Title: Agronomy facts
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00082054/00001
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy facts
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla
Publication Date: September 24, 1982
Copyright Date: 1982
 Subjects
Subject: Agronomy -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: Periodicals   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Some issues also have a distinctive title.
General Note: Description based on: No. 133 (Sept. 1982); Title from caption.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00082054
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 181102200
lccn - 2007229046

Full Text

Florida Cooperative Extension Si

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES



AGRONOMY FACTS

September 24, 1982 Number 133

GROWING WHEAT IN FLORIDA



Florida had over 150,000 acres of wheat produced in 1982. This record
acreage of wheat was grown in many areas that had not had wheat grown before
and problems were encountered in some areas with the fertility program and
with variety selection. Some varieties headed extremely late or did not head
at all. This was caused by late planting of late maturing varieties that did
not receive enough cold weather to become vernalized to induce head formation.
Some of these varieties would have headed out and produced fair yields had they
been planted earlier. Yields of Florida 301 and Coker 797 wheat were satisfac-
tory when planted late. The following varieties should not be planted in Florida
after the first of December due to lateness of heading: Coker 747, Southern Belle,
Arthur 71, Doublecrop, Nelson, Wheeler, Auburn, Caldwell, Pike and Tyler.

Powdery mildew, leaf rust, and septoria glume blotch caused serious
problems the past year. Good management for disease control and selecting
proper varieties was very apparent. Listed below are management steps that
may be followed to obtain high wheat yields.

1. Moldboard plowing after soybean harvest increases wheat yields 10
to 12 bushels per acre over disking alone where a traffic pan exists.

2. Apply lime and fertilizer according to soil tests.

3. On sandy soils without a clay subsoil within the top 6 inches,
apply 1/2 of the potash at planting and the other half with the
topdress application of nitrogen in late January.

4. Fifteen to 20 Ibs sulfur/A is needed on these sandy soils for wheat.
One half of the sulfur should be applied at planting and the other
half as a topdress with the nitrogen in January. This means that on
many soils, nitrogen, potash, and sulfur should be applied together
in late January.








EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER

COOPERATIVE LXTLNSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS. STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS. UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA. U S DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS. COOPERATING






5. On flatwood soils that have a pH of 6.2 or above, a broadcast
application of 10 Ibs/A of manganese should be applied at planting.
Manganese deficiency in wheat may be even more pronouncedthan on
soybeans. On sands with a pH of 6.5 or above apply 6 to 10 lbs/A
of manganese.

6. Select varieties listed on the recommended list for Florida. The
top three performing varieties in Florida in 1982 were Florida 301,
Coker 797, and Coker 762.

7. Use 1 to 1 bushels of high quality weed free seed per acre.

8. Plant from November 15 to December 15 when moisture is not limiting.
Make sure that late maturing varieties are not planted late.

9. Apply approximately 40 Ibs N/A at planting and a sidedress applica-
tion of 40 to 50 Ibs/A in late January to aid in tiller formation.
Where growing both Florida 301 and Coker 797, plant 301 on less
fertile sites and Coker 797 on better soils for highest yields.
Performance of Florida 301 is generally superior to Coker 797 under
marginal conditions.

10. Use a good fungicide program, especially on later maturing varieties.
Dithane M-45 or Manzate 200 fungicide should be used as listed in
"Plant Protection Pointers No. 27."

11. Harvest grain when moisture content drops to 12% or less.







Use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing
specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty of products named and
does not signify approval to the exclusion of others of suitable composition.






Wheat Varieties for Grain Production


in Florida 1982-83

RECOMMENDED VARIETIES

Florida 301 A new variety developed at the Agricultural Research and Education
Center at Quincy and released in the fall of 1980. This is the first wheat variety
released by the University of Florida. It has excellent resistance to leaf rust and
powdery mildew. It is very early maturing and does well even when planted late
(December 1 December 15).

Coker 797* A variety developed by Coker's Pedigreed Seed Company. It is very
early maturing, short, disease resistant, and high yielding. It is an excellent
variety for North Florida.

Coker 762* A variety developed by Coker's Pedigreed Seed Co. of Harts-
ville, South Carolina. It is a short, disease resistant, high yielding variety.
It is about 8-12 days later in heading than Florida 301 and normally produces
seed that has a lower test weight than some of the other better varieties.

Southern Belle* A variety developed by Coker's Pedigreed Seed Company but
being marketed by North American Plant Breeders under their Agripro brand.
It is rather late in maturity and is now susceptible to leaf rust and powdery
mildew. It produces good grain yields and has a heavy test weight but should
be planted early (in November) if grown in Florida.

McNair 1813* Released by McNair Seed Co. of Laurinburg, North Carolina but
now owned and being marketed by Northrup King Seed Co. An early
maturing wheat with good grain quality and good grain yield potential. It is
short, bronze chaffed variety with good straw strength. It has good resistance
to Hessian fly, is moderately resistant to powdery mildew, but is susceptible to
leaf rust and very susceptible to septoria glume blotch.

Omega 78 Developed at the Coastal Plain Experiment Station at Tifton, Georgia
and released in 1978. It is short, early, good yielding variety with good soft
wheat quality and good resistance to powdery mildew and leaf rust. But is
susceptible to Septoria glume blotch.


OTHER VARIETIES

Delta Queen* Another variety developed by Coker's Pedigreed Seed Co. but
being marketed by North American Plant Breeders under their Agripro brand.
It is medium in maturity and moderately susceptible to diseases.

Stacy A new variety just developed at the Georgia Experiment Station at
Experiment, Georgia. It is a medium maturity variety and is very susceptible
to leaf rust.

Doublecrop A variety released by the Arkansas Experiment Station and very
similar to the Arthur backcross types described below. It is slightly earlier
maturing and has stronger straw than the Arthur types.






Holley Released by the Georgia Experiment Station in 1971. It is an early
maturing wheat with average grain yield potential. It has good resistance to
powdery mildew but is susceptible to glume blotch and Hessian fly.

McNair 1003* Released by McNair Seed Co. but now owned and being marketed
by Northrup King Seed Co. It has very high yield potential but is very
susceptible to leaf rust and has a tendency to have a low test weight.

Rosen A variety released by the Arkansas Experiment Station. It was
developed from a cross between Arthur and Blueboy. It is a short variety
with high yield potential but lacks the necessary disease resistance for good
production in Florida.

Tyler, Wheeler, and Massey New varieties released by the Virginia Experi-
ment Station. They have high yield potential but do not have the disease re-
sistance required for successful production in Florida.

Coker 747* Released by Coker's Pedigreed Seed Co. It is short, good yield-
ing, but disease susceptible. It is too late in maturity to fit well in the double-
cropping systems being used in Florida.

Wakeland An older variety developed in North Carolina that has proven to be a
good grazing wheat in Florida. It is medium in maturity, lacks disease resistance,
somewhat weak straw but will produce fair grain yields.

Arthur 71*, Oasis*, Abe*, Beau* Released by Purdue University in Indiana.
These varieties are resistant to Hessian fly but are susceptible to both leaf
rust and powdery mildew. They do have good test weight and milling quality.
These varieties have the disadvantage of being late in maturity and must be
planted early (before November 20) for successful production.
Caldwell*, Auburn* and Fillmore* New varieties developed by Purdue University
with better disease resistance than the Arthur types but also late in maturity
and unadapted to Florida growing conditions.

Severn A new variety developed by the University of Maryland. It is an
early maturing variety with a good yield record but does not have enough
disease resistance to be recommended in Florida.

Nelson A new variety developed at the University of Arkansas. It is late
maturing and very susceptible to powdery mildew.

Roy* Released by the North Carolina Experiment Station. It has a low test
weight and does not have enough disease resistance to be grown in Florida.

Pike* A new variety developed by the University of Missouri. It is too late
in maturity and too disease susceptible to be grown in Florida.

Hunter* A new variety developed by Coker's Pedigreed Seed Company but being
marketed by North American Plant Breeders under their Agripro brand. During the
last 2 years this variety has looked very good and if it continues to do well it will
be added to the recommended list. Only a limited amount of registered seed is
available this year. Certified seed will be available for planting in the Fall of 1983.







-3-

Coker 916* A new variety developed by Coker's Pedigreed Seed Company.
It has looked good during the last 2 years and if it continues to look good it
will be added to the recommended list. Only a limited amount of registered seed
is available this year. Certified seed will be available for planting in the fall of
1983.


*Unauthorized Propagation Prohibited. U.S. Protected variety to be sold by
variety name only as a class of certified seed.


R. D. Barnett
Wheat Breeder & Agronomist


D. L. Wright
Extension Agronomist








Table 1 Summary of Wheat Grain Yields Over a Four Year Period in North Florida.


Grain Yield in Bushels Per Acre
Brand or 4 Years 3 Years 2 Years
Originating 1978 1979 1981 1982 14 Test 11 Test 7 Test
State Variety Q1 M J Q1 Q2 M J Q1 Q2 M J Q1 Q2 J Avg. Avg. Avg.


Florida
Coker
Coker
NK-McNair
NK-McNair

NAPB
Arkansas
Georgia
Georgia
NAPB

Arkansas
North Carolina
Indiana
Virginia
Maryland

Virginia
Virginia
Arkansas
Georgia
NAPB

Coker
Coker
Indiana
Indiana


Florida 301
762
797
1813
1003

Southern Belle
Rosen
Omega 78
Holley
Delta Queen

Doublecrop
Wakeland
Arthur 71
Tyler
Severn

Massey
Wheeler
Nelson
Stacy
Hunter

916
747
Auburn
Caldwell


Q1 = Early planted test at Quincy, Q2 = Late planted test at Quincy


49 30
67 20
56 27
51 22
58 23

55 21
54 20
46 18
59 28
50 20

43 21
46 20
48 20
50 25


49 51
50 44
61 52
43 41
44 52

46 46
30 48
44 42
41 38
38 39

37 45
33 41
37 36
36 35
41 47

36 47
33 41
32 41
34 40


64
66
- -- -- 53
62


, M = Marianna, J = Jay.





Table 2 Grain Yield and Test Weight of Wheat Varieties Grown at Quincy and Jay in 1982.

Brand or Grain Yield Bu/A Test Weight Lbs/Bu
Originating 1 2 1 2
State Variety Quincy Quincy Jay Avg. Quincy Quincy Jay Avg.

NAPB Hunter 66.0 38.8 53.2 52.7 60.0 52.5 60.0 57.5
Coker 762 46.7 44.8 51.9 47.8 53.5 49.0 54.5 52.3
Florida Florida 301 60.3 38.1 40.5 46.3 58.0 51.0 54. 5 54.5
Coker 797 58.8 41.3 32.5 44.2 58.5 50.5 54.5 54.5
Georgia Holley 50.7 25.5 39.6 38.6 58.5 51.0 58.0 55.8

Coker 916 41.5 29.7 43.2 38.1 54.0 47.0 57.0 52.7
Arkansas Doublecrop 45.1 22.3 44.8 37.4 55.0 54.0 59.0 56.0
NAPB Southern Belle 42.8 20. 9 42.7 35. 5 56.5 55.0 59.5 57.0
Maryland Severn 49.9 27.3 26.5 34.6 59.5 53.0 55.0 55.8
NK-McNair 1003 52.2 29.6 21.8 34.5 52.0 48.0 44.0 48.0

Georgia Omega 78 42.5 27.5 29.8 33.3 54.0 51.0 53.0 52.7
North Carolina Wakeland 39.8 28.0 30.1 32.6 57.5 52.0 57. 5 55.7
Arkansas Rosen 48.3 17.7 30.7 32.2 53.5 50.0 52.0 51.8
NK-McNair 1813 47.2 21.0 28.1 32.1 57.0 50.0 51.5 52.8
NAPB Delta Queen 30.7 26.7 33.0 30.1 5'.0 49.0 54.5 51.5

Virginia Massey 47.6 22.3 16.7 28.9 57.0 49.0 52.0 52.7
Arkansas Nelson 35.1 8.2 38.8 27.4 53.0 50. 5 56.0 53.2
Virginia Wheeler 39.9 9.1 31.8 26.9 54.0 48.0 54.5 52.2
Coker 747 42.0 6.7 27.4 25.4 55.0 49.0 55.5 53.2
Indiana Auburn 24.6 22.6 27.4 24.9 51.5 50.0 50.5 50.7

Indiana Arthur 71 33.0 10.0 25.8 22.9 56.0 53.0 56.0 55.0
Georgia Stacy 27.8 11.0 21.6 20.1 52.0 50.5 54.0 52.2
Missouri Pike 25.7 13.2 14.7 17.9 52.5 50.0 52.0 51.5
Indiana Caldwell 15.2 4.6 23.6 14.5 51.0 ---- 49.0
Virginia Tyler 26.3 0.4 4.5 10.4 50.0 ---- 52.0 --

Cultural Data for 1982 Wheat Trials Quincy Quincy2 Jay
Planting Date 11-20-81 12-18-81 11-24-81
No. of Replications 3 3 4
Plot size 16 ft2 16 ft2 -40 ft2
Fertilizer Preplant 500 Ibs 7-8-24 500 Ibs 5-10-15 250 Ibs 8-24-24
Fertilizer Topdressing 40 Ibs N 40 Ibs N 50 !bs N






Table 3. Characteristics of Wheat Varieties Grown in 1982- .


Brand or Plant Powdery Leaf Septoria
Originating Heading Height Percent Mildew Rust Glume Blotch
State Variety Date (Inches) Lodging Reaction- Reaction- Reaction2/

NAPB Hunter 3-18 34 17 R MR MR
Coker 762 3-21 35 57 R R S
Florida Florida 301 3-16 47 18 R R MS
Coker 797 3-16 38 17 R R S
Georgia Holley 3-21 48 18 R MR S

Coker 916 3-20 41 2 R MR S
Arkansas Doublecrop 3-29 44 3 S MS S
NAPB Southern Belle 4-4 37 0 VS MS S
Maryland Severn 3-19 42 13 VS VS S
NK-McNair 1003 3-22 40 0 S VS S

Georgia Omega 78 3-18 37 13 R R VS
North Carolina Wakeland 3-23 116 '10 S S S
Arkansas Rosen 3-21 36 5 VS VS VS
NK-McNair 1813 3-18 112 23 S S VS
NAPB Delta Queen 3-23 38 73 MR MR S

Virginia Massey 3-20 41 37 R VS S
Arkansas Nelson 4-6 44 6 S R S
Virginia Wheeler 4-13 44 10 S MR S
Coker 747 4-12 36 0 VS MS S
Indiana Auburn 4-18 39 0 S R S

Indiana Arthur 71 4-10 43 5 VS S S
Georgia Stacy 4-2 43 8 R VS S
Missouri Pike 4-6 40 2 VS VS S
Indiana Caldwell 4-18 40 0 MR R S
Virginia Tyler 4-23 45 2 R S S


1/Data collected from 11-20-81 planting date nursery at Quincy.

/VS = very susceptible, S = susceptible, MS = moderately susceptible, MR moderately resistant, R =
Resistant.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs