• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Half Title
 Advertising
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Introduction
 Washington's birth
 Stories of Washington's childh...
 Washington as a boy
 The young surveyor
 Learning to be a soldier
 Sent into the wilderness
 Adventures in the woods
 Washington begins a great war
 The battle at Fort Necessity
 Braddock's aid-de-camp
 Defeat
 Defending the frontier
 Washington's courtship
 To the Ohio once more
 Washington's marriage
 The planter
 The beginning of the revolutio...
 Chosen commander in chief
 Before Boston
 Little powder and few men
 Driving the enemy out
 Washington at New York
 A question of dignity
 The battle of Long Island
 A night retreat
 Avoiding a trap
 A small battle
 The battle of White Plains and...
 Chased through New Jersey
 The battle of Trenton
 The battle of Princeton
 Scuffling for liberty
 The battle of the Brandywine
 The battle of Germantown
 Defending the Delaware
 Almost a battle
 Valley Forge
 Howe lays a trap for Lafayette
 The battle of Monmouth
 Defensive war
 The storming of Stony Point
 Winter quarters
 The treason of Arnold and the fate...
 A change of plans
 Yorktown
 The end of the war and after
 Washington as president
 The early events of Washington's...
 Washington's second term
 At home
 Washington's last days
 Back Cover
 Spine






Group Title: Delights of history
Title: The story of Washington
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00082003/00001
 Material Information
Title: The story of Washington
Series Title: Delights of history
Physical Description: xvii, 382 p., 6 leaves of plates : ill., ports., maps, facsims. ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Seelye, Elizabeth Eggleston, 1858-
Eggleston, Edward, 1837-1902 ( Editor , Author of introduction )
D. Appleton and Company ( Publisher )
Appleton Press
Publisher: D. Appleton and Company
Place of Publication: New York
Manufacturer: Electrotyped and printed at the Appleton Press
Publication Date: 1893
 Subjects
Subject: Presidents -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Generals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Soldiers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Battles -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Statesmen -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1893
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Elizabeth Eggleston Seelye ; with over one hundred illustrations by Allegra Eggleston ; edited with an introduction by Edward Eggleston.
General Note: Title page printed in red and black.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00082003
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002237289
notis - ALH7773
oclc - 01348325
lccn - 04017067

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Half Title
        Half Title
    Advertising
        Page i
    Frontispiece
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    List of Illustrations
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Introduction
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
    Washington's birth
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Stories of Washington's childhood
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Washington as a boy
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    The young surveyor
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Learning to be a soldier
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Sent into the wilderness
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Adventures in the woods
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Washington begins a great war
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    The battle at Fort Necessity
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Braddock's aid-de-camp
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 58a
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Defeat
        Page 64a
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 68a
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
    Defending the frontier
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Washington's courtship
        Page 78
        Page 78a
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 80a
        Page 81
    To the Ohio once more
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
    Washington's marriage
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 90a
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    The planter
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
    The beginning of the revolution
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
    Chosen commander in chief
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
    Before Boston
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
    Little powder and few men
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
    Driving the enemy out
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
    Washington at New York
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 138a
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
    A question of dignity
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
    The battle of Long Island
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
    A night retreat
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
    Avoiding a trap
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
    A small battle
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
    The battle of White Plains and the loss of Fort Washington
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 172a
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
    Chased through New Jersey
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
    The battle of Trenton
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
    The battle of Princeton
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
    Scuffling for liberty
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
    The battle of the Brandywine
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
    The battle of Germantown
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
    Defending the Delaware
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
    Almost a battle
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
    Valley Forge
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 234a
        Page 235
        Page 236
    Howe lays a trap for Lafayette
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
    The battle of Monmouth
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
    Defensive war
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
    The storming of Stony Point
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
    Winter quarters
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
    The treason of Arnold and the fate of André. The use of spies
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
    A change of plans
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
    Yorktown
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
    The end of the war and after
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 324a
        Page 325
        Page 326
    Washington as president
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
    The early events of Washington's administration
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
    Washington's second term
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
    At home
        Page 356
        Page 356a
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
    Washington's last days
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
    Spine
        Spine
Full Text





































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The Baldwin Library
rMTIuBZ






DELIG TjA nTRY
EDITED -BYEDWARD-EGGLESTON

I y ^li

























DELIGHTS OF HISTORY SERIES.

EDITED aB EDWARD EGGLESTON.

The Story of Columbus. 12mo. With 0oo
Illustrations. Cloth, $1.75.
"A brief, popular, interesting, and yet critical volume,
just such as we should wish to place in the hands of a young
reader. The authors of this volume have done their best to
keep it on a high plane of accuracy and conscientious work
without losing sight of their readers."-N-V. lf. Independent.
"This is no ordinary work. It is pre-eminently a work
of the present time and of the future as well."-Boston
Traveller.
"A very just account is given of Columbus, his failings
being neither concealed nor -io.-nfi^ 1i.t his real greatness
being made plain."--NVew I
Ihe illustrations are particularly well chosen and neatly
executed, and they add to the general excellence of the
Aolume."-Nezu York Times.

The Story of Washington. i2mo. With
1oo Illustrations. Cloth, $1.75.

The Story of Franklin. (In preparation.)


New York: D. APPLETON & Co., 1, 3, & 5 Bond Street.































































PORTRAIT OF WASHINGTON.
[From a painting by Gilbert Stuart, made in 1795, called the "Vaughan portrait."]








THE


STORY OF WASHINGTON





BY
ELIZABETH EGGLESTON SEELYE

WITH OVER ONE HUNDRED ILLUSTRATIONS
By ALLEGRA EGGLESTON

EDITED, WITH AN INTRODUCTION, BY
EDWARD EGGLESTON


NEW YORK
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY
1893







































COPYRIGHT, 18I93
BY D. APPLETON AND COMPANY.











ELECTROTYPED AND PRINTED
AT TlHE APPLETON PRESS. U. S. A.



















CONTENTS.


CHAPTER
I.-WASHINGTON'S BIRTH
II.-STORIES OF WASHINGTON'S CHILDHOOD.
III.-WASHINGTON AS A BOY.
IV.-THE YOUNG SURVEYOR .
V.-LEARNING TO BE A SOLDIER .
VI.-SENT INTO THE WILDERNESS .
VII.-ADVENTURES IN THE WOODS
VIII.-WASHINGTON BEGINS A GREAT WAR
IX.-THE BATTLE AT FORT NECESSITY.
X.-BRADDOCK'S AID-DE-CAMP
XI.-DEFEAT .
XII.-DEFENDING THE FRONTIER
XIII.-VWASHINGTON'S COURTSHIP
XIV.-To THE OHIO ONCE MORE
XV.-WASHINGTONs S MARRIAGE
XVI.-THE PLANTER. .
XVII.-THE BEGINNING OF THE REVOLUTION
XVIII.-CIIOSEN COMMANDER IN CHIEF
XIX.-BEFORE BOSTON .
XX.-LITTLE POWDER AND FEW MEN
XXI.-DRIVING THE ENEMY OUT
XXII.-WASHINGTON AT NEW YORK
XXIII.-A QUESTION OF DIGNITY
XXIV.-THE BATTLE OF LONG ISLAND
XXV.-A NIGHT REREEAT. .
XXVI.-AVOIDING A TRAP .


PAGE
S 1




. 30
33
38
45
S 51
57
S65
72
78
.82
88
S95
101
.107
.114
.121
.127
.135
.143
.146
S154
158









CONTENTS.


CHAPTER PAGE
XXVII.-A SMALL BATTLE 164
XXVIII.-THE BATTLE OF WHITE PLAINS AND THE LOSS OF
FORT WASHINGTON .171
XXIX.-CHASED THROUGH NEW JERSEY 177
XXX.-THE BATTLE OF TRENTON 183
XXXI.-THE BATTLE OF PRINCETON 188
XXXII.-SCUFFLING FOR LIBERTY 196
XXXIII.-THE BATTLE OF THE BRANDYWINE 204
XXXIV.-THE BATTLE OF GERMANTOWN 210
XXXV.-DEFENDING THE DELAWARE 217
XXXVI.-ALMOST A BATTLE .224
XXXVII.-VALLEY FORGE 229
XXXVIII.--IOWE LAYS A TRAP FOR LAFAYETTE 237


XXXIX.-THE BATTLE OF MONMOUTH
XL.-DEFENSIVE WAR
XLI.-TIIE STORMING OF STONY POINT
XLII.-WINTER QUARTERS .
XLIII.-THE TREASON OF ARNOLD AND
ANDRE. THE USE OF SPIES
XLIV.-A CHANGE OF PLANS
XLV.-YORKTOWN .


S 250
255
260
THE FATE OF
270
287
297


XLVI.-THE END OF THE WAR AND AFTER. 311
XLVII.-WASHINGTON AS PRESIDENT 327
XLVIII.-THE EARLY EVENTS OF WASIaNGTON'S ADMINISTRA-
TION 8 8 338
XLIX.-WASHINGTON'S SECOND TERM. 345
L.-AT HOME 3856
LI.- WASHINGTON'S LAST DAYS 373

















LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


PAGE
Portrait of Washington. (From a painting by Gilbert Stuart,
made in 1795, called the Vaughan Portrait ") Frontispiece
View of Fredericksburg from the Washington plantation on
the Rappahannock 4
Washington reproved for want of generosity 7
Hall in the part of nount Vernon built by Lawrence Washing-
ton. 14
Facsimile of some of the rules of behavior 17
Washington's tents, as set up by the National Museum in their
grounds .. 20
Old building at i o. ., Court . 23
Case, with pencil, foot rule, and dividers, used by Washington in
surveying .. .25
Washington's compass 27
Map showing the water ways claimed by the French 34
Map of Washington's course from Vili .i.. ..ii to the French
fort 36
Pack saddles of Washington's time 40
Portrait of Washington in his colonel's uniform. (Painted in
1772, by Wilson Peale) .Facing 49
Site of Fort Necessity. (From a painting by Paul Weber, owned
by the Historical Society of Pennsylvania) 53
Braddock's headquarters at Alexandria .58
A Pennsylvania wagon of the time facing 59
Parlor in the house occupied by Braddock as headquarters in
Alexandria 60








viii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE
Map of the Braddock Road" 63
Map of location of Braddock's defeat Facing 65
The field of Braddock's defeat. (From a painting by Paul Weber
owned by the Pennsylvania Historical Society) Facing 68
Braddock's grave. (From a painting by Paul Weber, owned by
the Historical Society of Pennsylvania) 70
Portrait of Martha Custis. (By permission of General G. W.
C. Lee. Painted by Woolaston in 1757) Facing 78
Portrait of Mrs. Custis's two children. (By permission of Gen-
eral G. W. C. Lee. Painted about 1757, probably by Wool-
aston) acing 80
St. Peter's Church 88
The White House-Mrs. Custis's place. (From a photograph
taken just before its destruction in 1862) Facing 90
Parlor at Mount Vernon 91
John Parke Custis. (From a portrait on copper, owned by
General G. W. C. Lee) 97
Miss Martha Custis. (From a portrait on copper, owned by
General G. W. C. Lee) 98
The Raleigh Tavern. (From an old print). 106
The burning of Charlestown. (From a sketch made at the time
by a British officer, viewing it from Beacon Hill) 115
View of Boston. (From a sketch made at the time, also show-
ing Nooks Hill on the right) 124
View of the British lines on Boston Neck. (From a sketch
made at the time) 127
Map of Boston, showing the fortifications of the Americans 130
A soldier of Congress. (From a sketch made during the war
by a German officer) Facing 138
Washington's headquarters in New York on first arriving 142
Map of the battle of Long Island 149
View of Kingsbridge. (From an old print) 159
Map of American retreat from New York city 162
Map of the battle of Harlem Heights 166
Map of the battle of White Plains Facing 173







LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


PAGE
Remains of Fort Washington as they appeared in 1850. (From
an old print) 176
Map of the retreat through New Jersey 179
The blue room in the Beckman house. (Howe's headquarters
in New York) .. 183
Map of the battle of Trenton 185
Map of the battle of Princeton 190
Nassau Hall, Princeton College, where the British took refuge
after the battle of Princeton. 193
Washington's camp utensils 198
Washington's camp chest used during the Revolution 201
Map showing where the English landed 204
Map of the battle of the Brandywine 207
Map of the battle of Germantown 212
Map of the vicinity of Philadelphia. 218
View of Valley Forge headquarters, with the camp ground in
the distance .. 230
Washington's office at Valley Forge. 232
Washington at Valley Forge. (From a painting made during
the winter there, by C. W. Peale). Facing 235
Map of Barren Hill. 238
Map of the battle of Monmouth 243
Washington's pistol holsters, of heavy patent leather 251
Washington's portfolio on which he wrote his dispatches dur-
ing the Revolution 254
Map of the storming of Stony Point 257
Ruins of slaves' quarters, Mount Vernon 264
Map of the location of Andre's capture 275
u1 1,,,, ,. ., uniform 289
Washington's sword, carried during the Revolution. (Pre-
served in the State Department) 292
Map of the siege of Yorktown 301
The main street of Yorktown 305
George Washington Parke Custis. (From a painting owned by
General G. W. C. Lee) 311








LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


PAGE
Eleanor Parke Custis. (From a pastel owned by General G. W.
C. Lee) 312
Mrs. Washington's residence at Fredericksburg. 313
Washington's headquarters at Newburg in 1782-'83 314
Mount Vernon, looking toward the river. 317
Banquet hall, added to Mount Vernon by Washington 319
Pohick church, near Mount Vernon, planned by Washing-
ton. .. 320
Interior of Pohick church as it appeared in Washington's
time ...........32
Mary Washington's house at Fredericksburg, as it is at pres-
ent Facing 325
Federal Hall. (From a water-color drawing made in 1798 by
Robinson. New York Historical Society) 328
The President's house in Cherry Street 330
Cup and saucer. (From a set presented to Mrs. Washington by
Van Braam or Lafayette) 332
Case of silver-handled knives and forks belonging to Washington 334
Water-mark from paper used by Washington during his presi-
dency 336
The President's house in Philadelphia 339
Portrait of Mrs. Washington. (From a painting by Gilbert
Stuart, made in 1796, called the Athenaeum portrait ") 347
Sword presented to Washington 351
Drawing from a miniature of George Washington Parke Custis 354
Candlestick used by Washington when he wrote his farewell
address 355
Doorway to Mount Vernon on the side farthest from the river. 356
Mount Vernon as it appears at present Facing 357
Portrait of Washington Custis. (From a miniature owned by
General G. W. C. Lee) 358
Nelly Custis's harpischord and stool, and General Washington's
flute. (Drawn at Mount Vernon) 359
Portrait of Nelly Custis. (From a portrait owned by General
G. W. C. Lee) 361








LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. xi

PAGE
Portrait of Washington. (From a pastel by Sharpless, made in
1798. Owned by General G. W. C. Lee) 364
Portrait -of Mrs. Washington. (From a pastel by Sharpless,
made in 1798. Owned by General G. W. C. Lee) 365
Washington's powder bag and puff 368
Chair from Lafayette's chateau in France. (Presented to
Mount Vernon by Edmund de Lafayette) 371
Washington's room. (Drawn at Mount Vernon) Facing 377
The vault in which Washington was buried 380
















INTRODUCTION.

BY EDWARD EGGLESTON.

THIs work, like its predecessor, the Story of Colum-
bus, by the same author, is intended to introduce the gen-
eral reader, and especially the young reader, to what is most
interesting and delightful in the history of its subject.
While seeking to give pleasure by the selection of inter-
esting material and by the manner of telling the story, the
greatest pains have been taken to keep the narrative in
strict conformity to the facts as established by the best
contemporaneous authority and the careful researches of
our critical age. No subject of biography has suffered
more from overlaudation than Washington. His well-
poised character, the never-failing public spirit evinced in
his career, and the rare fitness of his great qualities to their
fortunate opportunity, captivated the imaginations not
only of his countrymen but of the world. Even during
his lifetime he underwent an apotheosis. Those who
wrote about him after his death treated him not as a his-
torical figure to be described accurately and judged im-
partially, but rather as a demigod to be worshiped. An
anecdote of that time represents a patriotic countryman
as declaring that Washington was the greatest man in
the world's history. When asked for the next greatest







INTRODUCTION.


he named the Founder of Christianity. The story but
slightly burlesques the attitude of the American public
toward Washington in the first half of the nineteenth
century. The writer well remembers an editor who at a
somewhat later period got himself and his paper into the
greatest trouble by venturing, in his issue of the 22d of
February, to make some playful remarks regarding proba-
ble childish mishaps in the boyhood of Washington.
Not only was the Father of his Country an object of
worship to the generations following him, but he had to
suffer the still further misfortune of becoming a model.
Preacher and schoolmaster and schoolbook moralist
sought to enforce every duty by his example, and to ex-
emplify every virtue by stories of the great and good man.
These stories were probably not invented deliberately;
they rather grew by a process of unconscious myth mak-
ing. Washington, by his cherry tree, taught the noble-
ness of truth-telling. Washington making peace with a
man who had knocked him down the day before taught
the wisdom of avoiding duels, and so on round the circle
of moral and religious virtues. The effect of all this was
exactly opposite to what had been designed. Under such
treatment Washington as a man disappeared from view,
and there was left instead a mere plaster cast. One so
far removed from other men could not serve the purpose
of an example.
The effect on historical knowledge of all this pious
misrepresentation was disastrous. The events of Wash-
ington's life were distorted by a preconceived notion of
his character. The editors of his writings went so far as
to garble his correspondence lest one might catch his







INTRODUCTION.


mind in an attitude not perfectly statuesque. Biographers
could present him only as exalted in a mirage. The
very Indians incorporated the prevailing notion of him
into their myths; and in the later mythology of the Six
Nations he appears as a personage dwelling apart, fast by
the gate of paradise, and passively gazing on all who enter
there without ever breaking silence.
This present account of Washington, while giving
careful attention to his military and administrative acts,
has spared no pains to record as far as possible those
details of his life and those personal anecdotes that pre-
serve to us the living man. Fortunately, so much of
Washington's intimate life has been recorded that there is
no need to resort to mythical tales. I feel sure that the
reader of this book will have no shadowy conception of
him when he has enjoyed his boyish letters, has come to
know the round of his daily duties as a planter, has seen
him haul his seine, has watched him standing reflectively
by a camp fire with hands behind him, and with a nose
reddened from cold just before he made his famous cross-
ing of the Delaware, has read his letter of advice to Nelly
Custis on the matter of falling in love, and such anec-
dotes as Bernard's account of the help he rendered to the
man who had upset his chaise and tumbled his wife into
the ditch. It has seemed worth while to the writer of
this life to describe the clothes he wore, the food he ate,
and the process of powdering and tying his hair. What
passes for the dignity of history is often only a stupid
neglect of interesting particulars. The very infirmities of
so great a man as Washington are needed to give relief
to the picture. That he was austere and exacting in







INTRODUCTION.


money affairs, while remarkably generous in some cases, is
a fact needed to complete the view of the man; and no
sincere lover of historic truth would wish suppressed the
fact that he flew into a rage and swore till the leaves
trembled on the trees" when he found one of his com-
manders playing traitor on the field of Monmouth.
But how admirably does the character of this illustri-
ous man bear the closest scrutiny! The more one grows
familiar with it the more does Washington seem to deserve
his unique place in history. There were other men as good
as he, there were generals more brilliant than he. Frank-
lin was a greater philosopher, Chatham a greater states-
man, Jefferson was greater as a political theorist; but
history has no other character, perhaps, in which so many
admirable traits were so equally balanced. Hardly any
other man has ever arisen who combined a capacity for
manmeuvres so brilliant as the capture of Trenton, the
night march on Princeton, and the sudden blow at long
reach which destroyed C('..i.. Ii -, with the patience to
wear out years in the weary waiting which was indispensa-
ble to the success of a small and scattered population
contending with a great power. Rarely has the world
seen a victor who sought no profit for himself, a man who
had made himself the adored leader of his people, who
put away from him with repulsion every suggestion that
he should seek personal ; I I .- .--.- nu. I Without lauda-
tion or rhetorical flourish, the writer of this work has
told the story, and the reader leaves the contemplation of
Washington more than ever filled with admiration for
one who was not the most brilliant leader or the greatest
thinker of his age, but who, by the sum of his qualities,







INTRODUCTION. xvii

must remain the most illustrious figure in the history of
the eighteenth century.
A grateful acknowledgment is due for the friendly
assistance rendered by many persons to the illustrator in
the arduous work of gathering material for the pictures.
It is proper to mention in particular the courteous kind-
ness of General G. W. Custis Lee, who put his valuable
family portraits at the disposal of the artist. Dr. J. M.
Toner, Mr. Allen, the librarian of the State Department,
the Ladies Mount Vernon Association, Mr. F. D. Stone,
of the Pennsylvania Historical Society, and the librarians
of the New York Historical Society were very obliging
and helpful.
JOSHUA'S ROCK, ON LAKE GEORGE.













THE STORY OF WASHINGTON.




CHAPTER I.

WASIIINGTON'S BIRTH.
1732.

WI-IEN a man has become famous, dignified ancestors
are sure to be provided for him. Efforts have been made
to connect George Washington with more than one family
of consequence in England bearing his name. It has re-
cently been discovered, however, that the two Washington
brothers who came to America in Cromwell's day were the
sons of a certain Lawrence Washington, who was a college
graduate and a poor parson, rector over a little church at
Purleigh, in England, and who died in 1 ."':, leaving his
children still young and no doubt very needy. A few
years after their father's death-that is, about 1657-the
two eldest sons, John and Lawrence Washington, emi-
grated to America.
The wild lands of Virginia were to be had at a very
low rate in those days, and an enterprising man might
there become the owner of a tract as large as the estate of
a great nobleman in England. For this reason many poor
gentlemen, like the Washington brothers, came to Vir-
ginia to become planters and seek their fortunes in rais-
2







THE STORY OF WASIINGTON.


ing tobacco, the staple of the country. The elder of the
two emigrant brothers, John Washington, who was about
twenty-three when he landed in the New World, was the
great-grandfather of George. He became in time a mem-
ber of the Legislature, or House of Burgesses as it was
called, and a county magistrate. Nearly twenty years after
he had come to Virginia to live, there appeared some very
bad omens, a. comet streaming like a horse-tail westward,"
a 1i;i rl of pigeons which was so dense that the birds broke
down the trees where they roosted, and swarms of flies
which came out of spigot-holes" in the earth. Old
planters shook their heads, and remembered that there
was such a flight of pigeons before the last Indian mas-
sacre. In course of time two men were killed by the
savages, as every one had expected, and the people found
their bodies on the way to church. Some Virginians rode
after the murderers and fell upon the first Indians they
found, without stopping to ask whether they were the real
offenders. Indian troubles followed, and John Washing-
ton marched as colonel at the head of a number of Vir-
ginians against an Indian fort in Maryland. While the
white men were holding a parley with some Indian chiefs
at this fort, the bodies of more massacred men were
brought in, and the colonists were so enraged that they
bound five of the chiefs and knocked them on the head."
After six weeks of siege the Indians marched out of their
fort in the night, killing the sleeping guards and yelling
defiance at their besiegers. This was the beginning of
the Indian troubles which led to Bacon's rebellion; so
that John Washington was probably something of a rebel
as well as an unsuccessful Iidi r,-!lit. ,.







WASHINGTON'S BIRTH.


Augustine Washington, the grandson of John Wash-
ington and the father of George, was born in 1694. He
was married twice. His first wife, whose maiden name
was Jane Butler, was the mother of four of his children.
Two of these died when they were very young. The
mother herself died in 1728, leaving two boys, Lawrence
and Augustine. Washington's father was married again in
1730 to Mary Ball, who was then twenty-six years old. On
the 11th of February, 1732, old style, the young wife had
a boy born to her, who was named George. The date of
his birth would be the 22d of February, new style, and
this is the date that is celebrated as Washington's birth-
day. The little George had afterward brothers and sisters
named Betty, Samuel, John Augustine, Charles, and Mil-
dred. Mildred died in babyhood.
Washington was born in a low-pitched, single-story
frame house containing four rooms, and having an im-
mense outside chimney at either end. This house stood
in Westmoreland County, between Bridge's and Pope's
Creeks, and from it could be seen the Potomac River and
the shore of Maryland. One breezy morning in April,
when George was about three years old, dead leaves and
brush were burning in the garden near this house. Some
sparks settled among the shingles and set the house afire.
Augustine Washington was away from home, but while
slaves were trying to put out the fire, Mrs. Washington,
with the cook and a maid, moved the furniture from the
house, which soon burned down.
As Washington's father was agent for some iron works
at F, .1. 1;. 1..1. and wished to live near them, he did
not rebuild his burned house, but went to live on an-







THE STORY OF WASHINGTON.


other plantation, on the banks of the Rappahannock, op-
posite to the town of Fredericksburg. This was a four-
roomed house, with outside chimneys, much like the
other.
Washington's ancestors seem to have been good busi-
ness men. True Virginia planters of that time, they
led a robust, out-of-door life, riding about to oversee their
plantations, hunting in the immense stretches of sur-
rounding woods, and eating the plain food raised on
their own lands. These men were ever ready for a
wrangle with their Governors in the house of Burgsesses,







-L L --






VIEW OF FRlEI)EIHCKFIUH B FIROL THE WASHINGTON PLANTATION
ON TIIE R I'PXPAI ANNOCK.

or for a brush with the Indians. But in spite of his
homely life, the Virginia planter remembered that he was
a gentleman, and took pains to preserve the somewhat
antiquated manners brought by his ancestors from the
Old World. Ships came to his own door direct from
England, for what is called Tidewater Virginia is a land
of peninsulas watered by rivers and estuaries. These







WASHINGTON'S BIRTII. r

tobacco craft, which carried away the planter's valuable
crop, brought back in exchange furniture, plate, linen,
and fine dress, to lend a touch of fashion to the other-
wise rude life of the Virginia gentleman. Sometimes
the planter took his family visiting over the rough roads
in a great yellow coach, brought over also on the tobacco
ship, and sometimes he drove with his wife and daugh-
ters to Williamsburg to attend the balls given at this
little capital. The Washingtons were of the plainer
class of planters. They had fewer luxuries and endured
more hardships than the members of the great families
about them.
George Washington was a true child of this generous,
active, out-of-door life-a life which called forth all the
endurance and hardihood of the frontiersman, at the same
time that it fostered .1;_ ..; and courtesy, together with a
high sense of honor and independence.







THE STORY OF WASHINGTON.


CHAPTER II.
STORIES OF WASHINGTON'S CHILDHOOD.
1735-17413.
SEVERAL of the most famous tales of Washington's
boyhood are told by an odd character known as Parson
Weems, who preached in Pohick church for a while after
the war. Washington attended this church, and he and
his wife often entertained Weems in their hospitable
house. As the odd parson no doubt gossiped with all the
old people about the neighborhood, he had a good chance
to pick up any anecdotes about the great man's childhood.
Unfortunately, Parson Weems was more fond of a good
story than of the strict truth. Having a large family to
support, he left off preaching and became a book peddler.
He rode about in an old-fashioned gig, selling his own
writings and those of others. He told so many amusing
stories and 1.I,'..1 the fiddle so well, that he was a very
successful peddler. He would enter a bar room with a
temperance tract he had written, and mimic a drunken
man so perfectly that he had no trouble in selling his
tracts to the laughing crowd. It is told of Weems that
he once fiddled for a dance from behind a screen, lest
people should be shocked to see a parson fiddling in such
a place. The screen fell over, however, and revealed the
fiddling preacher, to the great amusement of the crowd.







STORIES OF WASHINGTON'S CHILDHOOD. 7

The odd old parson wrote a life of Washington, in which
he told some stories of the great man's boyhood which he
said he had learned from an old lady who was a cousin of
the family and had visited, when she was a girl, in the
























house of Mr. Augustine Washington. The stories are not
improbable in themsees, ad are doubted only because











they are told by the queer parson, who loved a good story
too well.
Washington's father, when the boy was five years old-
so runs one of these tales-once invited the young lady
cousin who was then visiting the family to go with him







THE STORY OF WASHINGTON.


and little George to the orchard. When they got there
they found the ground covered with fallen apples, while
the trees were so loaded that they were breaking with the
weight of the fruit.
Now, George," said his father, "look here, my son :
don't you remember when this good cousin of yours
brought you that fine, large apple last spring, how hardly
I could prevail on you to divide with your brothers and
sisters, though I promised you that, if you would but
do it, God Almighty would give you plenty of apples
this fall?"
The little George hung his head, and presently said,
" Well, pa, only forgive me this time, and see if I ever be
so stingy any more."
The next story told by Weems is the famous little
hatchet tale. He says that Washington's father took a
great deal of pains to teach the child to tell the truth,
and charged him, should he ever happen to do anything
wrong, to come and tell of it, when, instead of a '.. iI;
he should have honor and love as a reward. George, who
was about six years old, was given a little hatchet for his
own. One day, when he was amusing himself hacking
pea sticks in the garden, lie presently fell upon a young
English cherry tree, which his father valued a great deal,
and barked it very badly. When Mr. Augustine Washing-
ton discovered the mischief lie was very angry, and de-
clared that he would not have taken five guineas for his
cherry tree.
George," said he, do you know who killed that
beautiful cherry tree, yonder in the garden?"
The boy hesitated a moment. T can't tell a lie, pa,







STORIES OF WASHINGTON'S CHIILDHOOD.


you know I can't tell a lie," said he, presently; I did cut
it with my little hatchet."
The boy's father, so says Weems, remembered his
promise and praised George, declaring that he was glad
that he had lost his tree, since it had been the occasion of
the child's daring to tell the truth.
Another of Weems's stories is that Washington's father
once planted the letters of the boy's name in a cabbage
bed in the garden. Some time after, the child came into
the house all excitement, crying:
0 pa come here come here!"
"What's the matter, my son; what's the matter ?"
Oh, come here, I tell you, pa, come here, and I'll
show you such a sight as you never saw in your lifetime! "
George took his father's hand and pulled him into the
garden. There, pa he exclaimed, did you ever see
such a sight in your life ?"
"Why, it does seem like a curious i i sure enough,
George."
But, pa, who did make it there? asked the child.
It grew by chance, I suppose, my son."
By chance, pa! Oh, no, it never did grow there by
chance, pa. Indeed, that it never did !"
Hey Why not, my son ?"
"Why, pa, did you ever see anybody's name in a plant
bed before?"
Well-but, George, such a thing might happen,
though you never saw it before."
Yes, pa, but I did never see the little plants grow up
so as to make one single letter of my name, and then
standing one after another to spell my name so exactly,







THE STORY OF WASHINGTON.


and all so even at the top and bottom. 0 pa, you must
not say that chance did all this. Indeed, somebody did
it, and I dare say now, pa, you did it, just to scare me, be-
cause I am your little boy."
Whereupon, according to Weems, Washington's father
drew a little lesson from the plant bed, by which he made
him understand something about the heavenly Father,
who made things grow for his .. i. ,.
Besides Weems's doubtful stories, there are two letters
which are said to have passed between George, when he
was nine years old, and Richard Henry Lee, a little boy,
who :!. 1 I became a great Revolutionary character,
and to whom Washington wrote many letters in after-life.
George's letter seems too correct for a little boy, though
he may have had help from the friend who is supposed to
have composed the rhyme at the end of the little note.
Richard wrote:

Pa brought me two pretty books fall of pictures he
got them in Alexandria they have pictures of dogs and
cats and tigers and elefants and ever so many pretty things
cousin bids me send you one of them it has a picture of
an elefant and a little Indian boy on his back like uncle
jo's sam pa says if I learn my tasks good he will let uncle
jo bring me to see you will you ask your ma to let you
come to see me. RICHARD IIENIiY LEE."

George answered :

DEAR DICKEY: I thank you very much for the pretty
picture book you gave me. Sam asked me to show him
the pictures and I showed him all the pictures in it; and







STORIES OF WASHINGTON'S CHILDHOOD.


I read to him how the tame elephant took care of the
master's little boy, and put him on his back and would
not let anybody touch his master's little son. I can read
three or four pages sometimes without missing a word.
Ma says I may go to see you and stay all day with you
next week if it be not rainy. 'I! says I may ride my
pony, Hero if Uncle Ben will go with me and lead Hero.
I have a little piece of poetry about the picture book
you gave me but I mustn't tell you who wrote the poetry.
G. W.'s compliments to R. H. L.,
And likes his book full well
Henceforth will count him his friend,
And hopes many happy days he may spend.
Your good friend,
GEORGE WASHINGTON.

I am going to get a whip top soon, and you may see
it and whip it."

The Sam in the letter was George's brother, and the
"uncle jo and "Uncle Ben were no doubt old negro
slaves.
To turn from doubtful stories and letters to what
we certainly know of his childhood, George Washington
attended a little school kept by a man named Hobby. It
was very hard, in those rude days in Virginia, for planters
to get any education for their children, and George's
father bought Hobby as a bond-servant,* that he might

The lot of poor men in that day was a hard one, and many such
caine to this country to escape misery in England. The captain of
the ship that brought such a man was allowed to sell him for four







12 THE STORY OF WASHINGTON.

have a schoolmaster for his children. The schoolhouse
is said to have stood in an old field-that is, a field ex-
hausted by the growing of tobacco and allowed to grow
up to pines. Here the little George learned to read, write,
and cipher, and that by no very short cuts, for Hobby
was probably only the poorest kind of a teacher. Weems
tells, however, that the old man was very proud in after-
life of having taught the great general. IHe drank a
good deal, especially on Washington's birthday, and he
would boast on such occasions that "'twas he who, be-
tween his knees, had laid the foundation of Washington's
greatness."

years to replay his passage. Many men, convicted of small crimes in
England, were transported and sold for seven years. Those con-
victs who could read and write were often purchased for school-
Inasters.







WASHINGTON AS A BOY.


CHAPTER III.

WASHINGTON AS A BOY.
1743-1746.

WHEN George Washington was eleven years old, his
father was taken suddenly ill and died, at the age of forty-
nine. To his eldest son, Lawrence, he left a place on the
Potomac, which was afterward named Mount Vernon,
with other lands, and shares in the iron works which he
superintended. To his second son, Augustine, he willed
the plantation in Westmoreland County where George had
been born. George himself was to have the lands on
which the family lived on the Rappahannock, but only
after his mother's death. The other sons had six or seven
hundred acres each, and the daughter Betty was also pro-
vided for. Mrs. Washington was left in charge of the
lands of all her children until they should come of age.
In after-life, Washington said that he remembered his
father's fondness for him, but that he believed he owed
his fortune and fame to his mother. Mrs. Washington
was a person of much sternness and force. She was prob-
ably a woman of the old Virginia type, in the time when
planters were also frontiersmen and their children had
few opportunities for education. Though she belonged
to a good family, her accomplishments were of the plain-
est sort, such only as were needed by a housekeeper in







THE STORY OF WASHINGTON.


rude times. She was left a young widow in charge of
tracts of land and ii ....- a kind of property which
yielded only a very poor living without the greatest watch-







"V-- ---.



















HALL IN Tll PART OF MOUNT VERNON BUILT BY LAWRENCE WASHINGTON.

fulness. She was in the habit of riding around her plan-
tation in an open gig and overseeing all that went on, and
she was feared by all about her.
Pray," said she to an overseer who wished to do
-_ -:-L ~--_ -:i -- -__-----. _:- -: .-








"Pray," said she to an overseer whoe wishedl to do







WASHINGTON AS A BOY.


otherwise than she had ordered, who gave you any
judgment in the matter? I command you, sir ; there is
nothing left for you but to obey."
Mrs. Washington's sons stood in awe of her when they
were grown to be tall fellows. One of George's comrades
said in after-years that he feared her much more than he
did his own parents. We were as mute as mice in her
presence," said he.
Schools were few and poor in Washington's boyhood,
and his mother sent him, soon after his father's death,
back to his birthplace to live with his brother Augustine,
who was now a grown man, to attend the school of a cer-
tain Mr. Williams. We do not know just how much he
learned at this new school, but his four or five years under
Mr. W\illiams did not teach him correct spelling or the
commonest rules of English grammar, as some of his
early writings show. He seems to have learned a good
deal from a book which has recently been discovered with.
his name in it and the date of 1742, when the boy was ten
years old. This book is called The Young Man's Com-
panion, or Arithmetek Made Easy, and it claims to teach
a boy without a tutor how to "read and write true Eng-
lish," how to write letters and make ont various papers
such as bills, bonds, releases, and wills, how to measure
timber, and how to survey land, with various other useful
things. Blank books are still preserved in which the boy
Washington copied out various legal forms, some poor
poetry, and one hundred and ten rules of behavior which
are very quaint, and old, no doubt, in their origin. These
rules are .. curious. Some of them exhibit the rude
habits of the time when it was thought necessary to teach







THE STORY OF WASHINGTON.


a young man not to kill vermin in the sight of others."
Another rule, which forbids a man to put his feet upon
the fire, especially if there be meat before it," shows how
common it was in early days to live in the kitchen. The
boy was taught, among many other things, '!I, ,i. not the
Head, Feet, or Legs, rowl not the Eys, lift not one eye-
brow higher than the other, wry not the month." IHe
was to keep the nails, hands, and teeth clean, yet he was
to show "no great concern for them." IHe was not to
read in company ; he was not to play the doctor when lie
visited the sick; he was not to laugh himself when lie
said anything witty; lie was to see that his clothes were
brushed every day, and was not to play the peacock, look-
ing everywhere about" him to see if he were well
decked" ; lie was to select good company, for he was told
that it was better to be alone than in bad company ; lie
was not to speak of doleful things in a time of mirth,"
nor mention death and wounds at table; he was not to
look at the blemishes of others; finally, lie was taught
great deference in the presence of his superiors and proper
behavior toward his inferiors. This remarkable set of
rules, which Washington copied so carefully when lie was
a boy, closes with the words, Labor to keep alive in your
breast that little spark of celestial fire called conscience."
These old blank books show that the boy Washington was
already practicing those painstaking habits with his pen
which led him in later life to keep careful accounts of all
his expenses, diaries of his doings, and copies of his let-
ters.
Although Washington seems to have been something
of a model boy, he was still very much given to manly,








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C iM O SME Of TE1 L/ OF IEA O.
FAC-STM\ILE~ OF SOMEB OF THET XRULES OF BiEHAI\TOR.







THE STORY OF WASHINGTON.


out-of-door sports. At school, so tradition says, he loved
to play soldier, dividing the boys into armies, and George
was pretty sure to be commander on one side or the
other. There are many tales about Washington's great
strength in running, and his skill in throwing to a
great distance. Perhaps the distance has grown with the
years, for, when people make a hero of a man, they like to
think that lie showed signs of his wonderful qualities in
boyhood; though what throwing has to do with good
generalship, or how foot-races lead to the presidency it
would be hard to tell. They go to show, however, what
was no doubt true, that Washington was a hardy, manly
boy. To this day the very spot where George threw a
piece of slate across the Rappahannock is pointed out.
The slate, of course, cleared the river and landed some
thirty yards on the opposite side. The people of Vir-
ginia firmly believe also that Washington threw a stone
up some two hundred feet to the arch of the natural
bridge from below, while some have it a silver dollar.
Even in the North there is a legend of Washington's
throwing a stone from the top of the Palisades into the
Hudson, when he was a general.
Parson Weems also comes in with his homely tale of
Washington's feats of running while he was at Mr. Wil-
liams's school. According to Weoms, John Fitzhugh,
Esq., made the following speech to him with regard to
the superior qualities of Washington's legs:
Egad, he ran wonderfully. We had nobody here-
abouts that could come near him. There was a young
Langhorn Dade, of Westmoreland, a confounded clean-
made, tight young fellow, and a mighty swift runner too;







WASHINGTON AS A BOY.


but then he was no match for George. Langy, indeed,
did not like to give it up, and would brag that he had
sometimes brought George to a tie. But I believe that
he was mistaken, for I have seen them run together
many a time, and George always beat him easy enough."
Another story of Washington's boyhood tells how he
once sat reading a book under an oak tree near the school-
house, when the other boys had persuaded the champion
wrestler of the county to try their strength. He downed
all the boys except the studious George, who refused to
join the ring. The champion presently dared Washing-
ton to come on, or own that he was afraid. George was
probably no more able to take a dare than to tell a lie,
and he accordingly came on. There was a struggle of a
few minutes, when, as the champion afterward said, "I
felt myself grasped and hurled upon the ground with a
jar that shook the marrow of my bones."
Washington, like all Virginia boys, was at home on a
horse's back. During the Revolutionary War he pre-
sented the famous French officer, the Marquis de Chastel-
Iux, with a beautiful animal, which he assured his guest
he had broken himself, to the wonder of the Frenchman.
Perhaps Washington's first attempt at breaking a horse
was on his mother's plantation, and this was an unlucky
adventure.
Fine horses were the pride of the Virginia gentleman,
and Mrs. Washington kept up the stock that had been
owned by her husband. There was one spirited sorrel
colt which no one had succeeded in breaking. George
and some boy friends were looking at the horses early
one morning, when Washington announced that he was










20 THE STORY OF WASHINGTON.


going to ride the sorrel. His companions, boylike, dared

him to do it. They all went to work to catch the rest-

loss animal, and together they forced a bit into his mouth.

No sooner was this done, than Washington sprang on his

back. The horse backed, reared, and plunged, while

George's comrades began to be frightened about the re-


'''~




I


i ''


~


((





I
.?
'

i'
'''




r
ir
; ~.+~~.:
l;u -_-LL~~


WASHIINGTON'S TENTS, AS SET UP IY TiHE NATIONAL MUSEUM
IN TIIEIlI GROUNDS.


sult of their sport. But Washington kept his seat, and

the animal finally made one great bound into the air and

fell dead, having burst a blood-vessel.

Immediately after this the boys were called to break-

fast, feeling very serious over the outcome of their

sport. Mrs. Washington began to ask them if they had

seen her colts, and especially her favorite, the sorrel.


'
"'


I I
1111







WASHINGTON AS A BOY.


The boys were silent, but Mrs. Washington demanded
an answer.
The sorrel is dead, madam," said George. I killed
him." The boy then told how it all happened. Mrs.
Washington's face was red with anger, but she presently
said that, while she regretted the loss of her horse, she
rejoiced in her son, who always told the truth. This
story is told by Washington's step-grandson, who was
brought up in his family. The point resembles that of
the hackneyed little hatchet tale, and perhaps they both
grew out of one incident.
There is no doubt a foundation of fact in the tales of
Washington's great strength, for we know tlhat when he
grew to be a man he was tall and muscular, had very
large joints, and enormous hands and feet. lie wore num-
ber thirteen boots, it is said, and was obliged to have his
gloves made to order. A man who knew him during the
war told that though it took two men to lift his large
tent, wrapped up with its poles, Washington could pick it
up with one hand and throw it into a wagon, as though
it were a pair of saddle-bags.






THE STORY OF WASHINGTON.


CHAPTER IV.

THE YOUNG SURVEYOR.
1746-1751.
WHEx George Washington was eight years old his
eldest half-brother, Lawrence, then only twenty, was
captain in a Virginia regiment which joined an expe-
dition under Admiral Vernon to attack Cartagena in
South America. The attack did not succeed. The
ships did not get near enough to throw shells into the
town, and the scaling ladders were too short. But the
part of the forces which Lawrence commanded fought
bravely, standing a very destructive fire for some hours
and losing a number of men. No doubt the tales George
heard from his brother of his adventures in this expedi-
tion made him love to play soldier as a boy, and dream of
going to war himself.
Lawrence Washington was a noble and liberal-minded
man, and be seems to have been one of the most de-
voted of elder brothers. He married a daughter of Wil-
liam Fairfax, and went to live on his estate on the Po-
tomac, which he named Mount Vernon, in honor of the
admiral under whom he had fought. His father-in-law
lived across the river from him at a place called Belvoir.
He was a gentleman of wealth, and the agent of his cousin,
Lord Fairfax. Lord Fairfax was an English nobleman







THE YOUNG SURVEYOR.


who had fallen heir to a tract of land in Virginia so large
that it is now divided into twenty-one counties. He had
also estates in England, and was a man of fine education,
and possessed some literary I ll-, for he wrote papers for
The Spectator. But a disappointment in love is said to
have sent him to the
wilds of Virginia.
He turned over his
English -...." to
his brother, and be- '
came a Virginian for : .-.-r .i '- -
life. At the time ..
when George first. .
knew him he was liv- O B A GE
OLD B110UDING AT 6111E-NWkY COR1T.
ing with his cousin
William Fairfax at Belvoir. He i, ... made his
home in a house which he built beyond the Blue Ridge,
and called Greenway Court. Here he kept bachelor's
hall, and spent much of his time hunting in the forests
which stood in that day about his house.
When Washington was about fourteen it was proposed
to send him to sea. Whether this grew out of his own
boyish wishes, or the plans of his elders, is not certainly
known; but a brother of Mrs. Washington, who lived in
England, wrote her a very sensible letter, in which lie told
her that, rather than go to sea, her son had better be
put 'prentice to a tinker ;" that at sea he would be treated
like a dog; that there was no chance for him in the nay ,
and that lie would be better off as a planter than as mas-
ter of a Virginia ship. "I e must not be too hasty to
be rich," said he, but go on gently and with patience as






THE STORY OF WASHINGTON.


things will naturally go. This method, without aiming at
being a fine gentleman before his time, will carry a man
more comfortably and surely through the world than go-
ing to sea, unless it be a good chance indeed."
Mrs. Washington's heart soon failed her. A friend of
hers wrote to Lawrence Washington that one word against
George's going to sea had more weight than ten for it."
So the plan was given up, and the boy was sent back to
school to study surveying. For practice he plotted off
the fields around the schoolhouse, and put the result of
his work down very carefully in his blank books. He
left school the fall before he was sixteen, and spent the
winter with his brother Lawrence at Mount Vernon. He
practiced surveying about his brother's plantation during
this winter. Here he often met the Fairfaxes and other
choice company, and had a chance to practice his rules of
behavior.
It is said that while George was living with his brother
Lawrence, he was one day in Alexandria where a dealer
was showing some blooded horses which he had brought
there to sell. The boy admired them, and perhaps boasted
a little about what he could do with a horse. The dealer
offered to give him a very unmanageable young horse if
he would ride it to Mount Vernon and back without los-
ing his seat. George immediately mounted the animal
and rode off. The next day he entered the town again
firmly seated on the wild creature. The dealer is said to
have been willing to stand by his promise, and offered the
horse to George; but Washington frankly declared that
he had not earned him, for he had been thrown once and
dragged, though he did not lose his hold of the reins.






THE YOUNG SURVEYOR.


George Washington was the kind of boy to be a favor-
ite with older men. Lord Fairfax selected him when he
was barely sixteen to be a surveyor for him. Lord Fair-
fax's land stretched across the Blue Ridge, and he owned
many fine valleys there which had never been surveyed.
Emigrants were already pushing their way across the
mountains, selecting the finest pieces of
land and settling on them. Lord Fair- /
fax wished to survey these lands, so that
the settlers might have a clear title and
pay their quit rents to the lord of the .'
soil. I ,d '


George Washington and George Fair- 'i
fax, the eldest son of William Fairfax, i '
set out on horseback, in March, 1748, for
the Shenandoah Valley, where they were "
joined by another Wi .... Washing-
ton kept a journal of this first surveying \i:i
trip of his, which is very quaint with
its odd spelling and its antique abbrevia- CASE, w~rrH PENCT.,
SOOT- ,E, ANDl
tions. He tells how they rode many II)EIs
rough miles in a day, getting now and y ""II'y,.
then a shot at a wild turkey; how they OWNE L.B GEN.
G. W. C. LIE.
slept in a tent, every one being his own
cook, with forked sticks for spits, and large chips for
plates. Once the straw on which he slept caught fire,
and one of the men saved him from burning up by
waking him in time. At another time the tent blew
away in the night. Once they ate dinner at a frontiers-
man's, where there was neither tablecloth nor knives,
and they counted themselves fortunate in having some







TIE STORY OF WASHINGTON.


knives of their own. He relates very naively how at one
frontier house, he not being so good a woodsman as the
rest of the company," stripped himself very orderly and
went into the bed, as they called it. The bed proved
to be a little straw, matted together, no sheets, and an
abundance of vermin. He says that he made haste to get
up so soon as the light had been carried away, put on his
clothes, and stretched himself on the floor with the other
members of the party. Had we not been very tired,"
he writes," I am sure we should not have slep'd much
that night." He resolved to choose the open air and the
fire hereafter on a surveying tour. The next day they
rode to Frederickstown, where they found their baggage
and made haste to change their clothes, to get rid of ye
Game we had catched ye night before," says the journal.
At one place the boy surveyors were stopped several
days at a ford by high rains and rising water. They were
delighted, after two days of dull waiting, with the sight of
a party of Indians returning from the warpath, with
only one scalp," as the journal remarks. Washington and
Fairfax gave the Indians some liquor, which, elevating
their spirits, put them in ye humor of dancingg" Wash-
ington describes the war dance that took place in the fol-
lowing quaint words: "There manner of dancing is as
follows, viz., they clear a Large Circle and make a great
Fire in ye middle. Men seats themselves around it. Ye
speaker makes a grand speech, telling them in what man-
ner they are to daunce. After he has finished, ye best
Dauncer jumps up, as one awaked out of a sleep, & Runs
and Jumps about ye Ring in a most comicle manner. He
is followed by ye Rest. Then begins there musicians to







THE YOUNG SURVEYOR.


Play. Ye music is a Pot half full of water, with a Deer-
skin stretched over it as tight as it can, & a goard with
shott in it to rattle & a Piece of an horses tail tied to it to
make it look fine. Ye one keeps rattling and ye others
drumming all ye while ye others is Dauncing."
For three years George Washington led the life of a
backwoods surveyor, followed about by emigrants seeking
lands. Since you re-
ceived my letter in Octo- f(
ber last," he writes to a
boy friend, "I have not 1.
sleep'd above three nights
or four in a bed, but,
after walking a good deal
all the day, I lay downINGTON' OP.
before the fire upon a
little hay, straw, fodder, or bearskin, which ever is to be
had with man, wife and children, like a parcel of dogs
and cats; and happy is he who gets the berth nearest
the fire. There is nothing would make it pass off toler-
ably but a good reward. A doubloon a day is my con-
stant gain every day that the weather will permit my
going out, and sometimes six pistoles." A doubloon was
equal to seven dollars and twenty cents, while six pistoles
amounted to twenty-one dollars and sixty cents.
In this way the foundation was laid for Washington's
future greatness; hardihood, endurance, and independ-
ence were the lessons he learned. IIe spent his winters
with his brother Lawrence at Mount Vernon, and here he
gained ease and polish of manner. He is said also to have
been a great favorite with Lord Fairfax in his home at







TIE STORY OF WASHINGTON.


Greenway Court, in the "!,, ii i i.. Valley, where the
bachelor nobleman and the young surveyor had many a
good hunt together.
Meantime Washington had young lady friends, and
some youthful emotions with regard to them. In the
same book which contains his journals is a copy of a letter
in which he speaks of having been ill with a pleurisy, and
says, But purpose, as soon as I recover my strength, to
wait on Miss Betsy, in hopes of a revocation of the former
cruel sentence, and see if I can meet with any alteration
in my favor." This pretty speech savors more of old-
fashioned Southern gallantry than of the real sentiment
which some writers see in it. Another letter, however to
be found in the same book, contains a rather amusing
passage in a more serious strain.
My place of residence," says young George Washing-
ton, is at present at his Lordship's, where I might, was
my heart disengaged, pass my time very pleasantly as
there's a very agreeable ....... lady lives in the same house.
But as that's only adding fuel to fire, it makes me the
more uneasy, for by often and unavoidably being in com-
pany with her revives my former passion for your Low-
land beauty; whereas was I to live more retired from
young women, I might in some measure eliviate my sor-
rows, by burying that chaste and troublesome passion in
the grave of oblivion or etarnall forgetfulness, for as I am
well assured, that's the only antidote or remedy, that I
ever shall be relieved by or only recess that can administer
any cure or help to me, as I am well convinced, was I ever,
to attempt 11. I1;i I should only get a denial, which
would be only adding grief to uneasiness."






THE YOUNG SURVEYOR. 29

There is no doubt that Washington, being only about
sixteen when he wrote this doleful letter, recovered in due
time of his hopeless passion for the Lowland beauty,"
and lived to enjoy the society of other young women,
without so much as being reminded of his first love,
"etarnall forgetfulness having done its work. We may
smile at Washington's boyish effusions, as well as his mis-
takes in grammar and in spelling, but he soon conquered
most of these faults, and gained a clear style in writ-
ing as well as a thoughtful and sensible bearing. As he
never went to school again, all these improvements must
have been due to his own painstaking habits.







THE STORY OF WASHINGTON.


CHAPTER V.

LEARNING TO BE A SOLDIER.
1751-1752.

ONE of the most remarkable facts about the boy George
Washington was that lie was trusted with difficult tasks
at so early an age. Being the eldest son of a widow,
and having his own way to make in the world, ie seems
to have become a man before his time. When Washing-
ton was a boy, the French in Canada, having already
claimed the Mississippi, were pushing for the great inte-
rior country about the Ohio. The English colonies, too,
began to see that their growth must soon force them in
the same direction. George's half-brothers, Lawrence and
Augustine Washington, belonged to a body of men called
" The Ohio Company," which was formed to push emigra-
tion into this great new country. They sent out a famous
pioneer named ( I I ..l.. Gist to explore the Ohio Val-
ley, and they made a treaty with the Indians, by which
they were allowed to make settlements on one side of the
great river. It was more difficult to find settlers, and
Lawrence Washington, although he was beginning to fail
in health, tried unsuccessfully to get a promise that Ger-
man emigrants to the Ohio would be allowed to have
their own religion, and not be obliged to support a clergy-
man of the Church of England. In the houses of his two







LEARNING TO BE A SOLDIER.


brothers Washington thus early learned to take a great
interest in the struggle for the Ohio.
Wise men foresaw that there was likely to be trouble
between the French and English colonies over the posses-
sion of the beautiful Ohio country; and the militia-.of
Virginia were trained, and preparations began to be made
for war. The colony was divided into provinces, with an
officer over the militia of each province. Lawrence
Washington got his brother George," at nineteen years
of age, appointed to the command of one of these dis-
tricts, with the title of adjutant-general and the rank of
major. It was the young man's duty to exercise the
militiamen and inspect their arms.
Washington had not forgotten his early ambition to
be a soldier, and he was probably as eager for war as any
very young man would be under the circumstances. He
studied tactics, and took fencing lessons of a Dutchman
named Van Blraam. He had hardly begun his new mili-
tary duties, however, when he was called away by his
brother's illness. Lawrence Washington was now suffer-
ing from consumption. He wished to try a -.'..- to the
West Indies, and asked George to go with him. The
two brothers sailed in September, 1751, and were five
weeks reaching Barbadoes.
This was the only time that George Washington was
outside of his native land. Soon after he reached the
island he and his brother were invited to dine at a cer-
tain house. George went reluctantly, for there was small-
pox in the house, and he had not vet had this disease,
which was very common in those davs. Two weeks later
he was taken with the smallpox, and recovered after three







THE STORY OF WASHINGTON.


or four weeks of severe illness. Lawrence Washington
seemed to be very much better when he first reached
Barbadoes, but his health failed again, and he thought
of trying a trip to Bermuda in the spring. He decided
to--send George home, in order that he might bring Mrs.
Lawrence Washington out to meet him at Bermuda.
The young man had a stormy passage. He kept a care-
ful i ...11, 1. however, and even copied the ship's log-book,
setting down the direction of the wind and the number
of miles made by the vessel daily, which shows his early
habit of taking pains with the smallest details.
Washington reached home in February. His brother
Lawrence, i1,,nl, that he was getting no better, returned
to Virginia in the following summer. He did not live
long after he came home. His will shows his affection for
George, and his trust in the young man's character. He
left his estates to his little daughter, an only child, who
did not live long. In case of her death, his wife was to
have a dower interest in them, and they were to belong
to George Washington. Meantime George was made one
of the executors, and he began immediately to manage
his brother's affairs. At nineteen he was managing a
large plantation, and riding about several counties re-
viewing the militia on parade, training the officers, and
inspecting arms.






SENT INTO THE WILDERNESS.


CI[APTER VI.

SENT INTO THE WILDERNESS.
1753.

BEFORE railroads were invented natural water ways
were of vast importance. When the country was still
wild there was no other way of penetrating it than that
afforded by rivers and lakes. For this reason the French
in Canada had secured Lake Champlain, which was con-
-nected by water, except for a few miles of land carriage,
both with the St. Lawrence and the Hudson. They had
grasped also the Great Lakes and the Mississippi which
led through the heart of the continent. By a small carry
from Lake Erie they were planning now to reach a new
region by following French Creek to the Alleghany
River, and this stream until it joined the Monongahela
and became the Ohio. Their forts had already been
extended to the junction of French Creek and the Alle-
ghany, and the English colonists saw that they must soon
be cut off from a valuable fur trade, and be shut in for-
ever behind the Alleghany Mountains.
Dinwiddie, the Governor of Virginia, wrote a letter in
1753 to the commander of the French fort at Venango,
demanding that the French should leave off building forts
in the Ohio Valley. He chose Major George Washington,
then twenty-one years old, to carry this letter through
4







34 THE STORY OF WASHINGTON.

hundreds of miles of wilderness to the French fort. The
young man set out in November, 1;' :, with his fencing-
master Van Braam as an interpreter, and the trader and
frontiersman ('ICrrt i... i Gist as a guide and
companion, together with several other men r.,
make up the party and drive the pack
horses which carried the necessary .., -- .
and provisions. It was already very cold in '.',
p / 1


.-
A


MAP SHOWING THE WATERWAYS C(LAIMEn BY TiHE FRENCH.


the Alleghanies, and the snow was ankle-deep in some
places. Washington struck the Monongahela at Turtle
Creek, and pushed on down the river till he reached
the forks of the Ohio-that is, the place where this stream
joins the Alleghany and becomes the Ohio. He selected
a place on the tongue of land between these two rivers
for a fort, which he thought would control all the







SENT INTO THE WILDERNESS.


country around by commanding so many streams. This
afterward became the point for which the French and
English struggled.
Nothing could be done without the aid and good will
of the Indians, so Washington and Gist held a council at
Logstown, an Indian village not far from the forks of
the Ohio. Washington visited an Oneida chief who lived
here, named Monacatootha, and giving him a string of
wampum and a twist of tobacco, asked him to send for
the Half-king, a Seneca chief, who was out at his hunting
cabin, and several other chiefs who were absent. When
the Half-king came, Washington visited him in his cabin
and talked with him about what the French were going
to do. The Half-king said that when he had been-at the
French fort last he had told them that the Indians had
built a council fire for them at Montreal, and told them
to stay there, and that if they came any farther the In-
dians would have to use a stick on them. The French
commander had answered, I tell you down the river I
will go." Washington held a council at the long house
of the Indians, and, after a good deal of Indian ceremony
and days of tedious waiting, it was decided that the Half-
king, Jeskakee, White Thunder, and a young hunter
were to go with Major Washington to the French fort
and return a certain speech belt, which would mean in
their eyes the breaking of friendship with the French.
After all had been settled according to Indian notions,
regardless of Washington's impatience, the party set
out, and encamped at a place called Murthering Town,
where they got some dried meat and corn for provis-
ions. The Indians also shot two fine bucks by the







THE STORY OF WASHINGTON.


way, and the party finally reached
Sthe Indian village of Venango.
2 I The French colors were hoist-
i J eed over a house in this town,
from which an English
trader had been driven.
I^H Iere Washington found
S three French officers
and Joncaire, a half-
breed, the son of a
French officer
Sand a Seneca
S ,, squaw, who
w as a man
) / of a good
deal of
MAP OF WASHIINGTON'S COUR'ISE ,
IF1OM1 1 VILLIASISUI;G TO T1' IIE
FR .ENCII H oIr. 1 ,.

in, il .. with the Indians.
Washington ate supper with these ,
ii .... and the latter drank so much '
that they talked pretty freely to the '
young Yirginia :ii i-, swearing that they
would have the Ohio. They said they
knew that the English could raise two men ^
to their one, but that English motions were too
slow to prevent their doing as they chose.
Washington had a deal of trouble to get his Indians
away from the influence of Captain Joncaire and French
liquor. At last, however, the party started up French







SENT INTO THE WILDERNESS.


Creek, subsisting on bear meat, and crossing streams on
fallen tree trunks, with their '. ,. strapped upon their
backs, while they swam their horses over. The young
major was courteously received at the French fort. While
the officers of the post were consulting over Governor Din-
widdie's letter, Washington made a careful observation of
the fort, and charged his interpreter to find out how many
canoes there were upon the shores of the creek, that he
might get some idea of the size of the French force that
would be sent down the river to the Ohio in the spring.
There proved to be fifty birch-bark canoes and one hun-
dred and seventy pine dug-outs, while many more were
being built.
It was now the middle of December, the snows were
increasing, and Washington's horses were getting very
weak, as the grass in the natural meadows along the streams
was covered, and they had nothing to eat but corn. For
this reason he sent the animals ahead unloaded, intend-
ing to go back to Vcnango by water.







THE STORY OF WASHINGTON.


CHAPTER VII.

ADVENTURES IN THE WOODS.
1753.

THE commandant of tie French fort furnished Wash-
ington with a canoe, which he loaded with provisions and
liquor. But while he seemed to be very polite to the
young Virginia major, he was secretly trying to keep the
Indians from going back with him, that lie might gain
them over to the French side. When they were about
to start, he offered the Indians each a present of a gun if
they would stay till the next day. When Washington
heard from the Half-king of this tempting offer, he re-
solved to stay also, for there was no such thing as get-
ting the Indians to forego the guns. The next day they
got their guns, but the French now began to ply them
with liquor. Washington said that he had never suffered
so much anxiety in his life, but he finally got his Indians
off on the 16th of December. The white men were in
one canoe and the Indians in another. They made six-
teen miles the first day and camped for the night, the
Indians having run ahead of them. The next day brought
them up with their Indians, who had camped and were
hunting. The party spent the day at this spot, the
Indians having killed three bears. One of the hunters
had not returned by the following morning, so the







ADVENTURES IN THE WOODS.


white men pushed on and left the Indians waiting for
him.
The waters of the creek were falling very fast, and
after traveling for two more days Washington's party was
stopped by ice. The men worked for some time trying to
break a way through the ice, and then gave it up and
hauled their canoe a quarter of a mile across a neck of
land to where the water was clear again. Here they were
overtaken by the Indians, three French canoes, and the
crew of another French boat which had been lost with her
lading of lead and powder. They all camped for the night
about twenty miles above Venango. By the next day the
creek had become so low that all hands were obliged to
get out of the canoes to keep them from upsetting and
haul them over shoals, the icy water freezing to their
clothes as they stood in it. The Virginians could not
help being pleased, however, to see one of the French
canoes upset and her lading of brandy and wine floating
in the water, while they ran by and let them shift for
themselves."
At Venango Washington was obliged to leave the In-
dians, for White Tl.Ii. pretended to be ill, and the
young major dared not wait any longer, as winter was set-
ting in. The horses were very weak by this time, and their
packs were heavy, it being necessary to carry provisions
for man and beast. The men of the party gave up their
horses to be used as pack animals. Washington put on
an Indian walking dress and tramped on with his party
through the snow for three days. This was very slow
work, because of the weakness of the horses, and Wash-
ington proposed to Gist that they should push ahead.







THE STORY OF WASIINGTON.


making the rest of the journey alone and on foot. Gist
objected that the major was not used to ., hll:;1-, but
Washington insisted. So he left his Dutch fencing-mas-
ter, Van Braam, in charge of the pack horses, and putting
his necessary papers into his bosom, he tied himself up


I
0 -.


PACK SADDLES OF WASHINGTON'S TIME.

in a matcheoat, or Indian blanket. lie and Gist then
strapped packs on their backs loaded with provisions,
and taking their guns in their hands set off on their lonely
and dangerous journey. They walked eighteen miles the
first day, and passed the night in a deserted Indian cabin,







ADVENTURES IN THE WOODS.


Washington being very much exhausted. It was now
very cold, and the small streams were so frozen that it
was hard to find water to drink.
Washington and Gist made the distance the next day
to the Indian village which bore the ominous name of
Murthering Town. Here they met an Indian whom Gist
had seen, he thought, at Venango, on the way up. The
fellow called Gist by his Indian name, and asked a number
of questions as to why the white men were traveling alone,
and where they had left their horses. Washington wished
to cut across the country instead of following the longer
Indian path, so he asked this fellow if he would guide
them, which the Indian was only too willing to do. They
set out once more, the Indian guide carrying Washington's
pack. They had walked only eight or ten miles when
Washington's feet became so sore that he wished to en-
camp for the night. He and Gist were beginning to sus-
pect that their guide was taking them too much toward
the northwest. The Indian .l ... I to carry the major's
gun for him, but Washington refused. The fellow now
became surly, declaring that there were Ottawa Indians
in these woods, who would kill and scalp them if they lay
out, and that it would be best to go to his cabin, where
they would be safe. Gist began to be very suspicious
of their guide, though he did not like to let the :, ii
see it. Washington, however, was uneasy himself. The
Indian insisted that he could hear the report of a gun at
his cabin, and steered north. When the white men became
suspicious at being led in this direction, he declared that
he could hear two whoops at his cabin. Night was falling.
When the party had traveled two miles farther, Wash-







THE STORY OF WASHINGTON.


ington insisted that they should camp at the next water.
Before finding water, however, they entered a natural
meadow where there were no trees, and it was very light
from the reflection on the snow. Instantly the Indian
stopped, wheeled about, and fired upon the two white men.
"Are you shot ? asked Washington of Gist.
"No," answered the trader.
Immediately the Indian ran behind a great white oak
tree and began loading his gun. The two white men
were upon him in a moment, however. Gist would have
killed him, but Washington would not permit this. They
disarmed him, and ordered him to build a fire for them
beside a little stream, as though they meant to encamp
here for the night. Meantime Washington and Gist
guarded the three guns of the party carefully while they
held a little consultation.
"As you will not have him killed," said Gist, we
must get him away, and then we must travel all night."
Washington agreed to this plan, and Gist then went
to the Indian and said, in order that he should not guess
how suspicious they were of him :
I suppose you were lost, and fired your gun."
The fellow assented, and insisted that he knew the way
to his cabin, and that it was not far.
Well," said Gist, do you go home, and as we are
much tired we will follow your tracks in the morning."
The Indian was glad to get off. Gist followed him
and listened until he was sure that he was fairly gone.
He and Washington then hurried away in an opposite di-
rection for half a mile, when they made a fire, looked at
their compass, set their course, and walked all night as







ADVENTURES IN THE WOODS.


fast as they could. This was a pretty hard experience for
a young man with sore feet. T' found themselves at
the head of Piney .. : the next i.. .. _. but they dared
not stop, as they feared they might be tracked by their
treacherous guide. They traveled all the next day down
the creek. At night they found some tracks where a
party of Indians had been !,'.iH,--. They confused their
tracks with these, and then separated for a distance, so
that two trails could not be seen leaving this place to-
gether. Only after they had done this did they dare to
stop and take some sleep.
Another day brought the two travelers to the Alle-
ghany. They had expected to find the river frozen, but
the solid ice extended out only abont fifty yards from
each shore, while the channel was full of rt...iii, ice.
The two men worked all one day building a raft, with one
small hatchet, which was the only tool they had with them.
Just before sunset W, 1i l',,"i...i and Gist got upon their
raft. Before they were half way over the river the raft
got i ...1I :. 1 in the ice and was in danger of upsetting.
Washington put out his setting pole to try to stop their
rude I fi in order that the ice might get by. The force
of the stream and the jamming of the ice against the pole,
however, jerked Washington off of the raft and into ten
feet of water. He succeeded in catching hold of one of
the logs of the raft, and so got on again. In spite of all
they could do, he and Gist were unable to reach the other
shore. They had floated near an island, and here they
left their raft and camped for the night. The sun was
down, and it was very cold. Washington was wet to the
skin, while Gist had all his ii-,.. ... and some of his toes






THE STORY OF WASHINGTON.


frozen. They made a fire and slept on the island all
night. In the morning they were delighted to find that
the river was frozen over, so that they might easily cross it.
One more day's tramp brought Washington and Gist
to the house of an Indian trader named Fraser. Here
they expected to get horses. As it would take some time
to find the animals, Washington walked about three miles
to the mouth of the Youghiogheny, to visit a certain
Queen Aliquippa, who had shown some jealousy because
the major- had not called on her when he had passed be-
fore. To placate this Indian queen, Washington made
her a present of a matchcoat-the one he had worn on his
tramp, no doubt-and a bottle of rum, the last present
being the more acceptable of the two, he said.
A few more days brought Washington and Gist to the
outlying settlements. They each kept a journal of their
experiences. Washington's journal, to his surprise, was
afterward published both in Virginia and in England,
for men were much interested then in the question
whether France or England was to have the Ohio
country.







WASHINGTON BEGINS A GREAT WAR.


CHAPTER VIII.

WASHINGTON BEGINS A GREAT WAR.
1754.

THERE was a race between the English in Virginia
and the French in Canada, each wishing to be the first to
occupy the important point of land between the rivers
forming the Ohio. A few Virginia pioneers were the
earliest to reach the spot, where they began to build a
little fort. Governor Dinwiddie was anxious to raise men
to defend this position, and if all had depended on him
it would soon have been done. Dinwiddie was a rough
old Scotchman, stubborn, forceful, and unpopular sim-
ply because he was Governor. There was always a petty
struggle going on in the colonies between the Govern-
ors and the representatives elected by the people, be-
cause the Governors stood for an encroaching roval au-
thority, and the people had the English love for what
they deemed their rights. This time the struggle stood
in the way of defending the Ohio, for the Virginians
refused to grant money for this purpose so long as
the Governor continued to charge a pistole, or three
dollars and sixty cents, for every land title that he
signed, and -everything lagged because of a divided gov-
ernment.
In March, 1754, Washington asked for a colonel's







THE STORY OF WASHINGTON.


commission. lIe got it, with the following note from a
member of the Governor's Gouncil:

"DEAR GEoRGE: I inclose you your commission.
God prosper you with it! "

Thus the young man got his promotion, with the
honor of I. ~_n second in command over a little band of
tattered poor whites, for a rough and dangerous expedi-
tion, with no means of clothing his men, and a probabil-
ity of starvation for want of supplies. But Washington
was young and enthusiastic. He accepted all difficulties
with a good heart.
The whole of the Virginia forces amounted to some
three hundred men, an English gentleman, Colonel Fry,
being first in command. Washington started on the
2d of April, 1, .4 with a part of the troops, Colonel
Fry remaining behind to get the other half of the regi-
ment ready to march. The young man had orders to
make his way to the forks of the Ohio, to aid Captain
Trent, who was already there with a handful of pioneers
building a fort. But while Washington was making his
toilsome march through the woods and over mountain
ranges, his men felling trees and building roads as they
went, the French were moving rapidly down the Alle-
ghany in their fleet of canoes, and appeared suddenly be-
fore the unfinished English fort. Captain Trent was
absent, and there were only forty workmen at the spot,
in command of an ensign. The French placed the
mouths of their cannon against the unfinished palisades
of the fort and summoned the men to surrender, which
they did without more ado, being allowed to march out







WASHINGTON BEGINS A GREAT WAR.


with their tools and go back to join Washington. The
French destroyed the works, and began a larger fort which
they called Du Quesne.
Meanwhile Washington pushed painfully forward,
gaining only two or three miles a day. He reached the
Great Crossing of the Youghiogheny on the 18th of May.
Here he thought of trying to see if he could not avoid the
difficult road-making by moving down the Youghiogheny
in boats. To find out whether this were possible, he
first explored the stream himself with four men and an
Indian in a canoe. He had not gone far before the In-
dian guide refused to proceed unless he was paid for his
services. As Washington had not been provided with the
trinkets and coarse cloth used for Indian presents, he
was forced to promise the fellow one of his own ruffled
shirts and a matchcoat. In some places they found the
water of the Youghiogheny deep, in others it was so
shallow that all hands must wade. Washington made his
way thirty miles down this stream, when he was stopped
by rapids and a waterfall. He must give up the idea of a
water passage, and take up once more his laborious march
through the woods. By the 24th of May the Virginians
had reached a place on the Youghiogheny called the Great
Meadows. The men were encamping in these natural
fields at the base of a somber range of mountains, when
they were joined by a trader who had come that morning
from a settlement recently started on the other side of the
neighboring mountain. This settlement had been found-
ded by Christopher Gist, Washington's companion in his
previous journey. The trader brought the news that he
had seen two Frenchmen, and that there was a large party

























































I.._ '







PORI'I-AIT O' \,ASIIINGTON IN IllS COLONEL S UNIFORM.

[Owned by Gencral (4. W. C. Lee. This portrait was painted in 1772 by
Wilson Pea]e. It is the earliest portrait km~wn of Washlinton.j


Nos






WASHINGTON BEGINS A GREAT WAR.


Washington made arrangements for an attack. The
party continued their march, silently and in Indian file.
They had but just surrounded the French encampment
when the enemy discovered them. Washington gave the
order to fire. The Frenchmen snatched up their guns
and pointed them toward the very spot where Washington
stood, so that the bullets flew fast about the young com-
mander. There was sharp fighting for about fifteen min-
utes; then the French surrendered. Their commander,
an ensign named Jnmonville, was killed, and nine other
men had fallen. Of these the Indians dispatched those
who were not dead with a blow on the head, and secured
their scalps. Twenty-two were taken prisoners. On the
English side but one man was killed and two or three
were wounded. Washington was very polite to the two
.l.i. i among his prisoners, and shared with them his
own few changes of clothing.
Such was the young soldier's first engagement. "I
have heard the bullets whistle," he wrote to his brother,
"and believe me, there is something charming in the
sound." This youthful speech of Washington's was re-
peated from mouth to mouth until it reached the ears of
the King of England. He would not say so if lie had
been used to hear many," remarked his Majesty. Many
years after, when Washington was a general, some one
asked him if he had said such words. If I did, it must
have been when I was very young," the general answered.
After the Frenchmen had been captured they showed
a summons from the commander at Fort Du Quesne, and
asserted that they were on the way to deliver this paper to
the English. If this were their purpose, they went about








50 THIE STORY OF WASHINGTON.

it in a strange way, lurking for some days in hiding near
Washington's camp, and sending messengers back to their
fort to tell how the Virginians were placed. The French,
however, persisted in regarding this affair as a massacre,
and called the Yirginia colonel the cruel Vash-
ington."
In this skirmish the young commander of twenty-two
fired the first shots in a great war which was to involve
both Europe and America. WAhen Washington was
stumbling along through the darkness of a rainy night
in search of some skulking Frenchmen, he never once
thought of his actions having consequences so important,
for lie supposed that the planting of cannon against the
palisades of the English fort at the forks of the Ohio
would be regarded as opening the war.







THE BATTLE AT FORT NECESSITY.


CIIAPTER IX.

TIE BATTLE AI T FORT NECESSITY.
1754.

WAVSImIGTON returned to the Great Meadows with
his prisoners. He expected soon to be attacked; so he
threw up some small earthworks, which lie called Fort
Necessity. The Half-king had sent the French scalps lie
had taken to neighboring tribes, as an invitation to engage
in the war. He now i. ;...1 the Virginians at Fort Neces-
sity, with Queen Aliquippa and about a hundred men,
women, and children. Washington held a council with
these people. To please Queen Aliquippa, he presented
her son with a medal, and gave him the English name
of Colonel Fairfax, telling him that this meant the
first of the council." As he had heard that ite IIalf-king
would be !111. I .[ to have an English name also, he
dubbed him Dinwiddie, which he translated into head
of all," for an Indian could not conceive of a name with-
out a meaning. Washington had also, like all men wIho
had to deal with these people, an Indian name, his being
(onotocaurins, or town-destroyer."
Colonel Fry, who was first in command of tie Vir-
ginia forces, had died on his sway out at Will's Creek.
This left young Colonel Washington at the head of the
expedition. He was soon joined by the recruits who







THE STURY OF WASHINGTON.


were with Colonel Fry, and a company of the South Car-
olina Independent Regiment. The South Carolina men
were called independent because, though they were colo-
nists, like Washington's recruits, they were in the king's
pay, and better fed, clothed, and drilled than soldiers
hastily raised by the colonies. They refused to work at
cutting a road, as Washington's men had done; while
their commander, Captain Mackey, because he was a
king's officer, and also no doubt because he did not like
being commanded by a stripling, refused to take the
countersign from the Virginia colonel. But Washington
bore these vexations with patience. As it would not do,
as lie said, to make his poor fellows do all the work,
while Mackey's men marched at their ease," he con-
cluded to leave the too independent company at the
Great Meadows, while he and his Virginians advanced to
Gist's settlement, felling the trees before them as they
marched.
While the few Virginians pushed laboriously forward,
French re-enforcements were hurrying down the water
courses from Canada to Fort Du Quesne, under the com-
mand of Coulon de Villiers, the brother of Jumonville,
who had been shot by Washington's little party. Vil-
liers came bent on revenging the death of his brother.
So soon as he reached the French fort, the commandant,
Contrecoeur, called a council and made a speech to the
Indians, in which he said: The English have murdered
my children ; my heart is sick. To-morrow I shall send
my French soldiers to take revenge." He then invited
them to join in the attack, making them a present of
a hatchet and two barrels of wine for a feast. The







THE BATTLE AT FORT NECESSITY. 53

French were much more expert in managing the Indians
than were the English. They were more lavish with
presents, and this time they had much the greater num-
ber of men, which was enough to decide most of the
Indians to take their side in the dispute.
Washington had made his twelve miles forward to
Gist's settlement, where Indian runners came in daily
with reports that the French were preparing for an
attack with a large force. He sent for Captain Mackey's








y, w h, w n it d c -- allows for sick







deserters, made his forces amount to less than four hun-
dred men. The officers held a council of war at Gist's
house, where it was decided to fall back to a better place
for a battle. The toilsome march was made back to the
Great Meadows, the men carrying '.". i on their backs
and dragging cannon over the roughest of roads, because
they had not horses enough for this service, while the
soldiers of the independent company coolly marched be-
side them without putting a finger to the hard work.







THE STORY OF WASHINGTON.


Arrived at the Great Meadows, Washington put all
hands to strengthening the intrenclhments of Fort Neces-
sity with logs. The French and Indians were but one
day behind him, however. On the morning of July 3d
they appeared, in a pouring rain. W\ashington drew up
his men outside his feeble little fort, ordering them to
reserve their fire till the enemy was within close range.
The French fired at first from so great a distance that
their balls were spent. They then made an irregular
advance to within sixty yards and 6I.. once more.
Washington withdrew his men into the intrenchments,
still reserving his fire, for lie thought that, as there were
so many of the enemy, they would try to force his
works. This they did not do, however, but fought in true
Indian style, from behind bushes and trees. Washing-
ton now gave the word, and his men fired very briskly.
Their position was wretched enough. They stood in
trenches knee-deep with water and mud, in a drenching
rain, sustaining all day a cross-fire from enemies who
were mostly invisible. They had no bread, and were
living mainly upon raw beef. Their horses and their
cattle, on which they depended entirely for food, were
soon picked off by the enemy. Meantime the Half-king
chose to retire with his warriors, squaws, and children.
He refused to take any part in a -ilI where lie found
himself on the losing side. He coolly remarked ll..i-
ward that Washington would not take his advice, and
that, in fact, the French were cowards and the English
fools.
In spite of their hopeless situation, Washington and
his men withstood the galling fire of the enemy from







THE BATTLE AT FORT NECESSITY.


eleven o'clock in the morning until eight at night, deter-
mined to die rather than be taken. The French called
for a parley, but Washington thought that, as they were
so much stronger and had so many advantages, they could
not be sincere, and refused them. At length, however,
the French asked him to send an officer to them who
could speak their language. The situation of the men in
Fort Necessity was very bad. They were without provi-
sions, their powder was almost gone, their guns were very
foul, and they had only two screw rods for cleaning them.
Washington accordingly sent the useful Van Braam to the
enemy's lines, as the only other man in his regiment who
could speak French had been wounded. After a long
time Van Braam returned with a paper containing the
terms which the French officer Villiers offered to the
troops in Fort Necessity. By them it was proposed that
the English should march out with the honors of war,
beating their drums and taking one small cannon with
them, while the enemy promised to protect them from the
Indians. The prisoners recently taken by Washington
were to be released, and two English officers were to re-
main with the French as hostages until these prisoners,
who had been sent to Virginia, should be returned. There
was but one point to which the English, in their desper-
ate situation, could have ..1,i. I..1, and this was that the
death of Jumonville was twice called an assassination.
Van Braam, whose French was none of the best, read the
paper to the English officers by the light of one tallow
candle, which was nearly put out more than once by
the pouring rain. He translated the obi... n 1, word
" death instead of murder, and the English officers







THE STORY OF WASHINGTON.


signed the articles. Villiers afterward boasted that he
had made the English admit that they had murdered his
brother.
On the morning of the 4th of July, Washington
and his men marched out of muddy Fort Necessity with
drums beating and colors flying. But their condition was
very miserable. Their cattle and horses were all killed, so
that they were forced to leave behind most of their bag-
gage, while they carried the wounded on their backs. The
Indians, ever to be dreaded in a case like this, hung
around the defeated men, plundered them of their little
'i,_ _,-. broke open the medicine-chest, and killed and
scalped two of the wounded. These people never could
be brought to understand the white man's way of carry-
ing on warfare, and it was very difficult to prevent a gen-
eral massacre. The wounded were finally left at an en-
campment with a guard, while the remainder of the little
army hurried back over the fifty or sixty miles to Will's
Creek, for they were in danger of starving.
No doubt it was a very bitter day for Washington when
he left Fort Necessity defeated. lie had set out with all
the hopes of a young and ardent soldier, had rejoiced to
hear the bullets whistle, had laid out a charming field for
an encounter, and all had ended in failure. It proved,
however, to be the making of George Washington that he
was schooled in hardship and defeat.







BRADDOCK'S AID-DE-CAMP.


CHAPTER X.

BRADDOCK'S AID-DE-CAMP.


FoE the reason that there had been so much trouble
about rank, Governor Dinwiddie reduced the Virginia
regiments to independent companies, with no officers
higher than captains. To become a captain of a company
after having been a colonel in command of an expedition
was not to the taste of a proud young Virginian, and
Washington accordingly left the service, and began to
settle himself for living at Mount Vernon and carrying
on the business of a planter.
Meanwhile both France and England were preparing to
send armies out to enforce their claims to the Ohio Valley.
General Braddock was sent by England to Virginia with
one thousand regular soldiers in the spring of 1755. Brad-
dock's chief virtues were honesty and courage. He was
brutal, coarse, obstinate, and prejudiced. It is told of him
that when his sister, who was a young lady of beauty and
wealth, having squandered much of her fortune in buying
a bankrupt lover out of prison, and wasted the rest at the
fashionable gaming-tables of Bath, hanged herself with
her silk girdle, Braddock calmly remarked : Poor Fanny !
1 always thought she would play till she would be forced to
tuck herself up." The general was as much of a spend-







58 THE STORY OF \WASHINGTON.

thrift as "poor Fannyv" herself. It is said that once,
when he was about to a:i,,. a duel, his antagonist threw
him his purse, saying: Braddock, you are a poor dog!
Here, take my purse; if you kill me you will be forced to
run away, and then you will not have a shilling to sup-
port you." These are some of the least disreputable tales







-kQ
,. --- I- ,




..- 4 f .,












Soon after he came to Virginia, Brad a ck i.ite
Soon after lie came to Vi.gi-ia, "- add ock invited
young Colonel Washington to become his aid-de-camp.
Perhaps he wished to have the advantage of the young
man's experience. Washington's mother rode over to
Mount Vernon to try to persuade him to refuse this offer,










rl `
.J--~~I:.usl~a4C~la~Brsps-i~. -; ~jr~s
':~*1
1. :~~' ,,
~' i .~ :~. .... i-~-
"':'1 r-
;C "" ~'

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;:?ir -,1
spi
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9%

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4F
&


A PENNSYLVANIA WAGON OF THE TIME.


HHKSOR-----^. .







BRADDOCK'S AID-DE-CAMP.


but she did not succeed; for her son was very ambitious
to learn more about military matters, and as he thought
he would have the best of chances in a regular army,
under an experienced general, he accepted the position.
He was to have time to settle his affairs, and then he was
to join the English army on its march.
The general was so slow in starting to the Indian
country, that people remarked in England that Braddock
was in no haste to get scalped. The truth was, that the
crusty general was having a hard time with the colonial
Assemblies, which were too much absorbed in opposing
the encroachments of their Governors to furnish readily
the aid for the war which these Governors demanded of
them. There was trouble about getting provisions for
the men, forage, and, above all, wagons to carry stores in.
Braddock had no notion of half-starving, as the colonial
soldiers had patiently done. Benjamin Franklin once
visited the English general in his camp at Fredericks-
town, where he was waiting for some men who had been
sent into the back settlements of Maryland and Virginia
to get the necessary wagons. There proved to be only
about twenty-five of these, some of which were useless.
Braddock stormed, declared that everything was at an
end, and that he was sent into a country where there was
no means for carrying baggage or stores. Franklin said
that it was a pity that the general had not landed in
Pennsylvania, where every farmer had his wagon.
"Then you, sir," cried Braddock, "who are a man of
interest there, can probably procure them for us, and I
beg you will undertake it."
Franklin agreed to do so, and in a short time sent for-







60 THE STORY OF WASHINGTON.

ward one hundred and fifty wagons with four horses each,
whereupon Braddock declared that Franklin was almost
the only able and honest man to be found in the colonies.
By May the army had reached Will's Creek, where the
wilderness march was to begin. Washington had now
settled his business, and he set out to join General Brad-


_--;-_..~_.-~_ -- --- -- _-: .... .__ _-_._ _--_


'-t' _,_-~.,... '; _

Ii
dock. Tere were many delays at this place, and Wash-

sum of four t d p s b ging to te a .



P C N fl lI X 'I Q RI
.:, -, ; '










dock. 'There were many del s at this place, and Wash-
ington meantime was sent to Williamsburg to bring on a
sum of fonr thousand pounds belonging to the army. On
his way back he ordered out an escort of eight militiamen
at the town of Winchester to protect him from Indians,







BRADDOCK'S AID-DE-CAMP.


for it was not safe for a man to travel alone in the edge
of the settlements. The eight men were as hard to raise
"as the dead," Washington said. It took them two days
to assemble, and he thought that they would not have
been more than as many seconds 1; 1.- i, .," had he been
attacked. He arrived safely, however, at W\ill's Creek
with the money.
Washington found that his position in the general's
military family was not altogether a difficult one. iHe
said that he hoped to please him without ceremonious
attentions," for he declared that it could not be done with
them. He and the testy Englishman, however, had many
a dispute together, for Braddock cursed everything Ameri-
can, and the young colonel defended his country warmly.
Washington was a little surprised at some things he saw
in the general's household. Braddock was a high liver.
He took two cooks with him, who were supposed to be
skilled enough to make a good dish out of a pair of boots,
" had they but the materials to toss them up with." The
general had no idea, however, of living upon boots. He
complained loudly because there were no fresh provisions.
Franklin, hearing of this grievance, sent the British offi-
cers each a package containing sugar, tea, coffee, chocolate,
biscuit, pepper, vinegar, cheese, butter, wine, spirits, ham,
mustard, tongues, rice, and raisins. Meantime Washing-
ton was amused to find that the general's admiration for
a certain Virginia lady was all due to a present of deli-
cious cake and potted woodcocks."
General Braddock knew nothing of frontier warfare,
and was the last man to learn. He was disgusted with
the Virginia troops which had joined his army. He
6







THE STORY OF WASHINGTON.


caused them to be drilled, but he was angry at their
"languid, spiritless, and unsoldierlike appearance." He
knew that he ought to get the aid of the Indians, who had
already been much : .1 -- 1 1 by the colonies. About fifty
savages joined the army at Will's Creek. The English
soldiers gazed at these strange people, with their painted
bodies, shaved heads, scalp-locks dressed with feathers, and
slit ears. They observed how dexterous the Indians were
with a rifle, and how they could throw a tomahawk to a
great distance and strike a post with it. Braddock in-
vited them to his tent, fired salutes for them, and gave
them a bullock and some rum with which to hold a war
dance. But the Indians had a strong suspicion that the
English general regarded them "as dogs," and presently
fell off, excepting eight men, who were used as scouts.
These people had no patience with the slow and cumber-
some ways of European warfare. By imitating their
methods and treating them more as equals, the French, on
the other hand, had gained great ii11,,. in... with them.
It was well into June before Braddock's army was
fairly started on its forest march. Three hundred men
with axes came first, then the long line of wagons, can-
nons, and packhorses toiled after over stumps and stones,
mountains and marshes, while the troops were thrown out
into the woods on each side, in flanking parties, making
their way as best they could in close columns through
the trees on either side of the roadway. At night the
horses must be let out into the woods to make the best of
a diet of leaves and young shoots. Many of them strayed
away, or were stolen and run off by rascally drivers.
Washington lost one of his spare horses in this way. At








BRADDOCK'S AID-DE-CAMP.


one place the road was so bad that the wagons had to be
let down the side of a hill with tackle. The English
soldiers grumbled because they must bake their corn-
bread, when they camped, in holes in the
Ground.
Everything was difficult and progress
was slow. There was news that the
S French at Fort Du Quesne were weak,
S but that they expected re-enforcements.
Sr It was necessary to move more
S--, quickly. When the general asked


/~ -




mr,
1101).


-<--'9



- (I


his advice, Washington thought that he should push
forward with a chosen band and only the most neces-
sary stores, leaving the rest of the army to come on
more slowly. It was decided to do this. Washington
was going down with a fever, but he was greatly delighted
at the prospect. He was disappointed, however, when
he found that the advanced part of the army did not
move so rapidly as he had hoped. He complained that
they halted to level every mole-hill." News came that


MIAP OF I
"E 11'RD)DOCK







THE STORY OF WASHINGTON.


nine hundred men were on their way to re-enforce the
French fort. We shall have more to do than to go up
the hills and down again," said Washington. He was
trying to keep up with the march, though he was now
suffering severely with fever and pains in the head. He
presently became so ill that he was forced to leave the
saddle and take to a covered wagon; but the jolting
was intolerable. He feared to stop, lest there should
be a battle before he caught up with the army once
more. The doctor declared that he would not live to go
into battle if he insisted on going on. Braddock ordered
fever powders, and promised the young man that he
should be brought to the front before Fort Du Quesne
was reached. Washington was left on the road with a
doctor and a guard. The advanced portion of the army
pushed on, the hostile Indians discouraging bad discipline
meanwhile by picking off stragglers.












4'#

Trench .-1 i,-
















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MAP' OF LOAT lION OF- BRADD)OCKR -DEFEA LTi


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DEFEAT.


CHAPTER XI.

DEFEAT.
1755.

BRADDOCK's army had reached the mouth of Turtle
Creek, which ran into the Monongahela eight miles from
Fort Du Quesne. The Indian road to the fort led
through a dangerous defile, and Braddock resolved to
cross and recross the river rather than risk passing
through a place where the Indians might so easily lie
in ambush. The fords were shallow. The men crossed
to the music of the Grenadiers' March in fine order,
the l i,,i soldiers bright in their scarlet uniforms,
the colonial men in blue, while the line of wagons
and cannon kept the center. Braddock thought that
the Indians might attack him while he was crossing
the river, but the last ford was safely passed. Wash-
ington had joined the army that very morning, though
he was scarcely able to sit his horse. The wilderness
journey was almost over, and it seemed certain that the
French fort could not be defended against so fine an
army.
During all Braddock's march the Indians who clus-
tered around Fort Du Quesne had watched the progress
of the English army by means of their scouts. They
observed how they marched in close order, and remarked







THE STORY OF WASHINGTON.


that they could shoot um down all one pigeon." Never-
theless, the French had a great deal of difficulty in per-
suading the Indians to make the attempt. When a
French captain named Beaujeu offered them the hatchet,
they exclaimed : What, my father are you so bent upon
death that you would sacrifice us."
"I am determined," said Beaujeu, in a speech, to
go out against the enemy. What! will you let your
father go alone ? Whereupon the Indians put on their
war-paint. Beaujeu also dressed himself in full Indian
costume. Barrels of powder, bullets, and flints were un-
headed and set before the gate of the fort. Each man
helped himself. There were some six hundred Indians,
a number of French officers, a few Canadians, and still
fewer French regulars, amounting in all to nine hundred
men, who set out through the forest to waylay the ad-
vancing enemy.
Braddock's army had crossed the last ford about one
o'clock on the 8th of July, 1755. The train was pushing
along through the forest, the trees crashing before them
as the axemen cut the road. An engineer, who was in
front of the choppers marking the way for them, saw
Indians coming on the run toward the army, led by a
man in Indian dress but wearing an officer's gorget.
This man, who was Beaujeu, waved his hat as a signal to
the Indians to disperse to right and left, forming a half-
moon about the advanced guard of the English army.
The guides and choppers in the front fell back. The
French and Indians gave the war-whoop and opened
fire. The advanced guard of Braddock's army formed
and fired. The Canadian soldiers fled at the first vol-






DEFEAT.


ley, but the few French and the swarms of Indians
held their ground. At the third volley Beaujeu and a
dozen others among the French fell dead. The Eng-
lish now brought two cannon into action. The Indians
gave way. The English shouted and moved forward,
but the French succeeded in r.i1,i.i- their men and
the savages.
Braddock had heard the firing in front. He sent
re-enforcements to the advanced guard, ordered an aid
forward to find out what was going on, and then, with-
out waiting for him to return, hurried forward himself.
At this point the advanced guard gave way and fell back
upon the re-enforcements which were advancing, so that
they all soon fell into a hopeless tangle in the narrow
roadway. The colors were advanced in different direc-
tions to separate the men of the two regiments, and Brad-
dock ordered the officers to form their men in small com-
panies, but the English soldiers would listen to neither
threats nor entreaties. Meantime the Indians were
drawing around the army, fighting from behind trees,
skulking under the fallen trunks and brush left by the
choppers, and shooting from the edges of ravines which
lay on either side of the road. The scarlet-coated regu-
lars were huddled together in an open roadway, terror-
stricken at the yells of the savages and the death which
was dealt around them. They held their ground stub-
bornly, but only to be butchered. Not more than five
Indians could be seen at a time, and the English vol-
leys fell harmless in the woods. The cannon were fired,
but they did little damage to anything but the surround-
ing trees.







THE STORY OF WASHINGTON.


The English regulars were all unused to such warfare;
but the Virginians, whose listless air had so disgusted
Braddock, did not lose their presence of mind. They
took to the trees, to fight the Indians after their own
fashion, but Braddock furiously ordered them back,
though Washington is said to have begged him to let
them fight in this way. This was not according to the
stubborn Englishman's notion of discipline, however,
and when some of his own men made the experiment he
beat them back with his sword, ordering them into their
ranks. The i. .ii .. men fired into the air, into each
other's ranks, everywhere, for they could see no enemy.
Braddock rode furiously from place to place, trying to
form the men and get them to charge the Indians, but
it was useless. His brave i!i ... -. dismounted, formed in
platoons and advanced themselves, hoping to encourage
the soldiery, but many fell, and it was of no avail. For
three long hours Braddock held the field, determined to
save the day if stubbornness would do so. He had four
horses shot under him. li, i.- was terrible loss among
the officers, who did their duty to a man. Out of eighty,
sixty were killed or wounded. Washington had two
horses shot under him, and four bullets went through
his clothing. He showed great courage during the day.
Once, when his horse was shot, Braddock's servant
had trouble in extricating Washington from the fallen
animal.
The Indians had spread themselves along the whole
line of the English march. At last, when every aid but
Washington had fallen, when about half of the men were
slain, and the afternoon was far gone, Braddock caused






















V.









"o rr


I!
2t, If~ $
ii

4'-~Sc


THE FIELD OF BRlADD)OCK'S DEFEAT.
[From a painting by Paul Weber in the Piennsylvania Historical Society.]







DEFEAT.


the drums to beat a retreat. As he gave the order, stand-
ing beneath a large tree, a ball went through his right
arm and into his lungs. He fell from his horse. His
men, who had stood to their places with a kind of stupid
courage, broke and ran as soon as the retreat sounded.
Orme, a wounded aid of Braddock's, offered a purse of
sixty guineas to any man who would carry off the general,
but they rushed on without heeding. Braddock told
his friends to leave him and save themselves. Two
American officers, however, bore him off.
About fifty Indians followed the scampering army to
the water's edge, where the men were plunging across
the Monongahela, the horrid war-whoop ringing in their
ears. One of the British officers said, three weeks after
the battle, that he could still hear the yells of the In-
dians, and that the sound would haunt him to the day
of his death. Braddock called a halt and tried to stop the
men, while he sent Washington ahead to order supplies to
be sent on by Colonel Dunbar, who commanded the rear
portion of the army. The general succeeded in gathering
about one hundred men around him, but they slipped off
one at a time, and there was nothing for Braddock to do
but to follow.
In spite of the terror of the men, the Indians had no
thought of pursuing them. They fell upon the battle-
field, where almost every man secured a scalp as well as
uniforms, grenadiers' caps, canteens, bayonets, and arms.
After burning twelve English prisoners to death that
night, outside the fort, they all betook themselves to
their far-away homes, leaving the French fort quite un-
protected.







THE STORY OF WASHINGTON.


General Braddock's wound was mortal. Besides issu-
ing commands, he said nothing the first day but Who
would have thought it ?" The next da hle said, We
shall better know how to deal with them another time,"
and died soon after. Washington was with the general


when he died, and lie gave the


I* .:
9'i.,
V..


"
.. ,,i ._

-


BRADDOCK'S GRAVE, FROM A PAINTING BY
'PA'L WEBI;, OWNED BiY THE IllSTOIR-
IIAL SOCIETY OF PEXNNYxLVANIA.


young man his favorite
body servant, a mu-
latto named Bishop.
Braddock was buried
in the middle of the
road, Washington
reading the burial
service over him. The
retreating army then
marched across their
general's grave, that
the i- ..- might not
find it. The rear
portion of the army,
which had not been
in battle, also rushed
on for the settlements
with those who had
heard the war-whoop,
leaving the frontiers


of the colonies entirely unprotected, to the great disgust
of Governor Dinwiddie, who said that, though he was not
a soldier, common sense told him that this should not be
done.
The story was circulated in Virginia of Washington's
death, and his dying speech. The- young man wrote to







DEFEAT. 71

his brother that he could contradict the former, and that
he had not "as yet composed the latter." He took his
way home, feeling discouraged with his military career.
He had twice lost his expensive -t!, i'. equipment and
a number of horses; had been reduced in rank, and
" soundly whipped," as he frankly said.







THE STORY OF WASHINGTON.


CHAPTER XII.

DEFENDING THE FRONTIER.
1755-1757.

INDIAN massacres followed close upon Braddock's
defeat. There were three hundred and fifty miles of
frontier which must be protected, or Virginia would lose
all her hold upon the Alleghanies. New forces were
raised for this purpose, and George Washington was
appointed commander of them. He was still ambitious
to become a great soldier, but he did not like the pros-
pect of defending with a few men so wide a stretch of
country against Indians. He was sure that he would
never gain any honor in this way. But the young colo-
nel of twenty-three presently went to his post. He
worked hard to get his small army of a thousand men,
sometimes much less, into good order. There was a
chain of forts to be built along the whole frontier, and
the men must be divided into small bodies to do this,
and to try to cover the country and protect the people.
In spite of all that could be done, there were times
when massacres followed one on another. Parties of
Indians would descend on the settlements suddenly from
woods and mountains, murder a few families, burn their
houses, slaughter their cattle for a feast, and be gone
before the alarm could be given and soldiers sent in pur-







DEFENDING THE FRONTIER.


suit. They haunted the roads and picked off stragglers.
In one place two men were killed only two hours after
Washington had ridden by the spot. The woods were
so infested that frontiersmen were forced to hunt by
night for fear of being discovered by the Indians. Some-
times people were killed within a few miles of the town
of Winchester, and the inhabitants of the borders fled,
one family behind another, each one afraid to stand
in the gap of danger," until Washington feared that the
Blue Ridge would presently become the frontier, while
the Indians would live off the spoils that the flying peo-
ple left behind them.
Often there were false alarms. Once a messenger
came express into Winchester, breathless with hurry and
fear, saying that the Indians had been seen about twelve
miles off at the plantation of a man named Julian, and
that the people were flying for their lives. Washington
immediately !" i .1 the town for an attack, and sent out
scouts to discover what were the movements of the
enemy. Presently came another express, ten times
more terrified than the former," with the news that the
savages were within four miles of the town, and were
" killing and destroying all before them." The messen-
ger declared that he had heard constant firing and the
shrieks of the unhappy murdered." Washington hur-
riedly got together all the men he could find, twenty-two
rangers and nineteen militia, and marched against the
enemy, which proved to be three drunken soldiers, who
were carousing, firing pistols," and swearing at the top
of their voices. Washington made them prisoners and
carried them back to Winchester, where he found that
7







THE STORY OF WASHINGTON.


his scouts had returned with the news that the Indians
seen on Julian's plantation had proved to be a mulatto
and a negro who were hunting cattle, and had been seen
by Julian's child, who alarmed the father, and the fa-
ther the neighborhood."
Washington divided his men into small bodies and
kept them scouring the woods, carrying their provisions
on their backs, lying out in bad weather with no shelter
but the trees and rocks, searching always for the stealthy
Indians, who were harder to catch than wild animals.
At one time, when a number of the enemy had attacked a
settlement, a certain Captain Lewis, with about twenty
soldiers, went in pursuit, he and his men having first
stripped themselves of their clothes so that they might
run as fast as the savages. They caught up with the
enemy, opened fire upon them, and, finding that they
were likely to be surrounded, retreated to a stockade,
where the Indians besieged their naked pursuers for
two hours, giving the people of the neighborhood a good
chance to take to their heels. The soldiers came off with
one scalp, but they lost their clothes, and Washington was
obliged to petition the Government for a new supply for
them.
At times the Indians would leave the borders of Vir-
ginia, as Washington knew when his scouts brought him
word that the road to Fort Du Quesne looked as though
it had been tramped by as many feet as when Braddock's
army had marched over it. But though the country was
pretty quiet for months at a time, it was necessary to be
always on the watch for the enemy. For over two years
Washington remained in this hard and thankless position.







DEFENDING THE FRONTIER.


In spite of all he could do, he felt that he was blamed for
the murder of poor innocent babes and helpless fami-
lies." He said that the tears of the women and the peti-
tions of the men caused him such deadly sorrow that
he felt as though he would give himself up to the butch-
ering enemy if it would only do the people any good.
Meantime men could not be persuaded to leave their fam-
ilies to march against the enemy, and they were at the
same time very selfish, each one expecting a force at his
own door, and angry if it was placed at his neighbor's.
Governor Dinwiddie, who would have liked to put an-
other man in Washington's place, vexed him with con-
trary orders. There was also in Virginia a party of men
who were jealous of the young commander, and reported
evils things of him and his ..II... Washington was
disgusted with a service which he thought would
never bring him honor, and wished to resign, but his
friends sent him words of encouragement. Your good
health and fortune are the toast of every table," wrote
Colonel Fairfax. Our hopes, dear George," said the
Speaker of the House of Burgesses, "are all i.. on
you).
While he was defending the Virginia frontier, Wash-
ington had trouble with a certain Captain Dagworthy,
who had been commissioned by the Governor of Mary-
land and had once held a king's commission, which made
him think that he had a right to refuse to obey the young
Virginian. To settle this difficulty, Washington made, in
the winter of 1756, the journey of five hundred miles to
Boston, accompanied by his valet Bishop. At Boston he
laid the dispute before Governor Shirley, who commanded







THE STORY OF WASHINGTON.


all the forces in America at this time. s! ;!.., gave or-
ders that the troublesome Dagworthy should be subject
to Washington's commands. The young colonel also
stopped at Philadelphia and New York for a short
time.
The story is told that while Washington was in New
York it was boasted at the governor's table that a Brit-
ish regiment which had just landed contained some of
the finest-looking fellows among its officers to be found
anywhere. Mrs. Morris turned to the governor, and said:
" I wager your E :....' 11 i,, a pair of gloves that I will show
your Excellency a finer man in the procession to-morrow
than your Excellency can select from your famous regi-
ment."
"Done, madam," answered the governor.
The next day there was a procession in honor of the
king's birthday. In the rear came some colonial officers
not on duty.
1 see that your Excellency's eyes are turned to the
right object," said Mrs. Morris. What say you to your
wager now, sir ? "
Lost, madam," answered the governor. When I
laid my wager I was not aware that Colonel Washington
was in New York."
Washington was indeed a very fine-looking man. It
was while he was in New York that he met Miss I icy
Phillipse, a young lady who was heiress to a large fortune.
He admired Miss Phillipse very much. Some months
after Washington's visit to New York a friend wrote to
him that Captain Morris, who had, like Washington, been
an officer under Braddock, was paying his attentions to







DEFENDING THE FRONTIER. 77

the young lady. The friend advised Washington to go to
New York again, but the young Virginia colonel was too
busy with the trying duties of his frontier command to
get even so far as Mount Vernon, and he never saw Mary
Phillipse again until long after she had become Mrs.
Morris.




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