing moving food. Feeds on fish, small insects, seeds and other
vegetable matter (e.g., grasses, water lettuce), and snails.


HAEMATOPODIDAE

Oystercatchers

Haematopus palliatus: American Oystercatcher; Ostrero Blanco (S)

This local resident along the Pacific coast feeds on barnacles, clams, crabs,
fish, insects, limpets, mussels, oysters, sea urchins, sea worms, shrimp, and
snails (e.g., Nerita).


CHARADRIIDAE

Plovers; Chorlitos (S)


For food habits, see Table 2.








TABLE 2. MIGRANT SHORE BIRD FOOD HABIT AT PALO ALTO*


Semipalmated Least Western Marbled Black-bellied
Plover Sandpiper Sandpiper Dowitcher Godwit Willet Knot Plover


No. gizzards analyzed 1 38 78 27 9 16 3 3

Avg. No. items per gizzard 137 38 35 94 195 132 159 55

Amphipod species 21.1 8.6

Gemma gemma 2.8 5.3 8.6 6.4 6.2 44.6 55.3 12.7

Neanthes succinea 94.5 5.3 8.6 71.4 76.0 4.6 44.0 16.4

Ostracod species 0.5 57.8 62.8 9.6 -

Ilyanassa obsoleta <1/4" 2.2 10.5 11.4 7.4 2.5 9.9 1.8

Illyanassa obsoleta >1/4" 2.1 8.7 33.2 0.7 65.5

Modiolus demissus 0.8

Mya arenaria/Macoma
inconspicua 3.1 6.6 3.8 3.6

Hemigrapsus oregonensis 3.1 -

Food diversity 0.188 1.190 1.172 1.020 0.861 1.326 0.722 1.022

No. equally common species 1.2 3.3 3.2 2.8 2.4 3.9 2.1 2.8



*According to Recher (1966). A feeding shore bird may take every organism as it is encountered, or it may
select certain kinds or sizes. Dietary differences among species appear to reflect food preferences as well as
variation in the composition of food organisms found within the different feeding ranges of shore bird species.
Diversity of food organisms taken can be calculated in the same way as species diversity. In general, there is
an inverse relationship between the diversity of food organisms taken and the size of the shore bird. Therefore
it appears that larger shorebirds feed more selectively than smaller ones. Sandpipers and plovers occasionally
eat small dead water animals.


e


1






32


Belonopterus chilensis(*): Southern Lapwing; Teru-teru((S)

A casual visitor from the south, this bird inhabits open fields, probably
feeding on insects.

Squatorola squatorola(*): Black-bellied Plover; Chorlito Gris (S)

This winter migrant (September-April) inhabits sea beaches, probably feeding
on insects. See Table 2. Once a popular game bird in North Carolina; now
protected. Inland it feeds occasionally on fruits and seeds.

Pluvialis dominica(*): American Golden Plover; Chorlito Dorado (S)

A passage migrant, this bird is much esteemed for the table elsewhere. Food
consists of crickets, cutworms, grasshoppers, locusts, wireworms, and other insects.
Fruits and seeds are also taken.

Charadrius semipalmatus(*): Semipalmated Plover; Chorlitejo Semipalmeado,
Cherlo (C)

Colombian stomach analyses of this migrant from the north reveals crabs, fish,
and insects. Other foods reported include worms, mollusks, and other crustaceans.
Mosquito larvae and locusts are taken. Sometimes it visits plowed fields in search
of insects and seeds.

Charadrius collaris(*): Collared Plover; Turillo, Chiros (P)

This is a rather rare resident of gravel bars and beaches.

Charadrius vociferus(*): Killdeer; Chorlito Grit6n (S); Pijije (CR)

A common migrant from the north (November-March), this bird inhabits stubble
and pastures. Martin et al (1961) report that ants, beetles, bugs (Hemiptera),
and grasshoppers constitute the major portion of the diet. Other analyses reveal
that spores of algae, Marsilea sporocarps, crustacean eggs, live crustaceans, snail
eggs, and seeds fed to captives remain viable for at least 5 days (Proctor et al,
1967). Also takes caterpillars, centipedes, crawfish, grubs, spiders, ticks, and
weevils.

Charadrius wilsonia: Wilson's Plover; Chorlito Piquigordo (S)

Rare residents reported from San Blas and Darien. Loftin (p.c. 1967) has seen
them in the Canal Zone. Food consists of crabs, insects, mollusks, shrimp, and
worms.


SOLOPACIDAE

Snipes, Sandpipers; Agachadizas, Playeros (S)

All are migrants from the north, sometimes found by the thousands along
the shore. According to Recher (1966), waders are opportunists, feeding on what-
ever foods are available. He contends that large shore birds tend to feed more
selectively on the larger food species available.






33


Bartramia longicauda(*): Upland Plover; Correlona (S)

This is an uncommon passage migrant (September-November and March-May). It
was formerly a popular game bird in the United States. Feeds on ants, bugs,
cutworms, earthworms, flies; moths, spiders, ticks, weevils, etc. Seeds are
occasionally consumed.

Numenius phaeopus(*): Whimbrel; Zarapito Trinador, Cherlo, Cherlo Mare'o, Piura (C)

This bird is a common migrant and winter resident (September-April). Crebs
(p.c. 1967) notes that thousands summer here. Colombian stomach analyses revealed
crabs, fish, and shrimps. Occasionally it will pursue insects, and it has been
reported to catch butterflies.

Limosa fedoa(*): Marbled Godwit; Aguja Moteada (S)

A rare migrant, this bird feeds on open flats at low tide. Feeds heavily on
grasshoppers and locusts.

Totanus flavipes(*): Lesser Yellowlegs; Playero Chill6n Chico (S)

This common migrant (August-April) feeds on crabs, small fishes, insects
(especially ants, bugs, flies, and grasshoppers), snails, and worms.

Totanus melanoleucus(*): Greater Yellowlegs; Playero Chill6n Grande, Cherlo,
Piura (C)

A common mud-flat migrant (August-April), this bird eats crustaceans, small
fish, insects, snails, and worms. It is killed for food in Barbados.

Tringa solitaria(*): Solitary Sandpiper; Playero Solitario (S)

Of the sandpipers, this and the following are the most widely distributed
migrants from the north (August-April). Food consists of crustaceans, frogs,
insects, mollusks, spiders, worms, etc.

Actitis macularia(*): Spotted Sandpiper; Playerito Coleador (S); Cherlo,
Cherlito (P); Chicken Peddy (J)

A common migrant (August-April), it is ubiquitous in Panama, where crabs have
been found in the stomach (in Colombia, insects; at Portobelo, ants, crustaceans,
and a neuropteran; inland in the Canal Zone, a few ants, aquatic insects, beetles,
and Orthoptera). It will occasionally take small fish.

Catopthrophorous semipalmatus(*): Willet; Playero Aliblanco, Cherlo (C)

Although it is a migrant (August-April), Crebs (p.c.) adds that it is here all
year. It is common along the Pacific coast, feeding on crabs and small fish in
Colombia. Martin et al (1961) report the following diet: primarily aquatic insects,
small crabs, fish, marine worms, and mollusks. Some grasses and roots are
reportedly consumed. At Palo Alto, California, Recher (1966) notes that the willet
has a higher food diversity than other shore birds.

Aphriza virgata(*): Surfbird; Chorlito de Rompiente (S)


This is a rare migrant from the north.






34


Arenaria interpres(*): Ruddy Turnstone; Vuelvepiedras (S)

This bird is a migrant from the north (August-April), where it feeds on small
crustaceans, mollusks (especially bivalves), insects, and eggs of the horseshoe
crab.

Limnodromus scolopaceus(*): Long-billed Dowitcher; Agachona Gris Piquilarga (S)

This is a migrant from the north.

Limnodromus griseus(*): Short-billed Dowitcher; Agachona Gris Piquilarga (S)

A migrant from the north (September-March), this bird feeds largely on animal
food, beetles, fly larvae, leeches, marine worms, and mollusks; small crustaceans
and seeds of aquatic plants are also eaten to a limited extent.

Capella gallinago(*): Common Snipe; Agachadiza (S)

This fairly common migrant from the north (October-April) is a Panama game
bird. Food consists of caterpillars, earthworms, grasshoppers, leeches, locusts,
mosquitoes, other insects, and some seeds.

Calidris canutus(*): Knot; Playero Gordo (S)

This bird is a casual migrant from the north. It is said that its appearance
in South Carolina is governed by the presence or absence of a small bivalve which
is found a few inches under the sand and upon which the bird feeds almost
exclusively.

Crocethia alba(*): Sanderling; Playerito Arenero (S)

A fairly common migrant from the north (August-March), this bird feeds on
small crustaceans, beach insects, mollusks, worms, and occasionally on algae,
buds, moss, and seeds.

Ereunetes pusillus(*): Semipalmated Sandpiper; Playerito Gracioso (S)

This migrant from the north haunts lagoons and mangrove swamps. According to
Martin et al (1961), the principal foods are clamworms, crustaceans, insects
(especially beetles, flies and their larvae, and Hymenoptera), and mollusks;
seaweed and seeds of marsh and aquatic plants are also eaten to a limited extent.

Ereunetes mauri(*): Western Sandpiper; Playerito Occidental (S)

A migrant from the north, this bird is very similar in its habits to the
preceding.

Erolia minutilla(*): Least Sandpiper; Playerito Menudo (S)

A migrant from the north (August-April), it feeds on insects from mosquitoes
to grasshoppers. Hundreds of ostracods, some still viable, are reported in stomach
diagnoses.

Erolia fuscicollis(*): White-rumped Sandpiper; Playerito de Rabadilla Blanca (S)


This is a passage migrant from the north.






35

Erolia bairdii(*): Baird's Sandpiper; Playerito Unicolor (S)

This is a passage migrant from the north.

Erolia melanotos(*): Pectoral Sandpiper; Playerito Pectoral (S)

The food of this passage migrant from the north (fall and spring) consists
largely of insects (beetles, cutworms, grasshoppers, horseflies, mosquitoes,
weevils, wireworms), shellfish, small snails, and some plant matter.

Erolia alpina(*): Dunlin; Correlinos ComCn (S)

This is a rare migrant from the north.

Micropalama himantopus(*): Stilt Sandpiper; Chorlito Patilargo (S)

This bird is a rare passage migrant from the north.

Tryngites subruficollis(*): Buff-breasted Sandpiper; Chorlito Canelo (S)

A fairly common passage migrant from the north, it feeds largely on insects
in the Canal Zone on lawns and grassy fields (Loftin, p.c. 1967).


PHALAROPODIDAE

Phalaropes; Falaropos (S)

This pelagic species does not come ashore in Panama, except for one
specimen observed near the Chagres dam.

Phalaropus fulicarius(*): Red Phalarope; Pollito de Mar Rojizo (S)

This rare migrant from the north feeds largely on insects but also eats
crustaceans, small fish, jellyfish, leeches, mollusks, and sandworms. It is said
to forage occasionally in the wake of whales.

Steganopus tricolor(*): Wilson's Phalarope; Pollito de Mar Tricolor (S)

This migrant from the north destroys many insects and shrimp.

Lobipes lobatus(*): Northern Phalarope; Pollito de Mar Boreal (S)

A migrant from the north, this bird feeds on mollusks, crustaceans, and
insects (including many mosquito larvae).


STERCORARIIDAE

Skuas, Jaegers; Gaviotas Salteadoras (S)

Predatory robbers, these birds eat smaller birds and mammals. At sea,
they scavenge dead fish and other animals, and rob gulls and other birds of their
food.






35

Erolia bairdii(*): Baird's Sandpiper; Playerito Unicolor (S)

This is a passage migrant from the north.

Erolia melanotos(*): Pectoral Sandpiper; Playerito Pectoral (S)

The food of this passage migrant from the north (fall and spring) consists
largely of insects (beetles, cutworms, grasshoppers, horseflies, mosquitoes,
weevils, wireworms), shellfish, small snails, and some plant matter.

Erolia alpina(*): Dunlin; Correlinos ComCn (S)

This is a rare migrant from the north.

Micropalama himantopus(*): Stilt Sandpiper; Chorlito Patilargo (S)

This bird is a rare passage migrant from the north.

Tryngites subruficollis(*): Buff-breasted Sandpiper; Chorlito Canelo (S)

A fairly common passage migrant from the north, it feeds largely on insects
in the Canal Zone on lawns and grassy fields (Loftin, p.c. 1967).


PHALAROPODIDAE

Phalaropes; Falaropos (S)

This pelagic species does not come ashore in Panama, except for one
specimen observed near the Chagres dam.

Phalaropus fulicarius(*): Red Phalarope; Pollito de Mar Rojizo (S)

This rare migrant from the north feeds largely on insects but also eats
crustaceans, small fish, jellyfish, leeches, mollusks, and sandworms. It is said
to forage occasionally in the wake of whales.

Steganopus tricolor(*): Wilson's Phalarope; Pollito de Mar Tricolor (S)

This migrant from the north destroys many insects and shrimp.

Lobipes lobatus(*): Northern Phalarope; Pollito de Mar Boreal (S)

A migrant from the north, this bird feeds on mollusks, crustaceans, and
insects (including many mosquito larvae).


STERCORARIIDAE

Skuas, Jaegers; Gaviotas Salteadoras (S)

Predatory robbers, these birds eat smaller birds and mammals. At sea,
they scavenge dead fish and other animals, and rob gulls and other birds of their
food.







36


Catharacta skua(*): Skua; Salteador Grande (S)

This migrant from the south robs other birds of their prey. Fish found in the
gut are anchovies, herring, silverside (Atherinidae). Antarctic varieties of this
species are real villains but will eat lichens, moss, and seaweed when meat is not
available. They take advantage of whales' slaughter, gobble up the placentas of
newly born seals, peck out the eyes of weak young penguins, and make two holes in
their backs to peck out the tissues of the kidney; they even eat their own sick and
infirm and often supernumerary fledglings. They are eaten in the Falklands.

Stercorarius pomarinus(*): Pomarine Jaeger; Salteador Pomarino (S)

A migrant from the north, this bird sometimes lives on garbage and robs gulls
in Colon Harbor; it robs other birds of their eggs and food and even kills small
mammals. The bird stays at sea in Panama.

Stercorarius parasiticus(*): Parasitic Jaeger; Salteador ParAsito (S)

This is a visitor from the north, where it feeds on animal matter, garbage,
insects, and even berries. The bird does not come ashore in Panama (Loftin, p.c.
1967).


LARIDAE

Gulls, Terns; Gaviotas, Gaviotines (S)

All Panama species are migrants, from the north or south. Terns share
with shearwaters and albatrosses the ability to drink salt water. Some gulls eat
anything from dead fish to small living birds. They are useful in eating dead
fish, garbage, and other refuse that might become a health menace. When, however,
gulls increase too greatly, they can be quite harmful, destroying crops, eating
large quantities of fish waste before it can be made into commercial products, and
taking the eggs and fledglings of ducks and other useful birds. In turn, fledgling
terns have been observed engulfed by hordes of hermit crabs. Sometimes terns even
menace the lobster industry.

Larus modestus(*): Gray Gull; Gaviota Garuma (S)

In some places the stomach contents of this casual visitor from the south are
almost entirely sand fleas (Emerita analoga. Other items include feathers, fish,
gravel, and mereids.

Larus delawarensis(*): Ring-billed Gull.; Gaviota de Pico Anillado (S)

A casual migrant from the north, this bird feeds on dead fish and other
aquatic animals, grubs, insects (flying ants, beetles, grasshoppers), rodents, and
worms.

Larus argentatus(*): Herring Gull; Gaviota Argentatus (S)

This migrant from the north feeds on flying ants, crustaceans, dead fish,
garbage, grubs, insects, mollusks, and scraps, rarely small mammals and fruits
or seeds.






37


Larus atricilla(*): Laughing Gull; Gaviota Reidora (S)

An abundant migrant from the north (October-April). This and the following
species are the common gulls in Panama. It is a fish-eater, sometimes robbing the
brown pelicans or eating the'eggs of terns, rarely taking a bird (Darwin Finch);
sometimes hawk insects (probably flying termites); will eat almost anything. It is
reputed to come ashore at Guayaquil to feed on cricket plagues. Occasionally it
invades inland temporary pools to feed on earthworms. Wafer (1903) records that
the flesh is eaten but has a fishy flavor. He recommends burying them with
feathers and guts intact for 8-10 hours to improve texture and aroma.

Larus pipixcan('): Franklin's Gull; Gaviota de Franklin (S)

This bird is a common migrant from the north. Although it lives mostly on
fish and crustaceans, it occasionally goes inland to feed on insects, which makes
it the "Prairie Pigeon" of North America. Stomach analyses of 8 specimens revealed
algal fragments, megalops stage of crab bones of Atheriinidae, bits of barnacle,
fragments of bryozoans, a few feathers, fish bones, and gravel.

Creagrus furcatus(*): Swallow-tailed Gull; Gaviota Rabihorcado (S)

This is a casual visitor from the south. Although principal food consists of
squids, it also takes pteropods and marine-water striders (Hydrometridae).

Xema sabini(*): Sabine's Gull; Gaviota de Sabine (S)

A casual migrant from the north, this bird feeds on various aquatic animals
and insects.

Chlidonias niger: Black Tern; Gaviotin Negro (S)

This common migrant from the north is primarily a spider and insect eater
(e.g., beetles, crickets, dragonflies, flies, grasshoppers, moths) (Martin et al,
1961), also eating crustaceans, fish, mollusks, and water scorpions. At Barro
Colorado, they join other birds hovering over the large schools of fish, snatching
at the smaller ones jumping to escape the predator fish pursuing them (I). In
Panama Bay, huge flocks feed on sardines, a phenomenon interpreted as a signal for
marlin and sailfish fishermen (Loftin, p.c. 1967). Carolina night fishermen have
had trouble with black terns trying to catch the minnow baits off the hooks on the
fly.

Gelochelodon nilotica(*): Gull-billed Tern; Gaviotin Piquigordo (S)

A common migrant from the north, this bird feeds on fiddler crabs, small fish,
insects, minnows, shrimp, and spiders, but does not feed on dead fish as do gulls.

Hydroprogne caspia(*): Caspian Tern; Gaviotin Piquirojo (S)

This rare migrant from the north feeds on fish, mussels, shrimp, and
occasionally eggs.

Sterna hirundo(*): Common Tern; Gaviotin Comin (S)

A common migrant from the north (October-April), this bird dives for' small
fish and also eats crustaceans, insects (e.g., flying ants, butterflies, cicadas),







38


and worms. Banded birds have shown up in Panama from Ontario, Michigan, Wisconsin,
Minnesota, Illinois, Massachusetts, New York, and Maryland.

Sterna anaethetus('): Bridled Tern; Gaviotina Monja (S)

This is one of the "egg-birds" of the West Indies, which, with the Sooty Tern
and Noddy is regularly raided by hungry black men (Murphy, 1936).

Sterna fuscata: Sooty Tern; Gaviotin de Dorso Negro (S)

This rare visitor feeds on fish, with a diet like that of Cabot's tern; robbed
by the frigate bird. Elsewhere the eggs are sometimes eaten by man. It is
ectoparasitized by Olfersia.

Sterna albifrons(*): Least Tern; Charrancito (S)

A migrant from the north, it is common over marshes of the Azuero Peninsula
from July to September (Crebs, p.c. 1967).

Thalasseus maximum(*): Royal Tern; Gaviotin Real, Gaviota (S)

A common migrant that eats fish, shrimp and other crustaceans, and, rarely,
small crabs.

Thalasseus sandvichensis(*): Sandwich Tern; Gaviotin Patinegro (S)

A fairly common migrant from the north, this bird pursues schools of minnows
and other small fish, shrimp, and squid.

Anous stolidus(*): Brown Noddy; Cervera (S)

Distribution is rare in Panama but more frequent in Colombia. Noddies appear
to feed by following small schools of fish pursued by larger fish. A healthy chick
in captivity eats 12-40 minnows a day (Murphy, 1936).


RYNCHOPIDAE

Skimmers; Rayadores (S)

Rynchops nigra(*): Black Skimmer; Rayador, Arador (S)

These casual migrants from the north and south supposedly skim over the water
of brackish streams, with the lower mandible in the water, scooping up fish and
crustaceans. Murphy (1936) suggests that the first skimming is merely to.lure
curious fish which might be caught on the second skimming. The birds might possibly
be snared by putting a thin wire just under the surface of the water.


COLUMBIDAE

Doves, Pigeons; Palomas, Pichones (S); Guama, Nu, Nuguili (Cu); Cochora (CR)

Mostly fruit- and seed-eating vegetarians (Martin et al, 1961); inost
species are eaten by man. Fledglings are fed "pigeon-milk", secreted by both
parents in their crops; seeds and fruits are added as the squabs get bigger.







38


and worms. Banded birds have shown up in Panama from Ontario, Michigan, Wisconsin,
Minnesota, Illinois, Massachusetts, New York, and Maryland.

Sterna anaethetus('): Bridled Tern; Gaviotina Monja (S)

This is one of the "egg-birds" of the West Indies, which, with the Sooty Tern
and Noddy is regularly raided by hungry black men (Murphy, 1936).

Sterna fuscata: Sooty Tern; Gaviotin de Dorso Negro (S)

This rare visitor feeds on fish, with a diet like that of Cabot's tern; robbed
by the frigate bird. Elsewhere the eggs are sometimes eaten by man. It is
ectoparasitized by Olfersia.

Sterna albifrons(*): Least Tern; Charrancito (S)

A migrant from the north, it is common over marshes of the Azuero Peninsula
from July to September (Crebs, p.c. 1967).

Thalasseus maximum(*): Royal Tern; Gaviotin Real, Gaviota (S)

A common migrant that eats fish, shrimp and other crustaceans, and, rarely,
small crabs.

Thalasseus sandvichensis(*): Sandwich Tern; Gaviotin Patinegro (S)

A fairly common migrant from the north, this bird pursues schools of minnows
and other small fish, shrimp, and squid.

Anous stolidus(*): Brown Noddy; Cervera (S)

Distribution is rare in Panama but more frequent in Colombia. Noddies appear
to feed by following small schools of fish pursued by larger fish. A healthy chick
in captivity eats 12-40 minnows a day (Murphy, 1936).


RYNCHOPIDAE

Skimmers; Rayadores (S)

Rynchops nigra(*): Black Skimmer; Rayador, Arador (S)

These casual migrants from the north and south supposedly skim over the water
of brackish streams, with the lower mandible in the water, scooping up fish and
crustaceans. Murphy (1936) suggests that the first skimming is merely to.lure
curious fish which might be caught on the second skimming. The birds might possibly
be snared by putting a thin wire just under the surface of the water.


COLUMBIDAE

Doves, Pigeons; Palomas, Pichones (S); Guama, Nu, Nuguili (Cu); Cochora (CR)

Mostly fruit- and seed-eating vegetarians (Martin et al, 1961); inost
species are eaten by man. Fledglings are fed "pigeon-milk", secreted by both
parents in their crops; seeds and fruits are added as the squabs get bigger.





39


Culinarily, Graham (1947) suggests: if it is still nearly a squab, broil it;
otherwise, bake it in cream or orange juice, or make a potpie. Caged pigeons must
be watched as potential carriers of psittacosis. San Bias Indians prescribe pigeon
soup for their infirm.

Columba fasciata: Band-tailed Pigeon

A species of western Panama.

Columba nigrirostris: Short-billed Pigeon

Arboreal forest species, feeding on fruits (e.g., Cecropia, Quercus) and seeds.

Columba subvinacea: Ruddy Pigeon

An upland resident.

Columba leucocephala: White-crowned Pigeon

Breeds in Bocas del Toro swamps, feeding principally on seeds and berries;
somewhat partial to mangroves.

Columba speciosa: Scaled Pigeon

A lowland resident, found in the Darien. Eats fruits and seeds. Ectoparasi-
tized by Stilbometopa.

Columba cayennensis: Pale-vented Pigeon; Torcaza Comdn (S)

This is a lowland rastrojo resident, not uncommon in mangroves. Observed in
Darien's cuipo forest in March (Child, p.c.).

Columba livia: Domestic Pigeon, Rock Dove

Raised by various ethnic groups, especially the San Bias Islanders, for food.
Ectoparasitized by Pseudolynchia.

Zenaidura macroura(*): Morning Dove

A winter migrant from the north but there is also a resident race. It is not
known in eastern Panama but breeds in western Panama, mostly in scrub or savannas.
It is 100 percent vegetarian, feeding on Acalypha, beans, buckwheat, corn, cowpea,
crab grass, Crotalaria, Croton, Desmodium, knotweed, Paspalum, pigweed, pokeweed,
sesame, spurge, sorghum, and wheat (Martin et al, 1961). Loftin (p.c. 1967)
disagrees with this statement by saying, "I doubt any bird is 100 percent anything"
(re diet). Birds, like most other animals, are opportunistic feeders. This bird
makes a delicious stew (').

Zenaidura auriculata(*): Eared Dove

An accidental visitor from the south. This record is dubious (Wetmore, p.c.
1967).

Zenaida asiatica: White-winged Dove


Local in mangroves and arid scrub of Code. Reported to eat beans, cacti,
corn, figs, melon, palms, sesame, and wheat.






40


Columbigallina minute: Plain-breasted Ground Dove; Cochito (CR)

A ground feeder.

Columbigallina talpacoti: Ruddy Ground Dove; Tortolita Colorada (S); Puchina (Ch);
Tortolito Rojo (CR)

This is a lowland grassland species, feeding on weed seeds, e.g., Gouania
polygama. The Choco from Santa Fe eat the bird fried (I). Balsa Choco gut the
bird, saving the gizzard, and stew with salt, cutting off only the toes (I).

Claravis pretiosa: Blue Ground Dove; Tortolita Azul (S); Cococha (CR)

More or less arboreal rastrojo species. Feeds on weed and grass seeds (e.g.,
rice). Some curcurbitaceous seeds were reported in Panama stomach analyses; in
Colombia, it rarely hunts insects. It is hunted for its meat in Colombia.

Claravis mondetoura: Maroon-chested Ground Dove

A rare highlands resident.

Leptotila verreauxii: White-tipped Dove; Paloma Rabiblanca (S); Coliblanca,
Yure (CR)

[Rabiblanca has another meaning which might elude the novice, "a rich person".
Rabiprieto means a poor person. Rabicolorado(a) means a girl or boy dating a
gringo(a).] This is a ground feeding rastrojo dweller. Eats wild beans, buds, corn,
grass seeds, raspberry seeds, and sesame. Hunted for its meat (I). Parasitized by
Diptera larvae.

Leptotila cassinii: Gray-chested Dove

This is a lowland resident. White berries, gravel, millet, and sedge seeds
found in crop; also eats fruits of Achras. Ectoparasitized by Trombicula.

Leptotila rufinucha: Rufous-naped Dove

Known only from western Panama.

Leptotila plumbeiceps: Gray-headed Dove; Paloma Cabeciceniza (S)

A local resident. On Coiba Island (Wetmore, 1957), the flesh is highly
esteemed for eating; trapped, live birds sell for 60 cents a dozen.

Geotrygon montana: Ruddy Quail-dove; Paloma Montanesa (S); Paloma Tortola (C)

This is a ground-feeding seed-eater. It is hunted for its meat.

Geotrygon veraguensis: Olive-backed Quail-dove; Paloma Piguala (S)

A lowland Darien resident. Seeds were found in Colombian stomach analysis.
The meat is considered excellent.

Geotrygon costaricensis: Buff-fronted Quail-dove

Montane Panama resident. Apparently scratches for insects; seeds show up in


crop analyses.






41


Geotrygon lawrencii: Purple-backed Quail-dove

Local montane resident of western Panama.

Geotrygon goldmani: Russet-crowned Quail-dove

A lowland or lower highland Darien endemic.

Geotrygon chiriquensis: Rufous-breasted Quail-dove

A montane resident of western Panama.


PSITTACIDAE

Parrots, Macaws, Parakeets; Guacamayos, Loros (P); Lapa (CR)

Most members of this fruit-eating family are both attractive, talkative,
and edible, and too many of them find their way into cages and pots. Apparently
parrots are quite common, even near the villages in Darien, while macaws have
retreated due to hunting pressure; the red-and-blue being common in the headwaters
of the Rio Balsa, the blue-and-yellow common in the headwaters of the Chucunaque
(1). Parakeets are common in Panama City where they come by the hundreds each dusk
to roost in royal palms, etc. Several parakeets nest in termite nests. In
Almirante, parakeets are said to eat the dry fruits of Luehea. Graham (1947)
suggests the following recipes. For macaw, brown in fat, add seasoning including
curry, cover with cream and bake until tender. For parakeets, make potpies or
casseroles (Roast cleaned bird until done; dice and cover with orange juice in a
casserole with white wine, butter, flour, bouillon. Bake 30 minutes at 3750). For
tough old parrots, make soups or stews; young parrots should be seasoned and baked
in cream. These favorite cage birds, finches, petrels, doves, ducks, pigeons, and
poultry, harbor psittacosis.

Ara ararauna: Blue-and-yellow Macaw

These beauties, retreating from man in Darien, are commonly eaten by the Choco.
They sometimes feed heavily on cuipo flowers and were observed in Darien's cuipo
forest in March (Child p.c.). In April, they are common on the upper Chucunaque and
Membrillo (1). Loftin (p.c. 1967) says, "I have seen very few macaws in Panama--
mostly on the San Blas coast and some in Darien--also on Coiba and probably Mosquito
coast jungles. In contrast, Route 25 (Colombia) is full of macaws of several species
and in large flocks. I can't account for this except for (1) too many people, or
(2) kind of forest (high)--or maybe both?"

Ara chloroptera: Red-blue-and-green Macaw

This bird is rare, except in headwaters of the Rio Balsa.

Ara macao: Scarlet Macaw; Guacamayo Rojo (S); Lapa Colorado (CR)

This bird is found in remote Darien forests and is a favorite food with the
Cuna. Two were observed at Camp Summit (Child, p.c. 1967).

Ara ambigua: Great Green Macaw; Lapa Azul, Lapa Verde (CR)


Found in humid forests of Darien. They can open the fruits of Lecythis
costaricensis, whose seeds are apparently relished by most frugivores.







42


Ara several: Chestnut-fronted Macaw

A rare resident reported from Darien.

Aratinga finschi: Crimson-fronted Parakeet; Cotorra (CR)

A resident of western Panama.

Aratinga astec: Olive Throated Parakeet

A lowland resident from western Panama,

Pyrrhura hoffmanni: Sulphur-winged Parakeet

This is a western montane and submontane resident.

Bolborhynchus lineola: Barred Parakeet

Western submontane forest resident.

Brotogeris jugularis: Orange-chinned Parakeet; Perico (S)

This rastrojo dweller is the most common and abundant parrot in Panama.
Feeds on Muntingia calabura in Darien ('). Flocks are frequent in cuipo forests
near Santa Fe (Child, p.c.).

Forpus conspicillatus: Spectacled Parrotlet

Found in the open forest of eastern Darien.

Touit costaricensis: Red-fronted Parrotlet

A rare upland Chiriqui resident.

Touit dilectissima: Blue-fronted Parrotlet; Cuarita (C)

This rare Cerro Pirre resident is cultivated as a house bird in Colombia, where
fruits have been found in the stomach.

Pionopsitta haematotis: Brown-hooded Parrot; Loro (S)

This resident is found on the forest edges.

Pionopsitta pyrilia: Saffron-headed Parrot

A Darien forest resident.

Pionus menstruus: Blue-headed Parrot; Cuara (C); Casanga, Garzanga (P); Cuacua (Cu);
Michita (Ch)

This bird is raised by the Cuna who feed it on corn and plantain and also hunt
it for food. After setting up dozens of mist nets at ground level near Santa Fe,
the Choco Indian assistants, who had become very adept at unraveling the fouled-up
nets and extricating the birds, and actually enjoying the task, were excited about
a bunch of casangas they had seen feeding on an Inga tree near camp. They
suggested stringing a net to catch them, obviously more interested in this money






43


bird than the pipsqueaks they had been collecting for days. Doubting biologists
sent two of them off with a net to string in the heat of midday. About a half-hour
later they were back, smugly believing they would catch a parrot. At about three,
BBC photographers photographed the nets, ca 30 feet in the air, strung between two
trees, and already with three parrots, which were struggling and cutting the
net badly. One was retrieved the first day, and two a second day, the majority
cutting free. These three were caged and succumbed in captivity; they were lain to
rest near the lacerated mist net (').

Pionus senilis: White-crowned Parrot; Chucuyo (CR)

An upland wood resident of western Panama.

Amazona autumnalis: Red-lored Parrot; Loro Frentirojo (S); Loro, Loro
Cejicolorado (C); Cucua (Cu)

A common lowland forest resident that the Cuna hunt for food. It is cultivated
for food and decor. Feeds on small fruits, e.g., Virola.

Amazona ochrocephala: Yellow-headed Parrot; Loro Real (S)

This bird is fairly common in the woodlands of western Panama. Feeds on fruits
and seeds, e.g., Apeiba tibourbou.

Amazona farinosa: Mealy Parrot; Loro Verde (S); Loro Cejiverde (C)

This is a fairly common bird in the lowland forest, e.g., Darien's cuipo
forest in March (Child, p.c.). It is sometimes cultivated for food and decor.
Fruit seeds found in stomach.


CUCULIDAE

Cuckoos, Anis

Coccyzus erythropthalmus(*): Black-billed Cuckoo

This is an uncommon migrant from the north (October-April). The diet is much
like that of the Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Martin et al, 1961).

Coccyzus americanus(*): Yellow-billed Cuckoo

This is a fairly common migrant (October-April). It is wholly insectivorous
(Martin et al, 1961) with two-thirds of its diet being caterpillars (including
hairy kinds avoided by other birds); bugs and grasshoppers are also captured.
Morton (p.c. 1966) says it feeds on tent caterpillars of the hairy type of
lepidopteran larvae (19 in 15 minutes). Several hundred small caterpillars were
reported from the stomach of one bird. In Louisiana, it is said to eat wild fruits.

Coccyzus minor: Mangrove Cuckoo


This bird is found in western Panama and the Canal Zone.






44


Piaya cayana: Squirrel Cuckoo; Ptjaro Ardilla, Quica or Trica (Ch); Bobo,
Bobo Chiso (CR)

This bird is a common resident. In Panama, it is reported to eat Hemiptera,
Locustidae, Lepidoptera, perhaps worms, spiders, small lizards, and small seeds.
Seen near Santa Fe (Child, p.c.) but not abundant.

Piaya minute: Little Cuckoo

Found in the humid thickets of eastern Panama.

Crotophaga major: Greater Ani

Found in eastern Panama, almost exclusively along marshy streams, swamps,
and lake borders.

Crotophaga ani: Smooth-billed Ani; Garrapatero Comun (S); Chango (C); Aniai (Ch);
Jew Birds (J)

This widely distributed marsh and pasture bird often nests in spiny citrus or
bamboo. It eats ticks off grazing cattle and the insects cattle disturb (e.g.,
beetles, caterpillars, froghoppers, grasshoppers, spiders). Grass seed and
cucumber-like seed enters the diet in Panama, and occasionally the fruits of
Citharexylum. In Cuba, they are said to be primarily vegetarian in the dry season,
carnivorous in the rainy season. These birds are common in the pastures around
Santa Fe where one was captured by a roadside hawk ('). Ectoparasitized by
Eutrombicula.

Crotophaga sulcirostris: Groove-billed Ani; Garrapatero (P) Tijo, Tinco,
Zopilotillo (CR)

This bird inhabits drier grasslands than the proceeding; rare in extreme
eastern Panama. Feeds on insects and ticks; sometimes follows army ants and
lawnmowers.

Tapera naevia: Striped Cuckoo; Tres Pesos (CR)

Parasite, not yet recorded from Darien.

Dromococcyx phasianellus: Pheasant Cuckoo

A rare Panama resident.

Neomorphus geoffroyi: Rufous-vented Ground Cuckoo

In western Panama, a subspecies of this bird is believed always to be near
puma. It sometimes follows the army ants. Ectoparasitized by Argas, Eutrombicula,
Odonthocarus, and Trombicula.






45


TYTONIDAE

Barn Owls

TIto alba: Barn Owl; Buho (S); Huerres, Bombona (Ch); Tecolote (CR); Lechuza (D)

This bird is rare in Darien (Rio Chucunaque). The colloquial name applies
to nearly any owl in Darien and was divulged by a native looking through my
illustrated books. It is nocturnal, favoring human habitations. Feeds on bats,
birds, frogs, insects, mice, and other prey. Pellet analyses from California
reveal that Thomomys, Perognathus, Mustela, Charadrius, Loomelania, Oceanodroma,
and Endomychura enter the diet (Banks, 1965). Even a young specimen can eat 9 or
10 mice at a single meal.


STRIGIDAE

Owls; Buhos, Buos, Lechuzas (S)

The food of the owls depends largely on the size of these noctural
predators. They are capable of inflicting serious wounds on a man molesting them.
Smaller owls feed largely on insects and small rodents; larger owls, on rabbits,
squirrels, birds, varied with some crayfish, frogs, and insects.

Otus vermiculatus: Vermiculated Screech-owl; Estucuru (CR); Sorococa (CR)

A rare forest inhabitant, attacked by forest falcon (Micrastur).
Ectoparasitized by Blankaartia and Lynchia.

Otus choliba: Tropical Screech-owl; Estucuru (CR); Sorococa (CR)

Found occasionally on the costal Pacific second-growth forest areas. Leaf-
cutting ants, mastiff bats, Odonata, Orthoptera, and scrub seeds were found in
Panama stomach analyses.

Otus clarkii: Bare-shanked Screech-owl; Estucuru (CR); Sorococa (CR)

This is a rare montane species.

Lophostrix cristata: Crested Owl

A tropical forest predator.

Bubo virginianus: Great Horned Owl; Gran Buho Cornudo (S)

Is not reported from Darien (one recorded in western Panama, others in
Colombia). Feeds on crawfish, crows, fish, grouse (reported to have decapitated
three turkeys and several hens in one night), hawks, insects, possums, rabbits,
rats, squirrels, and weasels. Ectoparasitized by Lynchia.

Pulsatrix perspicillata: Spectacled Owl

Resides in lowland forests and savannas. Eats such things as Cyclopes,
Marmosa, and Philander. Suspected of raiding oropendola nests.






45


TYTONIDAE

Barn Owls

TIto alba: Barn Owl; Buho (S); Huerres, Bombona (Ch); Tecolote (CR); Lechuza (D)

This bird is rare in Darien (Rio Chucunaque). The colloquial name applies
to nearly any owl in Darien and was divulged by a native looking through my
illustrated books. It is nocturnal, favoring human habitations. Feeds on bats,
birds, frogs, insects, mice, and other prey. Pellet analyses from California
reveal that Thomomys, Perognathus, Mustela, Charadrius, Loomelania, Oceanodroma,
and Endomychura enter the diet (Banks, 1965). Even a young specimen can eat 9 or
10 mice at a single meal.


STRIGIDAE

Owls; Buhos, Buos, Lechuzas (S)

The food of the owls depends largely on the size of these noctural
predators. They are capable of inflicting serious wounds on a man molesting them.
Smaller owls feed largely on insects and small rodents; larger owls, on rabbits,
squirrels, birds, varied with some crayfish, frogs, and insects.

Otus vermiculatus: Vermiculated Screech-owl; Estucuru (CR); Sorococa (CR)

A rare forest inhabitant, attacked by forest falcon (Micrastur).
Ectoparasitized by Blankaartia and Lynchia.

Otus choliba: Tropical Screech-owl; Estucuru (CR); Sorococa (CR)

Found occasionally on the costal Pacific second-growth forest areas. Leaf-
cutting ants, mastiff bats, Odonata, Orthoptera, and scrub seeds were found in
Panama stomach analyses.

Otus clarkii: Bare-shanked Screech-owl; Estucuru (CR); Sorococa (CR)

This is a rare montane species.

Lophostrix cristata: Crested Owl

A tropical forest predator.

Bubo virginianus: Great Horned Owl; Gran Buho Cornudo (S)

Is not reported from Darien (one recorded in western Panama, others in
Colombia). Feeds on crawfish, crows, fish, grouse (reported to have decapitated
three turkeys and several hens in one night), hawks, insects, possums, rabbits,
rats, squirrels, and weasels. Ectoparasitized by Lynchia.

Pulsatrix perspicillata: Spectacled Owl

Resides in lowland forests and savannas. Eats such things as Cyclopes,
Marmosa, and Philander. Suspected of raiding oropendola nests.






46


Glaucidium brasilianum: Ferrugineous Pygmy-owl; Mochuelo (CR)

This, a forest, scrub, and orchard (e.g., mango) species, feeds on birds
and lizards. Wetmore (p.c. 1966) states that the heart and tongue are used as a
love charm.

Glaucidium jardinii: Andean Pygmy Owl

This bird occurs in the mountain forests of western Panama and in Colombia.
Ectoparasitized by Ceratophyllus.

Glaucidium minutissimum: Least Pygmy Owl

A rare bird reported from eastern Panama.

Speotyto cunicularia(*): Burrowing Owl

An arid savanna terrestrial species, migrant to Chiriqui. Eats centipedes,
insects (e.g., beetles, crickets, grasshoppers), rodents, scorpions, and rarely
birds. Seeds and fruits are said to be consumed occasionally.

Ciccaba virgata: Mottled Owl; Lechuza (C)

A forest species. Insects were reported in Colombian stomach analyses.
Ectoparasitized by Blankaartia and Lynchia.

Ciccaba nigrolineata: Black-and-White Owl

Forest species ranging rather high.

Asio clamator: Striped Owl

Feathers have been found in the stomach of this grassland predator. It is
found mostly on the Pacific side of Panama (as are the grasslands).


STEATORNITHIDAE

Oilbirds; Guacharos (S)

Steatornis caripensis: Oilbird; Guacharo (S)

This nocturnal flier and cave dweller was reported only once from Cerro
Tacarcuna in eastern Panama. It might be more frequent in Panama than collections
might indicate because mist-netters tend to take up nets at night to prevent bat
damage. The old mines at Cana, Darien, might be worth investigating for the birds.
This frugivore frequently eats palm fruits; Dacryodes (Burseraceae) is another
favorite food. (Dacryodes is not reported in the flora of Panama although seedlings
of this plant are easy to recognize.) The young are a favorite source of oil and
food. The birds are gregarious and might tend to accumulate guano in their caves.
Etiolated seedlings of Dacryodes are often found in these caves, where also may be
found a serious mycosis, found also in bat caves which the oilbirds often occupy.
A Panama cave containing etiolated trifoliate seedlings smelling of turpentine
would be a good place to swing a nocturnal mist net, trying to catch the second
Panama record of the oilbird, a bird important in the economy of the Indians a
little to the south of Panama. Should one encounter an oilbird cave in Panama, he






47


will have made an ornithological find, perhaps a botanical find. Let's hope he
doesn't make a mycological find. Oilbird caves are notorious for harboring
histoplasmosis.


NYCTIBIIDAE

Potoos

Large nocturnal solitary insectivores feeding in flight.

Nyctibius grandis: Great Potoo; Mancoa (S); Baracoco (Ch)

This bird is rare but reported from Darien forests. Insects were reported
in Colombian stomach analyses; bats and hummingbirds were also reported, perhaps
erroneously.

Nyctibius griseus: Common Potoo

A species of more open woods. Small beetles were reported in Costa Rican
stomach analyses (Slud, 1964).


CAPRIMULGIDAE

Nightjars, Nighthawks; Buos, Buhos, Capachos (S); Togollos (Ch)

These birds are mostly nocturnal predators, feeding on flying ants,
beetles, flies, leaf-chafers, mosquitoes, and grasshoppers. Wetmore (p.c. 1967)
notes that their feathers are used as charms to ensnare the females of the human
species.

Lurocalis semitorquatus: Semicollared Nighthawk

Little known but widely distributed in Panama; recorded from Tacarcuna
(Wetmore, p.c.). This insectivore may sometimes catch small birds.

Chordeiles acutipennis(*): Lesser Nighthawk; Buho, Huevo Rastrado (S);
Togollo (Ch); Tohir (Cu)

This or a closely related species netted near Santa Fe had in its mouth:
1 large click beetle, 2 species of Gryllidae, 1 large flying ant, and several other
unidentified insects (!). Coleoptera and other insects are reported. The species
is a migrant from the north, also apparently breeding in Pacific savannas. It
occasionally rests in mangrove swamps. Ectoparasitized by Pseudolynchia.

Chordeiles minor(*): Common Nighthawk

A migrant from the north breeding in Panama; others nest in Cuba, wintering
in Colombia. Rests in trees by day, often mangroves. Exclusively insectivorous
(Wetmore, p.c.) taking any insect that flies, e.g., flying ants, fireflies, gnats,
grasshoppers, and weevils. One stomach contained around 500 mosquitoes; another
contained 1,800 winged ants.






47


will have made an ornithological find, perhaps a botanical find. Let's hope he
doesn't make a mycological find. Oilbird caves are notorious for harboring
histoplasmosis.


NYCTIBIIDAE

Potoos

Large nocturnal solitary insectivores feeding in flight.

Nyctibius grandis: Great Potoo; Mancoa (S); Baracoco (Ch)

This bird is rare but reported from Darien forests. Insects were reported
in Colombian stomach analyses; bats and hummingbirds were also reported, perhaps
erroneously.

Nyctibius griseus: Common Potoo

A species of more open woods. Small beetles were reported in Costa Rican
stomach analyses (Slud, 1964).


CAPRIMULGIDAE

Nightjars, Nighthawks; Buos, Buhos, Capachos (S); Togollos (Ch)

These birds are mostly nocturnal predators, feeding on flying ants,
beetles, flies, leaf-chafers, mosquitoes, and grasshoppers. Wetmore (p.c. 1967)
notes that their feathers are used as charms to ensnare the females of the human
species.

Lurocalis semitorquatus: Semicollared Nighthawk

Little known but widely distributed in Panama; recorded from Tacarcuna
(Wetmore, p.c.). This insectivore may sometimes catch small birds.

Chordeiles acutipennis(*): Lesser Nighthawk; Buho, Huevo Rastrado (S);
Togollo (Ch); Tohir (Cu)

This or a closely related species netted near Santa Fe had in its mouth:
1 large click beetle, 2 species of Gryllidae, 1 large flying ant, and several other
unidentified insects (!). Coleoptera and other insects are reported. The species
is a migrant from the north, also apparently breeding in Pacific savannas. It
occasionally rests in mangrove swamps. Ectoparasitized by Pseudolynchia.

Chordeiles minor(*): Common Nighthawk

A migrant from the north breeding in Panama; others nest in Cuba, wintering
in Colombia. Rests in trees by day, often mangroves. Exclusively insectivorous
(Wetmore, p.c.) taking any insect that flies, e.g., flying ants, fireflies, gnats,
grasshoppers, and weevils. One stomach contained around 500 mosquitoes; another
contained 1,800 winged ants.






48

Nyctidromus albicollis: Pauraque; Cuyejo (CR)

This nocturnal resident lies on roadsides jumping up to catch insects. Panama
stomach analyses revealed Coleoptera, Diptera, Mantispidae, Locustidae, Tipulidae,
Heterocera, and seeds. Ectoparasitized by Blankaartia and Eutrombicula.

Caprimulgus carolinensis(*): Chuck-will's-widow

A migrant wintering in Panama. Primarily insectivorous but reported to have
swallowed whole Carolina wrens.

Caprimulgus rufus: Rufous Nightjar; Buho, Chotacabras Morena, Capacho (S);
Togollo (Ch)

An insectivore of drier Pacific forests; said occasionally to eat bats and
small birds. Ectoparasitized by Blankaartia and Pseudolynchia.

Caprimulgus cayennensis: White-tailed Nightjar

Found in Pacific thickets; rarely collected.

Caprimulgus saturatus: Dusky Nightjar

A western Panama species, favoring bamboo thickets for roosting places.


APODIDAE

Swifts

Swifts are poorly known insectivores, feeding on the wing, some migrant
from the north, some possibly migrant from the south, and some breeding in Panama.
Eisenmann (unpubl. ms.) lists 11 species in Panama, some rarely or dubiously
recorded. Martin et al (1961) note that swifts eat no plant food but mostly
ants, bees, bugs, caddisflies, craneflies, mayflies, other flies, and wasps.
Relatives occurring in large numbers in Indonesian caves furnish the nests that are
popular for making bird's nest soup. The nests are made primarily from the saliva
which hardens into a whitish gelatinous mass. Commercially used nests are collected
before the young are hatched.

Streptoprocne zonaris: White Collared Swift; Vencejo Cuelliblanco (S)

Seen in cuipo forest near Santa Fe (Loftin, p.c. 1967).

Panyptila cayennensis: Lesser Swallow-tailed Swift; Macua (CR)

Tunnel-like nests are believed magical and sold exorbitantly in Costa Rica.
The dried bird is a commercial item in Panama (Wetmore, p.c. 1967). Around
La Neuva, Colombia, the nests are put into perfume as a love charm (Costales,
p.c. 1967).

Cypseloides cryptus: White-chinned Swift


Seen near Armila in San Bias (one record).





49


Cypseloides rutilus: Chestnut-collared Swift

A rare bird in western Panama.

Chaetura vauxi: Dusky-backed Swift; Vencejo Oscuro Coman (S)

This bird is common in central and western Panama.

Chaetura spinacauda: Band-rumped Swift

Found in lowlands throughout the isthmus.

Chaetura cinereviventris: Gray-rumped Swift

Found in Bocas del Toro.

Chaetura chapman: Dark-breasted Swift

Status uncertain; few records.

Chaetura pelagica(*): Chimney Swift

A passage migrant, feeding on flying insects. Farbush (1955) suspects they
take caterpillars. Attracted to fires by the insects that are stirred up.

Chaetura brachyura: Short-tailed Swift

One record, Canal Zone (Wetmore, p.c. 1967).



TROCHILIDAE

Hummingbirds, Woodstars, Sapphires, Emeralds, Hermits,
Lancebills, Barbthroats; Visita Flores, Chupaflores (S);
Run-run (C); Corrion, Gurrion (CR); Imbisu, Imbichu (Ch); Colibri (CR)

These birds, one of the largest groups in Panama, but the smallest birds
in the world, are not likely to enter man's diet directly, but some Panamanians
regard the heart of the hummingbird as aphrodisiac, and their feathers often are
used as ornaments due to the fact that they change color when struck by light from
different locations. Martin et al's (1961) examination of stomachs of about 230
specimens, some almost immediately after visiting flowers, showed almost nothing
but insects. Nectar, then, must be immediately digested or pass undetected.
Various workers have noticed that hummingbirds in captivity require either protein
supplements or small Diptera (e.g., Drosphila). The most common insects (arachnids
are also reported) found are small flies, ants, bees, and beetles. Hummingbirds
also drink saps oozing from tree wounds and ripe fruits. Although the platanillo
is suggested as one of their favorite flower haunts in Panama, they visit a wide
variety of plants, possibly pollinating quite a variety of plants. This might be
a problem when we consider some of the Darien endemic species such as Goldmania.
Among the many flowers which they are reported to visit are the following: Acacia,
Albizia, Antigonon, Aphelandra, Asclepias, Begonia, Buddleja, Canna, Cajanus,
Calathea, Cestrum (1), Cirsium, Citrus, Cleome, Clematis, Combretum, Convolvulus,
Erythrina ('), Hamelia ('), Heliconia (I), Hibiscus (I), Inga, Ipomoea, Lantana,
Lobelia, Marcgravia, Melia, Musa (I), Nerium, Opuntia, Palicourea, Parkinsonia,






50


Passiflora (1), Pavonia (1), Phaseolus, Pithecellobium, Psidium, Quassia (I),
Russelia (1), Sabicea (!), Salvia, Tropaeolum. While netting birds at Boca
Lara, we frequently put them to sleep by stroking their bellies while
we held them on their backs, in our hands. One day when we were visited by the
Sahila and Secretary from Canazas, wisely or unwisely I tried to create a "witch"
image. I walked up to them with a sleeping hummingbird, which of course looked
dead to them. Having learned their word for hummingbird (panchuis), I said "vaya
panchuis", turning the bird over. To their amazement, the hummingbird flew off
into the jungle. Later I gave the chief a live one for a present, accompanied by
a cup of sugar water and some extra cubes of sugar. When I went to Canazas more
than a year later, the Secretary showed me a well preserved cadaver of a humming-
bird. Fortunately, he did not ask me to revive it. The following limited notes
have been added to Eisenmann's unpublished manuscript.

Doryfera ludovicias: Green-fronted Lancebill

Found in the mountains of Chiriqui, Darien, and Veraguas Province above
3,000 feet.

Androdon aequatorialis: Tooth-billed Hummingbird

Found in Darien, above 3,000 feet. Insects found in stomach in a Colombian
analysis.

Glaucis hirsuta: Rufous-breasted Hermit

A resident of central Panama; favors Heliconia thickets and banana plantations.

Glaucis aenea: Bronzy Hermit

Found in western Panama.

Threnetes ruckeri: Band-tailed Barbthroat

This bird can be found in Heliconia and wild cane thickets. Frequents the
flowers of Calathea lutea (which often contain mosquito larvae) probing the water
therein.

Phaethornis gy: Green Hermit

Resides in forest and Heliconia thickets. Feeds on nectar (e.g., Passiflora)
and gleans insects and spiders from foliage. Ectoparasitized by Pellonyssus.

Phaethornis superciliosus: Long-tailed Hermit

In Darien, one netted at Santa Fe contained 30 percent insect material
(possibly termites and spiders) (Child, p.c. 1967). Also feeds on nectar
(Antigonon, Heliconia, Musa, Passiflora).

Phaethornis longuemareus: Little Hermit

Resides in second growth and forest edges; dips in water pools for insects.

Eutoxeres aquila: White-tipped Sicklebill


Found in Darien, eastern San Blas, and western Panama (Wetmore, p.c. 1967).






51

Phaeochroa cuvierii: Scaly-breasted Hummingbird

A woodland resident chiefly on the Pacific side. Pierces the flowers of
Erythrina berteroana.

Campylopterus hemileucurus: Violet Sabrewing

Found in western Panama.

Florisuga mellivora: White-necked Jacobin

This bird is widely distributed in forest edges.

Colibri delphianae: Brown Violet-ear

A rare bird in Panama; recorded from Darien.

Colibri thalassinus: Green Violet-ear

Found in the mountains of western Panama.

Anthracothorax nigricollis: Black-throated Mango

Found in humid country feeding on Heliconia.

Anthracothorax veraguensis: Veraguan Mango

Found in western Panama.

Klais guimeti: Violet-headed Hummingbird

Found on the Pacific slope above 2,000 feet.

Lophornis delattrei: Rufous-crested Coquette

Chiefly a forest resident. Some favor Cajanus flowers, others Citrus flowers.

Lophornis adorabilis: White-crested Coquette

A resident of western Panama.

Popelairia conversii: Green Thorntail

Common on Cerro Pirre (Wetmore, p.c. 1967).

Chlorostilbon canivetii: Fork-tailed Emerald

Found in open areas on the Pacific slope.

Thalurania colombica: Blue-crowned Woodnymph; Run-run (C)

Commonly found in the forest. Visits Heliconia and Marcgravia flowers, also
dips in pools, perhaps fishing for insects.






52

Thalurania fannyi: Green-crowned Woodnymph

Found in Darien and eastern San Blas.

Panterpe insignis: Fiery-throated Hummingbird

A resident of western Panama.

Damophila julie: Violet-bellied Hummingbird

Found in the open woods, plantations, and gardens of the Pacific slope.

Lepidopyga coeruleogularis: Sapphire-throated Hummingbird; Colibri Zafirino (S)

Found in the scrubby and fairly open areas of the Pacific slope and clearings
on the Caribbean slope from the Canal Zone eastward.

Hylocharis eliciae: Blue-throated Goldentail; Colibri Cola de Oro (S)

Found in open woodland.

Hylocharis grayi: Blue-headed Sapphire; Run-run, Yagarita (C)

Found in extreme eastern Darien. In Colombia, where insects have been found
in the stomach, the bird is said to be used in the treatment of hernia.

Goldmania violiceps: Violet-capped Hummingbird

Has been recorded only from eastern Panama (Cerro Azul and Darien).

Goethalsia bella: Rufous-cheeked Hummingbird

Found on Cerro Pirre, about 2,000 feet (Wetmore, p.c. 1967).

Amazilia amabilis: Blue-chested Hummingbird

Found in open woodland and clearings on both slopes. Probably fond of
Citrus, Heliconia, Inga, and Psidium flowers.

Amazilia edward: Snowy-breasted Hummingbird; Colibri Pechiblanco (S)

Found in open woodland and gardens on the Pacific slope.

Amazilia tzacatl: Rufous-tailed Hummingbird; Colibri Colimorena (S); Chupaflor (C)

Not reported from Darien and San Blas. Nectar and small insects found in
stomach; searches for insects on banana leaves in Panama.

Eupherusa eximia: Striped-tailed Hummingbird

A resident of western Panama.

Eupherusa nigriventris: Black-bellied Hummingbird


A resident of western Panama.






53


Elvira chionura: White-tailed Emerald

A resident of western Panama.

Microchera albocoronata: Snowcap

A resident of western Panama.

Chalybura buffoni: White-vented Plumeleteer

Found in open woodland and thickets of the Pacific slope.

Chalybura urochrysia: Bronze-tailed Plumeleteer

Found in humid forest, San Bias and Darien.

Chalybura melanorrhoa: Dusky Plumeleteer

A resident of western Panama.

Lampornis hemileuca: White-bellied Mountain-gem

Lampornis castaneoventris: White-throated Mountain-gem

A resident of western Panama.

Heliodoxa jacula: Green-crowned Brilliant

Found in Darien above 4,000 feet.

Eugenes fulgens: Magnificent Hummingbird

A resident of western Panama.

Haplophaedia aureliae: Greenish Puffleg

Found in the mountains in eastern Darien.

Heliothryx barroti: Purple-crowned Fairy

Found throughout the woodland. Pierces the flowers of Erythrina berteroana.

Heliomaster longirostris: Long-billed Starthroat

Found in the lowlands in second growth and open woods.

Philodice bryantae: Magenta-throated Woodstar

Upland resident of western Panama.

Archilochus columbris(*): Ruby-throated Hummingbird

A winter migrant to western Panama.






54


Acestrura heliocor: Gorgeted Woodstar

An upland Darien resident.

Selasphorus torridus: Heliotrope-throated Hummingbird

Known from VolcAn de Chiriqui.


TROGONIDAE

Trogons

Feed on insects and fruits, nesting in hollow trees.

Pharomachrus mocinno: Resplendent Quetzal

This bird is local in montane western Panama. Found feeding on stilt palm
fruits in Costa Rica. Skutch (1944) has observed it feeding its young the
following: beetles, frogs, lizards, snails, Ocotea pentagon and other lauraceous
fruits. Ectoparasitized by Ornithoctona.

Pharomachrus auriceps: Golden-headed Quetzal

Reported in Panama only from Cerro Pirre.

Trogon clathratus: Lattice-tailed Trogon

A western Panama resident.

Trogon massena: Slaty-tailed Trogon; Cagua (C)

A resident of the lowland forests. Eats fruits and seeds, e.g., Virola
panamensis; intestinal worms to 5 cm long have been found. Seen at Santa Fe
(Child, p.c.). Ectoparasitized by Blankaartia.

Trogon melanurus: Black-tailed Trogon

Found in the cuipo forests of Darien.

Trogon collaris: Collared or Bar-tailed Trogon

This is an upland species. Ectoparasitized by Ornithoctona.

Trogon aurantiiventris: Orange-bellied Trogon

Found in upland western Panama.

Trogon viridis: White-tailed Trogon; Cagua, Soledad (C); Hoho (Ch)

A resident of the lowland forests. Seeds and insects were found along with
large intestinal worms in Colombian stomach analysis. Observed in cuipo forest
near Santa Fe in March (Child, p.c. 1967).






55


Trogon bairdii: Baird's Trogon

A lowland resident of western Panama. Feeds on fruits (e.g., Ficus) and
insects.

Trogon violaceus: Violaceous Trogon

Found in the lowland woods. Takes fruits, katydids, and wasps while hovering.

Trogon rufus: Black-throated Trogon

Found in the lowland forests. Stomach analysis revealed seeds and insects.
Snatches fruits and insects while hovering.


ALCEDINIDAE

Kingfishers; Martines, Martines Pescadores (S)

These almost strictly carnivorous bank-dwellers feed mostly on fish,
also on crabs, crayfish, frogs, lizards, and mussels. Loftin (p.c. 1967) states
that the Cuna will not even look a kingfisher in the eye, much less touch it. A
Nargana contact explains that he believes that kingfishers are in consorts with
evil people (1). A partially digested kingfisher was found in a Cook's boa,
collected in a pichindd (Pithecellobium) tree on the Rio Membrillo (1).

Megaceryle torquata: Ringed kingfisher; Martin (S)

Found in all lowland waterways. Fish remains found in the stomach.

Megaceryle alcyon(*): Belted Kingfisher

A winter visitor feeding largely on fish. On a favorite perch, one finds
oil and scales where the bird beats the fish before swallowing it. Also takes
crawfish, frogs, insects (e.g., beetles, crickets, grasshoppers), lizards, mice,
newts, and even fruit when fish are scarce. Wetmore (p.c. 1967) regards the latter
behavior as highly unusual.

Chloroceryle amazona: Amazon Kingfisher

Fish remains found in stomach.

Chloroceryle americana: Green kingfisher; Martin Pescador Verde (S); Martin
Pescador (C); Ansabida (Ch)

Fish and shrimp found in stomach analysis. Ectoparasitized by Amblyomma.

Chloroceryle inda: Green-and-rufous Kingfisher

Found in Darien west to Cerro Azul.

Chloroceryle aenea: Pygmy Kingfisher; Martin Pescador Enano (S)

Feeds largely on insects (de Schaunesee, 1964) but fish, shrimp, and snails
are reported.







56


MOMOTIDAE

Motmots; Culebreros, Huros (S); Hudu (Ch)

These birds are forest dwellers, mostly solitary residents, feeding on
fruits, insects, and small reptiles.

Hylomanes momotula: Tody Motmot

A rare resident found in the forest undergrowth.

Baryphthengus ruficapillus: Rufous Motmot; Jur6 (C)

Small fruits, e.g., Virola panamensis, have been found in this forest
resident. Ectoparasitized by Blankaartia.

Electron platyrhynchum: Broad-billed Motmot

A forest resident. Lepidopterous larvae have been found in its stomach.
Ectoparasitized by Neoschoengastia.

Momotus momota: Blue-crowned Motmot; Hudu (Ch); Huro (S)

A forest and scrub resident. Diet consists of 98 percent insects (including
cockroaches, grasshoppers), centipedes, and scorpions; 2 percent berries
(including Simarouba glauca); may also eat snakes. Can hover like a trogon to
pluck berries. Occasionally attracted by the army ant hordes. Ectoparasitized by
Eutrombicula.


GALBULIDAE

Jacamars

These are forest and second-growth bank-dwelling species, feeding on
insects, usually caught on the wing. At Camp 7, above Rio Membrillo, a Jacamar
was observed feeding on swarming termites at the rate of about 3 per minute (').

Jacamerops aurea: Great Jacamar; Gorri6n de Montana (CR)

A species rare in western Panama. Feeds on insects, taking even butterflies
but dewinging them before eating.

Brachygalba salmon: Dusky-backed Jacamar

A Darien resident. Feeds on bees, dragonflies, and other insects.

Galbula ruficauda: Rufous-tailed Jacamar

A resident of western Panama.







56


MOMOTIDAE

Motmots; Culebreros, Huros (S); Hudu (Ch)

These birds are forest dwellers, mostly solitary residents, feeding on
fruits, insects, and small reptiles.

Hylomanes momotula: Tody Motmot

A rare resident found in the forest undergrowth.

Baryphthengus ruficapillus: Rufous Motmot; Jur6 (C)

Small fruits, e.g., Virola panamensis, have been found in this forest
resident. Ectoparasitized by Blankaartia.

Electron platyrhynchum: Broad-billed Motmot

A forest resident. Lepidopterous larvae have been found in its stomach.
Ectoparasitized by Neoschoengastia.

Momotus momota: Blue-crowned Motmot; Hudu (Ch); Huro (S)

A forest and scrub resident. Diet consists of 98 percent insects (including
cockroaches, grasshoppers), centipedes, and scorpions; 2 percent berries
(including Simarouba glauca); may also eat snakes. Can hover like a trogon to
pluck berries. Occasionally attracted by the army ant hordes. Ectoparasitized by
Eutrombicula.


GALBULIDAE

Jacamars

These are forest and second-growth bank-dwelling species, feeding on
insects, usually caught on the wing. At Camp 7, above Rio Membrillo, a Jacamar
was observed feeding on swarming termites at the rate of about 3 per minute (').

Jacamerops aurea: Great Jacamar; Gorri6n de Montana (CR)

A species rare in western Panama. Feeds on insects, taking even butterflies
but dewinging them before eating.

Brachygalba salmon: Dusky-backed Jacamar

A Darien resident. Feeds on bees, dragonflies, and other insects.

Galbula ruficauda: Rufous-tailed Jacamar

A resident of western Panama.





57


BUCCONIDAE

Puffbirds; Martines de Montana (S)

Sedentary forest species; catching insects on the wing or on the ground.

Notharchus macrorhynchus: White-necked Puffbird; Martin de Montana, Oito (Ch)

Found in Darien cuipo forests (Child, p.c.) where it sounds like Hyla
Insects and seeds were reported in Colombian stomach analyses.

Notharchus pectoralis: Black-breasted Puffbird

Found in eastern Panama. Stomach analyses revealed small Acridiidae and
Coleoptera in Panama and seeds in Colombia.

Notharchus tectus: Pied Puffbird; Huito (Ch)

An insectivorous forest species. A young Choco caught one of these by hand
when it blundered into his house by mistake on the Rio Sabana above Santa Fe (').

Nystalus radiatus: Barred Puffbird

An eastern Panama forest species. Wetmore (p.c. 1967) says that the usual
note is a perfect "wolf whistle".

Malacoptila panamensis: White-whiskered Puffbird

A species of the forest undergrowth throughout the isthmus. Insects found
in the stomach; often takes large invertebrates including terrestrial centipedes
several inches long. One netted at Santa Fe in March contained all insect matter
(one beetle recognizable, Child, p.c. 1967). Ectoparasitized by Ambylomma and
Eutrombicula.

Micromanacha lanceolata: Lanceolated Monklet

A rare species of Atlantic forests.

Nonnula frontalis: Gray-cheeked Nunlet

Found in eastern forests and scrub.

Monasa morphoeus: White-fronted Nunbird

A forest species. Subsists entirely on animals (centipedes, frogs, katydids,
lizards, and scorpions); occasionally attends the army ants. Ectoparasitized by
Blankaartia and Stilbometopa.


CAPITONIDAE

Barbets


Forest species dwelling in holes in trees; eat fruit and insects.





57


BUCCONIDAE

Puffbirds; Martines de Montana (S)

Sedentary forest species; catching insects on the wing or on the ground.

Notharchus macrorhynchus: White-necked Puffbird; Martin de Montana, Oito (Ch)

Found in Darien cuipo forests (Child, p.c.) where it sounds like Hyla
Insects and seeds were reported in Colombian stomach analyses.

Notharchus pectoralis: Black-breasted Puffbird

Found in eastern Panama. Stomach analyses revealed small Acridiidae and
Coleoptera in Panama and seeds in Colombia.

Notharchus tectus: Pied Puffbird; Huito (Ch)

An insectivorous forest species. A young Choco caught one of these by hand
when it blundered into his house by mistake on the Rio Sabana above Santa Fe (').

Nystalus radiatus: Barred Puffbird

An eastern Panama forest species. Wetmore (p.c. 1967) says that the usual
note is a perfect "wolf whistle".

Malacoptila panamensis: White-whiskered Puffbird

A species of the forest undergrowth throughout the isthmus. Insects found
in the stomach; often takes large invertebrates including terrestrial centipedes
several inches long. One netted at Santa Fe in March contained all insect matter
(one beetle recognizable, Child, p.c. 1967). Ectoparasitized by Ambylomma and
Eutrombicula.

Micromanacha lanceolata: Lanceolated Monklet

A rare species of Atlantic forests.

Nonnula frontalis: Gray-cheeked Nunlet

Found in eastern forests and scrub.

Monasa morphoeus: White-fronted Nunbird

A forest species. Subsists entirely on animals (centipedes, frogs, katydids,
lizards, and scorpions); occasionally attends the army ants. Ectoparasitized by
Blankaartia and Stilbometopa.


CAPITONIDAE

Barbets


Forest species dwelling in holes in trees; eat fruit and insects.






58


Capito maculicoronatus: Spot-crowned Barbet

Found in central and eastern Panama. Ectoparasitized by Amblyomma.

Eubucco bourcierii: Red-headed Barbet

A montane species. Searches leaves and bark for insects.

Semnornis fratzii: Prong-billed Barbet; Cocora (CR)

Found in the western mountains. Feeds on fruit.


RAMPHASTIDAE

Toucans; Picos (S)

These noisy, curious, gregarious forest dwellers are still abundant in
Darien in spite of being much hunted by all ethnic groups for the pot and for the
cage (!). They nest in hollow trees, which are often felled to capture the
fledglings that may find their way to the street vendors in Panama City. Primarily
they are fruit-eaters and they often hold a fruit in their comical beaks and offer
them to their spouses. In Darien they eat the fruits of Carludovica (I), Cupania
fulvida, Euterpe, fruta de mono, guarumo, guava, guineo, higo, mangabd, and
maquenque. They also eat birds, eggs, and insects. The meat is dark and tough and
is prepared like any other bird. A dash of papaya latex might tenderize the meat.

Aulacorhynchus caeruleogularis: Blue-throated Toucanet; Curre Verde (CR)

A montane species.

Pteroglossus torquatus: Collared Aracari; Cuiscuis (Cu), Cusinga, Felix (CR)

This common species is hunted for food. Eats bananas, young birds, hat-palm
fruits (1), and hamburger. It is common in flocks near Santa Fe (!) and probably
eats Cecropia fruits; beetles have rarely been found in the stomach. Child (p.c.
1967) reports seeing it eat wild papaya near Camp Chucunaque.

Pteroglossus frantzii: Fiery-billed Aracari

A western Panama resident. Much like the proceeding in habits.

Selenidera spectabilis: Yellow-eared Toucanet; Cuisculs (Cu)

Olson and Blum (p.c.) note that this common species,frequent on Cerro
Campana,eats Cecropia fruits.

Ramphastos sulfuratus: Keel-billed Toucan; Curre (CR)

This bird is common in the Darien cuipo forest. Reported to eat mangab6.
Ectoparasitized by Lynchia.

Ramphastos swainsonii: Chestnut-mandibled Toucan; Paleton (S)

A common resident eating Cecropia, Cupania, Ficus, and Euterpe (some data


from Olson and Blum, p.c.). Ectoparasitized by Lynchia, Ornithoica, and
Stilbometopa.






59

Ramphastos ambiguus: Black-mandibled Toucan

The report for eastern Panama is in error (Wetmore, p.c. 1967).

Ramphastos vitelinus: Channel-billed Toucan; Huerhuer (Cu)

A favored pet species from South America not occurring naturally in Panama.
Eats nutmeg, mangabd, also birds, eggs, and occasionally insects.


PICIDAE

Woodpeckers; Carpinteros (S); Zorre, Zorrezo (Ch)

These trunk-dwelling, trunk-feeding birds are usually considered as
carnivorous, and indeed most of them are. Some however, tend to favor seeds, nuts,
and fleshy fruits, but most favor wood-boring insects and their larvae. Some
woodpeckers drill holes in balsa flowers to obtain food and others are reported to
drill into citrus fruits. They are not apparently eaten in Darien or San Bias.
Among the Choco, they are regarded as love charms (Costales, p.c. 1967).

Picumnus olivaceus: Olivaceus Piculet.

An uncommon bird in fringe forests and croplands. Feeds on insects.

Chrysoptilus punctigula: Spot-breasted Woodpecker

Found in the scrub of eastern Panama.

Piculus rubiginosus: Golden-olive Woodpecker

Found in cuipo forest and second growth. Pecks for insects among epiphytic
mosses and higher plants.

Piculus chrysochloros: Golden-green Woodpecker

A Darien forest species.

Piculus callopterus: Stripe-cheeked Woodpecker

A Darien species.

Piculus simplex: Rufous-winged Woodpecker

A western Panama species. Feeds on insects.

Celeus loricatus: Cinnamon Woodpecker

An eastern Panama species. Olson and Blum (p.c.) found them with fruits of
Palicourea guianensis. Slud (1964) has observed them pecking at swollen nodes of
myrmecophytes.

Celeus immaculatus: Immaculate Woodpecker


Known from one specimen erroneously attributed'to Panama (Wetmore, p.c. 1967).






60

Celeus castaneus: Chestnut-colored Woodpecker

A western Panama foliage gleaner.

Sphyrapicus various*) : Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

An irregular winter visitor. Feeds on cambium of trees, sap, insects attracted
to the sap (e.g., ants, beetles), and occasionally on fruits.

Dryocopus lineatus: Lineated Woodpecker

A resident of the lowland forests and woodlands, e.g., Darien's cuipo forest
(Child, p.c.). Eats mostly insects; seeds rarely found in stomach. Occasionally
infested with tapeworms.

Dendrocopus villosus: Hairy Woodpecker

Found in the Chiriqui mountains.

Melanerpes formicivorus: Acorn Woodpecker

Found in western Panama montane forests.

Melanerpes chrysauchen: Golden-naped Woodpecker

An upland western Panama species. Attracted to the flowers of Marcgravia.

Melanerpes pucherani: Black-cheeked Woodpecker; Carpintero (S)

Found in the lowland forests and clearings; e.g., in Darien's cuipo forest
(Child, p.c.). Insects were found in Colombian stomach analysis. In April,
observed eating fruits of Hasseltia floribunda and Trichilia japurensis at Camp
Chucunaque (Child, p.c.).

Melanerpes rubicapillus: Red-crowned Woodpecker, Wagler's Woodpecker; Carpintero
Rayado (S)

A common variable species in Panama to western Darien (Wetmore, 1957). Small
Coleoptera, insect eggs, and seeds are reported in Panama stomach analyses. A
Salvadorean relative is reported to drill citrus fruits. The opening then attracts
blue honeycreepers.

Veniliornis fumigatus: Smoky-brown Woodpecker

A forest and woodland species in montane areas.

Veniliornis kirkii: Red-rumped Woodpecker; Carpintero Rabadillaroja (S)

A forest, scrub, and mangrove species.

Phloeoceastes melanoleucos: Crimson-crested Woodpecker

A forest insectivore observed gleaning a ca'a blanca loaded with grasshoppers
at Santa Fe (I); also observed at Ailigandi (Child, p.c.). A March collection at


Santa Fe contained seeds but no insect material (Child, p.c. 1967). Observed
eating fruits of Miconia (Fleming, p.c.) and Trichilia (Child, p.c.).





61

Phloeoceastes guatemalensis: Pale-billed Woodpecker

Found in western Panama forests.

Phloeoceastes haematogaster: Crimson-bellied Woodpecker

A Darien forest species.


DENDROCOLAPTIDAE

Woodcreepers

These are.rather solitary tropical American forest dwellers, living in
hollow trees, exploring the bark, and seeking out insects. In addition to insects,
they occasionally eat spiders and amphibians and sometimes travel with the antbirds.

Campylorhamphus pusillus: Brown-billed Scythebill

A resident of western Panama frequently curving its bill in palm fruit clusters
seeking insects; unlike most woodcreepers the scythebill also probes fallen logs.

Campylorhamphus trochilorostris: Red-billed Scythebill

A forest species found in eastern Panama.

Dendrocolaptes certhia: Barred Woodcreeper

A Darien forest species preying on tree trunks and limbs for arthropods and
cold-blooded vertebrates. Temporarily follow army ants.

Dendrocolaptes picumnus: Black-banded Woodcreeper

A montane forest species.

Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus: Strong-billed Woodcreeper

Found in montane forests.

Glyphorynchus spirurus: Wedge-billed Woodcreeper

An insectivorous forest species hunting on large tree trunks. Secondmost
abundant bird netted at the Divide in February (Child, p.c.).

Sittasomus griseicapillus: Olivaceous Woodcreeper

Found in the humid forest. Searches for insects on trunks and twigs.

Deconychura longicauda: Long-tailed Woodcreeper

A cuipo forest species foraging for insects on the lower tree trunks.
Slud (1964) observed one wanting with a small insect too stout to be an ant.






62


Dendrocincla fuliginosa: Plain-brown Woodcreeper

This forest species is common in Darien and San Bias. Normally clings to
bark and sallys out to catch insects off the nearby ground or vegetation. Occasion-
ally gleans the leaves but rarely gleans the bark as do most woodcreepers.
Frequently follows the army ants as a "professional ant-follower" (Willis, 1966).

Dendrocincla homochroa: Ruddy Woodcreeper

A Pacific slope forest species. Ectoparasitized by Blankaartia.

Dendrocincla anabatina: Tawny-winged Woodcreeper

A western Panama species, occasionally joins the antbirds.

Dendroplex picus: Straight-billed Woodcreeper

Found in Pacific coastal areas and scrubs.

Xiphorhynchus guttatus: Buff-throated Woodcreeper

A common forest species throughout Panama. Ectoparasitized by Blankaartia.

Xiphorhynchus lachrymosus: Black-striped Woodcreeper

Found in the Darien forest and in the Atrato area (Colombia).

Xiphorhynchus erythropygius: Spotted Woodcreeper

A forest species, occasionally following the army ants.

Lepidocolaptes souleyetii: Streak-headed Woodcreeper

A rather common species of cocoa and coffee fincas, gleaning trunks and
sometimes taking hard-bodied insects.

Lepidocolaptes affinis: Spot-crowned Woodcreeper

Found in the montane forests and woodlands of western Panama.


FURNARIIDAE

Ovenbirds, Spinetails; Horneros (S)

In Panama, these mostly terrestrial montane species are largely insecti-
vorous as gleaners or leafscrapers. They occasionally accompany the antbirds.
Nesting habits are various, from natural tree crevices to excavated caves in
banks, to twig nests, to the namesake's Dutch oven of South America. Like some
wasp's nests, the latter mud domes might be constructed of radioactive materials.
Eisenmann (unpubl. ms) provides most of the following information.

Pseudocolaptes lawrencii: Buffy Tufted-cheek


A montane species of eastern Panama, creeping, along the undersides of limbs
searching for insects in the pendulous epiphytes.






63

Syndactyla subalaris: Lineated Foliage-gleaner

Found in the mountains of Chiriqui, Veraguas, and Darien, gleaning foliage
for insects.

Anabacerthia variegaticeps: Scaly-throated Foliage-gleaner

Found in the western mountains of Panama.

Philydor erythrocercus: Rufous-rumped Foliage-gleaner

A humid forest resident.

Philydor rufus: Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner

A western mountains arboreal resident searching the limbs for insects.

Hyloctistes sublatus: Striped Wood-haunter

Found in the humid lowland forest, gleaning foliage and epiphytes for insects.

Automolus rubiginosus: Ruddy Foliage-gleaner

Found in the highland forests.

Automolus ochrolaemus: Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner

Found in Darien lowland forests gleaning the undergrowth limbs and epiphytes
for insects.

Thripadectes rufobrunneus: Streak-breasted Tree-hunter

Found in the western mountains of Panama in fern and bamboo brakes, gleaning
for insects.

Xenops minutus: Plain Xenops

This bird is a forest resident; observed in March in cuipo forest near
Santa Fe (Child, p.c.). Gleans trunks, twigs, and leaves for insects.

Xenops rutilans: Streaked Xenops

Known from Chriqui.

Cranioleuca vulpina: Rusty-backed Spinetail; Coli-aguda Rojiza (S)

Observed on Coiba Island (Wetmore, 1957).

Cranioleuca erythrops: Red-faced Spinetail

Observed in the Chiriqui mountains.

Synallaxis albescens: Pale-breasted Spinetail


Found on the Pacific slope.







64

Synallaxis brachyura: Slaty Spinetail

A lowlands resident.

Sclerurus albigularis: Gray-throated Leafscraper

Found in Chiriqui highlands.

Sclerurus mexicanus: Tawny-throated Leafscraper

A forest resident.

Sclerurus guatemalensis: Scaly-throated Leafscraper

Found in forested areas, feeding on insects and larvae. Ectoparasitized by
Blankaartia.

Lochmias nematura: Sharp-tailed Stream-creeper

A resident of the Darien mountains.

Xenerpestes minlosi: Double-banded soft-tail

Found in the lowlands of Darien.


FORMICARIIDAE

Antbirds

These birds, constituting one of the largest of tropical American
families, are mostly forest insectivores whose diet of insects is not exceptional,
only the art in which they secure them is. In pure or mixed groups, many of them
follow army ants eating the animals fleeing from the ants. According to Willis
(p.c. 1966), some strictly follow the ants, while others are occasional. He never
saw the birds eating the ants or the ants eating the birds and notes no partiality
among the birds for the various types of insects flushed. Morton (p.c.) recorded
a group of antbirds attacking a bejuquillo or vine snake on the slopes of Piriaque
near Santa Fe. Seeds have also been found in the stomach analyses of a few
individuals. Many species, some not true antbirds, follow the army ants.
Gymnopithys and Phaenostrictus are strict ant followers. Many, which Willis (1966)
refers to as "amateurs", including nearctic migrants, periodically join ranks with
the "professionals".

Cymbilaimus lineatus: Fasciated Antshrike

Observed and recorded killing a vine snake at Piriaque (1). Ectoparasitized
by Amblyomma.

Taraba major: Great Antshrike

Found in the thickets and woodland edge in Darien. Ectoparasitized by
Blankaartia and Eutrombicula.






65

Thamnophilus doliatus: Barred Antshrike; Pavita Rayada (S)

A bird very common in thickets in open country. Not typically an ant follower,
but "animalivorous" (Slud, 1964).

Thamnophilus bridges: Black-hooded Antshrike

A resident of western Panama.

Thamnophilus nigriceps: Black Antshrike

A Darien resident. Ectoparasitized by Amblyomma.

Thamnophilus punctatus: Slaty Antshrike; Hoho Ho (Ch)

A bird common in Darien forests and thickets where observed eating grass-
hoppers. It does not follow army ants unless they are in its territory (Morton,
p.c.). Three March collections contained insect matter at Santa Fe (Child, p.c.
1967). Skutch (1934) has observed young birds being fed cockroaches, crickets,
grubs, and spiders.

Thamnistes anabatinus: Russet Antshrike

This is an arboreal forest species, probing for insects in the foliage.

Xenornis setifrons: Gray-faced Antbird

This bird is endemic to extreme eastern Panama and the Choco.

Dysithamnus mentalis: Plain Antvireo

Found in highland forest edges and woods. Feeds solitarily like a flycatcher.
Ectoparasitized by Blankaartia.

Dysithamnus puncticeps: Spot-crowned Antvireo

Found in lowland brushy forest edges and undergrowth. Ectoparasitized by
Ornithoctona.

Dysithamus striaticeps: Streak-crowned Antvireo

Reported in Bocas del Toro.

Myrmotherula brachyura: Pygmy Antwren

A rare bird, found in eastern Panama.

Myrmotherula surinamensis: Streaked Antwren

Found in the forests of Darien and San Blas.

Myrmotherula fulviventris: Fulvous-bellied Antwren

Common in Darien woods, foraging among the twigs.


___ ~~____ _II _






66

Myrmotherula axillaris: White-flanked Antwren

Common in the Darien and San Bias, foraging among the leaves of the
cuipo forest.

Myrmotherula schisticolor: Slaty Antwren

Chiefly a highland species, foraging among the branches.

Microrhopias quixensis: Dot-winged Antwren

This arboreal forest species is the most common antwren. Forages for
insects among vine tangles.

Formicivora grisea: Black-breasted Antwren

Found in thickets, Pearl Islands.

Terenura callinota: Rufous-rumped Antwren

Found in upland forests of western Panama.

Cercomacra tyrannina: Dusky antbird

Common in thickets and cuipo forests of Darien. Ectoparasitized
by Ornithoctona.

Cercomacra nigricans: Jet Antbird

Found in thickets in dry woodland or clearings of Pacific eastern Panama.

Gymnochchla nudiceps: Brown-crowned Antbird

Found in thickets in western Panama.

Myrmeciza longipes: White-bellied Antbird

Found in Darien thickets but rarely in the forest. Insects have been found
in stomachs. Sometimes follows army ants and leaf cutters.

Myrmeciza exsul: Chestnut-backed Antbird

A common forest insectivore in Darien, often foraging in the litter.
Occasionally follows army ants.

Myrmeciza laemosticta: Dull-mantled Antbird

A Darien and San Bias resident.

Myrmeciza immaculate: Immaculate Antbird

A dweller of plant forests (1000-5000 feet) of western and eastern Panama.
It is apparently a chronic ant follower.







67

Formicarius analis: Black-faced Antthrush; Ohihi (Ch)

A terrestrial species, fairly common on the forest floor.

Formicarius nigricapillus: Black-headed Antthrush

An upland forest resident.

Formicarius rufipectus: Rufous-breasted Antthrush

A rare species; found in upland forests.

Gynopithys leucaspis: Bicolored Antbird

Found in Darien cuipo forest undergrowth. It follows army ants for
perhaps 95 percent of its insect diet.

Phaenostictus mcleannani: Ocellated Antthrush

An obligate ant-follower; seen following army ants in Darien. Found in
the cuipo forests.

Myrmornis stictoptera: Wing-banded Antthrush

A rare resident of forest undergrowth in eastern Panama.

Pittasoma michleri: Black-crowned Antpitta

A terrestrial forest bird.

Grallaricula flavirostris: Ochre-breasted Antpitta

A terrestrial bird of mountain forests.

Grallaria fulviventris: Fulvous-bellied Antpitta

A terrestrial bird of humid forests.

Grallaria perspicillata: Streak-chested Antpitta

The most common lowland antpitta; observed seeking insects on the forest
floor in Darien.


RHYNOCRYPTI DAE

Tapaculos

Scytalopus argentifrons: Silvery-fronted Tapaculo

Found in mossy forests of western Panama.

Scytalopus panamensis: Pale-throated Tapaculo


Found in the mossy forests of Darien.






68


COTINGIDAE

Cotingas, Becards, Fruit-crows

Arboreal forest birds chiefly, if not wholly, frugivorous, some taking
insects.

Cotinga nattererii: Blue Cotinga

An arboreal forest and scrub bird of eastern Panama, e.g., in cuipo forest
of Darien. Berries and small seeds found in stomach.

Cotinga ridgwayi: Turquoise Cotinga

Found in western Panama.

Carpodectes antoniae: Yellow-billed Cotinga

Found in western Panama mangroves.

Carpodectes nitidus: Snowy Cotinga

Arboreal forest species from western Panama. Sometimes hovers to pludk
fruit, and sometimes gleans it off foliage.

Carpodectes hopkei: Black-tipped Cotinga

Forest and scrub bird reported from Darien.

Attila spadiceus: Bright-rumped Attila; P~jaro Grit6n (S)

Arboreal woodland fruit eater found in Darien's cuipo forests. It takes
frogs and sometimes follows army ants.

Laniocera rufescens: Speckled Mourner

Arboreal forest bird reported from Darien.

Rhytipterna holerythra: Rufous Mourner

An arboreal forest bird. Ectoparasitized by Amblyomma and Ornithoctona.

Lipaugus unirufus: Rufous Piha

An arboreal forest bird in Darien. It is said to be especially fond of
gavelan (Schizolobium?). It is a flycatcher and darts for grubs and fruits
(Slud, 1964).

Pachyramphus cinnamomeus: Cinnamon Becard

This arboreal woodland border species has been observed in Darien's cuipo
forest eating seeds of all kinds. In Costa Rica, reported fly-catching off leaves
(Slud, 1964).






69


Pachyramphus rufus: Cinereous Becard

Found in scrubs from Veraguas Province eastward.

Pachyramphus polychopterus: Black-backed Becard

Can be found in the tropical forest and its borders. Slud (1964) thinks it
prefers larger insects.

Pachyramphus albogriseus: Black-and-white Becard

Pacific forest species.

Pachyramphus versicolor: Barred Becard

Resident of the eastern mountains mist forests. It fly-catches off leaves.

Platypsaris homochrous: One-colored Becard

Found in tropical scrub.

Tityra semifasciata: Masked Tityra; Borrequito (S); Trequeque (Ch)

Arboreal species in tropical forests and woodlands; it is fairly common
in Darien's cuipo forest. It is reported to eat fruits (e.g., Miconia, grapefruit)
and insects.

Erator inquisitor: Black-crowned Tityra

Tropical forest resident reported in cuipo forest in Darien.

Querula purpurata: Purple-throated Fruit-crow

Arboreal species in humid dorests of Darien. Eats berries and fruits;
also takes insects on the wing. Ectoparasitized by Amblyomma,

Cephalopterus glabricollis: Bare-necked Umbrellabird

Found in the uplands of western Panama. It takes fruits and large insects
on the wing.

Procnias tricarunculata: Three-wattled Bellbird; Calandria (CR)

A resident of the highlands of western Panama.


PIPRIDAE

Manakins

These birds are mostly fruit-feeders living in the forest undergrowth.

Pipra coronata: Blue-crowned Manakin

A species of the lowland forest undergrowth and fern brakes.






70


Pipra mentalis: Red-capped Manakin

A lowland forest undergrowth species subsisting largely on berries (Slud,
1964). It has been observed eating hat-palm fruits in Darien (').

Pipra erythrocophala: Flame-headed Manakin

Resident of the forest of eastern Panama.

Pipra pipra: White-crowned Manakin

A species of the western highlands. Feeds on fruits.

Chloropipo holochlora: Green Manakin

Found in the tropical forests of Darien and the Choco.

Chiroxiphia lanceolata: Lance-tailed Manakin; Toleto (S)

Resident of insular forests. Coleoptera, other insects, and seeds were found
in the stomach.

Corapipo altera: White-ruffed Manakin

This forest species is the bird most frequently netted at the Divide on
Route 17 in February (Child, p.c.). Eats fruit.

Manacus vitellinus: Gould's Manakin; Curli (Cu); Sertata (Ch)

This is a common forest species throughout Panama. Small insects and berries
were found in the stomach. Choco Indians say the birds also eat ants.

Manacus aurantiacus: Orange-collared Manakin

A lowland savanna species of the Pacific slope of western Panama.

Schiffornis turdinus: Thrush-like Manakin

A species of the forest undergrowth.

Sapayoa aenigma: Broad-billed Manakin

A resident of the forests of eastern Panama.


TYRANNI DAE

Tyrant Flycatchers

A taxonomically difficult group, flycatchers are mostly insectivorous,
often catching their prey on the wing. Some smaller species search through leaves
for insects. Fruit may constitute a major portion of the diet of a few species.
Martin et al (1961), perhaps incorrectly, note that true flies are the main item
of diet, however, flying ants, small beetles, dragonflies, moths, and mosquitoes
are also taken. Some are entirely insectivorous but several larger species take
fruit as a minor fare. Some regularly perch by streams fishing for minnows.






71

Sayornis nigricans: Black Phoebe

This insectivore can be found in forest and scrub and along montane
streams. It forages on river boulders and catches dragonflies on the wing. It
also hunts in pastures and picks moths and other insects from spider webs.

Colonia colonus: Long-tailed Tyrant

This insectivore favors dead trees. It can be found in lowland forest
edges and scrubs in Darien's cuipo forest.

Fluvicola pica: Pied Water-tyrant

A resident of the coastal marshes of eastern Panama Province.

Pyrocephalus rubinus: Vermilion Flycatcher

One of these birds was recorded in open dry country in western Panama.

Muscivora forficata(*): Scissor-tailed Flycatcher

A rare winter visitor from the north in western Panama.

Muscivora tyrannus: Fork-tailed Flycatcher; Tijereta Sabanera (S)

A grassland species, occasionally roosting in mangrove. Food consists largely
of insects (e.g., beetles, butterflies, grasshoppers, locusts, moths) and several
kinds of fruits.

Tyrannus tyrannus(*): Eastern Kingbird

This bird is an occasional migrant. Folklore, scarcely credible, relates
that a red spot on the head concealed by black feathers is the bird's lure to
attract insects, its favored diet. Occasionally eats honey bees but mostly drones.
Spiders, millipedes, and even small fish are occasionally eaten. Fruits are also
consumed, especially by young birds and those preparing for migration.

Tyrannus melancholicus: Tropical Kingbird; Pecho Amarillo (CR)

A bird common in open lowlands throughout Panama. Its diet is largely of
insects caught on the wing but it occasionally swoops to the ground to catch
grasshoppers, etc. It sometimes eats berries, rarely small frogs. Seeds,
Coleoptera, and Odonata were reported in a Panama stomach analysis. Slud (1964)
describes the bird as strictly insectivorous, but in Panama it is rather opportuni-
stic.

Tyrannus dominicensis(*): Gray Kingbird

A winter visitor on the coast.

Legatus leucophaius: Piratic Flycatcher

This is a savanna and woodland bird. It was common in the cuipo forest


canopy near Santa Fe in March (Child, p.c.). Feeds on fruits (e.g., Cecropia)
in addition to insects,






72


Sirystes sibilator: Sirystes

A resident of eastern Panama woodland borders.

Myiodynastes luteiventris(*): Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher; Pecho Amarillo (CR)

This bird is an uncommon migrant. It takes insects on the wing and off
leaves; also eats fruits.

Myiodynastes maculatus: Streaked Flycatcher; Piquigordo Rayado (S)

A species of clearings, this bird is common near Santa Fe (Child, p.c.).
Feeds largely on insects but reported to take lizards as long as 3 inches and the
fruits of Palicourea guianensis.

Myiodynastes hemichrysus: Golden-bellied Flycatcher

A resident of the highlands of western Panama. Ectoparasitized by Ornithoica.

Megarhynchus pitangua: Boat-billed Flycatcher; Pico Canoa (S); Pecho Amarillo (CR)

This bird is a common forest border and clearing resident. Feeds on large
flying insects including moths; favors cicadas in the dry season. Longicorn
beetles have been found in stomach analysis. According to Slud (1964), the bird
doesn't often sally for insects, but looks for invertebrate and vegetable food on
the limbs and foliage. It sometimes perches near streams, fishing for minnows.
Skutch (1951) has observed these birds eating wild figs, berries of Cissus and
Miconia, and dry fruits of Cecropia.

Coryphotriccus albovittatus: White-ringed Flycatcher

An insectivore of lowland marshes.

Myiozetetes similis: Social Flycatcher; Rey de Pecho Amarillo (CR)

This common bird catches insects on the wing, also fishes tadpoles out of
pools, and eats fruits of Cissus, Persea, Roystonea, Zanthoxylum, and mistletoe.
According to Slud (1964), it makes few fly-catching sallies, preferring to forage
among the branches for fruits or soft-bodied invertebrates.

Myiozetetes cayanensis: Rusty-margined Flycatcher

A common bird in the Darien grasslands scattered with trees. Nests near
streams.

Myiozetetes granadensis: Gray-capped Flycatcher

This bird eats mostly winged insects but also fruits of Cecropia, Miconia,
Persea, Simarouba, and Zanthoxylum; sometimes fishes for minnows. It makes few
fly-catching sallies, preferring to forage among the branches for berries and soft
invertebrates. Nestlings are often parasitized by "torsalos".

Pitangus sulphuratus: Great Kiskadee; Pecho Amarillo (CR)

A resident of western Panama and the Canal Zone, this bird can be found in
galleries, open woods, and scrub. Eats Capsicum peppers and other fruits, fish,







73

honeybees, lizards, mothborers, and seeds. Occasionally perches near streams
fishing for minnows and will occasionally follow the army ants.

Pitangus lictor: Lesser Kiskadee

A species of marshy borders and galleries.

Myiarchus crinitus(*): Great-crested Flycatcher; Pechi-amarillo de Pasco (S)

This October-April migrant was netted near Santa Fe. Feeds on berries during
migration but normally the most important fare is moths and caterpillars, then
beetles, then bees, bugs, flies, Orthoptera, etc. Elsewhere they use snake skins
to construct their nests.

Myiarchus ferox: Short-crested Flycatcher; Pechi-amarillo Comdn (S); Bobillo (CR)

A resident of the grasslands, galleries, and mangroves. Ectoparasitized by
Blankaartia.

Myiarchus tuberculifer: Dusky-capped Flycatcher

A resident of galleries and fringe forests, this bird was seen in Darien's
cuipo forest near Santa Fe. Catches insects on the wing, or drops down to scoop
up grasshoppers, spiders, or other invertebrates.

Contopus borealis(*): Olive-sided Flycatcher

This bird is a migrant to Panama September-May. It is strictly a flycatcher,
making longer sallies than most flycatchers.

Contopus virens(*): Eastern Wood-pewee

A common migrant (September-November), it was observed in Darien's cuipo
forest in March (Child, p.c.). It is strictly a flycatcher, catching as many as
36 insects in 5 minutes.

Contopus sordidulus(*): Western Wood-pewee

A migrant September-May). Insects were reported from stomach contents in
western Panama.

Contopus cinereus: Tropical Pewee; Cazamoscas Tropical (S)

A resident of the lowland brush. Feeds primarily on flying insects by
sallies.

Contopus lugubris: Dark Pewee

This bird may be found in the western mountains in semi-open forest. It is
strictly a sallying flycatcher.

Empidonax minimus(*): Least Flycatcher

This rare migrant (October-April) is more or less a forest species.. Eats


insects on the wing.






74

Empidonax flaviventris(*): Yellow-bellied Flycatcher

This migrant (October-April) can be found in thickets or scrubs. Catches
insects on the wing.

Empidonax virescens(*): Acadian Flycatcher

This migrant (October-April) catches insects (e.g., ants, bees, beetles,
caterpillars, crickets, grasshoppers, moths, wasps) in the forest undergrowth,
mainly along streams. Millipedes, spiders, and some fruits are also reported.

Empidonax traillii(*): Traill's Flycatcher

A migrant (September-May) of the open forests. It is strictly a sallying
flycatcher. During December, 1967, Gorski (p.c.) was able to induce this migrant
to sing with a tape recording, although the bird rarely if ever singsinaturallyl
in the Canal Zone.

Empidonax flavescens: Yellowish Flycatcher

This is a montane forest resident of western Panama. It makes short sallies,
leaps, and also takes insects off the ground. Ectoparasitized by Ornithoctona.

Empidonax albigularis: White-throated Flycatcher

A resident of the highlands in western Panama.

Empidonax atriceps: Black-capped Flycatcher

A resident of the western mountains. Strictly a sallying flycatcher.

Mitrephanes phaeocercus: Tufted Flycatcher

This bird can be found in high mountain cloud forest in Darien. Strictly
a sallying flycatcher.

Terenotriccus erythrurus: Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher

A resident of the lower levels of primary and secondary forests. Feeds
mostly on insects in sallies.

Praedo audax: Black-billed Flycatcher

A resident of eastern Panama.

Myiobius sulphureipygius: Sulphur-rumped Flycatcher

This bird can be found in the gallery forests. Several were caught in mist
nets at the Divide on Route 17 (Child, p.c.).

Myiobius atricaudus: Black-tailed Flycatcher

A tropical forest species and also found in coastal scrub.






75

Myiophobus fasciatus: Bran-colored Flycatcher

A resident of lowland scrub and brush. Feeds on insects (black ants found
in stomach), supplemented with fruits. Its nests are lined with grass inflore-
scences.

Onychorhynchus mexicanus: Northern Royal-flycatcher

A gallery species; mostly catching insects on the wing.

Platyrinchus mystaceus: White-throated Spadebill

A bird that may be found in the lowland forest undergrowth. Catches insects
on the wing, sometimes follows army ants; eats little or no fruit.

Cnipodectes subbruneus: Brownish Flycatcher

A resident of the undergrowth in heavy forest.

Tolmomyias sulphurescens: Yellow-olive Flycatcher

Found in secondary forests and forest borders and galleries. Eats insects
and their larvae, some fruits, and occasionally picks at bare branches like a
tanager. Eaten by snakes; wasps and other birds occasionally take over their
nests.

Tolmomyias assimilis: Yellow-margined Flycatcher

Found in humid forests and borders. Leaps and sallys for insects; also
takes fruits.

Rhynchocyclus olivaceus: Olivaceous Flatbill

Found in the lowland forests. It has been observed eating scorpions, but
insects probably are its mainstay.

Rhynchocyclus brevirostris: Eye-ringed Flatbill

An upland secondary forests resident. It does more leaf-leaping than
sallying for insects; frequently follows the army ants.

Todirostrum nigriceps: Black-headed Tody-flycatcher

An arboreal species in Darien, favoring forest borders. It forages in the
foliage.

Todirostrum cinereum: Common Tody-flycatcher; Piqui-ancho Comuin (S)

This bird can be found in trees in open areas. It gleans foliage and twigs
for insects, apparently avoiding fruit.

Todirostrum sylvia: Slate-headed Tody-flycatcher

This species can be found in dense thickets. Feeds almost entirely -on


insects and spiders off leaves. Small seeds were reported from a Panama stomach
analysis.


---- -t -- ---






76

Oncostoma cinereigulare: Northern Bentbill

A western woodlands species. Gleans insects and spiders off leaves.

Oncostoma olivaceum: Southern Bentbill

This species is found in eastern Panama and is a frequent visitor in cacao
fincas and gallery forests. It eats insects; lines its nest with seed down.

Lophotriccus pileatus: Scale-crested Pygmy-tyrant

A montane forest species, plucking insects off leaves.

Atalotriccus pilaris: White-eyed Pygmy-tyrant

A species of scrubby thickets.

Myiornis (Perissotriccus) articapillus: Black-capped Pygmy-tyrant

An arboreal species in the Atlantic forests. Plucks insects off leaves.

Pseudotriccus pelzelni: Pelzelni's Pygmy-tyrant

A tropical forest resident reported from the summit of Cerro Pirre.

Phylloscartes flavovirens: Yellow-green Tyrannulet

Phylloscartes superciliaris: Rufous-browed Tyrannulet

A rare montane bird.

Capsiempis flaveola: Yellow Tyrannulet; Moscareta Amarilla (S)

Found in open thickets in the lowlands.

Serpophaga cinerea: Torrent Tyrannulet

Found in upland torrential streams, feeding on insects on rocks.


Elaenia flavogaster: Yellow-bellied Elaenia; Mo4ona Pechi-amarilla (S); Bobillo,
Bobito, Tontillo (CR)

Found in park-like savannas and the open woods. Catches insects on the
wing; also eats fruits (e.g., Persea) and arillate seeds (e.g., Alchornea).

Elaenia chiriquensis: Lesser Elaenia; Mo'iocita (S)

A resident of dry scrub, thorn forests, and fern brakes. Catches insects
on the wing; also eats fruits of bananas and mistletoes, and seeds of Alchornea
and Bocconia.

Elania frantzii: Mountain Elaenia


Found in open montane areas in western Panama. Seldom sallys for
insects, more often plucks fruits.








77

Myiopagis viridicata: Greenish Elaenia; Monona Copete-anaranjada (S)

Found in second growth and open forest. Plucks insects off leaves.

Sublegatus arenarum: Scrub Flycatcher; Monona Ceniza (S)

Found in coastal scrubs and thickets, mangroves and galleries. Makes short
sallies for insects.

Phaeomyias murina: Mouse-colored Tyrannulet

A species found in scrub and thickets.

Camptosoma obsoletum: Southern Beardless Tyrannulet; Monona Lampina (S)

Found in lowland thickets, clearings, and pastures.

Phyllomyias griseiceps: Sooty-headed Tyrannulet

This bird was observed in the deciduous forest near Cana in Darien.

Tyranniscus vilissimus: Paltry Tyrannulet

Found in secondary growth and forest borders. Takes berries and insects on
short sallies.

Tyrannulus elatus: Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet

A resident of open scrub and forest borders. Seeds reported in stomach analysis.

Achochordopus zeledoni: White-fronted Tyrannulet

This arboreal species is reported from the Chiriqui uplands. Forages for
insects.

Ornthion brunneicapillum: Brown-capped Tyrannulet

A resident of the open woodlands and cuipo forest of eastern Panama, e.g.,
Darien.

Leptopogon amaurocephalus: Sepia-capped Flycatcher; Monona Coronimorena (S)

Found in the forest undergrowth.

Mionectes olivaceus: Olive-striped Flycatcher

This bird can be found in damp tropical and subtropical forests. Picks
invertebrates off leaves and occasionally off the ground.

Pipromorpha oleaginea: Ochre-bellied Flycatcher; Moscareta Vientre Canelo (S)

This bird can be found in the woodland undergrowth. Snatches insects from
leaves.







78


OXYRUNICIDAE

Sharpbills

Oxyruncus cristatus: Sharpbill

A species of the subtropical forest. Observed feeding on small berries in
Darien.


HIRUNDINIDAE

Swallows; Golondrinas (S)

Martin et al (1961) report that all swallows are insectivorous, feeding
on ants, bees, beetles, bugs, dragonflies, flies, mosquitoes, moths, plant lice,
and wasps, and occasionally spiders and grasshoppers. However, rarely they take
some fruit, as in the States, barberries and sumac.

Riparia riparia(*): Bank Swallow

A migrant (September-April) insectivore.

Iridoprocne bicolor(*): Tree Swallow

This migrant winters as far south as Bocas del Toro. It is primarily an
insectivore feeding on ants, bees, beetles, bugs, flies, moths and other insects,
and spiders. According to Martin et al (1961), this is the only U.S. swallow
feeding appreciably on plants which constitute 36 percent of the winter diet,
1 percent of the spring diet, 21 percent of the summer diet, and 29 percent of
the fall diet. This species is also said to feed on Myrica berries before heading
south for the winter.

Iridoprocne albilinea: Mangrove Swallow; Golondrina Manglatera (S); Padipadi (Ch)

A common insectivore, flying close over the brackish waters of Darien,
drinking on the wing.

Tachycineta thalassina(*): Violet-green Swallow

A winter migrant to Chiriqui.

Hirundo rustica(*: Barn Swallow

An abundant migrant (August-May). This is an insectivore taking ants, bees,
beetles, bugs, flies, mosquitoes, and moths. It is said to feed on Myrica berries
before flying south. Spiders and snails are reported as rare dietary entries.

Petrochelidon pyrrhonota(*): Cliff Swallow


A rare migrant (August-March).







78


OXYRUNICIDAE

Sharpbills

Oxyruncus cristatus: Sharpbill

A species of the subtropical forest. Observed feeding on small berries in
Darien.


HIRUNDINIDAE

Swallows; Golondrinas (S)

Martin et al (1961) report that all swallows are insectivorous, feeding
on ants, bees, beetles, bugs, dragonflies, flies, mosquitoes, moths, plant lice,
and wasps, and occasionally spiders and grasshoppers. However, rarely they take
some fruit, as in the States, barberries and sumac.

Riparia riparia(*): Bank Swallow

A migrant (September-April) insectivore.

Iridoprocne bicolor(*): Tree Swallow

This migrant winters as far south as Bocas del Toro. It is primarily an
insectivore feeding on ants, bees, beetles, bugs, flies, moths and other insects,
and spiders. According to Martin et al (1961), this is the only U.S. swallow
feeding appreciably on plants which constitute 36 percent of the winter diet,
1 percent of the spring diet, 21 percent of the summer diet, and 29 percent of
the fall diet. This species is also said to feed on Myrica berries before heading
south for the winter.

Iridoprocne albilinea: Mangrove Swallow; Golondrina Manglatera (S); Padipadi (Ch)

A common insectivore, flying close over the brackish waters of Darien,
drinking on the wing.

Tachycineta thalassina(*): Violet-green Swallow

A winter migrant to Chiriqui.

Hirundo rustica(*: Barn Swallow

An abundant migrant (August-May). This is an insectivore taking ants, bees,
beetles, bugs, flies, mosquitoes, and moths. It is said to feed on Myrica berries
before flying south. Spiders and snails are reported as rare dietary entries.

Petrochelidon pyrrhonota(*): Cliff Swallow


A rare migrant (August-March).






79


Progne chalybea: Gray-breasted Martin; Golondrina de Iglesia (S); Golondr6n (CR)

A resident of Darien inhabiting mangroves, cuipo forests, fincas, and
villages. Eats Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Odonata. In Costa Rica
was observed to drop on the open beach to obtain insects. In the Galapagos,
martins feed on grasshoppers and moths (one had ingested 21) (Beebe, 1924).
Ectoparasitized by Pellonyssus.

Progne subis(*): Purple Martin

Recorded as a migrant in Cocle, Colon, and Bocas del Toro. Except for a few
spiders, feeds almost exclusively on insects including ants, bugs, beetles,
butterflies, caterpillars, dragonflies, grasshoppers, moths, weevils, etc.

Phaeoprogne tapera(*): Brown-chested Martin

A migrant (April-September) from South America to the Canal Zone.

Neochelidon tibialis: White-thighed Swallow

A resident of eastern and central Panama.

Pygochelidon cyanoleuca: Blue-and-white Swallow

Found in the western highlands. Catches insects on the wing. Ectoparasitized
by Dasypsyllus.

Pygochelidon patagonica(*): Patagonian Swallow

A July migrant to the Canal Zone from South America.

Stelgidopteryx ruficollis: Rough-winged Swallow; Padipadi (Ch)

An inhabitant of tropical and subtropical lake areas, galleries, and milpas.
It catches insects (including aquatic ones) on the wing.


CORVIDAE

Jays

Psilorhinos morio: Brown jay; Piapia (CR)

This bird inhabits parks and clearings in western Bocas del Toro. It is an
omnivore, feeding on fledglings, small rodents, spiders, insects, lizards, and
hunts worms on lawns like robins. It frequents banana groves, occasionally sipping
the nectar from the male flowers. Also eats grains and fruits, e.g., Castilla,
Cecropia, Musa, and Passiflora.

Cyabocorax affinis: Black-chested Jay

A resident of tropical and subtropical scrub, woodland, and cuipo forest.
It has been observed eating fruits of Miconia (Fleming, p.c.).

Cyanolyca argentigula: Silvery-throated Jay


A resident of the western mountains of Panama.




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