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BOY TRAVELLERS IN
ADVENTURES OF TWO YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY THROUGH
HOLLAND, GERMANY, DENMARK, NORWAY AND SWEDEN, WITH VISITS TO
HELIGOLAND AND THE LAND OF THE MIDNIGHT SUN
THOMAS W. KNOX
"THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST" "IN SOUTH AMERICA" "IN RUSSIA" "ON THE CONGO"
"IN AUSTRALASIA" "IN MEXICO" AND "IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND"
"THE YOUNG NIMRODS" "THE VOYAGE OF THE 'VIVIAN'" ETC.
HARPER & BROTHERS, FRANKLIN SQUARE
By THOMAS W. KNOX.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST. Five Volumes. Copi-
ously Illustrated. 8vo. Cloth, $3 00 each. The volumes sold separately. Each
volume complete in itself.
I. ADVENTURES OF TWO YOU'THiS IN A JOURNEY TO JAPANN AND ClHINA.
II. ADVENTUIrits OF TWO YoutlS IN A JOURNEY TO SIAM AND JAVA. With
Descriptions of Cochin China, Cambodia. Sumintra, iand thle Malay Archipelago.
Ill. ADVENTURES OF TWO YOUTiHS IN A JOURNtY TO CEYLON AND INDIA. With
Descriptions of ioornco, the Phdliippine Islands, and Burniaih.
IV. AD)VENTURES OF Two YrOTIIS ItN A JOURNEY TO EGYPT AND PALESTINE.
AV. ADVENTURES OF TWO YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY TIIROWl(IT AFRICA,
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA. Adventures or Two
Youths in a Journey through IEcoador, Peru. Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay. '--
tine olpublic, and Chili ; with Descriptions of .. .; and Tierra del I
and Voyages o':lnt the Amazon and iLa I'latta 1i Coliously Illustrated.
8vo, Cloth, h 3 $
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE. Adventures
of Two Youths in a Journey in European and Asiatic Russia, with Accounts of a
Tour across Siberia, Voyages on the Amoor, Volga. and other Rivers, a Visit to
Central Asial, Travels ,, n:- it,- P-il- and a historical Sketch of ti. i. ,
from its Foundation to 1,1 i I ... Copiously Illustrated. t8vo, I.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO. Adventures of Two Youths
in a Journey with lHenry M.A Stanley "Through tle Dark Continent Copiously
Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $3 00.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA. Adventures o'fTwt o Youths
in a Journey to the Sandwich, Marqtuesas, Society. Samoanc. iland lejeI o Islands,
and -. i e i. .e Colonies of Now Zealand. New South Wales, Queensland, Vic-
toria ... .. and South Australia. Copliously Illustrated. 8vo. Cloth, $i 00.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO. Adventures of Two Youths inl a
Journey to Northern and Central Alexico. Campeachy, ind Yucailnt with a le-
scription of tle Republi(s of Central Atmerica, and of tlie Nicaragiua Canal. Copi-
ously Illustrated Svo; Cloth, S3 00.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN. Adventures of Two
Youths in a Journey through Ireland, Scotland, Wales, aind r..i .... Lh Visits
to the Hebrides and the Isle of Man. Copiously Illustrated. I. 1., $3 00.
THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN" TO THE NORTH POLE AND
BEYOND. Adveninres of Two Youths in tlho Opent Polar Sea. Copiously
Illustrated. Svo, Cloth, $2 50.
HUNTING ADVENTURES ON LAND AND SEA. Two Volumes. Copi-
ously Illustrated. 8vo. Cloth, $2 50 each. The volumes sold separately. Each
volume complete in itself.
f. THE YOI'NV N'IotRODS IN NORTHi AiMRICA.
II. THE YOUNG NIMRODS AROUND THE WORLD.
PUBLISHED BY HARPER & BROTHERS, NEW Yon-K.
aht Any of the above volumes sent by mail, postage prepaid, to any part of the United
States or Canada, on receipt of the price.
Copyright, 1891, by HARPER & BROTHERS.-All rights rCeserved.
T IE journey described in the present volume of the series, in which
Frank Bassett and Fred Bronson have been conspicuous, is the nat-
ural sequence of the tour of those youths through Great Britain and Ire-
land, in company with the mother and sister of Frank. Mrs. Bassett
and Mary have accompanied our juvenile friends in their most recent
travels; the former continues to fall into illusions now and then, while
her vivacious (laughter is as keen as ever in the pursuit of information
concerning the countries she visits, and evinces the same unwearying
determination to make the most of the opportunities for acquainting
herself with the history, condition, manners, customs, and peculiarities
of the people among whom the travellers find their way.
The plan that has been followed in preparing the other volumes of
the "Boy Travellers" is continued in this record of the journey in
Northern Europe. Doctor Bronson is less conspicuous than during the
tour of Great Britain and Ireland, partly for the reason that business
engagements kept him in London during the greater part of the time,
and partly because Frank and Fred are now so experienced in travel
that they have little actual need of his presence. They can usually an-
swer the questions put to them by Mrs. Bassett and Mary, and when-
ever they find themselves at fault they generally know where to turn
for the information desired. Mary has less need than formerly of an
instructor; she has benefited by the example of her brother and cousin,
and not infrequently is able to discourse intelligently upon -.1.i-,
which they have not studied. Several instances of this sort will be
found in the book; one which is specially commended to the reader
will be found in her account of the Hanseatic League, in Chapter XX.
As in his former volumes, the author has taken great care to insure
historical and geographical accuracy. In case any errors should be dis-
covered, he trusts that they will be attributed to the sources whence the
data were obtained rather than to negligence in the work of collating.
In several instances, as in The Boy Travellers in Great Britain and
Ireland, discrepancies were found in different authorities, and prefer-
ence was given to those of greatest weight or to those which appeared
to be corroborated by other events.
By far the greater portion of the route followed and the places de-
scribed have been personally travelled or visited by the author, and he
has aimed to speak from actual knowledge as far as possible. He has
also made use of the works of other travellers over the same ground.
Nearly all the authorities thus used have been quoted in the text of the
book, and it is unnecessary to repeat them here. Statistical informa-
tion concerning populations, manufactures, commerce, military and na-
val forces, and the like, have been obtained from official publications or
from the best non-official sources. Dimensions of buildings and similar
figures have been taken from the most authentic guide-books, either
general or local, and in some instances they are from measurements
made by the author during his visits to the places described.
Many of the illustrations are from previous publications of Messrs.
IIARPER & BROTIHERS, to whom the author hereby tenders his acknowl-
With this brief explanation of the manner in which the narrative
has been prepared, the author submits it to critics and readers, includ-
ing alike the friends of the amiable Mrs. Bassett and the school com-
panions of Frank, Fred, and Mary, with the hope that it may receive
the same kindly and generous greeting accorded to other volumes that
describe the wanderings and give the observations of the "Boy Trav-
T. W. K.
NEW YORK, July, 1891.
DEPARTURE FROM ENGLAND.--DISCUSSION OF THE ROUTE TO THE CONTINENT.- DOWN THE THAMES
FROM LONDON.--SIGITS ALONG THIE RIVER.--LNDON DOCKS AND LONDON COMMERCE.--TIE RE-
GENT'S CANAL.-WATER-WAY ACROSS ENGLAND.--PECULIARITIES OF THlE GREAT RIVER.--WOOL-
WICH, GREENHITHE, GRAVESEND, AND OTHER PLACES.--THE WOODEN WALLS" OF ENGLAND.-
THE OLD AND THE NEW.--TILBURY FORT AND QUEEN ELIZABETH.-SHEERNESS AND THE NORTH
FORELAND.-ON THE CHANNEL.-AT THE MOUTH OF THE MAAS.-LANDSCAPE IN HOLLAND.-
BRIELLE AND ITS ATTRACTIONS.- DELFTIIAVEN. REMINISCENCES OF THE PILGRIM FATHERS OF
NEW ENGLAND.-ADMIRAL VAN TROMP.-SCHIEDAM AND ITS MANUFACTURES . Page 1
ARRIVAL AT ROTTERDAM.-TIHE BOMPTJIES.-SHIPS OF ALL NATIONS IN THE RIVER.--RAPACITY OF
GUIDES AND PORTERS.-DISAGREEABLE EXPE iIENCES.-VIEW FROM THE WINDOW OF TIE HOTEL.
-THE HARBOR AND THE SHORE.-CANALS AND HAVENS.-THE LIEUEIIAVEN.-DRAWBRIDGES
AND HOW THEY ARE PASSED.--TAKING TOLL IN A SHOE.-RULES REGARDING THE BRIDGES.-DOGS
IN HARNESS.-DOGS AND WOMEN HARNESSED TOGETHER.-STREET SIGHTS AND SIGNS.-"FIRE
AND WATER TO SELL."-" MANGLING DONE HERE."-BARBERS' SIGNS AND THEIR ORIGIN.--A
MANIA FOR CLEANLINESS. SATURDAY MORNING TERRORS. -THE GREAT MARKET. CURIOUS
HEAD-DRESS OF THE WOMEN.-- OW CUSTOMS ARE CHANGING.-" HOUSE OF THE THOUSAND TER-
RORS."-ERASMUS AND HIS STATUE . .. . . 19
THE CHURCH OF ST. LAWRENCE.--T IEW FROM THE TOWER.-THE GREAT ORGAN.-A DUTCH LAND-
SCAPE.-THE MUSEUM.-DUTCH ART.--MARY'S VIEWS OF IT.-CUYP AND OTHER PAINTERS.-
ADVANCE IN THE PRICE OF PAINTINGS.-HOUSES OF THE STONE FACES.-A TRADITION OF THE
PLAGUE.-A VISIT TO THE COUNTRY.-CATTLE IN THE FIELDS.-INSPECTING A HERD.-GOOD-
NATURED ANIMALS.-TIE POLDERS.-SYSTEM OF DRAINAGE.-HOLLAND'S BATTLE WITH THE SEA.
-H-OW CANALS AND DIKES ARE MADE.--RECLAIMING LAND AND ITS VALUE.-FERTILITY OF TIHE
SOIL.-THE NORTH HOLLAND CANAL.--NORTH SEA CANAL.-PROPOSAL TO DRAIN THE ZUYDER
ZEE.-DINNER AT A FARM-HOUSE.--WHAT IT CONTAINED.-SUMMER-HOUSES OF WEALTHY PEOPLE,
AND THE LIFE IN THEM ... . ... . . 36
FROM ROTTERDAM TO DELFT.-NOTES UPON DELFT-WARE.-HISTORY OF ITS MANUFACTURE.-AN EX-
TINCT INDUSTRY.-COUNTERFEIT WARE MADE IN ENGLAND.-THE EXPLOSION DISH AND OTHER
HISTORIC PIECES.-ANTIQUITY OF THE MIANUFACTURE.--WILLIAM THE SILENT.-HIS ASSASSINA-
TION.-VISITING THE SCENE OF THE MURDER.-TIE FOUNDER OF THE DUTCH REPUBLIC.--A PAGE
OF HISTORY.--PILIP II. AND THE NETHERLANDS.-CHURCHES OF DELFT.--MONUMENT TO WILL-
IAM THE SILENT.--A LiFTE SAVED BY A DOG'S FIDELITY AND INTELLIGENCE.-GROTIUS THE HISTO-
RIAN.-HIS ESCAPE FROM PRISOX.--A WOMAN'S STRATAGEM.-HISTORIC ELSIE.-TRAVELLING BY
CANAL-BOAT.-MARY'S DESCRIPTION.-ARRIVAL AT THE HAGUE . .. Page 54
ORIGIN AND ANTIQUITY OF TIE HAGUI.--TIE VIJVERI OR FISH-POND.--THE BINNENHOF.-ASSEMBLY
ROOMS OF TlHE STATES-GENERAL.--THE GOVERNMENT OF TIIE NETHERLANDS.-TIHE KING AND IIIS
COUNCIL.--CONSTITUTIONAL GUARANTEES. RELIGIONS OF HIOLLAND.--EDUCATION. -NUMBER
AND CHARACTER OF THE SCHOOLS.-FAMOUS PAINTINGS IN 1THE MUSEUM.-THE "SCHOOL OF ANAT-
OMY."-PAUL POTTER'S BULL."-HISTORICAL SKETCII OF TIE ARTTIST.-CABINET OF CURIOSITIES.
-COAT WORN BY WILLIAM THE SILENT AT HIS ASSASSINATION.-THE HOUSE OF ORANGE--INTER-
ESTING REMINISCENCES.--DARK STAINS ON TIIE HISTORY OF THE HOUSE OF ORANGE.-EXECUTION
OF JOHN OF BARNEVELD.--THEI PALACE OF THE HAGUE.--VISIT TO SCHEVENINGEN 72
SCHEVENINGEN AND THE HERRING FISHERY -A WALK ON THE DUNES AND THE BEACH. -FISHING-
BOATS.- COSTUMES AND CUSTOMS OF THE PEOPLE.-FASHION AT A DUTCH WATERING-PLACE.-
AUCTION SALES OF FISII.-CURIOUS MODES OF SELLING --DIKES TIAT KEEP OUT THE' SEA.-THEIR
EXTENT AND COST.--TIE SEA AN ENEMY AND A FRIEND.--FIGHTING TIE RIVER WITH CANNON.-
LEYDEN, THE OLDEST CITY OF HOLLAND.--THE RUIN AND ITS IISTORY.-THEI BURCIT.-SIEGE OF
LEYDEN; How IT WAs RAISED.-TuE FAMOUS UNIVERSITY; GREAT NAMTS AMONG ITS PROFESS-
ORS.--MUSEUMS, AND WHAT THEY CONTAIN.--KATWYK.--LOCKS AT THE MOUTH OF THE RHINE.-
FROM LEYDEN TO HAARLEMI .. . . 93
FROM LEYDEN TO HAARLEM.-A VISTA OF VILLAS, GARDENS, AND POLDERS.--HAARLEM AND ITS PE-
CULIARITIES.-COSTER, THE FIRST PRINTER.--.WHO INVENTED THE ART OF PRINTING? -FIRST
EDITION OF THE BIBL.--THE ELEVIRS.--ART GALLERY AT HAARLEM.--CORPORATION AND GUILD
PAINTINGS.-FRANZ HALS.-ANECDOTES OF THE SIEGE OF iHAARLEM ; HOW THE CITY WAS DEFEND-
ED; MASSACRE OF THE INHABITANTS.-TUL1PS AND THE TULIP MANIA; HIGI PRICES FOR SINGLE
PLANTS.-AMSTERDAM; ITS POSITION AND HISTORY.-A FOREST UNDER WATER,--THE DAM.-
IN THE PALACE.--VIEW FROM THE TOWER.-A DUTCH WEDDING.-THE AANSPREEKER AND HIS
OCCUPATION . . . . 113
THE ZEEMANSHOOP.-STADTHUIS AND RIJKS MUSEUM.--FINEST PAINTINGS IN HOLLAND.-" THE NIGHT-
WATCH" AND THE BANQUET OF THE ARQUEBUSIERS ;" DESCRIPTION OF THESE PICTURES.-DIA-
MOND-CUTTING IN AMSTERDAM.-SOCIETY OF PUBLIC UTILITY.-ZAANDAM.--WINDMILLS.--HOUSE
OF PETER THE GREAT.-LEE-BOARDS AND CENTRE-BOARDS.--A PICTURESQUE TOWN.--How PETER
THE GREAT LEARNED SHIP-BUILDING.-FROM ZAANDAM TO ALKMAAR.-NORTH -IOLLAND SIGHTS
AND SCENES.--DUTCH CHEESES BY THE THOUSAND TONS.--INVENTION OF TIHE TELESCOPE.-
STREETS AND SQUARES OF ALKMAAR.-STORKS, AND THEIR HABITS.-THE VILLAGE OF BROEK.-
A MANIA FOR CLEANLINESS.-INTERIOR OF A HOUSE IN BROEK.--THE COW THAT HAD A TOOTII-
BRUSH . ... . . .. P. age 134
DOCTOR BRONSON GOES TO LONDON.-FRANK AND FRED IN CIIARGE.-CONTINUING TlHE JOURNEY.-
UTRECHT AND ARNHEIM.--BY RAIL TO COLOGNE.-ESSEN AND ITS GREAT ATTRACTION.-KRUPP'S
IRON CITY ON TIIE IRUIIR.--WIIAT IS MADE THERE.--STEAM-IIAMlMERS OF IMMENSE POWER.--
TWENTY THOUSAND MEN IN ONE ESTABLISIIMENT. BiENEVOLENCE OF TII KRUPIPS. -BRIEECII-
LOADING CANNON. -COLOGNE.--COLOGNE WATER. -THIE GREAT CATHEDRAL; ITS VICISSITUDES
AND RECENT COMPLETION.--OTHER SIGHTS OF TIE CITY.-UP THE RIIINE BY STEAMBOAT.-ON TIEl
RIVER.--CASTLE OF DRACHENFELS.--BONN AND ITS UNIVERSITY.-SIEGFRIED AND TIIE DRAGON.
-APOLLINARIS MOUNTAIN, CHURCH, AND SPRING.-EHRENBREIITSTEIN AND COBLENTZ.-THIE IRON-
ICAL MONUMENT OF STONE . . .. . 5:.
GERMAN ANTIQUITIES.-OLD FURNITURE.-DISCOMFORTS OF LIFE IN TIIE MIDDLE AGES.-FURNI-
TURE OF A ROOM IN A CASTLE. RAILWAYS ON BOTH BANKS OF TE RHIINE; REASONS FOR
THEIR CONSTRUCTION.--STOLZENFELS.-ELECTORS OF GERMANY; WHO AND WHAT THEY WERE.
-A LEAF OF GERMAN HISTORY.--END OF THE OLD EMPIRE; FORMATIION OF TIE NtEW.-
GERMAN CONFEDERATIONS. -THE KONIGSSTUIIL ; ITS HISTORY AND USES.- LURLEIBERG.--TII
NYMPII OF THE rIlINE.- SCHONBERG, GUTENFELS, PFALZ, RHEINFELS, AND OTHER CASTLES.--
BISIIOP HATTO'S "MOUSE TOWER."-" BINGEN ON THE RHINE."-JOHANNISBERG AND STEINBERG.
-MAYENCE.--ROMAN ANTIQUITIES.--GUTENBERG AND EARLY PRINTING.--FROM MAYENCE TO
W IESBADEN . . . . 173
MRS. BASSETT AND THE WATER-CURE OF rWIESBADEN.-MINERAL SPRINGS OF EUROPE IN GENERAL.-
DOCTOR BRONSON ON THE SPRINGS OF AMERICA.-GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EUROPEAN SPAS.
--THE WATER-ADMINISTIIRATION.--TLIE IOCHIBRUNNEN; ITS TEMPERATURE, QUALITIES, AND VOL-
UME; VISITORS' TICKETS AND THEIR USES; THE KUR-I)IRECTOR; AN IMPORTANT PERSONAGE.-
DEPOSITION OF TIHE DUKE OF NASSAU.--PALACE OF THE EMPEROR.-GAMBLING AT TWIESBADEN
BEFORE 18'73.-REMINISCENCES OF GAMBLING DAYS.-"THIIE DIRECTION" AND ITS DUTIES.-
CROUPI)ERS.-FOREIGN RESIDENTS.-MILITARY WIFE-HUNTERS.-ENVIRONsS OF WIESBADEN.--THE
MILK-CURE, AND OTHER CURES.-FROM WIESBADEN TO FRANKFORT-ON-TIIE-MAIN . 191
FAIRS IN EUROPE; THEIR PROSPERITY AND SUBSEQUENT DECLINE. -FRANKFORT-ON-THE-MAIN; ITS
CHARACTERISTICS AND GENERAL APPEARANCE.-MONUMENT TO THE EARLY PRINTERS.--HOUSE
WHERE THE POET GOETHE WAS BORN.-SCIILLER AND IIS MONUMENTS.-TIHE ROTHSCHILDS;
HOW THE FOUNDATION OF THEIR FORTUNE CAME FROM AMERICA.-ANECDOTES OF THE ROTHSCHILD
FAMILY.-NATIIAN ROTHSCHILD AND THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO.-THE JUDENGASSE.-THE RO-
MER, OR TOWN-IIALL.-THE KAISERSAAL.-EMANCIPATION OF THE H1EBREWS IN GERMANY AND
ELSEIWHERE.-FREE CITIES.-HOW FRANKFORT LOST ITS FREEDOM.-FROM FRANKFORT TO EISEN-
ACH.-COUNTRY OF MARTIN LUTHER.-BOYHIOOD OF THE LEADER OF THE REFORNMATION.-
MADAME COTTA'S OUSE . . . .. 210
THE WARTBURG; HISTORY OF THE FAMOUS CASTLE.-LUTHER'S RooM; ARTICLES BELONGING TO THE
GREAT REFORMER.-THE BEGINNING OF THE REFORMATION.-LUTHER AT TIIE DIET OF 1WORMS.-
A PRETENDED CAPTURE.--TIE INKSTAND LUTHER THREW AT THE DEVIL.-TIIE MINNESINGERS."-
SWAR OF THE WARTBURG."-SAINT ELIZABETII AND IER RESIDENCE AT WARTBURG ; HER PIOUS
LIFE AND CANONIZATION.-ARMORY OF TIE CASTLE.-FROM EENACH To ERFURT.--THE CATHE-
DRAL.-AUGUSTINIAN CONVENT WHERE LUTHER LIVED.-REMINISCENCES OF GOETHE AND SCIIIL-
LER.-LATTER YEARS OF THE LIFE OF LUTHER.--A FAMOUS LITERARY FORGERY AND THE PEN-
ALTY.-JENA AND ITS BATTLE-FIELD .. .... . .... Page 228
MARY HAS THE FLOOR. ER STORY OF "THE TIEIBERTREUE,." -WEINSBERG.-DUKE WELF VI.-
KING CONRAD'S THREAT AND PROMISE.-HOW THE WIVES OF THE GARRISON OUTWITTED HIM.-
KERNER'S POEM ON TIE WEIBERTREUE."--ATROCITIES AT WTEINSBERG IN A WAR OF RELIGION.
-THE THIRTY YEARS' WMAR, AND WHAT IT WAS ABOUT.--THE SEVEN YEARS' TMAR.-COMPARI-
SON OF ANCIENT AND MODERN WARS.--MURDEROUS CHARACTER OF THE WEAPONS OF TO-DAY.-
FRANCO-GERMAN WAR OF 1870.--THE RAILWAY AND TELEGRAPH IN WARFARE.--WIISSENFELS.
-LEIPSIC; FAIRS OF LEIPSIC.--IHO THE GAMBLERS WERE DEFRAUDED.--TIE MAN WITH THE
MAGNIFYING SPECTACLES.-BATTLE OF LEIPSIC.--WAGNER AND HIS \IUSIC . .247
RAILWAY TRAVEL IN GERMANY.-NUMBER OF CLASSES AND THEIR CIIARACTER.-SMOKERS AND NON-
SMOKERS.--WITTENBERG.--CHURCH WHERE LUTHER NAILED HIS THESIS TO THE DOOR.-MARKET-
PLACE.-AUGUSTEUM.--SOLDIERS AT DRILL.--Ho GERMAN SOLDIERS ARE TRAINED.-- IIAT DE-
FEATED THE FRENCH IN THE LAST WAR 'ITH GERMANY.-STRENGTHI OF TIE GERMAN ARMY.-
LINE, RESERVE, AND LANDWEHR."--GYMNASTIC DRILL.-COUNT YON MOLTKE.-BERLIN.-CHAR-
ACTERISTICS OF THE GERMAN CAPITAL.--A LOTTERY OF CABS.--UNTER DEN LINDEN.-THE BRAN-
DENBURG GATE.--A MORNING CALL.-THE GERMAN ARMY AND ITS COST.--TIIIERGARTEN.-SHOP-
PING IN BERLIN.-THE KAISERGALLERIE.--TIENNA CAFE AND VIENNESE CUSTOMS . 266
STATUE OF FREDERICK TIE GREAT.-THE OPEN PLATZ WHAT OUR FRIENDS SAW THERE.-THE ROYAL
PALACE.-THE ACADEMY.-THE UNIVERSITY.-GUARD-MOUNTING.-KING'S GUARD-HOUSE.-MU-
SEUM AND HALL OF FAME.--MILITARY WEAPONS AND EQUIPMENT OE ALL AGES.-THE HOHEN-
ZOLLERN FAMILY; ITS ORIGIN AND ANTIQUITY.-THE GREAT ELECTOR AND FREDERICK THE GREAT.
-POWERS OF TIHE EMPEROR OF GERMANY.-THE IBUNDESRATH AND REICIISTAG.--HO GERMANY
IS GOVERNED.-REVIEW AT THE KREUZBERG.-PARADE OF TROOPS.-VIEW OF THE EMPEROR.-
PRINCE BISMARCK AND HIS SERVICES TO GERMANY.-HIS RETIREMENT BY THE EMPEROR 285
SCHLOSSBRUCKE AND LUSTGARTEN. -THE ROYAL PALACE.--STATUE OF FREDERICK WILLIAM III.-
WEALTH OF THE HOHENZOLLERNS.--JEWELS AND SILVER PLATE.-THRONES OF MASSIVE SILVER.
-THE WHITE LADY, AND HER MISSION OF FORETELLING DEATH.-HER HISTORY AND LAST AP-
PEARANCE.-PICTURE-GALLERIES AND MUSEUMS.--AMUSEMENTS OF THE BERLINERS.--THE REICIS
HALLE.-THE RATHSKELLRGE.-GERMAN FAMILIES IN TIE BEER-HALLS.--GIRMAN STUDENTS AND
THEIR DUEiLS.-KROLL'S GARDEN, AND A VISIT THERE.--TIE VICTORY COLUMN.-A MEMORIAL
OF WAR.--CIIARLOTTENBURG, AND THE RACES THERE.--PECULIARITIES OF A GERMAN RACING
CROWD.-CHATEAU MONBIJOU AND HOHENZOLLERN MUSEUM .. . Pago 300
A VISIT TO POTSDAM. JUNCTION OF THE SPREE AND TIE HAVEL. SPANDAU. TIE CASTLE
AND TIE IMPERIAL TREASURY. -- I W CARL SCHURZ AIDED THE ESCAPE OF A PRISONER
FROM SPANDAU.--TELL-TALE CLOTHES AND TIE MISFORTUNE TIIEY CAUSED.-PALACES AT
POTSDAM.-SOUVENIRS OF FREDERICK THE GREAT.--A WONDERFUL TAILE.-SANS SouI.-
THE GREAT FOUNTAIN. -FREDERICK'S ROOMS AT SANS SoCI. --THEI GIANT GUARDS.--SNUrF-
BOXES OF THE KING.--PERSONAL GOVERNMENT AND ITS PECULIARITY.-ANECDOTES OF FRED-
ERICK THE GREAT.- HIS INTERVIEW WITH THE SOLDIER.- ORANGERY.--NEW PALACE.- BA-
BELSBERG . . . . . 324
ARTISTIC ABILITY OF THE HOHENZOLLERN FAMILY.-ROYAL ART ACADEMY IN BERLIN ; ITS PROFESS-
ORS AND ARTISTS; SOME OF THEIR WORK.-" DEATHS TRAIN," AND "TIHE DANCE OF DEATH."-
SCULPTURE IN BERLIN.--LEAVING TE CAPITAL OF GERMANY.--A VISIT TO VIERLANDE.-QUAINT
AND OLD-FASHIONED PEOPLE.-INTERIOR OF A VIERLANDE HOUSE; WHAT IT CONTAINED.-HOME
SCENES IN BERGEDORF.-FERTILE POLDERS.--AN OLD-FASHIONED INN.-MARKET AND FLOWvER
GARDENS.-VIERLANDE HOSPITALITY. -HOLIDAY ATTIRE.--WEDDING CUSTOM; CHAIRS FOR
BRIDE AND BRIDEGROOM.- A VIERLANDE FARM-HOUSE.- A RELIC OF HOLLAND.- RETURN TO
HAMBURG .. . . . .. . 342
A GLIMPSE AT HAMBURG.-- INNEN-ALSTER AND AUSSEN-ALSTER; TIEIR BEAUTY AND ADVANTAGES.-
THE GREAT FIRE AND ITS EFFECTS.-TiE BOURSE.--AN EXCITING SCENE.--FRIO HAAMiURG TO
HELIGOLAND.--DOWNN THE ELBE.-A GREAT STEAMER FROM NEW YORK.--LANKENSEE.-IIELI-
GOLAND.-A POPULATION SUPPORTED BY TOURISTS AND LOBSTERS.-UNTERLAND AND OVERLAND.
-GOING AROUND TIE ISLAND.-RETURN TO HAMBUR.--A GERMAN WAR-SIP.--THE NAVY OF
GERMANY.-BY RAIL TO LUBECK.-- ANSEATIC LEAGUE AND ITS HISTORY.-MARKET SQUARE IN
LUBECK.-RATHHAUS AND OTHER BUILDINGS . ... .. .. 365
SIGHTS IN LUBECK.-THE RESULT OF A RELIGIOUS RIVALRY.--TIE MARIENKIRCHE.--AN AN-
CIENT CLOCK.-PROVISIONS FOR THE POOR AND NEEDY.-THE BURGTHOR.--SIEGE OF LUBECK.
WALLENSTEIN AND HIS VOW. A SCRAP OF HISTORY. -- MARY'S NEW PROPOSAL, AND
HOW IT WAS RECEIVED.- LADIES TRAVELLING ALONE IN EUROPE. FRANK AND FRED AT
STRALsuND; WHAT THEY SAW THERE. A JOURNEY INTO TIE COUNTRY. TIE STONE-BREAK-
ERS.-- WOMEN DOING HEAVY WORK.- CONDITION OF WOMEN IN NORTH GERMANY AND TIHE
EMPIRE IN GENERAL.-COMMENTS OF AN ENGLISH WRITER.-FROM STRALSUND TO COPENHA-
GEN.--DENMARK'S CAPITAL; SHORT HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE CITY.--OLD TIMES AND THE
PRESENT . .. . 884
MRS. BASSETT AND MARY AT COPENHAGEN.--MARY'S ACCOUNT OF THIE VOYAGE.--TII NEW FRIENDS
THEY MADE.--TE KONGENS NYTORV.--WATER-FRONT OF COPENIAGEN.--HOLMENS KANAL.-
HANS CHRISTIAN ANDERSIN; HIS STATUE AND REMINISCENCES OF IIS LIFE; H1OW HIS TALES WERE
WRITTEN; A MAN WITI A CIILD'S THOUGHTS AND FEELINGS.--ROSENBORG GARDEN AND CASTLE.
-HISTOlIC ROBES AND OTHER KINGLY ATTRIBUTES. -- TIHE BOTANIC GARDEN. TIIORWALDSEN
MUSEUM; A REMARKABLE COLLECTION.-MRS. BASSETT LEARNS HOW SCULPTORS PERFORM THEIR
WORK.-THORWIaALDSEN'S HISTORY; HIS CAREER AT ROME.--RETURN TO COPENIIAGEN.-A GRAND
RECEPTION.-MUSEUM OF NORTHERN ANTIQUITIES. STUDIES IN ARCH.EOLOGY.--TIIE AGES OF
FLINT, BRONZE, AND IRON.-MARY PERPETRATES A JOKE . .. .. Page 403
BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF COPENHAGEN.--THE SOUND.-SOUND DUES.--ANCIENT RIGHTS OF THE KING OF
DENMARK.-EARLY NAVIGATION BY THE DANES; THEIR SUPPOSED EXPEDITION TO AMERICA IN A.D.
1000.--THE DANISH MONARCHY.--ANTIQUITY 01.' TIE LINE OF KINS.-- GOVERNMENT OF DEN-
MARK.--THE RIGSDAD, AND WHAT IT DOES.--DANIS ARMY AND NAVY.-EXCURSION TO ELSINORE.
--TE SCENE OF 1JAMLET."-AALBORG AND ITS PECULIARIITIES.-JUTLAND.-PRODUCTLS OF DEN-
MARK.--IMPORTS AND EXPORTS.-SCENERY IN NORTHERN DENMARK.--AN ANCIENT TOWN. -A
CITY OF EELS.--CIURCHES AND OTHER PUBLIC BUILDINGS.-A HAUNTED HOUSE AND ITS HISTORY.
-FREDERIKSHAVN.-LzESO.--IWtAT THE SAND HAS DONE . .. .. 422
FROM FREDERIKSHAVN TO SKAGEN.--VOYAGE IN A FISHING-BOAT.-BURIED VILLAGES.--CHURCH OF
ST. LAWRENCE.-SKAGEN, THE NORTHERN END OL DENMARK.-LIGHT-HOUSES, OLD AND NEW.-
FISHER-GIRLS.-THE DRIVER AND HIS SWEEITIIEAT.--MONOTONOUS BILL OF FARE.-CHECKING
OBSTINACY.-DANISII FARM-HOUSES.-RETURN TO FREDERIKSHAVN.--A TELEGRAM AND ITS AN-
SWEn.--To GOTHEuNBURG AND CHRISTINIA.-THE SKAGERACK.-COAST OF NORWAY.--"WEN-
IIAM LAKE ICE."-IN CIIRISTIANIA; SIGHTS OF TIIE PLACE.-NORWEGIAN COMMERCE.-ENGLISH
AND NORWEGIAN MILES. --PLANS FOR FUTURE MOVEMEINTS.- CHARACTER OF THE NORWEGIAN
PEOPLE .. . . .. . 43U
DEPARTURE FROM CHRISTIANIA.-RAILWAYS IN NORWAY.--SLOW EXPRESSES.--A "BLANDEDE.,"-
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF NORWAY.-LAKES, FIORDS, A, ND RIVERS.-DIFFICULTIES OF TRAVEL.-
THE WAY TO DRONTI[EIl.--EIDSVOLD.--LAKE, MIESEN; SIIORES OF THE LAKE.- NORWEGIAN
SCENERY.-FARMIS AND FARMING.--1HOW HAY IS DRIED.--RAPID TRANSPORTATION ON A ROPE.-
CHARACTER OF TIIE NORWEGIANS.--SUMoER AND WINTER.--AGRICULTURE IN NORWAY; PRODUCTS
OF THE SOIL.-A TALK WITH A NATIVE.-T' O-STORIED BAI:NS.-A PLOUGH WITH ONE HANDLE.
--11AMAR AND LILLEIIAMMER.--MARY'S ExcuRSION . ..... . 457
TRAVELLING BY CARIOLE.-ROADS IN NORWAY.-A "STOLKJAER."-M-ARY'S EXPERIENCE.-NORWE-
GIAN HORSEs.-SENDING A FORBUD."-TIHE POST-BOY AND IlIS DUTIES.-RULES OF TIE ROAD.
-CHANGING HORSES AT A STATION.--HOW A SzETER IS MANAGED.-RECEPTION OF TIlE ViS-
ITORS.--TIE BELL-COW.AND IER DUTIES.--SIIAKING HANDS WITH EVERYBODY.-RETURN TO LIL.
LEIIAMMER.--MRS. BASSETT'S NEW ACQUAINTANCE.-EDUCATION IN NORWAY.--CIIARACTER OF
TIE SCHOOLS.-MODES OF LEGISLATION.--HO TIE STORTHING IS COMPOSED.-LIMITED POWERS
oF TIIH KING.--TIIE AnY AND NAVY.-A SCRAP OF HISTORY.-FRED'S FISHING EXCURSION.-
FISHING AND HUNTING IN NORWAY .. . . . .. Page 474
ARRIVAL AT DRONTHEIM.--CRADLE OF THE NORWAY KINGDOM.--JOURNEYING TO THE NORTII CAPE.-
SEEING TIIE SUN AT MIDNI(HT.-CIIARACTER OF TIIE LAND AT THE CAPE.-EFFECTS OF LIGHT.-
ABOVE TIII SEA.--AMONG TIlE SEA-BIIDS.--IHAMMIERFEST, AND ITS PECULIARITIES.--LAPLANDERS
AND REINDEER.-DRINKING DEER'S MILK.-PECULIARITIES OF TIHE LAPPS.-FISHING INDUSTRIES
OF NORWAY.-- ERlRING AND COD.-nBERGEN.-CAUGHT IN TIE RAIN-SCENES IN TIlE FISII-MAR-
KET.--FROM BERGEN TO GOTIIENBURG.-A MODERN CITY.-THE GOTIIENBURG LICENSING SYSTEM;
ITS PRINCIPAL FEATURES; FRED'S COMMENT UPON IT . ... 490
ON THE GOTHA CANAL; CHARACTER OF THIS INLAND WATER-WAY; NUMBER, LENGTH, AND SIZE (OF
THE LOCKS ; MILITARY ADVANTAGES OF THE CANAL.--GOTHA RIVER.-TROLIIATTA FALLS.-LAKE
WENER.--WADSTENA; HISTORICAL REMINISCENCES.-LAKE WETTER.--PASSING THE HIGII LEVEL.
--STOCKHIOLM; ITS CHARMING SITUATION; "THE VENICE OF TIE NORTII;" ROYAL PALACE.-
THE REIGNING KING.--THE BRNADOTTES.--AN ACCOMPLISHED FAMILY.-TRICK PLAYED BY
CARL XV.-THE HOUSE OF VASA.-RIDDARSHOLM I CHURCIH.--OTHER SIGHTS OF STOCKIIOLM.-
THE DJURGARDEN.-HOW THE SWEDES ENJOY TIEMISELVES.--UPSALA.-UNIVERSITIES OF SWE-
DENN.-ED -CATION.-DAALECARI.-FAUN.--COPPER AND IRON MINES.-GIRLS ROWING BOATS.
-DANNEMORA.--RETURN TO STOCKHOLM.-MEETING DOCTOR BRONSON.-THE END . 508
Ancient Dutch Sign-the Moor's Head ..... 1
Mouth of Regent's Canal, on the Thames.. 2
In Limehouse Basin. ................... 3
Taking it Easy ......................... 5
!'.,.I ....I Wooden Walls-The Victor .... 6
England's Iron Walls--The Devastation .... 7
Near the Mouth of the Thames............ 9
Mill on the Maas, Delfthaven ............. 11
Dutch Landscape on Dinner-plate ......... 12
Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland, 1806-1810 13
Towing a Ship-North Holland ........... 14
Model of the Mayflower .................. 15
"Brought over in the I- ......... 16
Delfthaven ............................ 17
Ancient Dutch Buildings ......... ..... 18
Dutch Music Plate, Eighteenth Century..... 19
An old Family Portrait .................. 21
Old Bridge in South Holland ............. 23
Ancient Dutch Buildings ................ 25
An old Gate-way........................ 27
Country Scene ....................... 29
"Of the Olden Time" .................... 31
" From the Olden Time "................... 33
Erasm us............................... 34
A Four-poster Bed ..................... 36
Albert Cuyp .................. ..... 37
Noonday Rest.................... ..... 39
Tie Chief of the Herd.................... 41
A Dutch Landscape. .................... 43
Ship Passing through a Canal ............. 45
North Holland Farm-house ............... 47
Dutch Interior two Centuries ago .......... 49
A Group of Holstein-Frisian Cattle ........ 51
Great Water-lily in the Botanic Garden ..... 52
Polar Bears in the Zoo .................. 5,3
The Explosion Dish ................... .. 54
Tile Kermesse-Delft Plaque of 1640 55
Thie Colbert Plate in the Sevres Museum... 56
Faience Horse, marked 1480.............. 57
Large Jar of Blue Delft, London Collection. 58
Anne, Wife of William the Silent.......... 59
Town-hall at Delft............. ....... 60
William of Orange (the Silent) .......... 61
Tomb of William the Silent .............. 63
Maurice of Nassau, Son of William the Si-
lent ................... ............ 65
J. Arminius ........................... 67
A Landscape in Holland .................. 68
Canal-boat ........................... 69
Dutch Girls -I .. to Market ........... 69
Dish of Old Delft....................... 70
The Triumph of Van Tromp. ............. 72
Tile ,i at the Hague ................ 73
Studio of a Modern Artist............... 75
" The Dancing Dog" ................... 77
Paul Potter's "Bull". ................... 9
Paul Potter ........................... 81
" The Rustic Household ............... 83
William I., King of the Netherlands, 1815
to 1840 ............ ................. 84
William III., King of the Netherlands, 1840
to 1890 ............................ 85
Queen Emma. ......................... 87
John of Barneveld ..................... 89
Execution of John of Barneveld, May 13,
Launching Boats through tile Surf....... 92
A Bit of Landscape .................... 93
Cabin of an English Herring-boat ........ 95
Off the Coast.......................... 96
Of one Family-Shad, Alewife, Herring. ... 97
At Scleveningen for their Health ......... 99
Gerard Douw.......................... 101
Town-hall at Leyden ..................... 103
The University Building ................ 105
Tiberius lHemsterhuis ................... 106
Senate-chamber of the University ........ 107
People of Leyden Waiting for Relief ..... 109
Professor Boerlaave ............... .. 110
"The Florist" ......................... 111
Adrian Brauwer ........................ 113
Fleschershall, Haarlem ................. 114
Town-hall, Haarlem .................... 115
The Amsterdam Gate, Haarlem .......... 116
Portrait of Laurentius Coster............ 117
Manuscript Fac-siniles ............... 118
"The Hay-merchant" .................. 119
Organ in the Church at Haarlem ......... 121
White Lilies from the Garden ........... 123
Royal Palace, Amsterdam ............... 125
Bridge over the Amstel, Amsterdam ...... 127
Scene on the Amstel ................... 129
The "Aan'preekcr" ......... ........ 131
Wedding Festivities in Old Times ........ 133
Franz Snyders ........................ 134
"The Night-watch" .................... 135
"The Boar-hunt "....................... 137
In the Zoological Garden.-The Kinkajou. 139
American Centre-board ................... 140
Dutch Leeboard ...................... .140
Door-way of Peter's House ................ 141
Tribunal, Hoorn-incorrectly styled Water-
tower .............................. 143
Zaandam and its Windmills.............. 145
Water-tower in North Holland ........... 147
Town-hall at Veer, North Holland ........ 148
Marabou Stork and its Young............ 149
A Solid Citizen ....................... 151
Landscape near Brock .................. ..152
Arnheim .............. ...... ... .... 153
)! .... at A rnheim ................. 155
View of the Works at Essen............. 157
A Krupp Gun on its Carriage ............ 159
House where Alfred Krupp was Born. .... Iti0
Krupp's Industrial School for Women ..... 161
Old-time Bell-ringers .................. 163
Student's Room at the University ........ 165
The Drachenfels ....................... 167
Siegfried and the Dragon ............... 169
Elhrenbreitstein ......... ............. 170
A Rhenish W ine-cellar ................. 171
Gothic Dresser ........ ................ 173
Antique Bedstead ...................... '175
Chamber of Castle in Twelfth Century .... 176
Stolzenfels ...... ....................... 177
Monument of Charles IV., Emperor of Ger-
m any ............................. 179
Dining-hill of all Elector in Mediteval Times 181
A Quiet Breakfast-Fourteenth Century... 182
St. Goar............................. 183
Water-maidens of the Olden Time........ 185
Bingen on the Rhine ................... 187
Portrait of Gutenberg .................. 188
General View of Wiesbaden............. 189
A Novice at Wiesbaden ................. 191
The Kochbrunnen ..................... 193
View in the Old Town.................. 194
The Duke of Nassau ............... ... 195
The Kur-director ...................... 197
Front of Kursaal, the Old Gambling-house. 199
The Emperor's Palace at Wiesbaden ...... 201
The Finest Villa in the City ............. 202
The Temple............................ 203
Sonneberg and Ruined Castle............. 205
Nurse-maid, Wiesbaden. ................. 206
Country-girl .......................... 207
"The Nine Oaks, Wiesbaden ". .......... 208
Arms of the Rothschild Family .......... 210
House of Mayor Ausclm Rothschild, Juden-
gasse ................. ........... 211
The Bourse at Frankfort................. 213
The Judengass .......... ............ 214
Gutenberg Monument, Frankfort......... 215
Goethe's Birthplace ..................... 216
The Romer, or Town-hall ............... 217
Frankfort Cathedral. .................. 219
The Palm-house ........................ 221
Martin Ludter's Birthplace, Eislebon...... 222
Luther's Room, Cotta House............. 223
Luther's House, Eisenach ............... 224
Luther Received at the House of Madane
Cotta .............................. 225
M martin Luther. ........................ 226
Martin Luther's Study in the Wartburg .... 228
The W artburg ........................ 229
Dispute at Lcipsic between Luther and Dr.
Eck .......... ..... ............. 231
Cathedral at W orms.................... 233
Catherine Von Bora..................... 235
Cathedral at Erfurt and Church at St. Seve-
rus ...................... ........ 237
Augustinian Convent, Erfurt ............. 239
Statues of Goethe and Schiller, Weimar ... 240
Reformation Room, Castle of Coburg ...... 241
Schiller's House, W eimar ............... 242
Goethe at the Age of Nineteen ........... 243
Belvedere Castle, Weimar ............... 245
Goethe's Study in the Garden-house, Weimar 246
W einsberg. ........................... 247
The Noble Wives of ;, .......... 249
The Procession of The Weibertreue ".... 250
Old Roman Door in Weinsberg Church .... 251
Justinus Kerner ....................... 253
German Artillery Outpost ............... 255
German Infantry Skirmishers............ 257
On the Lookout..... ................. 258
Napoleon Bonaparte.................... 259.
Scene from "Parsifal," one of Wagner's
Richard Wagner........................ 262
Baircuth ............................ 263
Wagner's House in Baireuth ............ 264
Frederick W illiam III................... 265
In the Smoking-car .................... 266
PAGE i' AGE
Schlosskirche, W ittenberg ............... 267 A Vierlande Farm-house ................ 353
Market-place, Wittenberg .. ........ 269 Going to Market ..... ........ ....... 355
Luther before Cardinal Cajetan .......... 271 Vierlande Flower-girls................... 357
German Soldiers in Camp at Night ....... 272 A Vierlande Interior ..... .......... 359
The Evening Prayer, ................... 273 Vierlande Rope-walk ................... 360
Street Scene in Berlin .................. 275 Brick and Stucco W ork................. 3o61
An Omnibus............. ............ 277 Interior of a Vierlande Church ........... 3(;2
Berlin on the Spree .................... 278 Corner of a Graveyard in Vierlande. .. .... 363
The Brandenbcrg Gate ... .............. 279 A Canoe on the Alster. ................. 365
Count Von Moltke ..................... 281 Conservative and Socialist..... ......... .367
A Pleasant Afternoon .................. 282 A Relic of Old Times.................. 309
The Prussian Eagle ................... 283 Heligoland ............................ 371
Statue of Frederick the Great ............. 285 The Landing-place .......... ...... 373
King's Guard-house and Arsenal ......... 287 A House on the iine ................... 374
Ancient Artillery in the Arsenal.......... 289 The Trip to the Diine ................... 375
Armor for Horse and Man .............. 291 Heligolanders ............. .......... 376
Frederick, First Elector of Brandenburg. .. 292 The Sachsue/ ............. ... ... .. .. 377
The Hohenzollerns, from the First to the Side Elevation of the Sachscr ............ 379
Tenth Elector ..................... 293 Lubeck Girl ,,,i .... for her Picture .. ... 381
Monument to the Great Elector at Berlin .. 295 Hanseatic Warehouses. .................. 382
King Frederick I................... .. 296 Rathhaus and Market-place, Lubeck ...... 383
Kaiser Wilhelm, Late Emperor William I.. 297 Brass Candelabrum in Hospital, Lubeck ... 384
Troops Reviewed by the Emperor........ 299 The Burgthor, Lubeck .................. 385
Frederick the Great ..................... 301 Window in Rathhaus, Lubeck. ............ 387
William II., Emperor of Germany ........ 302 Carved Oak Panel.................... 389
Prince Von Bismarck ................... 303 Wrought-iron Bracket ................. 3. 91
The Old Electoral Castle, Tangermiinde .. 305 Distant View of Stralsund-land side ..... 392
Royal Palace, Berlin ................... 306 Discovery of Wallenstein's Assassination .. 393
Queen Louise of Prussia ................ 307 St. Mary's Church, Stralsund.......... 395
Frederick W illiam IV .................. 30 89 The Stone-breakers ................... 397
Queen Sophia Charlotte ................. 11 Wroughlt-iron Panel.................... .399
The Reichshlalle ....................... 313 Port of i i. ,, ... ....... ......... 401
Kroll's Garden ........................ .315 Old House in Copenhagen .............. 402
The Victory Column ..... .. ... ...... 3 17 A Danish Cromlech .................... 403
The late Emperor Frederick ............. 319 View of Iolmens Kanal ................ 405
Si, .. Races .................. 321 Statue of Hans Christian Andersen ...... 407
A Favorite ........................... 322 Roscnborg Castle ..................... 409
German Rural Scene ................... 324 Danish Girl Selling Baskets ........... 411
Sans Souci, Potsdam .................. 325 Street in Copenhagen ...... ............ 413
The New Palace, Potsdam ............... 327 Statue of TiTorwaldsen ................. 415
Interior of a Peasant's House........... 329 Vestibule of Thornwaldsen Museum ....... 417
Giant Guards and Captain ............... 331 Flint Arrow-heads (natural size).......... 418
Mill at San Souci ...................... 333 Stone Axe, (Danish) ......... .......... 419
Babelsberg ..................... .... 335 Flint Knife and Dagger ................. 420
Emperor's Cabinet, Babelsberg ... ...... 337 Danish Flint Tools ..................... 421
Hall of Shells, New Palace .............. 3.39 First Navigation ....................... 422
Orangery ............................ 340 A Corner in Copenhagen ................ 423
Ludwig Knaus ........................ 342 Ancient Danish Ship ............... ... 425
"In a Thousand Anxieties" ............. 343 Merchants" Exchange, Copenhagen......... 427
The Nun ............................. 344 A Street in Aalborg .................... 429
"The Ploughman" .................. 344 Court-yard in Aalborg. ................ 431
"The Preacher"........................ 345 Danish Fishing Scene................... 433
Statue of Frederick William III......... 347 Danish Tumulus of the Stone Age......... 435
A Friendly Call........................ 349 Wi rought-iron Door-knocker. ............. 437
In a Vierlande Garden................... 351 Old Light-house, Skagen ................ 439
Tree in Sand-dunes ............... ....
Skagen Fisher-girls ............... ...
Awaiting the Fishers ...................
A Lonely Farm in Norway .. ...........
Norwegian Peasant-boys ................
A Norwegian Christening Party ..........
Interior of Farm-house, Norway ..........
Door of old Church....................
Bride of Hardage, Norway.............
Country Road in W inter ................
Norwegian Peasant Family at Dinner .....
H , . .. .... . . . . .
In Northern Norway ...................
W oman from Voss .....................
Interior of an old Church ...............
A Sieter, or Mountain Dairy ............
A Post Station ....................... .
At the Posting Station. ................ .
At the Road-side ......................
Farm-yard in W inter ...................
Milking Cow s at the Sater ..........
Bride from Voss.....................
Interior of an old Church ...............
Licensed to Shoot........: .............
441 The Anglers's Delight ............. ...
443 Woman from near ....
445 Boat-houses on a Fiord .................
447 North Cape ................ .........
451 Herd of Reindeer.....................
453 Women from Hallingdal ................
455 IIcrring-fishery on the Coast of Norway ..
457 Fish-market, Bergen ..................
459 Norwegian Wedding-party ...........
461 Sunday Morning in the Country ..........
463 Swedish Water-carrier ................
465 Farm-vard Scene .. ... .......
467 Gulstavus Adolphus....................
469 Royal Palace, Stockholm ................
471 Carl XV .............................
473 "View from Vermdon" ................
474 Oscar II., .__. of Sweden and Norway. .
475 King's Study in the Royal Palace. .......
477 Queen Sophia W ilhelmina ...............
479 Crown-prince Oscar Gustav Adolf ........
481 At a Rural Railway-station..............
483 Race between Church-boats ............
485 On her Way to Church .................
487 Interior of a Farm-house ................
- j ,I
THOM\S W. 1NOX.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS
DEPARTURE FROM ENGLAND.-DISCUSSION OF THE ROUTE TO THE CONTINENT.-
DOWN THE THAMES FROM LONDON.-SIGHTS ALONG THE RIVIER.- LON)DON
DOCKS AND LONDON COMMERCE.-THIIE REGENT'S CANAL.-WATER-WAY ACROSS
ENGLAND.-PECULIARITIES OF TIE GREAT RIVER.-WOOLWICII, GREENHIITHE,
GRCAVESEND, AND OTHER PLACES.-THE '"WOODEN WALLS" OF ENGLAND.-
THE OLD AND THE NEW.-TILBURY FORT AND QUEEN ELIZABIETI1.-SHIEER-
NESS AND THE NORTH FORELAND.-ON TIE CIANNEL.-AT THE MOUTH OF
THE MAAS.-LANDSCAPE IN HOLLAND.-BRIELLE AND ITS ATTRACTIONS.-
DELFTIIAYEN.-REMINISCENCES OF THE PILGRIM FATHERS OF NEW ENG-
LAND.-ADMIRAL VAN TROMP.-SCHIEDAM AND ITS MANUFACTURES.
WISH we could stay here just a little longer," said T! -. Bassett.
S So do I, ever so much," replied
Mary, glancing out of the window.
But really," her mother remarked,
after a brief pause, "it would be unreason-
able to ask it. We have already been in
England much longer than we originally -
intended to stay, and I don't think I could :-
name a day when I would be willing to
leave. So I won't say another word about
spending more time here, but will be ready .
to start whenever Doctor Bronson says it n"
is best to be moving on." ANCIENT DUTCH SIiGN--TI MOOR'S
"And so will I," Mary answered, IIEAD.
promptly. I like England very much,
and hope to spend some time here when we are on our way home.
But I suppose we shall find ourselves quite as much interested in the
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
countries we are going to visit as in this one. Everything is new and
strange to us, and we shall have a great deal to remember when we go
back to our friends in America."
She finished her remark just as Frank entered the parlor where she
was sitting with her mother, waiting for the decision relative to their
*l ,i l
MOUTH OF REGENT'S CANAL, ON THE THAMES.
departure from England. Doctor Bronson had gone to the City" to
attend to some business matters, and ini case he closed them to his
satisfaction the party was to start the next day for the Continent.
Well," said Mary, as Frank entered, what's the news ?"
The news is that we are to leave here to-morrow, according to the
plans discussed at ....-t."
"Which way do we go?"
We take the night boat from Sheerness, or Queenborough, to
Fl1eparti ." was the reply. Our first travel on the Continent will be
in Holland, the land of dikes and windmills."
Just where I wanted it to be," said Mi -. Bassett. So many of
our friends in America are descended from the Dutch that Im sure we
shall see a great many things there to remind us of them. I shall have
a long letter to write to Mrs. Roosevelt, and another to Mrs. Vander-
hoof, and another to Mrs. Bleecler before we leave that country for
hoof, and another to Mirs. iBleeclier before we leave that country for
PLANS FOR DEPARTURE.
another. Next to England I'm sure Holland will be the most interest-
ing' country for me on this side of the Atlantic Ocean."
Then they came down to the immediate preparations for leaving
London. Mrs. Bassett and her daughter promised to be ready at the
appointed time; Frank said the promise was superfluous, as they were
always ready without it, and he was prepared to certify, "to whom it
may concern," that in the matter of promptness in keeping engagements
they were model travellers.
Fred joined the party about ten minutes after Frank's arrival, and
was closely followed by Doctor Bronson. The latter turned at once
IN LIMEHIOUSE BASIN.
to the youths, and said that since they left him le had changed the plan
of travel, and instead of taking the Channel route to Flushiing, they
would descend the Thames by steamer, and go direct to Rotterdam.
He had learned of a steamer that would leave early in the .i,1. i,...n
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
of the next day, so that they would have a good chance of seeing the
lower part of the Thames before sunset.
"That will be delightful," said Mrs. Bassett; "I'd rather go that
way than by the one -..__- .-l1 by Frank, on account of the chance of
seeing the river."
Mary echoed the opinion of her mother; like a dutiful girl she
rarely did otherwise, as she was quite content with any state of :,1I.11 -;
that suited Mrs. Bassett. In less time than it takes to tell the story it
was all arranged that the party would leave the hotel at noon the next
day, which would enable them to reach the steamer in ample time for
her departure from her anchorage.
Those of our readers who are familiar with the previous travels of
Frank Bassett and Fred Bronson will remember that they were last
seen in London, accompanied by M:rs. Bassett and Mary Bassett, the
mother and sister of Frank, and by Doctor Bronson, who had been
their companion, mentor, and friend during their wanderings in the Far
East and elsewhere.*
They went on board the steamer below London Bridge, and not far
from the Tower of London, whose grim nalls revived to Mrs. Bassett
and Mary many of the stories of wrong and cruelty connected with
that historic edifice. So much were they interested in the Tower that
Mrs. Bassett whispered to Mary that she would certainly ask to have
another visit to the building in case the steamer should be delayed in
its departure long enough to permit them to go there.
1Mary assented to the suggestion, but it was destined not to be car-
ried out. Promptly at the appointed time the iMasstroomb (for that
was the name of the steamer) started on her course down the river, and
in a little while the walls of the famous tower, the dome of St. Paul's
Cathedral, the monument that marks the stopping-place of the great
fire of 1.i,:., and the massive arches of London Bridge had faded and
disappeared in the distance.
Slowly the steamer threaded her way among the vessels at anchor
in the river, or moving to and fro. Not infrequently she was obliged
to come to a full stop to permit the passage of a huge ship in tow of
a powerful tug which was taking her to one of the docks for which
The Boy Travellers in the IFar East (five volumes), and The Boy Travellers in South
America, The T Travellers in the Russian Empire, The Boy Travellers on the Congo, The
Boy Travellers in Australasia, The Boy Travellers in Mfexico, and The Boy Travellers in
Great Britain and Ireland (six volumes). See complete list at the end of this book.
THE GREAT DOCKS OF LONDON.
London is famous, or to escape collision with a barge or lighter too
unwieldy for careful handling and too sluggish to obey the helm
promptly. Mrs. Bassett and her daughter soon forgot the Tower, St.
Paul's, Westminster Abbey, London Bridge, and the other landinarks
of the British capital, their attention being absorbed by the sights on
the water all around them and the forest of masts that in some places
seemed to extend for miles.
They passed the entrances of the docks-St. Katharine's, London,
Commercial, Surrey, and the rest-and were deeply interested in the
activity prevailing in front of these great centres of commerce. It was
the hour when the tide was highest, and the gates of the docks were
open for the ingress and egress of ships. At Limehouse Basin Doctor
Bronson pointed out the entrance of Regent's Canal, a water-way that
passes through London; it is the favorite route for the transportation of
a vast amount of goods, and connects at its other end with Paddington
Canal, which is one of the links in a complete water-way from Lon-
don to Liverpool. These canals were built before the days of the
railway, and are con-
sequently of far less
importance now than
at the time of their ,
Mrs. Bassett was '. '
disappointed in the
scenery of the Lower ...
Thames, which is alto- ;" '.
gether much less pictu-
resque than the por-
tion of the river above .
London. '-" /
"It doesn't look .. '
much like a river," said '
she; it is more like
a bay or an arm of
the sea than a flowing
s e TAKING IT EASY.
"You have described
it exactly," Doctor Bronson answered. The Lower Thames, the part
below London, is filled by the tide and not by the water that flows
down from the upper part of the valley. The nearer we get to the
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
sea the greater is the width of the river. It is 300 yards wide at
London Bridge, 500 at Woolwich, 800 at Gravesend Pier, and when we
are three miles below Gravesend Pier we shall find a width of 1300
yards. It widens steadily as we go on, so that at its mouth it is eigh-
teen miles from one side to the other."
\-- i .... --
., jl! '_ ii -
J -I -.,--- -
ENGLAND'S WOODEN VWALLS--"THE VICTORY."
Can the great ships like those we saw in Liverpool go up to the
bridge, or must they stop lower down?" Mary asked.
The largest vessels must stop at Blackwall, six miles below Lon-
don Bridge," replied the Doctor, and I doubt if the very largest of
them could even get as far as that."
Wasn't the Great Eiastern built here at London ?" Mary asked.
"Yes," was the reply; "'it was built on the Isle of Dogs, which we
shall see near Woolwich."
"Woolwich is where they have the great arsenal and dock-yard,"
said Fred. You can't fail to see it if you use your eyes at all, for the
warehouses, magazines, and other buildings belonging to the arsenal
stretch about a mile along the bank of the river."
In due time Woolwich was reached and passed; but before arriving
there our friends had refreshed their memory of a fish dinner at Green-
wich by a glimpse of the famous Ship Tavern, where they had spent an
afternoon. Mi\ Bassett said the recollection of the dinner brought
DOWN THE THAMES.
tears to her eyes, especially a certain dish of whitebait, which was heav-
ily seasoned with cayenne-pepper.
In all directions there were steamers and sailing craft, indicating
the great extent of the commerce of the Thames. Here came a sailing
ship from India, and close behind it a steamer from Australia, followed
seemingly within touching distance by another from South America.
Coasting steamers and sailing craft almost without number were mov-
ing in every direction or lying at anchor waiting for a favorable turn
of the tide; yachts great and small filled out the picture; and at (Green-
hithe, a pretty village with a considerable number of villas, were so
many yachts that Mary asked what they were doing there.
Greenhithe is a yachting station," said Frank. The yachts you see
are only a small part of the fleet that assembles at the time of the races."
What are those large ships that look like old war vessels ?"
"They are training-ships for the navy," replied Frank. You are
right in saying they look like old war vessels, for that's exactly what
., -,_. -.- ._ -
__ .- ._ ,- .-_. '. j -_a.. ... .
ENGLAND'S IRON WALLS-" THE DEVASTATION."
they are. They are portions of the f 11. ...i wooden walls' of England,
which have given place in these days to walls of iron."
Mrs. Bassett asked what he meant by "wooden walls," as she had
not seen in any part of England walls made of wood. "I've seen them
of brick and stone in a great many places," said she, "but don't believe
I've seen a single wall anywhere made of wood."
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
Frank explained that the wooden walls of England were the sides
of her war-ships before the present system of iron-clad vessels was
adopted. Previous to 1861 naval vessels were built of wood, and the
largest vessels had several tiers of guns. The success of the ilonmitor
in the fight with the _1.. rrimiac in the American Civil War changed
the navies of the world, and rendered the old time wooden ship of little
use in battle.
"There's a ship of the old style," said Frank, as he pointed to a
great four-decker lying at anchor near Greenhithe, and having an air of
the most complete helplessness, as though aware that she had outlived
"And there's one of the new," he added, swinging his finger in the
direction of a modern iron-clad that seemed the merest pygmy in com-
parison with its venerable consort. That little-fellow carries only four
guns," said the youth, but the four guns, the torpedo tubes, and the
powerful beak would be more than a match for the hundred guns of
A match between those two ships of war would be like a match
between a tiger and an elephant," Fred remarked.
"Yes," said Frank; the elephant is many times larger than the tiger.
but the latter is always the master whenever they fall out and quarrel.
The elephant always seeks to avoid an encounter with the tiger, just as
that great ship would run away from the little one-if it could."
Attention was then turned to the walls of a fortress on the left
bank of the river, and Mrs. Bassett asked what it was.
That is Tilbury Fort," said Frank ; it was built by Henry VIII.
to defend the mouth of the Thames; it has been greatly extended
since his time, so that if he should revisit it to-day he would hardly rec-
"I remember about it," said Mary. Queen Elizabeth came here
at the time of the Spanish Armada and reviewed her fleet; she ap-
peared in helmet and armor, and said that though she had the body of
a weak woman she had the heart of a 1-ii. and a king of England, too."
That must be Gravesend, opposite Tilbury Fort," said Mary, if
my map is correct."
Frank nodded answer, while Mary reminded her mother of an
excursion they made to Gravesend one day by railway. The good
woman readily remembered the excursion, particularly the music to
which they listened in Rosherville Gardens, which are among the
attractions of the place.
IN THE CHANNEL. 9
Very soon after passing Gravesend and leaving Tilbury Fort behind
her, the steamer was in the broad estuary into which the Thames now
widened. There was a strong wind from the north-cast, and the spray
flew over the rail at nearly every plunge of the vessel's prow. Frank
went below and brought out the shawls and cloaks belonging to his
mother and sister, so that they might continue on deck without incon-
venience from the waves. Mrs. Bassett said she did not know when
she would have another opportunity to see the entrance of the Thames,
and therefore she wanted to embrace the present one.
The steamer laid her course for the mouth of the M I ,-, the river on
'; -E i
'F- -, --s-----S_--'
__ = =< s
NEAR THE MOUTH OF THE THAMES.
which Rotterdam stands, and the Thames was soon left behind. Frank
pointed out Sheerness, Southend, and other of the interesting points at
the mouth of London's great river, and away to the right he showed
the position of the North Foreland, under whose cliffs are nestled Mar-
gate and Ramsgate, those long-famed resorts of Londoners during the
summer season, but now shorn of much of their glory since the estab-
lishment of more modern watering-places.
The waters of the Channel were everywhere stippled with sails or
shadowed by clouds of smoke from the numerous steamers which were
in motion north, south, east, and west. Fred observed that several
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
large steamers which came out of the river about the same time as the
JlMasstroo)il turned in the direction of the North Foreland, and were
evidently bound down the Channel, while a smaller number turned
towards the German Ocean. He rightly divined that those taking a
southerly course were destined for Australia, India, the Vi .i ..I. .-.i,
or other seats of the world's commerce in lower latitudes than London,
while those bound to the' north were seeking the ports of Germany,
Denmark, Russia, or the Peninsula of Scandinavia.
The wind increased, the sea roughened, rain began to fall, and some-
what reluctantly Mrs. Bassett anld Mary sought the shelter of the cabin.
The Doctor followed their example almost immediately, and Frank and
Fred were not far behind. Frank remarked that there was little to see
on deck, as the shores were :1 -... 1; and such parts as were yet visible
were threatened to speedy extinction by the mist. All retired early,
and when they next saw the deck the steamer was in the Maas and
stemming its current in the direction of Rotterdam.
Frank explained to his mother and sister that the Maas is one of
the months of the Rhine, which divides into branches in the lower part
of its course, in the same way that the Mississippi, the Nile, and some
other great rivers of the world are divided. The delta of the Rhine,"
said he, "contains about fifty thousand square miles of territory, and
much of this land is below the level of the sea. It is protected by
strong embankments, which sometimes give way and let in the water, so
that immense damage is caused by the floods."
And this is Holland," said Mrs. Bassett as Frank paused.
"As much Holland as there is anywhere," said the Doctor with a
smile. "Really there is no such country as Holland."
How is that ?" Mrs. Bassett asked in a tone of surprise. Didn't
we leave London to come to Holland ?"
Of course we did," was the reply. "And here we are."
The doctor paused a moment, while a puzzled expression rested on
Mrs. Bassett's face, and then he continued :
"The official name of the country that we are now in is not Hol-
land but the Netherlands. We are in the kingdom of the Nether-
lands, or Low Countries. The Dutch name for it is Niederladlen, and
the French name is Pays-Bas. The name of Holland belongs to-day
to the provinces of North Holland and South Holland; they form a
part of the kingdom of the Netherlands, but only a part. North Hol-
land contains 1-' .1 square miles, and South Holland 1155 square miles,
or 2209 square miles in all. The kingdom of the Netherlands covers
A GEOGRAPHICAL DISTINCTION.
\L- Il -
~~R7; ~.~ _-~r~ia%7j;,I
MILL UN TIHE MAAS, DEL 1 ITA E.N.
an area of 12,680 square miles, so you see that the name of Iolland
belongs to less than one-fifth of the whole country."
I understand it now," said Mrs. Bassett, and am much obliged
for the information. But wasn't there a kingdom once with the name
of Holland ?"
Certainly there was," the Doctor answered. "The last kingdom
of that name comprised all the present kingdom of The Netherlands
together, with part of the former kingdom of Hanover and the duchy
of Oldenburg. The throne was occupied by Louis Bonaparte, brother
of Napoleon I., from 1806 to 1810, when he abdicated, and Holland be-
came a part of the French empire. After the downfall of the great
Napoleon, the House of Orange was restored to power, and later the
kingdom was divided into the kingdoms of Belgium and The iN. iII..r
lands, and thus they are to-day."
Here the Doctor paused, and gave the opportunity for Mary to re-
mark that it was easy enough to understand why the region about
them had the name of the Netherlands, or Low Countries.
THIE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EURIOE.
The country couldn't well be much lower than it is," Frank re-
marked "much of it is below the level of tie sea. There are no
mountains in the whole length and breadth of the .'.'. ..'.,:..I, and
hardly an elevation worthy of being' called a hill."
,I 1. i. must have been a great swamp here at some time," said the
girl, and it has been filled up or drained to make it useful."
Your surmise is correct," was the reply. "The Hollanders have
fought the sea and the rivers for hundreds of years, and it is only by
the most persistent industry that they have kept the country to them-
Perhaps that's why it is sometimes remarked that the Dutch have
taken Holland," interposed Fred; they took it from the sea, and have
done well to keep it."
Then the Doctor explained that originally the country was nothing
but a broad morass inhabited by savage tribes, who are mentioned by
.... _- --".. 1 \
'-- "," '
D)IICII LANDSCAPE ON DISNNER-PLATE.
Julius C(asar. They
were a brave and in-
telligent people; they
were conquered by
the Iomnans, after-
(hristianity, and in
the time of Charle-
mimagne the country of
the Netherlands form-
ed ai part of his empire.
tion of tlie history of
the country was indef-
initely postponed, as
the travellers' atten-
tion was occupied with
the sights around
Here and there a
church spire or tower
rose from the flat extent of land and stood out against the horizon. The
ground seemed almost level with the water, and the grass came down
to the edge of tihe stream. houses stood so close to the bank in places
that it seemed as though a strong wind would send them floating away
BRIELLE AND VAN TIROMIP.
to the sea; Fred ..-- -i .1 as much. but Frank remarked that the
houses were all of a substantial character, with tihe sturdiness of their
builders, and were not easily torn from their foundations. Maryv looked
for forests, and was disappointed with the scanty number of trees that
were in sight; she sug-
gested that the wooden --
piles which rose here
and there from the wa-
ter. and served as rest-
ing-places for gulls or -
other birds, ought to be '
counted as trees in order
to make a respectable
number of the.m.. .
A town of venerable .
appearancecale in sight .. "
on the left, and Mrs. Blas-
sett asked what it was.
That must be Bri- l:. .
elle," said Frank; at Fran .,
any' rate it is in the po-
sition of Brielle, and is -- .
fortified just as that
town is said to be."
.Is it fam ous for LOUIS BuNA'AiTE, KING 01 HoLL.[NI, 10i-Mo10
anything ?" Marv asked.
Yes ; it was the birthplace of Van Tromp, a celebrated naval com-
mander, who was born here in 1597. ie was made Admiral of H1olland,
and during his career as an .i.. he is said to have been victorious in
thirty battles. lie was once i. I. I..l byh the English admiral lBlake,
but in the same vear lie again encountered him aind came off victorious,
capJturing two of the English ships and sinking several others; this was
in 1 .-' In 1. he was mortally wounded in a battle witl the English
fleet, and so his magnificent career came to an end. His full name was
Martin I arpertzoon Tromp; he is not called Van Tromp by hle )Dutch,
but just plain Tromp, which was his name at his birth. lie was en-
nobled by the King of France in honor of a victory over the Spanish
and Portuguese fleets in 1 '. According to history lie was one of
the ablest seamen of his time, and his name was for a, good imany years
a terror to the English whenever Holland and England were at war."
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
"Brielle is also famous," said Fred, "as the first place which was
taken from the Spaniards by the Dutch in 1572. The English had it
from 1.: to 1616, and during the troubled times of Holland it was the
scene of a great deal of fighting. It is dull and sleepy enough to-day,
and does not contain much that would interest us."
Slowly steaming on against the current of the river, they soon left
Brielle behind them and caught sight of the spires of Schiedam. This
city is not on the bank of the river, but a little way from it, and is
reached by a canal broad and deep enough for vessels of considerable
size. When Schiedam was mentioned Mrs. Bassett asked if it was
famous for anything, as Brielle was.
It is famous, or infamous, even more than Brielle," said the Doctor.
"It is noted for its manufacture of gin or Schiedam schnapps, and
there are about two hundred distilleries in the place, all devoted to the
fame oming from the.' Jenever,' or ...- berry, from which it is sup-
name coining from the. 'Jenever,' or 1 1- ; -berry, from which it is sup-
I= Y : -- --- ''-
_.,.--_ =: ..... ..!+e ,+,+.e ,,,', ,I _--_ -_ll;--+ ry .ro -hic it--f up
DELFTSHAVEN AND TIHE PILG1IMIS.
posed to be distilled or flavored. Properly the liquor is distilled from
malt and flavored with juniper; it has a reputation for purity which
makes it a favorite drink with many persons, and accounts, to some
extent, for the large consumption of this liquor."
Do you believe it is better and less harmful than any other gin or
other spirituous compound Frank asked.
"As far as my observation goes it is just as bad as any other kind
of spirituous preparation, and should be shunned quite as much. (inl
drinkers die of intemperate hab-
its, just the same as other men; it 1
makes little II -!. ,-i,:,- what a man
drinks so long as he indulges in in-
toxicants. Alcohol has its -!!. i i t
in one form as well as in another." \
M i- Bassett said she did not -
care to visit Schiedam, and very .-
soon that place was dropped from '
Farther up the river our friends ~-- --- :
came in sight of Ielfthaven, or -'
Delftshaven, the harbor of the city OD), o F THIE MAYiLOW\El."
of Delft, and connected with it by
a canal. When the place was mentioned MIrs. Bassett immediately
turned to see it; she was disappointed on finding that it was a small
town of only a few thousand inhabitants, as she had expected to see a
large and flourishing city.
It ought to be much larger," said sie, "and I don't believe it has
grown at all since the Pilgrim Fathers sailed from here for America
"I've read all about it," said Mary. The Pilgrims had fled from
England to escape persecution, and were living in Iolland under the
protection of its king. They determined to go to America and seek a
home in the New World, which was then attracting settlers from vari-
ous parts of Europe. They sailed from Delfthaven-let me see-I've
forgotten the exact date. What is it, Frank?"
July 22, 1620," was the reply,
"And they didn't land on Plymouth Rock until near the end of
December," exclaimed Mary. What a long voyage Five months on
board a ship Just think of it !"
"Yes," said Fred. If they had waited till the present time they
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
could have crossed in a steamer from Rotterdam in ten days or even
less time. But they couldn't wait, and hence their voyage in the
J/ 'if .
Yes," said Mary, thatt was the name of their ship, the J/. -
It was a long and rough voyage, and the wonder is that they were not
lost at sea. And the wasn't as large as the modern ocean
steamer, by any means."
"No, indeed!" responded Frank. Few persons would to-day vent-
ure to cross the Atlantic in a vessel of 180 tons, which was the meas-
urement of the AJ -' There were 101 of the Pilgrims crowded
upon that little vessel for five long months, but they seem to have made
the voyage without quarrelling as much as the same number of modern
travellers would be apt to do if crowded so closely together for so
long a time."
"If you- ever go to Plymouth," said Doctor Bronson, you will have
the opportunity of seeing many articles of furniture that were brought
over in the J. -" --at least, so it is claimed. In the country round
about Plymouth, and scattered through the Northern States, there are
enough of these things
____ 'brought over in the .' y-
S'to load a ship four
S'I. times the size of that his-
'...,. i; i i toric craft, and not leave
| I I sufficient room for the
--;: ...- -__ 1 'Il sailors to stand or move
.i J Perhaps that's why
she was so long in mak-
S:I I- ing the voyage front Delft-
-_-_-- _-i haven," said Mary. The
ship was laden so heavily
-. that the sailors could not
manage her, but allowed
"BROUGHTI OVER IN TH:E 'MAYFLOWE. her to drift wherever tile
winds and currents chose."
Delfthaven is probably more sleepy and dull to -day than in the
times when the Pilgrims lived there. Large vessels do not often stop
at the haven, and most of the business of the place is transacted by
small boats of the kind in use by the Dutch for hundreds of years.
The canal is broad, and there is a row of houses on each side whose
A VISTA OF WINDMILLS. ii
appearance -._.-,-- to the most casual observer a condition of antiqui-
tv. Outside the town there are several windmills, but in this respect
the place cannot boast any peculiarity, as the windmill is the principal
feature of the landscape all over Holland. Nearly all the windmills
are of a very primitive fashion, and though the American inventors of
ANCIENT DUTCH BUILDINGS.
windmills have sought to place their manufactures among the Dutch
they have never succeeded to any extent. "The mills of our fathers
and grandfathers were good enough for them," the Dutch argue, "and
they ought to be good enough for us." This sort of argument is by no
means confined to the people of the _.--!..:,lI.,!..-, as every adult reader
is well aware.
Descendants of the Pilgrims in the New England -'I I. have re-
cently started a movement for the erection of a monument to mark the
spot whence the heroic men departed for the American wilds. The
site selected for it is where the canal from Leyden through the city of
Delft enters the river Maas at Delfthaven, where the ship on which the
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
Pilgrims were to sail was lying. According to the histories it was at
this point of land that John Robinson stood, and the Pilgrims bade
farewell to their friends in a manner so touching that, as recorded by
the chroniclers of the expedition, sundry of ye Dutch strangers yt
stood on ye key as spectators could not refrain from tears."
The land where the memorial is to stand belongs to the corporation
of Rotterdam, to whom it was ceded a few years ago. The Dutch
S 2 "- ., -i .
'" ---. "-'r.' ,I "--.v J;'
THE BANKER AND HIS WIFE.-DUTCH COSTUMES OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY.
Government has offered to give material assistance to the enterprise,
and it is quite probable that before these pages are in the hands of the
reader the erection of the monument will be under way.
"- -" 2-
'" rs-. ,--. -:- ... ." _.- ''_--- i .
TRE lh~(R. N BI IF.-: -D TI O T IE "F ,2- .ITIS I "- ,-
G ov rn e. ,; s &--. : ;=- to- ':- @ .. .. .. t l as'-. --:- -- .e ,' ',', --. ,
FIRST VIEW OF ROTTERDAM.
ARRIVAL AT ROTTERDAM.-THE BOOMPTJIES.-SHIPS OF ALL NATIONS IN THE
RIVER.-RAPACITY OF GUIDES AND PORTERS.-DISAGREEABLE EXPERIENCES.
-VIEW FROM THE WINDOW OF THE HOTEL.-THE HARBOR AND TIE SHORE.
-CANALS AND HAVENS.-THE LIEUVEIIAVEN.-DRAWBRIDGES AND HOW
THEY ARE PASSED.-TAKING TOLL IN A SHOE.-RULES REGARDING THlE
BRIDGES.-DOGS IN HARNESS.-DOGS AND WOMEN HARNESSED TOGETHER.-
STREET SIGHTS AND SIGNS.-"FIRE AND WATER TO SELL."-" MANGIANG
DONE HERE."-BARBERS' SIGNS AND THEIR ORIGIN.-A MANIA FOR CLEANLI-
NESS.-SATURDAY MORNING TERRORS.-THE GREAT MARKET.-CURIOUS HEAD-
DRESS OF THE WOMEN.-HOW CUSTOMS ARE CIIANGING.- HOUSE OF THE
THOUSAND TERRORS."-ERASMUS AND HIS STATUE.
TIIE talk about Delfthaven and the Pilgrim Fathers of New England
was brought to an end as the spires and roofs of Rotterdam came
into view. Rotterdam burst rather suddenly on the vision of the travel-
lers as the steamer turned a sharp
bend in the river and seemed in
danger of running ashore before-
she could swing into the proper 4/'-
position. But the pilot knew his t o' '
business and brought the vessel --
gracefully around, though he nar- '
rowly missed a boat which sailed
leisurely across his course.
"What a pretty place !" ex-
claimed Mrs. Bassett, as she caught 0.
sight of the B. .... i. ,. the hand- 1
some quay which forms the ri.l. .
of the city.
Yes," replied the Doctor, "it
is one of the prettiest water-fronts DUTCH MUSIC PLATE, EIGHTEENT: CENTCRY.
to be found anywhere."
And all planted with trees !" said NMrs. Bassett. "We haven't seen
any steamboat-landing ornamented in that way since we left home."
The B. ...I ti i;,_ is unusually attractive for the water-front of a com-
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
mercial city. The traveller generally finds very little attention to orna-
ment in such a spot, and in the majority of instances there is a great
deal of dirt and other things of a disagreeable sort. No wonder our
friends found the water-front of Rotterdam a pleasing sight, and every
one who has seen it shares their opinion.
The Boomptjies is about a mile in length, and is planted with shade-
trees from end to end. Behind the broad esplanade there is a series of
well-constructed buildings, some of them of ancient type, but carefully
preserved and secured against all dilapidation. Some of the old build-
ings have modern fronts, and there seems to have been an effort to com-
bine the practicality of modern days with the picturesque features of
times long gone by.
The steamer stopped in front of the Boomptjies, and was soon made
fast to her landing-stage. Frank and Fred observed that the harbor ap-
peared to be filled with ships from all parts of the world, or at any rate
they were of all nationalities, and presumably from their home ports.
Rotterdam is a busy place, and its commerce is extensive. Frank said
he (lid not need to go on shore to know that it was a commercial city
of considerable consequence, since this was evident from a view of the
harbor, either up or down the river.
The river is wide, and affords excellent anchoring ground for hun-
dreds of ships at a time. The vessels in the harbor were of all sizes and
shapes, from the Dutch boats, square and broad at bow and stern as
though cut off with a saw, to the fast steamboats of the Rhine or the
trim yachts that fly across the (F' iin,.-I at great speed when the ele-
ments favor them. Several large steamers were anchored in the river,
and as the Jaastroomn swung to her landing-stage she passed close to
one of the vessels of the Netherlands Line, connecting New York with
Eotterdam and Amsterdam.
She looks like one of the White Star steamers," Fred remarked.
"And well she may," answered Frank. "Several steamers of the
White Star Line were purchased by the -N.-.rl.- .i..- Line, and their
names were changed to accommodate the new service in which they
found themselves. The Veendam was once the White Star steamer Bal-
tic, the Mtaassdam was formerly the Repujbic, and the Sp)aar dam was
Conversation relative to the transatlantic line between Holland
and the United States was cut short by a rush of porters on board the
steamer with a view to earning money by transporting the '-,IL.-- of
the passengers. They evidently believed in a division of labor, as they
IMPOSITIONS UPON TRAVELLERS.
divided the baggage in such a way that each porter took but one pack-
age, no matter how small it might be, and pretended to -I .-._* beneath
the burden. One burly fellow shouldered a roll of shawls that weighed
only a few pounds, and another seized the smallest hand -satchel lie
could find. Frank and Fred had all they could attend to for a while in
compelling the fellows to relinquish their hold and conduct themselves
in a less extortionate manner. In a little while the runner of the hotel
which they had selected made his appearance and materially aided the
youths in preserving order. Frank informed him that the baggage of
the whole party could be handled easily by two or three porters, and
they had no intention of allow-
ing the work to be divided among
ten times that number.
"Dutch thrift sometimes runs
into dishonesty," said Frank to
Mary, when the excitement was ''
over, "and this is a good illus- '
tration of it. These porters have'
a system of fees, and there is an> .
attempt to regulate them by law,.
but they break through the regu- '
lations whenever they have the:
least opportunity. If we had per- .' ,
mitted it we should have seen a
porter for each piece of our im- .
pedimenta, and each man of them
would have wanted a reward that
would have :' --'..- l' I 1 a good AN OLD FAMILY PuORTRAIr.
"But shall we find it so all through Holland ?" Mary asked.
Perhaps not all the way," was the reply, but certainly in many
places. Their plan is to demand three or four times as much as they
are entitled to; by so doing they hope to compromise on about half the
sum asked for, and frequently succeed in the effort. Then they have a
way of intimating that gentlemen always give them what they ask,
and they lay marked emphasis upon the word gentleman.' This trick
is a good one, and many travellers are caught by it. They pay liberally
rather than run the risk of being considered plebeian."
There was no occasion for a carriage, as the hotel where our friends
went is on the Boomptjies, and it was pleasanter to walk than to ride
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
for the short distance they had to go. Frank had telegraphed for rooms
overlooking the quay, and found that they had been carefully reserved.
Mrs. Bassett was delighted with her location, and said she did not care
to go out for two or three hours at least, as there was enough to amuse
her for that time by looking from the window.
And certainly the view from the window was entertaining in no
small degree. Mary remarked that the Hollanders were evidently a
very orderly people, as they had planted trees all along the Boompt-
jies, and taken care to have them all of the same size and at exactly
even distances apart. The ground had evidently been swept in the
ii n.. i ;.-. and was much cleaner than one usually finds the ground near
the place where ships land and receive their cargoes, and hundreds of
people and hundreds more of vehicles are in constant motion. Mrs.
Bassett wondered where all the Dutchmen were, as she couldn't see any
in the constant current of humanity that flowed along the quay.
I suppose these are nearly all Dutchmen, or Hollanders, as they
prefer to be called," said Frank. There are doubtless some foreign-
ers among them, but not more than the proportion one would find in
any other seaport."
Mrs. Bassett explained that she supposed Dutchmen were stout in
figure and very slow in their movements. She had certainly read and
heard so, and she did not remember ever to have seen the picture of a
Hollander who was otherwise than very solid in his construction.
You are not the first traveller who has come here with that idea,"
said Frank. "We shall see some of the stout gentlemen you speak of
before we leave the country, but the great majority of the people are
such as are now passing before you. The typical Dutchman is found
in the country rather than in the cities-ah I there goes one who only
needs a broad-brimmed hat with the rest of his garb to match to enable
him to stand as a model for one of VY, i,1.- -'- portraits."
Mrs. Bassett looked in the direction indicated by her son and was
relieved from her disappointment. She had seen a real Dutchman on
his native soil.
Looking up the river our friends saw the massive railway bridge
that spans the Maas at the upper end of the Boomptii.-, and connects
the northern part of Holland with the southern. This bridge may be
taken as the line of division between the navigation of the river and
that of the ocean. Sea-going vessels, with the exception of the smallest
of them, do not go above the bridge, and they have no occasion to do so,
as the best part of the harbor is below it. The steamboats navigating
A WALK IN ROTTERDAM.
the Rhine descend below the bridge; there is a considerable fleet of
these boats, and during the tourist season they are liberally patronized.
Having been gratified by the sight of a native Ilollander whose
proportions and movements accorded with her views, Mrs. Bassett an-
nounced her readiness for a promenade whenever the rest of the party
wished to go out. In a little while all the arrangements for their stay
at the hotel were completed, a guide was secured, and the travellers
.. ._-. --. .i. _--._., ,
"* : t r ,. t- .- }',-I'
,I ._ '.- i:_ -- _-* ... I t- ', ,, ,
-- 2 4 -,-"
-- -'^ ----- --"i;-.' ,T -- -" '-- ----- 1 ? ,- -" ,'; s
g, = -- .- -_ ,. -,t t, r .'; t" '
= c- -"- -- --- : -.- ':'-, -_2_ .. ,'/ -. -,,
,kc -- --- -- .. .: % ,-.=- -- : =_. ,: ,
OLD BRIDGE IN SOUTH HOLLAND.
went out for a stroll. Their plan was to walk until they felt .. i and
then take a carriage, or two carriages, for the rest of the excursion.
They traversed the Boomptjies, and at the end found they had to
pass over a drawbridge to reach the ground beyond.
"The Boomptjies is an island," said Frank, and there are several
other islands in Rotterdam, as it is cut up by canals almost as much as
Venice or Stockholm."
"This looks more like a river than a canal," said Mrs. Bassett, as
they reached the Leuvehaven, one of the largest of the canals.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
This and the Oude Haven and Niewe Haven are more properly
arms or bays of the river that flows in front of the city," Frank an-
swered. They are broader and deeper than the other canals, and you
see that they admit large ships.
The drawbridge was up, to allow the passage of a steamer from
Java or some other part of the Far East, and a little way ahead of it
was a sailing ship that had jl-r. passed through the entrance, and was
being warped to her position, where she would discharge her cargo
into one of the huge warehouses that lay close to the water's edge.
Most of the canals of Rotterdam are lined with warehouses, and goods
are hoisted from vessels in front of them by means of cranes, or beams,
projecting from the upper stories. In Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and all
the other ports of Holland, these projecting timbers are an important
feature of the view along the bank of a canal and the buildings that
front upon it.
Quite a little crowd of people assembled on both sides of the draw-
bridge while it was open, and as soon as the sides were let down they
hurried across. These drawbridges are provoking affairs when one is
in a hurry, and many a traveller has missed an engagement, or failed to
take a train by which he expected to go elsewhere, all in consequence
of delays at drawbridges. By law and custom the boats and barges on
the canals have the right of way, and people on land must be patient.
The drawbridge, which had just been opened and closed again, was
of unusual width and size, as it was necessary for large vessels to pass
the entrance to the "haven which it guarded. Farther on in their
walk the party came to a small bridge which had an antiquated ap-
pearance, and was evidently built before any of the present modern
improvements in bridges were devised; it was operated by means of
chains fastened to great beams of wood. The keeper of the bridge
pulled on the chains and thus elevated the bridge, and when there was
no further need of its standing open, a loosening of the chains allowed
the draw to close.
"Who pays the men for working the bridges ?" Mary asked.
"They collect toll from the boats that pass," replied Frank. "A
portion of the money thus obtained is for the compensation of the
bridge-keeper, and the rest goes into the city treasury. Here comes a
barge; let us wait and see it pass this bridge, and watch the keeper as
he collects his toll."
As the barge came near the bridge the keeper pulled on the chains
and opened the draw, and as soon as he had done so he seized a pole
FISHING FOR TOLL. 25,
ANCIENT DTC BUILDING.
lie a lg I d t a d w t kd o f
caught in the canal, and remarked that the man ought to put .11 fish-
'. .. .. -.. V- _. t+ .*^ . ,f,,
caught in the canal, and remarked that the ', an ought to put -_-I- fish-
T.at's a queer kind of bait lie uses," Fred remarked, as lie per-
ing-rod and dangling over the water
You've heard of fishing with a silver hook, haven't you?" said
Frank, with a smile.
Fred nodded an affirmative.
"Well, then, this man is going to do exactly the reverse. I I's
about to fish for silver instead of fishing with it."
The movements of the angler and his implements were closely
watched. The wooden shoe was suspended near the man who seemed
to be in charge of the craft that was about to pass the bridge; lie
dropped a small coin into the the toe of the shoe, which was then swung
back again to the band of the bridge-keeper. Then the barge pro-
ceeded through the o. iin.. the bridge was lowered, and the pedes-
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
trians resumed their promenade. They had witnessed the operation of
taking toll on a Dutch canal.
Sometimes a cup made of strong leather takes the place of the
wooden shoe, but the latter article is the customary receptacle for the
toll money due the bridge-keeper. Sometimes the toll is paid by means
of a paper ticket; tickets are issued for certain routes, and there is a
ticket or coupon for each bridge to be passed.
Mary asked how much toll was paid for passing a bridge. Doctor
Bronson said the amount was usually equal to two cents of our money,
but in cases of large ships entering the principal havens, the price was
higher, according to the vessel's tonnage.
Just after passing the bridge they met a cart drawn by dogs and
laden with milk-cans. Two dogs were harnessed side by side, and ap-
peared to be heavily burdened, as all the milk-cans in the cart were
full. Several other carts were seen in the course of the stroll, drawn
by dogs, either singly or in pairs, and laden with various kinds of mer-
chandise. Mary came to the conclusion that the Hollanders were such
an industrious people that they could not bear to see anything idle
that was able to work. Evidently the dogs were compelled to earn
their living, and she wanted to know if the cats of Holland were
treated in the same way.
"I have never heard of cats being harnessed and required to work,"
Frank answered, in reply to his sister's question; but I believe the
first troupe of trained and performing cats came from Holland. I
wonder they haven't managed to harness the birds, and use them for
drawing boats on the canals when the wind does not favor them."
"I have seen a picture," said Mrs. Bassett, "in which a dog and a
woman were represented drawing a canal-boat or a cart, I forget
which. Do they really harness women in this way ?"
Probably they do not harness them as horses are harnessed,"
replied Frank, but it is not unusual to see boats drawn by men and
women along the canals, and it is not at all improbable that the women
share the work with the dogs. I have seen a picture in which a boat
was being drawn by a woman and a d.._, and steered by a man who
was comfortably seated at the tiller and had a pipe in his month."
"I hope that picture was drawn from somebody's imagination," said
Mrs. Bassett, "and not from actual life. As for the poor dogs, there
ought to be a law for their protection."
"A law has been passed quite recently," said Frank, "forbidding
the use of dogs for purposes of draught inside the city limits, but the
RULES AS TO ROADS AND BRIDGES.
police do not enforce it-at any rate not rigidly. Those that we have
seen are on the side streets. I doubt if we could find any dogs har-
nessed to carts on the principal streets and avenues."
In some places our friends found the streets very narrow and with-
out any sidewalks, so that whenever they met vehicles of any kind
they were obliged to stand close to the wall in order to avoid being run
over. Frank said that everything was given over to commerce, and
the rights of pedestrians were of a secondary character. Carts might
IlL .19 4.
AN OLD GATE-WAY.
go and come as they pleased without regard to the convenience of
those on foot, bridges were raised whenever boats or barges wished to
pass, no matter who might be incommoded, and heavy wagons were
not allowed to pass certain bridges through fear of injuring them.
SIn most of the cities of Holland," said Frank, there is a regula-
tion forbidding a wagon weighing with its load more than four tons
passing over any bridge without special permission. When such a
wagon is to be moved the authorities specify the route by which it is
to go, and the bridges it must cross, and any deviation from tile order
will be punished by a heavy fine."
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
None of the party was proficient in the language of the country,
and all were relying more or less on the guide whom they had taken
from the hotel. Mrs. Bassett was puzzled by many of the signs over
the shops, and was constantly asking their conductor the meaning of
"What is this?" said she, as she pointed over the door of a cellar
where the announcement appeared of water en vuur te keep."
"That means 'water and fire to sell,'" the guide answered.
How do they keep them to sell ?" was the next query.
The guide explained that at these establishments boiling water and
red-hot peat or turf were sold to poor people who wished to prepare
their tea or i.... .,.. For less than it would cost them to build a fire
for making their favorite beverage they could have -.lli.!i r.it boiling
water and the coals they needed to complete the work.
Iere's another sign that seems to mean something dreadful," said
the good old lady. "What can they want to mangle men for ?"
Attention was turned to the sign that seemed to her so terrible;
the reading upon it was Hier mangeld men," and Mary -,,-.-- .1
that the Hollanders must be real savages and possibly cannibals.
"That doesn't mean 'here they mangle men,'" the guide responded,
Sbut what they are saying is 'mangling done here.' A great many
people send their clothes to be mangled, just as they do in England,
but to a greater extent than in that country. As you walk about the
streets you will see that sign very often."
The incident reminded Fred of a story that he heard in London
about a prank of some college students one night. They took the sign
of "Mangling done here" from the front of a laundry establishment,
and placed it over the door of the hospital attached to a medical col-
lege. To those who passed the door of the hospital on the next morn-
ing the sign was not at all a pleasing one, nor was it to the officers of
the college, who ordered its removal as soon as they heard of it.
What kind of a shop is this?" queried Mi Bassett as they stopped
in front of a building which bore the words Dit huis is te hurren," but
had no indication of being used for commercial purposes, as all the
doors and windows were closed.
"That means' this house to hire or let,' the guide answered. "No-
...'1. has it now, and the owner wants to find a tenant."
As they went along he explained several other signs as fast as they
came into view. According to his interpretation, Tapperij" was a
tap-room, and "hier verkoopte man sterke drunken" told that the
A DRUGGIST'S SIGN IN HOLLAND.
-I r..ii-.~*. 11111
S. ^ i" I*' *1'. ,
'"' ,' ,,,,,, **,', ;' ..... ,: ,' ,, (', '
,' i MY s' '1
I *II~.P i ii
i, .1 t ^ ;l'*l '*"'F *', '' .- ', r^
,I *, ..,
,, .. .. !;1 ',! I ,,,
I ..'l t't' : ,' s ,' ,' ,,!
+, ;S ,. .. i,: l ,
,.' 1 i '' -, : ', ', ",
I:II. II .1 .1
Cllt bLulut. wMaLa i ik- A^ _-Y -
ed what was the rea-
son for the druggists
having such a pecul- couLrNIY scItSE.
iar sign, but the guide
was unable to tell her. Frank said that the gaperss" were invented
a long time ago, and were intended to show that the dried seed-balls of
poppies were sold at the shops where the heads were exhibited. The
poppy is supposed to be productive of slumber, and the gapers"
nearly always have the mouth open and the eyes distorted as though
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
the head was yawning. Before the gaperr" was invented a string of
dried poppies was exhibited over the entrance of the shop, and for a
long time this was the sign of a druggist.
Mrs. Bassett pointed to a door where there was a brass dish sus-
pended, and asked if that was a place where brass goods were sold.
"No, madame," answered the guide, that is the shop of a barber.
You have a different sign in America, and I don't wonder you cannot
recognize this as a barber's shop."
Frank came to his mother's aid by explaining that as early as the
fourteenth century the barbers were also blood-letters and wound-
healers. They had signs over their doors representing the cure of suf-
ferers and generally some lines explanatory of what was done inside
the doors. One of these inscriptions was
"Die gccureerd wil wesen
Compt en word genesen,"
which means, when rendered into plain English,
"Those who wish to be cured
Come and be healed."
There was also a sign much used which represented a lancet, a pair
of scissors, and a razor; this was interpreted to mean that men could
be shaved or bled in the shop and also have their hair cut.
Where did the barber's pole, such as we have it in America, come
from ?" queried Mary, as soon as Frank paused.
The barbers and surgeons in London formed one company in 1540,"
said Frank, "and separated in 1744. According to history they dis-
played a head or poll in front of their shops, and the present pole of the
barber is thought to have come from this custom. About the middle
of the eighteenth century the surgeons in Holland are said to have
placed a pole with white, red, and blue stripes in front of their shops.
Some say that the red stripe was to indicate a piece of cloth dipped in
blood and wound around a stick; another explanation is that the red
stripe indicated '.1 ... 1; ,.. the white one teeth drawi,,_. and the blue
the blue steel of the razor used in shaving the beard."
Other questions about shops and their keepers were asked and an-
swered, but we have not space for them all. In the course of their stroll
our friends reached the Groote Markt, or Great Market, and Mrs. Bassett
was somewhat surprised to learn that the principal part of it was built
on arches above a canal.
Every member of the party was impressed with the cleanliness that
CLEANLINESS OF DUTCH CITIES.
OF THE OLDEN TIME."
everywhere prevailed. They had been forcibly reminded of it several
times during their walk, as they found men and women scrubbing the
steps of the houses and the sidewalks in front of them, and the scrub-.
bers were very liberal in their use of water. The [Hollanders carry the
idea of washing and scrubbing almost to a mania, but, happily it is on
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
the right side. It is better to devote too much labor to cleanliness
than too little," said Frank, "and this constant industry of the Holland-
ers is a thousand times preferable to the utter carelessness of the Turks
and other Oriental people. It is better to have our feet and clothes
splashed now and then by water thrown from buckets for washing the
streets than to walk through the piles of garbage that you find in Con-
stantinople and other eastern cities."
Saturday is the great day for washing steps and sidewalks in Rot-
terdam, and the stranger should beware of walking out in that city on
Saturday morning unless he is utterly indifferent to a splashing. Any
other day of the week he will run a certain amount of risk in this di-
rection, but Saturday is the worst of all.
The market-place was well filled with people, and the visitors were
struck by the quaint costumes of many of the women who had flocked
in from the country. The most remarkable part of their costumes was
about the head, which was described as follows by Mary:
I never saw anything funnier in all my life," the girl wrote in
her note-book. "Many of the women had shields or coverings for
their heads, exactly as if they had hollowed out an old skull and
had it gilded or silvered after it had been carefully 'tried on' and
fitted to the place where it was to go. It covered the hair com-
pletely, and I think the fashion must have been started by one of
the ancient queens of Holland, whose hair had all fallen out, and she
was too poor to buy a wig, just as they say the fashion of small
feet for women in China was started by an empress whose feet were
:so deformed that she was unable to walk.
Outside of these metal caps they had lace caps, which were gener-
ally quite becoming. Some of them had made a very ridiculous effect
by putting modern bonnets on top of the metal and lace caps; it was
as funny as though George Washington should be painted in the cos-
tume of his day, knee-breeches, queue, powdered hair, low waistcoat, and
everything else of the Continental time, but should cover his head with
a modern hat of the latest 'stove-pipe' pattern. Frank says these gold
head-coverings which the Dutch women wear have come down to them
through many generations; they are kept in the family as heirlooms,
and descend from mother to daughter again and again. I shall try to
buy one and take it home, but sha'n't wear it to a party, as I don't want
to hide my hair."
This ..1,i,, I;.., mentioned by Mary is the cause of a revolt on the
part of the young women of Holland against the custom of wearing the
curious head ornaments just described. \I ,y of them refuse altogether
to hide in this way an important element of their beauty, and it is not
impossible that before the end of the century the old fashion will have
passed away. It will linger in the rural districts, but is liable to dis-
appear from the cities.
Mary also made note of the fact that many of the women had long
and large ear-drops, and some of them appeared so heavy as to be pain-
ful to the wearer. These ear-drops, like the head-dresses, are heirlooms
in the family, and some of them are hundreds of years old. The Dutch
jewellers of past ages were quite as skilful as those of to-day, and somen
connoisseurs say they were supe-
rior to their fellow-craftsmen of
modern times, the art of working
in gold and silver having fallen '
IVl.:, fish, butter, eggs, and oth-
er articles of consumption in every-
day life were for sale in the mar-
ket, and here again the impression .
of cleanliness was apparent. Every
utensil of wood or metal bore evi- '1.
dences of having been vigorously
scrubbed; the brass, copper, and
iron shone like mirrors, and thie
utensils of wood were fairly white '''
with the severe rubbing they had
received. The market men and
women, especially the latter, were
scrupulously neat in their appear-
ance, and had evidently made .-
themselves up for the occasion of
coming to market. There was a "M TE oi .
good deal of talk and 1I i-. I 1 ..
but the utmost good-nature prevailed, and whenever the party stopped
to look at anything they were courteously welcomed, and made to feel
that they were not intruding.
We spent a pleasant and interesting hour among the market peo-
ple," said Mary, "and were then shown some of the curiosities in or
near the market-place, in the shape of old buildings.
"One of the historic corners of the square, or of a street leading into
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
it, is 'The House of the Thousand Terrors,' as they call it. Here is
the story they tell about it:
"In the year 1572 the Spaniards invaded Holland, and captured
Rotterdam by strategy. They plundered the houses and murdered the
inhabitants without mercy; it is said that a thousand people shut them-
ERASMUS.-(By Deutsch, after Holbein.)
selves up in this house, barred the door, and put up the shutters. Then
they killed a kid (one account says they killed several cats), and allowed
the blood to run under the door-way and out into the street. When the
Spaniards passed along and saw the blood they supposed that the house
had been plundered by their comrades and the inhabitants killed, and
NOTES CONCERNING ERASMUS.
so they passed on and left the place unharmed. The house is not a
large one, and the thousand people must have been packed very close
together. The place is well named, as they must have been in great
terror, knowing that at any moment the Spaniards might discover them
and put them to death."
While Mary was recording the visit to the House of the Thousand
Terrors Fred was making a sketch of the statue of Erasmus, which
stands in the market-square, and looking at the house where he was
born, in a street leading to the square. 3I -. Bassett asked who Eras-
mus was, and was enlightened as follows by Fred:
"Erasmus was one of the greatest scholars of his time, and some
critics pronounce him the greatest and wittiest of all. lie was born at
Rotterdam in 1465, or, according to some historians, in 1467, and after
being educated at Utrecht and Deventer he became a monk. Ile lived
several years in a convent at Stein, then went to Paris and supported
himself as a tutor. His thirst for knowledge was so great that once
when he was almost in rags he wrote to a friend: 'As soon as I get
money I will buy first some Greek books and then some clothes.'
"He went to England in 1 -I', and became intimate with Sir Thomas
More and other great men of that time; his fame spread rapidly, and
all the monarchs of Europe sought to have him at their courts. When
his books appeared they were eagerly sought; 24,000 copies of his Col-
loquies were sold in one year, and his complete works were published
in nine volumes in 1541, live years after his death at Basle, in Switzer-
land, and had a very large sale."
I suppose he was beheaded or burned at the stake, like most of the
noted men of his time," said Frank.
No," replied Fred; "he was an exception to the general rule. lie
died quietly of gout, as though he had been a king and not a scholar.
lie took a middle ground between the Catholics and Protestants, and
was consequently popular with neither."
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
THE CHURCH OF ST. LAWRENCE.-VIEW FROM TIE TOWER.-THE GREAT ORGAN.
-A DUTCH LANDSCAPE.-THE MUSEUM.-DUTCH ART.-MARY'S VIEWS OF IT.
-CUYP AND OTHER PAINTERS.-ADVANCE IN THE PRICE OF PAINTINGS.-
IIOUSES OF THE STONE FACES.-A TRADITION OF THE PLAGUE.-A VISIT TO
THE COUNTRY.-CATTLE IN THE FIELDS.-INSPECTING A HERD.-GOOD-NAT-
URED ANIMALS.-THE POLDERS.-SYSTEMI OF DRAINAGE.-HOLLAND'S BATTLE
WITH THE SEA.-HOW CANALS AND DIKES ARE MADE.-RECLAIMING LAND
AND ITS VALUE.-FERTILITY OF THE SOIL.-THE NORTH HOLLAND CANAL.-
NORTH SEA CANAL.-PROPOSAL TO DRAIN THE ZUYDER ZEE.-DINNER AT A
FARI-HOUSE.-WHAT IT CONTAINED. -SUMMER-LIOUSES OF WEALTIIY PEO-
PLE, AND TIE LIFE IN THEM.
AFTER the interest of the market-place was exhausted, the party
went to the Groote Kerk, or Church of St. Lawrence, whose prin-
cipal attractions are the monuments to heroes of the naval history of
Holland. Frank not-
ed that the church was
built in the latter part
of the fifteenth centu-
ry, and that its orna-
ments were consider-
ably damaged by the
French Republicans at
the time they occu-
pied the country. The
church has a large or-
gan with no fewer
than 4762 pipes and 72
stops. The largest of
the pipes is 32 feet
long and 17 inches in
"Do you want to climb to the top of the tower ~" queried Frank of
his mother, while they stood in front of the organ.
A FOUR-POSTER BED.
IURD'S-EYE VIEW OF ROTTERDAM.
"Not I," was the reply, "and I don't think Doctor Bronson wants
to go. VWe will stay here while you and Fred and Mary go there, if you
want to, and I presume you do."
The guide -._.. ,1 that the organist would play for an hour for a
fee of ten florins, and Frank authorized the immediate engagement of
that functionary. lie came forward, and the youth quickly closed a
bargain with him, so that while the younger portion of the party as-
cended the tower the elders were listening to music. Mrs. 1Bassett pro-
nounced it excellent, but unequal to the performances of the great organ
in the Boston MLui.-i-.-hall.
The young folks found the ascent fatiguing enough, as they had to
mount no '1. -,.- than .._', stone steps, the tower being 297 feet high.
"I had to stop to take breath when I got to the top," said Mary, "but
when I was rested I enjoyed the view ever and ever so much, and felt
fully repaid for my fatigue. We had a scene which Frank said was
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
as Dutch as Dutch could be. There were canals, windmills, polders,
straight roads and avenues, winding rivers, cities and towns and vil-
lages, and the sea over which we came from England. There was quite
as much land as water in the view, at least so it seemed to me; but
Fred said the land predominated, as we are fourteen miles from the
sea, and consequently have that much more of land to look upon.
"The custodian went up with us, and he was very useful in pointing
out the places that we could see. There were Schiedam, Delft, the
Hague, Leyden, Brielle, Gouda, and Dordrecht, and he named several
smaller places that I can't remember."
"What do you mean by polders ?" said Mrs. Bassett, when Mary was
telling what she had seen.
SPolders are the fields or meadows that are made by draining the
water from the ground that is lower than the level of the sea, so Frank
says. The water is pumped out by means of windmills or steam-en-
gines, and the soil is so rich that it produces abundantly. The cattle
that live in the polders devoted to grass are the sleekest you ever saw
in your life."
"We'll see some polders to-morrow, mother," said Frank, and then
you'll realize how rich they are."
From the church the party went to the museum, which contains a
goodly number of paintings, principally by Dutch artists. Before 1864
the collection was much larger than it is at present. The museum was
burned in that year and three hundred pictures were destroyed; some
of them were of very high rank, and the loss is one that cannot be re-
placed. At present the collection is inferior to the collections at the
league and Amsterdam, but it is well worth a visit, and should not be
missed by any traveller who goes to Rotterdam.
"We had seen a good many Dutch pictures in London," said Mary,
Sand some of them were quite as fine as any they have here. An Eng-
lishman who was in the museum while we were looking at the pictures
said the best of the Dutch paintings were in England, and that his
country was ready to give higher prices for the works of the old Dutch
masters than any other part of the world. I'm glad the English appre-
ciate the Dutch pictures, for I like them very much, and so do all of us."
Mary undertook to make a list of the most interesting pictures, but
gave up the effort in despair when she found the length of the catalogue.
" We hadn't time to look at half of them nor even a quarter, and study
them thoroughly," said she, "but we did succeed in getting a vivid im-
pression that will last us a long time. Those that I liked best were the
NOONDAY REOT.-(From a painting by lbert (Cax .)
works of Van Dyck, Jan Steen, Ruysdael, and Vandervelde; but I do
not want to be understood as looking contemptuously on the other
paintings in the gallery."
Most of the famous artists of Holland are represented in the mu-
seum, some by excellent specimens of their productions, and some by
works that do not rank high in the artistic scale. Of late years the
wealthy men of Rotterdam have shown an inclination to make the city
famous as an art centre, which was not always the case with their pred-
ecessors. Amsterdam was greatly interested in art long before Rotter-
dam gave much attention to it. As nearly all the great works of the
famous artists of the olden time are now in the possession of corpora-
tions or public societies, and not in individual hands, Rotterdam is not
likely to be able to increase its collection of them.
The majority of the Dutch artists did not have the satisfaction of
being fully appreciated in their lifetime. Take, for the sake of illustra-
tion, the works of Albert Cuyp, who wa.s born at Dordrecht in 1(i05
and died there in 1691. Hie painted scenes of cattle grazing or lying
down, moonlight views, landscapes in winter, cavalry battles, hunting
scenes, horse-markets, and the like, and was particularly successful in
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
all that he undertook. Very little is known of his life, and he was not
at all famous in his day nor for a long time after. One of his pictures,
which was sold in 1777 for 416 guilders ('I .1 13s. 4d.), was sold in 1844
for 12,720 guilders il(.',,i;,), and would probably bring twice or three
times the latter figure to-day; and it is safe to say that during his life-
time he was glad to take the equivalent of 10, or .'-.,*, for such a pict-
ure. He was first appreciated in England, and fully nine-tenths of his
paintings are in that country. One critic has sarcastically remarked
that it is probably because there is so little sunshine in England, and so
much in Cuyp's pictures, that the English became liberal purchasers of
his works and prize them so highly.
Frank was interested in the history of this artist, and thus wrote in
Albert Cuyp was one of the most versatile of all the Dutch art-
ists. He painted horses, cows, sheep, dogs, and other animals, and also
landscapes of every kind that he found in Holland. He does not seem
to have gone from home at any time, as he has few representations of
mountains or hills in any of his pictures; all his scenes are flat or very
nearly so, and if he ever saw a mountain his acquaintance with it was
not long enough to make an impression. IIe painted canal, river, and
marine views, fishermen drawing their nets, ships under full sail or
lying at anchor with no canvas visible, men and horses in battle, forts
besieged or assaulted, and occasionally he turned his brush to the paint-
ing of 'portraits. He lived during the time when Holland was greatly
disturbed; in his native city, when he lived there, the Synod con-
demned Barneveldt to be beheaded; afterwards came the invasion of
Holland by the French under Louis XIV., and then the death of Cor-
nelius and Jean De Witt by the fury of a mob. Civil war was disturb-
ing Holland during a part of C i.-I.' lifetime, and from his birth to his
death the times were never quiet. Yet there is hardly a reflection of
this in all the works of the artist, and but for his battle-pieces we
might believe he never heard of such a thing as war."
When wearied with their stroll our friends returned to the hotel,
and spent the rest of the afternoon in contemplating the sights of the
Boomptjies. They retired early, in order to have a good rest and take
a drive into the country around Rotterdam on the following day.
They started immediately after breakfast, and on their way through
the city the guide pointed out two old houses ,.-i,-i;,]_ each other,
each of them having on its upper story the representation in stone of a
human face looking in the direction of the other house.
HOUSE OF THlE STONEl FA1'CM's 41
Frank explained to his mother a tradition in connection wit thrs f
faces of stone regarding each other.
"The tradition is," said the youth, "that a great many rear- .._
Rotterdam was visited by the p that carried man.y of thi,- in-
habitants. All the houses in this street were visited by thE dre ,iled
disease, and of all the people there only these two men survived.
"They lived from day to day in the greatest fear, not daring to
out, and not knowing when they might be attack ed with the
lence. So they arranged that every day at certain hours each. wiould
-. i -., ---_; -
look ont of the window in the direction of the other's house, and thus
give the assurance that lie was still alive and unaffected by the plagne."
And they put these stone faces there in memory of the event,"
said 'i -. Bassett. A very good way to hand down the legend."
"If we drive past it," said Frank, "I'll show you a farm-house
where there are the representations of two hams over the gate-way to
commemorate an event in its history."
What is that ?"
The legend is that when the country was ocpied and devastated
zG -! -0- -.
THE. C, TI. O-.. T 1. ',. .. ,
look out of the window in the direction of the other's hous.,, 8,1.- thus
said v, -. Bassett. "A very" good way to a.nd dow",n tiie leod."
Wh a,;t is that ?"
.The legen is haa when the: country was occupied an. d-vasta'ed
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
by the Spaniards the owner of this farm-house and his family were on
the verge of starvation. So great was the scarcity of food that the
farm-house was sold for two hams, and the purchaser caused the trade
to be commemorated by having these representations in stone placed
over the gate-way."
"It's a sad thought," said Mrs. Bassett, after a pause, "that nearly
all the historic events of Rotterdam are connected with misfortune.
Starvation, plague, and war are associated with most of the legends
about the city and the country around it. I wonder there is any city
here at all, or any people to occupy the land."
You are not the first, mother, to think the same thing. It certain-
ly is a wonder that there is anything left of Holland after all that it
has .,,l,-,i 1. The people have had to fight with the sea to obtain and
keep their country, and to fight with men to retain possession of it."
In a little while the carriage took them to the open country outside
of Rotterdam, and the travellers found much to occupy their attention.
The sleekness and beauty of the cows attracted the eyes of Mrs.
Bassett, and she asked that they would stop the carriage so that she
could look at a herd of them near the roadside. The man in charge of
the animals divined their intentions and ranged his pets close to the
hedge that separated the field from the road. Evidently they were
accustomed to visitors, as they showed no disposition to run away, and
one of them allowed herself to be patted and stroked by Mrs. Bassett
and Mary as though they were old friends.
Frank explained to his mother that the cattle of Holland were well
cared for, and might be envied by their kindred of other lands. They
have ..ii ... I I I. I stables ; in fact the stables are often better than the
houses of the people who take care of the cows, and the grass in sum-
mer and the hay in winter are of the very best. quality. Altogether
there are worse conditions in the world than being a good cow in Hol-
land, according to the statement of the youth.
Observation confirmed the truth of the statement, and it will be
indorsed by every traveller who goes through the Netherlands. The
people extend their love of cleanliness to the homes of their domestic
animals, and the cow-stables of I-olland offer a pleasing contrast to
those of many other parts of the world.
"And now tell me something more about the polders, if you have
the time to do so," said Mrs. Bassett, as they found themselves among
those results of Dutch enterprise.
"You have already heard that much of this country is below the
RECLAIMING LAND FROM THE SEA.
-- r --.--a ._-"--_ --- '
... .. .kx... C.*;'- ..
--"" ".-^ .-. "- -'-- ._ .,.- -- ^ '- -
A DUTCI LANDSCAPE.
level of the sea, and is only kept from being' I..... by the constant
watchfulness of the people in preventing the entrance of the water.
Certainly," was the reply, and I understand that they have built
miles and miles of dikes, or embankments, and keep thousands of wind-
mills and pumping-engines at work, so that the water shall not flow in."
Well, now I'll explain how the work of reclaiming is done in this
country," said Frank.
The first step is to build a dike all around the marsh or lake that
they intend to reclaim, and in laying out this work there must be very
careful engineering to determine whether the enterprise will pay or
not; in other words, whether the cost of reclamation will be greater
than the land reclaimed will sell for.
"Some of the work of reclaiming land from the sea is undertaken
by the Government, which finds its return in the renting of the land to
tenants ; some of it is undertaken by the local authorities, and some by
stock companies, on the same general principle that railway companies
are formed upon in America. Canals are the work of the Government,
either local or general, and they serve three purposes at once."
"I understand one of their objects," said Mrs. Bassett. "The peo-
ple use them as roads are used in other countries; but what are their
other uses, let me ask ?"
"They serve to carry off the -"." I..., water that is pumped into
them," was the reply, "" i.i they also serve as enclosures for houses,
gardens, and fields, just as hedges and fences are used in our country.
"After the dikes are finished the pumps are set to work, and they
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
are kept going night and day till they have removed the water from
the marsh and converted it into dry ground. Then the surveyors lay
it off into plots of suitable size, and these plots are separated by smaller
(likes, or by canals, so that the cattle cannot stray from their own ter-
ritory, and if the water breaks in at one place the area of its devasta-
tion may be restricted.
"And all the time watchmen keep a sharp eye out for any injury
to the dikes. If a hole the size of a thread is discovered it is immedi-
ately stopped, as they know that if the water once finds an entrance,
however small, that entrance, if neglected, will enlarge minute by min-
ute, and hour by hour, till there is a break like the channel of a river,
and a great flood will pour through, which no ordinary effort can
stop, and a large area is inundated.
"The advantages which these polders have over ordinary gardens
and fields is that they do not suffer from drought. Lying, as they do,
below the level of the rivers and canals around them, they can be kept
moist in seasons of drought; very often the water is let in .nili.i.: !! ly
deep to flood them just as winter is coming on, so that the roots of
the grasses will be protected from frost. The deposit of earth at the
bottom of the polders is very rich, and does not need any artificial
stimulant like the fields in most other countries."
Frank then referred briefly to the North Holland Canal and the re-
cently completed North Sea Canal, that unites the Zuider Zee with the
German Ocean, and is of great advantage to Amsterdam. We'll
talk about this canal when we get to Amsterdam," said Frank, "and
there we'll see it, and be able to appreciate the work of the engineers
who made it.
"Down to the time when the North Sea Canal was begun the
North Holland Canal was the greatest work of the kind in the coun-
try, and was pointed at with pride by the Hollanders. It was begun
in 1819, and took six years to complete, at a cost of 8,000,000 florins, or
more than. 83,000,000. This canal extends from Amsterdam to the
Elder, and is forty-two miles long. Just think what a work it must be
to make a canal of that length, 130 feet wide and twenty feet deep!
"When that canal was made it was considered sufficient for the
needs of the country for a long time, and it was capable of receiving
the largest merchant ships then afloat. But the size of ships has in-
creased greatly in late ,: c. -. and, besides, the course of the canal is
away from the line of commerce from Amsterdam to the sea, so that
this route was long ago found inadequate. A great many vessels use
POLDERS IN HOLLAND.
it, but they are restricted to 1000 tons burden, which is very small for
the present day, however large it might have been in times past.
"But we are forgetting the polders," said Frank, and will come
back to them. To give yon an idea of the depth of water that has
been removed in creating these fields, let me say that there is one large
polder near Amsterdam which is eighteen feet below the level of the
sea. All that water had to be removed, and the removal took a long'
; ai" A.
SHIP PASSING TH'ITROUT0 I A CANAL.
time. Then there is the Anna Paulowna polder, in North Holland,
that contains several thousand acres of the most fertile fields and gar-
dens, and is dotted with farm-houses. This polder was once covered
by the waters of the Zuider Zee, and was reclaimed at great expense;
but the outlay has been repaid by the value of the land. and a good
interest obtained on the investment."
"Wasn't there a large older made out of I1aarlem Lake or IIaar-
lemmer Meer?" Fred asked.
Yes," said Frank. The Haarlem Lake was eighteen miles long
by nine in width, and had an average depth of twelve feet. It was
formed in the sixteenth century by an inundation that united four
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
lakes, and the gradual encroachment of the waters threatened the de-
struction of Amsterdam, so that the Government decided upon diking
and draining it. And when the dikes were all finished, and the pumps
were set in operation, how long do you suppose it took to pump out
the water '"
I don't know, I'm sure," said Mrs. Bassett. Perhaps a month,
perhaps three months, and maybe a year."
It took more than four years," was the reply, and the work was
done by three steam-engines that raised sixty-six tons of water at every
stroke of each engine, or nearly two hundred tons for all of them.
After the land was thoroughly drained the engines were kept at work
occasionally to clear away the surplus water, and in ordinary times it is
kept clear by means of windmills.
Since then a part of the Y, the bay near Amsterdam, has been
drained, and it is proposed to drain the whole of the Zuider Zee and
convert it into farming lands. Ten thousand people now live where
Iaarlem Lake once spread its waters, and ten or twenty times that
number could live on the land covered by the Zuider Zee."
We may add to Frank's remark that the Zuider Zee is about eighty
miles long by thirty-five broad. It is shallow throughout its whole
extent; large portions, now submerged, were cultivated and inhabited
in the time of the Romans and at a later period. In the year 1289
there was a terrible inundation that submerged seventy-two towns
and villages, and drowned more than one hundred thousand persons,
and the location of some of these towns and villages can be traced
to-day. The plan contemplated by the Dutch Government is to drain
the southern half of the Zuider Zee, and thus put about eight hundred
square miles of land into use which is now given over to the fishes
and to purposes of navigation. It is thought that the cost of the work
would be fifty millions of dollars, and the time required for its com-
pletion will be from twelve to twenty years.
Doctor Bronson asked their guide to show them to a farm-house
where they might inspect the buildings of the place and obtain some re-
freshments, thus combining the gratification of curiosity with the satis-
faction of appetite. Accordingly, the driver was instructed to halt at a
well-built house, where they were cordially welcomed. The thrifty own-
ers had an eye to business, and were quite willing to convert some of their
farm products into cash without the necessity of sending them to market.
Mrs. Bassett observed that the house was built of brick, and asked
why it was she had not seen any houses of stone during their drive.
THE SHOEMAKER AND HIS LAPSTONE.
NORTH-HOLLAND ... ..OUS..
The reason is," said the Doctor, that .olland does not produce
building stone. I many parts of the country such a thing as throw-.
"Now that you speak of it," said Mrs. Bassett, "1 remember that a
shoemaker fro' m olland came to live in our neighborhood when I was
a little girl. le had just come from the old country, and lie brought
his lapstone with him, as he thought he would not be able to find one in
America except by paying a high price for it."
-From his point of view lie was right," the Doctor replied. I
olland he had an imported lapstone, because such thin gs re not found"
here, and he naturally thought there was anl equal scarcity in other
building stone In maparts of the orcountld." such a thing s
ingBricks ar stone t a bir is union, because, though therial, and that isnty
of whyirds, they use brick in preferenceto to stone," Doctor Bronson continued.
"This is th at yo u speak of it," said Mrs. one r espect at least; ost of
shoemaker from Itolland came to live in our neighborhood wh en i was
a little girl. He had just come from the old country, and lie brought
his lapstone with him, as he thought he would not be able to find one in
America except by paying a high price for it."
From his point of view he -was right," the Doctor replied. '* In
Holland he had an imported lapstone, because such things are not found
here, and he naturally thought there was an equal scarcity in other
parts of the world."
Bricks are cheaper than stone for building material, and that is
why they use brick in preference to stone," Doctor Bronson continued.
"This is an unfortunate circumstance in one respect at least; most of
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
the churches are built of brick, and they do not present so stately an
appearance as they might otherwise."
The house where our friends stopped was but a single story in
height, or perhaps we may call it a story and a half, as there were
rooms under the roof where the servants slept, and where a tall person
could not go without stooping or nii..... the risk of injuring his
head against the beams. The house was surrounded by a ditch or
canal, and cut off from the highway by a drawbridge; the slope of the
roof was very steep, in order to allow the winter snow to glide off
easily and avoid the risk of crushing the timbers that supported it;
the ground-floor was covered with tiles; the windows were low and
small, as though glass had been very dear at the time the edifice was
erected and the builders wished to economize.
"Everything was as neat as a pin," said Mary, in her description of
the visit, and the farmer's wife who entertained us had good reason to
be proud of her work. She showed us through all the rooms; there
wasn't a great deal of furniture, and all of it looked old enough to have
been there a hundred years at least. But the oak of which it was
made was polished as though it had come from the cabinet-maker that
very day, and we wondered if they never wore their furniture out by
polishing it till there was nothing left of it. The chairs had straight,
stiff backs, the bedsteads were high, and the beds thick and soft, and
they had quilts and coverlids on them that ought to keep out the cold
of the coldest winter. In one room was a great chest that I looked at
inquiringly; the woman raised the lid, and showed a good stock of
linen, all as white and spotless as soap and muscle and hot water could
make it: the quantity fairly surprised me.
"From the house we went to the stables, where there was more
cleanliness than most people would think possible in a stable. The
cows were in a field a little way off, and we went out to take a look
at them; they were white and black. Frank said they were of the
Holstein-Frisian breed, which originally came from the Netherlands,
and is still found here in its greatest purity. All the cattle we have
seen, almost without exception, are white and black. We saw one herd
in which there was a red cow, and the others kept away from her, as
though unwilling that she should come into their society. They
probably pitied her because she was red-just as the negroes in Africa
pitied Mungo Park because he had lost his color.
They were beauties, those cows, every one of them, and we were
still admiring them when some one came to tell us that our luncheon
COWS AND MUSIC.
was ready. The cows were not at all afraid of us, with the exception
of two or three that were shy at first-possibly on account of our dress
being .ildll,-r i. from those of the people to whom they were accus-
tomed. The guide told us that these animals are very kindly treated.
and that the men and women around the farm talk to the animals as
though they understood every word. lie said the milkmaids sing while
milking the cows, and the singing is supposed to please the mollies;
they always stand perfectly still and never kick the pail over, as they
sometimes do in America.
SWhen the guide told us about the singing milkmaids, Frank said
that here was a hint for opera and concert singers when out of employ-
ment on the stage ; they might go to the country and hire out on dairy-
DUITCIINTERIOIR10 T1WO CE-NTUI1,CS AGO.
50 TIE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
farms to sing to the cows at milking-time. Or the farmers might take
their cows to the opera now and then; or if the opera was too far off, or
too expensive, the animals could be entertained by the church choir of
the nearest village or by the class at singing-school.
The luncheon that t!. -- gave us was i t as good as we could have
wished, though there were not many things in it. There was delicious
butter, plenty of sweet, rich milk. a great loaf of bread, fresh eggs,
cold ham and boiled salted beef, cheese-what more could we want?
"There was a clean white cloth on the table, the plates were blue
Delft and very old (at least they appeared to be), and had probably been
.in the family since the days when Delft was famous and industrious. I
forgot to say, when describing our inspection of the house, that the
kitchen was a model one, and would have made a picture for an artist.
Pans, buckets, milk-pails, churns, brass jugs bright as gold, and all the
other utensils of kitchen and dairy were artistically arranged on the
shelves or against the walls; the woman was pleased at our admira-
tion, and so was her daughter, a round-faced girl of fourteen or there-
abouts. Mother and daughter wore dark dresses short in the skirts, and
both had kerchiefs tied tight around their heads, so as to cover their
hair completely. Both wore wooden shoes, and we were interested to
see how gracefully they moved about with those clumsy blocks on their
feet. There's nothing like being accustomed to anything. If I had to
wear these shoes I should tumble down at every other step, I'm sure."
During their drive in the country our friends passed many resi-
dences of the wealthy citizens of Rotterdam. It is quite the fashion of
well-to-do people in Holland to have country-houses (buitenplaatsen),
where they go in summer, after the business hours of the day are end-
ed. These houses are rarely more than one or two stories high, and
they are nearly always surrounded with pretty gardens, in which
there is usually a neat lawn, the latter directly in front of the house.
There are shady arbors in the gardens. Not infrequently the house is
half covered with climbing plants, and when these are in bloom the
scene is very attractive.
Mrs. Bassett was so much attracted by the appearance of these
country-houses that she wanted a model of one to take home, with a
view to reproducing the building in her native land. She was doubt-
ful as to whether she would have the moat and drawbridge that lay be-
tween the house and the highway, but she doubted no longer when she
saw a moat in which several aquatic plants were growing so luxuri-
antly as almost to hide the surface of the water. At one house the
C r ~i.:
~?Cj~Sl~i~a~b~klBI~i~~~~ '~:rllh]~d~-i~;8%$~IP~~ Z
~ :.i~ai~_~;%-r~sra~tia~ ~~a~~ --
~~~. chJ ~~
.. 'j~ ~LSBI"U~~i
~ I II I' : .II?; 111 '' I
: ,,~ 1 5 11~~1 1:
~!?9 :~ ~r
,, ~-. rs~r
~~J~~ij'' I~1: 1.;
ir~ .~ ~*~ IYIL:h;
cl. i~ U-:.rY~i ~r~,l"rr' ;.:l'!.~'uC.i.~sr;?Plr:
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
family was in full view taking a meal on the veranda, and she was some-
what surprised to learn that this is a custom of the country and by no
means an infrequent sight in the vicinity of all the Dutch cities.
Most of these country-houses
(In repose), another is Honi....by (honey-ee), another is Myn Vre-
"-'. -. '. : i- ,
.de (my joy), and the list could e carried out to great legth. The
SHornets Nest by the neighbors.'' !,
te Dy joy, andtr -e l seats a re extensive tablishd t to g great length.
-uide said there wa. s one, ."ich, fo.r obvious reasons, was called .The
hornets' Nest" byfor their maintenance.
ways suggestive of their practical use. One ilace is called gbyn Ruot
In the in ii..rI of these houses the life is frugal, and the country-
seats are maintained for a sum that would astonish a merchant of
New York or London by reason of its low figure. Of course there are
exceptions to the rule, as to all other rules in this world, and some of
the Dutch country-seats are extensive establishments that require a
heavy outlay for their maintenance.
From their observation during the drive in the neighborhood of
Rotterdam our friends came to the conclusion that the Dutch are an
economical people, not generally given to display; that they are good
house-keepers, good farmers, and an orderly people generally; and, fur-
THE BOTANIC GARDEN.
thermore, that you might go the world over without finding a people
with a greater love for cleanliness in everything that pertains to house-
keeping and to daily life in general.
On their return to the city they visited the Zoological and Botanic
Gardens. In the former they found a good collection of carnivorous
and other wild beasts, and in the Botanic Garden their eyes were de-
lighted with many rare exotics from distant lands, especially from Java
and other parts of Asia. As these plants could not live in the climate
of Holland they have been placed in immense greenhouses, where they
are carefully tended by skilled gardeners, some of whom have lived in
the countries whence the plants were brought.
POLA R BEARS.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
FROM ROTTERDAM TO DELFT.--NOTES UPON DELFT-WARE.-HISTORY OF ITS
MANUFACTLURE.-AN EXTINCT INDUSTRY.- COUNTERFEIT WARE MADE IN ENG-
LAND.-THE EXPLOSION DISH AND OTHER HISTORIC PIECES.-ANTIQUITY OF
TIE MANUFACTURE.-WILLIAM TIHE SILENT.-HIIS ASSASSINATION.-VISITING
TIHE SCENE OF TIE MURDER.-TIIE FOUNDER OF TIE DUTCH REPUBLIC.-A
PAGE OF HISTORY.-PHILIP II. AND THE NETHERLANDS.-CIIURCHES OF
DELFT.-MONUMENT TO WILLIAM THE SILENT.-A. LIFE SAVED BY A DOG'S
FIDELITY AND INTELLIGENCE.-GROTIUS THE HISTORIAN.-IIIS ESCAPE FROM
PRISON.-A WOMAN'S STRATAGEM.-HISTORIC ELSIE.- TRAVELLING BY CA-
NAL-BOAT.-3IARY'S DESCRIPTION.-ARRIVAL AT THE HAGUE.
FROM Rotterdam our friends went to Delft, a ride by the railway
of less than half an hour, as the distance is only nine miles. Tlhey
passed Schiedam, which
-r---.. was mentioned in the first
... -. .. chapter, but did not stop
there, as no one cared to
S' visit the distilleries where
S-. schnapps are made, and
/' "- there is little else of inter-
i' ,, -.. est in the place. Frank
-:i cautioned his companions
... not to lean out of the win
-- (lows of the railway-car-
: riage for fear of accidents,
S,.' as they pass uncomforta-
bly near the posts that
S' ,-.' support the bridges where
the wagon-roads cross.
They were somewhat
Tn,: EXPLOSION DiSI. disappointed in Delft, as
it appears very dull and
sleepy; it is a smaller city than Mrs. Bassett had expected to find,
as it has not far from twenty-five thousand inhabitants, and some
DELFT AND ITS WARlE.
Bassett ,ihe ".. "i'. '," i hr' 2h f m u I'' '' .r r. 1 o
J- ha il i
TH W : Delfta," ..u o1j i
i r-an :made inq e. at --were fe oie fhn. ,a c i ,rd
of ware is made, but it is not wiat yVo would use oi your table. It is
o te l r c o t Ind o- -...a i-,, a
of it in all the museums of Europe.
.. ., ... .,t 'r I .:4 i
-- .- .
li K I ME-siE --(l)ell' i l (iI1u.10)
of the hotel was il I.-, but his information w as not reassi.uin g.
"is not made in England more. There are a few fachow toies makhere ita forse iourd
"A great deal of were the so-called De ft ware." instrued the landlord,
i =,. } . ,, ... .. ;. < -,....I ,,
--" ,.-:- :iI _% .,"~ -, .1'. ..., 'f .- .,,'
-"~~mn -':-' "er ie -, .o A le ~ mil gi, -nt~ci l n ti, .- -- .- -:",' I
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTIHI[ERN EURtOPE.
and the result was that they took the trade away from us. Our best
workmen emigrated long ago, and it would be quite impossible for this
city to turn out plates and cups and saucers, and many other things
such as were quite common here two or three hundred years ago.'
"When did they begin making the ware here?" Mrs. Bassett asked.
That is something of which we have no distinct record," was the
reply. We know that it was made here before the year 1I'.,; the
town was almost totally destroyed by fire in the year .'. :-.:, only five
houses being left when the fire was put out. The town-hall was burned
in 1618 with nearly all the records, and then we had in tl..:. the great
Was that as destructive as the fire ?" queried Fred.
S"ot quite," said the landlord, "but it was nearly as bad, as a great
many buildings were thrown down and many people lost their lives.
The powder-magazine in the centre of the town blew up; there were
tons and tons of powder in the magazine at the time, and you can easi-
ly understand that
____ it did great dam-
C7 ^" '.,-;-, ..
"- t age."
Sa' l" "Haven't I seen
Sl somewhere a dish
with a picture of
S.. the explosion ?" said
'. *.'" ,\ -, Fred.
S. Yes, there is a
i 1" large circular plat-
S".' .,' ter in Brussels call-
\ed The Explosion
Dish.' It was made
"-" .. at Delft in 1 ..,, by
'' .' : sen, and is one of
-1-^ .,-^- .,.. .' -our most famous
.' 'a--- 't pieces."
Fred then ex-
plained to .his com-
THE COLBERT PL,TE IN THE SEVRES MUSEUM. panions that tile
dish was of a most
exquisite blue, and the scene of the catastrophe was represented in its
centre. At the time it was made the Delft-ware was celebrated tlrough-
ANTIQUITY OF DELFT-WARE. 57
out Europe. A learned Ilollander, writing in the very year the Explo-
sion Dish was made, said that "' Delfsche porcelyn' was every where in
demand," and he mentions France, Spain, England, and even the Ori-
ental Indies as the parts of the world to which it was sent.
At that period the makers of porcelain in other countries used to
represent that they could make ware "equal to that of Holland," and
this representation was the basis on which they applied for privileges
to manufacture. One of the French makers of porcelain asked the Kiing
to give him authority to counter-
felt the work of the Delft makers;
in order to prove that lie could do
it, he caused plates to be made
in Holland, bearing the arms of .1
the King and that of his prime- r ( '-
minister Colbert. These plates
he presented to the King with the "---
claim that they were specimens i
of his own work. and in consid- !
eration of their excellence lihe ob-
tained the royal warrant for his .-- .
factory. The plates are now pre-
served in tie Sevres collection; ,NC o,, OSE, MARE 148).
they are interesting both as spee-
imens of the Dutch art of those days, and the audacity of the French
manufacturer in palming them ,.il as his own.
"One gentleman who has a fine collection of porcelain," said Doc-
tor Bronson, "thinks that faience was made hero in tle fifteenth cen-
tury, for the reason that lie has a porcelain horse which bears the date
1480. But, unfortunately for his argument, the trappings of the horse
are of the eighteenth century instead of the fifteenth, and the animal
bears the letters I II F, which was the signature of a factory established
in 1 ':I". But it is quite possible they were making good ware here in
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, as there are records of the year
1.;-"' showing that the manufacture was then a flourishing one."
Further consideration of the ,il.. I- of Dutch faience was postponed
for the present. M Bassett said she believed there was almost as
much genuine ware of this kind in America as in Holland, since there
were great quantities of it brought over by the Dutch settlers of New
York, and the most of it is carefully preserved.
"In my younger days," said she, every family had a set of 'blue
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
Delft,' which had come down as an heirloom from somebody. It was
treasured as ahnost priceless, and I know many of those sets, or por-
tions of them, are in existence to-day."
"We had a pleasant walk through Delft," said Mary, and
were unable to
say which were
m__ ost numerous,
S,.-f-. : the streets or the
S.,.- ;- canals. The ca-
nals intersect the
streets and the
S ..'streets intersect
the canals, so that
S, ', I J ; by land or water,
S., ., just as you like.
Most of the streets
are shaded by lime-
y -., ^'y ''trees, and very
-' pretty ornaments
S. they are, you may
There were very
LARGE JAR OF BLUE DELFT, LONDON COLLECTION. There were ver
few boats on the
canals, and very
few people on the streets, but the guide who showed us around said that
most of the inhabitants were at work in the factories or breweries.
There are factories for making cloth, shoes, and similar things, not to
mention the coarse faience which is produced at Delft, and we learned
through the sense of smell as well as by sight that the place contained
breweries and distilleries.
Frank's first question was about the place where William the Si-
lent was assassinated. I asked who William was, and why he was
called Silent' instead of something else."
"He was the founder of the Dutch Republic," said Frank, "and was
one of the most famous men of his time."
How long has he been dead ?"
"Three hundred years or so; he was assassinated in 1584, and was
fifty-one years old at that time. He was born at Dillenburg, in Nas-
sau, and was the son of William, Count of Nassau, and had a long line
of distinguished ancestors."
A LEAF OF HISTORY.
"Then Frank told me," continued Mary, "that he was not at all a
silent man, but was very sociable at ordinary times and very polite to
everybody. lie obtained the name of 'Silent' because of his conduct
on one occasion when the King of France, Henry II., told him how lie
(King Henry) and the King of Spain had formed a plot for the murder
of all their Protestant subjects. I1 I. King supposed that William was in
all the secrets of the Spanish court, as he was holding .Ill.. under it
and was nominally of the same religion. lie did not intimate to King
Henry either by look or word that the information was new to him, but
from that moment his purpose was fixed to secure the independence of
his country and the liberties of the people."
Frank further explained to Mary that as soon as William returned
to Holland he took steps to resist the Spaniards in their designs upon
the Protestants. Mary asked how it happened that the Spaniards
had anything to do with Holland; she thought they belonged in
Spain and not in the Low
"I ought to have told
you," said Frank, "something
of the previous history of the
country. Before the thir-
teenth century the N. I l.i -
lands were divided into sev-
eral dukedoms and countships
that were practically inde-
pendent, though some of
them acknowledged a shad-
owy allegiance to the Ger-
man Empire, and others the
same sort of dependence
upon the kings of France.
The most powerful of these
petty sovereigns was the
Count of Flanders; his do-
minions fell to the possession
of the house of Burgundy,
and when Mary of Burgundy
I -- -
ANNE, lIFEi O1I WILLIAMI TIHE SILENT.
married the Archduke of Austria, the
Netherlands became the p]"l." ,- of the Austrian imperial family.
Mary's grandson was the Emperor Charles V,, and he gave the Nether-
lands to Philip II. of Spain."
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
Now I understand," said Mary. T'i seem to have treated the
country very much as we would treat a farm or a building-lot in
these times. What a nice way it was to have a whole country handed
over as a marriage-portion, or given away by will as one might give
away the property for which he would have no use after lie died."
Mrs. Bassett had listened attentively to Frank's explanation and said
she had a question to
..ask: Which one of
Sthe Burgundies was it
that invented Burgun-
S i i' It wasn't invented
SFrank, "but it gets its
S.i- s .,i, ''.i name from the Burgun-
dv district of France,
I I 'w which Is thought by
many people to pro-
duce the best wine in
i '.1 -'/^
'i ~ I there was a kingdom of
SBurgundy as early as
the fifth century. But
Swe are forgetting Will-
..r ..l.'. ii amu the Silent and what
1 .hie did for Holland."
"i' iso .. i s" a Yes," said Marny,
all about him."
Frank replied. But for the present we will be brief, as we can't stay
in Delft long enough for you to read those books.
When Philip II. took possession of the Netherlands it comprised
seventeen provinces, and included pretty much all of the Netherlands of
to-day, with most of Belgium. There were two hundred and eight
walled cities in tre country, one hundred and fifty chartered towns, six
REBELLION OF WILLIAM THE SILENT. 61
-'-- -- -- --. ----- '
-" : ~- -I -~--" S.:
,' ". --, -_-; ._,
WILLIAM 1 OF ORANE 0 (1H1 SIL ''NI).
thousand three hnndredl small towns and villages, and sixty strong for
tresses; the T. F..I r i. had made considerable progress among the
people, and Philip determined to stamp it out. Kings were not very
tender-hearted in those days, and the measures that were often adopted
by them would not be tolerated now."
"And it w\as against his oppressive measures that the Prince of
Orange rebelled ?" M[ary asked.
Yes, there was a great opposition, which was headed by Williami
the Silent and others. The opposition at length took the form of in-
surrection, but this was suppressed after a time, and then the Spaniards
subjected the people to many forms of oppression and cruelty. Sev
eral nobleman were beheaded and others were driven into exile, the
r:-; ', =~ .._, .:3'hi'."'
ersl nobleman were beheader d and others -wel'e dr~iven into exile, thle
TIHE BiOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
Prince of Orange only escaped by fleeing to Germany, where he raised
an army for liberating his country; he was assisted by the Germans,
and also by Queen Elizabeth of England, and in 1-5(68 he returned to the
Netherlands and called his people to arms. 'J i was the beginning of
the long war that resulted finally in the expulsion of the Spaniards
and the formation of the Dutch Republic."
Mrs. Bassett asked if the William of Orange, about whom they were
t 11:; I. was the one that landed in England to help the English Gov-
ernment in its !ii r. to suppress some of its rebellious sub -,1i -. and
whose landing-place they saw at Torquay, as depicted in The Boy Trav-
ellers in, Grat Britain anwl Ielandl.
'Not by any means the same," Frank replied. You observe that
the entrance of William the Silent into the Netherlands was in 1..'.,
while the landing at Torquay was in !."-;; there's a *I i..:,n...- of one
hundred and twenty years between the dates, but the landing of the
second William was made possible through the work of the first."
While this conversation was going on our friends were nearing the
Prinsenhof, the building where William the Silent was assassinated. It
was formerly a palace, but is now -a military barrack; a sergeant took
the party in charge, and conducted them across the court and through a
door to the spot where the murder was committed. IIe showed the
mark of the bullet, and indicated the relative positions of the Prince
and the assassin on the memorable occasion.
What was the name of the assassin ?" Mrs. Bassett asked.
He was Balthazar (4erard," said Fred, and for seven years lie had
contemplated the murder of William the Silent. ie laid his plans
with the greatest care, and carried them out on the 10th of July, 1584."
I How was the murder committed ?"
Frank briefly related the story of the assassination, which lie had
taken in substance from Motley's description. As the subject is of
great historic interest we will quote from the famous writer rather
than attempt to summarize his story.
On Tuesday, the 10th of July," says Motley, "at about half-past
twelve, the Prince, with his wife on his arm, and followed. by the ladies
and gentlemen of his family, was *...i;. to the dining-room...
Gerard presented himself at the door and demanded a passport. The
Princess, struck with the pale and agitated countenance of the man,
anxiously questioned her husband concerning the stranger, observing,
in an undertone, 'that she had never seen so villanous a countenance.
. At two o'clock the company rose from table. The Prince led the
ASSASSINATION OF WILLIAM, PRINCE 01' ORANGE.
TOMB OF WILLIAM THE SILENT.
way, intending to pass to his private apartments. .. Upon the left side
of the vestibule, as one approached the stair-way, was'an obscure arch
sunk deep in the wall, and completely in the shadow of the door .
The Prince came from the dining-room, and began leisurely to ascend
the stairs. IIe had only reached the second stair when a man emerged
from the sunken arch, and, standing within a foot or two of him, dis-
charged a pistol full at his heart. Three balls entered his body, one of
which, passing quite through him, struck with violence against the wall
beyond. The Prince exclaimed in French, as he felt the wound, O()h,
my God, have mercy upon my soul Oh, my (God, have mercy upon
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
this poor people!'. His master of the horse had caught him in his
arms as the fatal shot was fired. lie was laid upon a couch in the
dining-room, where in a few minutes he breathed his last, in the arms
of his wife and sister."
As Frank paused after describing the manner in which William the
Silent was assassinated, Mrs. Bassett asked if the murderer escaped.
"No," said Frank, "he was caught and soon after tried and exe-
cuted. Philip II of Spain showed his appreciation of the act of the
assassin by ennobling his family. This was the eighth attempt at
From the Prinsenhof our friends went to the Oude Kerk, directly
opposite, where they saw the monuments to the memory of Van
Tromp and other naval heroes; the last of the thirty-two battles that
Van Tromp fought, and the one in which he met his death, is repre-
sented on the monument.
From the Oude Kerk they went to the Nieuwe Kerk in the market-
place. Fred had explained that the name meant New Church," and
Mrs. Bassett was somewhat puzzled when she learned that it was more
than four hundred years old, and really more ancient than the Oude
Kerk (Old Church). The guide explained that the Oude Kerk is on
the site of an older edifice, which was really the most ancient in the
city, and the name has descended to the successor.
The object of greatest interest in the New Church was the magnifi-
cent tomb of William the Silent, which was executed in marble, in the
year 1612, by De Keyser and Quellyn.
"The tomb is a fine work of art," said Frank in his journal, "and
the names of its designers should not be forgotten. There is a marble
..nIT of the Prince lying on a sarcophagus, which is also of marble;
and at the feet of the effigy there is a recumbent figure of a dog, in
memory of the Prince's favorite animal, which saved his life from two
Spanish assassins who had been hired to kill him in his camp at
Marines, in 1.;-' Had it not been for the fidelity of the dog-which
jumped on the bed to arouse his master, and then barked loudly to
summon assistance-the Prince would certainly have been murdered.
At the head of the recumbent effigy there is a figure in bronze
representing the Prince in his full military uniform. There are statues
representing Li,1 -I, Religion, Prudence, and Justice at the corners of
the monument, and there is a remarkable figure representing the God-
(less of Victory; it is remarkable from the fact that it is poised on the
toe of the left foot, although it is a bronze figure six feet in height.
MONUMENTS IN TIBE "NIEUYE KERK."
The inscription on the monument records that the Prince was mur-
dered by an assassin who was hired by Philip II. of Spain."
The church contains the tombs of many other members of the
House of Orange, and there are monuments to officers who have served
in the army at different dates in the history of the Netherlands. There
is also a monument to Hugo De Groot, or Grotius, as he is better
MAURICE OF NASSAU, SON OF WILLIAM THlE SILENT.
known, a famous Dutch jurist and theologian, who was born at Delft
in 1583, and was one of the most celebrated scholars of the time when
he lived. Like most great men of that time, he got into prison in con-
sequence of his teachings.
Fred was interested in the story of Grotius, and how he escaped
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
from prison through a stratagem of his wife. IHe was shut up in the
castle of Loevenstein on account of his advocacy of religious toleration,
and at first no friend or relative was allowed to see him, not even his
father. After repeated appeals, and through the influence of friends,
his wife was allowed to share his imprisonment, and he was permitted
to have books to read. These books were changed from time to time;
and his wife observed, after he had been about two years in prison, that
the watchfulness of the guards had relaxed considerably, and the chest
conveying the books in and out of the prison was not examined.
The good woman," wrote Fred in his journal, saw in this a mode
of escape for the husband to whom she was devoted. One of his friends
who supplied him with books was Professor Erpenius, who was a disci-
ple of Arminius, and had a large library of theological works. The
professor had sent a chest of books, and when it was time for their re-
turn the wife of the prisoner concealed her husband in the chest, and
sent it out in the care of her maid Elsie, who had been allowed to reside
in the castle with her mistress, and to come and go at will.
"Elsie was intrusted with the secret of the intended escape, and her
coolness and ready wit greatly aided in the success of the scheme.
De Groot entered the chest wearing only his -,,,.1,-,. 1.,ir .. and there
was so little space that even his shoes had been left behind. As soon as
El- ;- started with the precious freight Miadame De Groot retired to bed,
leaving her husband's clothes on a chair, so that the warder, when he
came with the soldiers who were to remove the chest, would suppose
that the prisoner was asleep and secure.
In descending the stairs one of the soldiers remarked that the chest
was very heavy. Elsie replied that the chest was filled with Arminian
books, and possibly the Arminian himself might be inside. Elsie chat-
ted familiarly with the guards, and thus disarmed their suspicions if
they had any. The wife of one of the soldiers was present, and she re-
marked that some years before there was a traitor carried out in a chest;
to which the soldier replied that if he thought the Arminian was in the
chest he would get a gimlet and bore through his body. Whereupon
Elsie said, with a laugh, If you do that, you must have a gimlet long
enough to reach from here to his room.'
When they passed the office of the prison the soldier remarked to
the governor's wife that the chest was very heavy. The governor was
away, and his wife said it was not necessary to examine the chest, as
Madame De Groot had said it only contained Arminian books. Then
it was carried to a boat that was waiting to take the chest to Gorkum,
A WOMAN'S STRATAGEM.
where lived a friend of the prisoner, who was the only other person in-
trusted with the secret of the attempt to escape. As soon as she was
on board the boat Elsie carelessly flung her kerchief round her neck,
which was the signal agreed upon to Madame Do Groot that everything
was all right thus far.
"The boat started, and while it was on the way some of the passen-
gers sat down on the chest and occasionally kicked at it with their
heels. Elsie _--,.,1 them to sit elsewhere, claiming that the chest con-
tained china-ware as well as
books, and there was danger :
that the ware would be broken.
When they reached Gorkum a
barrow was secured to carry the
chest to the house of Daetse-
laer, the trusted friend already K
mentioned.. As the carrier was
wheeling it away he remarked,
'There is something alive in the
chest.' 'Yes,' said Elsie, books
have life.' :
"Daetselaer's house was 4
reached in safety, and in the
back-parlor the chest was open- '
ed and De Groot was released
from his two hours' imprison-
ment. He was more dead than
alive, and his face was like that J. ARu is.
of a corpse. Disguised as a la-
borer, with a trowel and a bucket of mortar, he left the house and suc-
ceeded in escaping to Antwerp, where he was joined by his wife as
soon as she was liberated from the imprisonment to which she was con-
demned for assisting a prisoner to escape."
"Did Elsie have any other name ?" Mary asked, when Fred paused
in his narrative.
"Her full name was Elsie van Houwening," was the reply; and it
is remembered throughout the Netherlands, and will be treasured by
the people as long as the history of the country lasts."
"And well it should be," said Mrs. Bassett. She was a brave
woman, and deserves a monument far more than many others to whom
handsome monuments have been erected."
68 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
Delft has a small collection of paintings, which were seen by our
friends, and then they were ready to proceed on their journey.
"I've a little surprise for you," said Frank. "I sent our baggage
by train to the Iague when we started from Rotterdam, and we shall
find it at the hotel when we arrive there."
"That won't be much of a surprise," said Mary. It will be more
of a surprise, and not an agreeable one, if the '...---- iL.- goes astray."
"Quite true," replied Frank; "but that is not the surprise I had in
store. Follow me and you will see."
-_-. : -^_ _. .^:
.... .z-c -
A LANDSCAPE IN HOLLAND.
They followed and he led the way to the Hotel Schaap, in the mar-
ket-place, where luncheon was ready for them. The meal was leisurely
disposed of, and then Frank escorted them to the canal, where they em-
barked on a trek&:chiit (draw-boat), which he said was to be their con-
veyance to the Hague.
"This is a real surprise," said Mrs. Bassett, and a delightful one,
too." Mary echoed the views of her mother, and as the engines were
put in motion--i. ., the horse was ordered to go ahead-the travellers
settled down to enjoy themselves.
We went along without the least noise," said Mary, in her descrip-
tion of the voyage, "and the motion of the barge was so quiet and
soothing that I felt like going to sleep. Of course, the railway has in a
great measure taken the place of the canal for travelling purposes, on
account of its superior speed. From Delft to the Hague by the canal
took us an hour and a half, while we could have made the run by rail
in a quarter of an hour. But you may be sure none of us begrudged
VOYAGE ON A CANAL.
the time we spent on the barge, and were all sorry when the ride came
to an end.
"We met two or three steam-launches, and Frank said that on
many of the canals in Holland the steam-launch had driven off the
old-fashioned treJschuit. The Iol-
landers are shrewd enough to per-
ceive the value of time, in spite of .
the fact that great numbers of them ., '"; ...
seem never to be in a hurry. .
"We also met several horse- ,
barges on their way to Delft, and '
when I saw the first of them, I won- .."' .
dered how we were to get past with- CANAL-BOAT.
out entangling the long ropes by
which the boats were drawn. Our boat seemed to have the right of
way, as I observed that the horse of the other boat reduced his pace,
and thus allowed his line to fall into the water. Our horse kept on
with his line taut, the other line fell beneath our craft and passed un-
der it, and I distinctly felt a vibration as it rubbed along against the
keel. Our steersman kept his boat close to the towpath, while the
other turned towards the opposite side of the canal, so that there was
DUTCH GIRLS SKATI
a good strip of water between us as we passed.
Horses and mnen are so accustomed to this work,
that everything was done with the greatest ease
"We passed through a picturesque country,
that is, it was picturesque for Ilolland. It was
flat, like the other parts of the Netherlands,
and it was evidently very fertile. There were
the same black and white cows we have already
Told you of, and there was an abundance of
i them; there were many pretty houses along
the canal, and some of them were sunk so low
NG TO in the polders that we seemed almost on a level
with their roofs as we passed along the canal.
Some of the houses were the centres of farms,
and others were the country-seats of merchants whose places of business
are in the cities. Some of these country-seats had pretty gardens about
them, and Fred and I wished that we had introductions to the owners,
so that we might have stopped to look at the plants that grew there.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
"It seemed to me that the canals are very far from useless even in
these days of railways. In our i,.,n,.- from Delft to the Hague we
must have met eight or ten boats, some of them carrying passengers
like ours, and the others laden with freight of various kinds. The peo-
ple living along the line of the canal use it for carrying their produce
to market and bringing back what they want; probably the expense
of bringing their goods from the railway stations would be nearly as
much as carrying them all the way by water, and so the business of the
railways is confined to through traffic almost entirely.
"Did you ever stop to think that travelling by canal is the safest
DISH OF OLD DELFT.
mode of locomotion in the world ? You can't run off the track, the en-
gine can't blow up, the team can't run away and overturn your vehicle,
the water isn't deep enough to allow your boat to sink and drown you,
and if a fire breaks out, all you have to do is to step ashore. People
who are so nervous that they are miserable when on a railway train or
steamboat, ought to come to Holland and travel by canal for the rest
of their lives, or, better still, not travel at all.
"Well, here we are at the Hague. The Dutch call it 'S Graven-
POOR PEOPLE IN HOLLAND.
hage, or 'S Hage, and the French call it La Ifave. Hague is good
enough for us, and it's easy to remember; it is the capital of the Neth-
erlands, and a very pretty place it is. According to the histories it is
more than six hundred years old, and some of its buildings look as
though they were the homes of the earliest inhabitants.
"When the boat stopped at the landing-place, there was a crowd of
porters to take our ', .-.,.. to the hotel, and we had the same sort of
sti ,~. .- with them that we had with the porters of Rotterdam. I feel
better disposed towards these people than I did since I have been told
that the industries of the country have declined so much that many
people are unable to earn a living, for the reason that there is nothing
for them to do. A great many poor folks are supported by public
charity, and the number of asylums and 'retreats' in the Netherlands
is very large, with little prospect of decreasing.
"A gentleman whom we met at the dinner-table at the hotel in
Rotterdam told us that the rate of wages is so low that a laborer who
can earn ten English shillings ($2.50) a week is very fortunate. And
so economical are the people, and so frugal in their way of li'. i-i, that
a man will support his family, and dress neatly on Sundays, all on ten
or twelve shillings a week. But the misfortune is that very often he
cannot get work at any figure, especially in winter, when the canals are
frozen, and the trade of the country falls off.
Soup-kitchens are established in all the cities as soon as the canals
freeze over, and they are kept in operation as long as the cold weather
lasts. EP '-.-.;- is forbidden by law, but the prohibition is evaded as in
other countries by peddling matches or similar trifles. There are pan-
per colonies in several parts of Holland where poor people are sent to
live with their families. They receive allotments of land, where they
cultivate garden vegetables, and raise pigs and poultry, all under the
supervision of overseers, who sees that nobody .-.li r, for lack of food,
but every one who is able to do so is required to work."
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
ORIGIN AND ANTIQUITY OF THE HAGUE.-THE VIJVER OR FISH-POND.-THE
BINNENHOF.-ASSEAIBLY ROOMS OF THE STATES-GENERAL.-THE GOVERN-
MENT OF THE NETHERLANDS.--THE KING AND HIS COUNCIL.-CONSTITU-
TIONAL GUARANTEES.-RELIGIONS OF HOLLAND.-EDUCATION.-NUMBER AND
CHARACTER OF THE SCHOOLS.-FAMOUS PAINTINGS IN THE MUSEUM.-THE
SCHOOL OF ANATOMY.-PAUL POTTER'S BULL.-HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE
ARTIST.-CABINET OF CURIOSITIES.-COAT WORN BY WILLIAM THE SILENT
AT HIS ASSASSINATION.-THE HOUSE OF ORANGE.-INTERESTING REMINIS-
ECENCES.-DARK STAINS ON THE HISTORY OF TIE HOUSE OF ORANGE.-
EXECUTION OF JOIN OF BARNEVELD.-THE PALACE OF THE IIAGUE.-VISIT
W E will rely upon Frank to tell us what was seen and done by the
travellers during their stay at the Hague.
Though the Hague has been known for hundreds of years, it was
\ V ?, ..'-
THE TRIUMPH OF VAN TROMP.
THE TRIUMPH OF VAN TROMP.
not until the beginning of the
present century that it rose to the
dignity of a city. It used to be
mentioned as 'the richest village
in the world,' and it was certainly
entitled to the distinction. It has
been a favorite residence of the
princes of Holland for several cen-
turies, and was originally a hunt-
ing-seat of the KiiiL. hence its
name of 'S Gravenhage, 'The
Count's Hedge.' It has about one
hundred thousand inhabitants, and
is a great deal more modern than
Rotterdam in appearance.
"The Hague impressed us very
favorably, as it has wide streets and the houses are very well built.
Most of the houses, in fact nearly all of them, are of modern appear-
ance, but here and there we see what might be called 'an old-timer.'
"A 3 *~
THE VIJVER AT THE HAGUE.
74 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
The oldest part of the city is in the neighborhood of the Vijver, or
Fi-h-1.-"i1, which is of itself quite a curiosity. It is an artificial lake,
or pond, in the centre of the city, and the water is kept in motion by
means of pumps operated by steam-engines. There is an island in the
pond, and there is a large !1 ....1 of swans swimming about, and the
water is said to abound in fish. We asked the guide if we could bring
our fishing-lines, and catch some of the finny inhabitants of the Vijver;
he shook his head solemnly, and answered that such fishing is not al-
lowed, but we might go to the market and buy all the fish we wanted.
"There is an old pile of buildings, called the Bmnenhof, on one side
of the Fish-pond; their antiquity is perceptible at a glance, and some
of them are four or five hundred years old. To enter the square where
these buildings stand we crossed a drawbridge, and felt ourselves car-
ried back to the Middle Ages, and before gunpowder had come into
general use. In the very centre of the square is the Stadslotery, which
is said to date from the thirteenth century.
We paid a brief visit to this venerable building, which was once
the Hall of the Knights, a large hall with a Gothic roof. Then we
went to the building where the States-General, or Congress, of the
Netherlands has its meetings. This is a good place to say something
about the government of the Netherlands.
'"A constitution was given to the Netherlands in 1815; it was re-
vised in 1848, and again in 1887, and the country may be called a con-
stitutional and hereditary monarchy. The royal succession is in the
direct male line in the order of primogeniture; if the male line fails,
the female line ascends the throne, and if there is no legal heir, the
successor to the throne is designated by the king, with the consent of a
joint meeting of both houses of Parliament.
The King is the executive authority, while the two houses of Par-
liament have the entire legislative authority in the same way as in
most other limited monarchies. The Upper House of Parliament, cor-
responding to our Senate or the English House of Lords, contains fifty
members, who are elected by the provincial states or assemblies from
among the most prominent inhabitants of the eleven provinces com-
posing the Netherlands; the Lower House,.or House of Commons, is
composed of one hundred deputies, who are elected directly by the
voters, just as our members of Congress are chosen. The Upper House
members are elected for nine years, and one third of them retire every
third year, while the Lower House is elected in a body every four years.
"The King can dissolve both houses of Parliament, but if he does so
GOVERNMENT OF THE NETHERLANDS.
he must order new elections within forty days, and call a meeting of
Congress (or the States-General) within two months.
"The King has a council of eight ministers, through whom his au-
thority is exercised. Then there is a state council of fourteen members,
of which the King is president, and this council is to be consulted on all
matters of importance. The ministers may be members of either body
STUDIO OF A MODERN ARTIST.
of the States-General; even if they are not members they are at liberty
to attend all the debates, but in that case they have no votes."
Frank read the foregoing to his mother and sister, and asked if
they had any i_-'. -;.ii. as to further information.
"Yes," said Mrs. Bassett. You haven't told what the religion of
the country is. Holland has had so many religious troubles that the
rest of the world wants to know its present condition."
That is easily told," the youth replied. The constitution guaran-
tees entire liberty of conscience, and any one may worship in whatever
church or way he likes, or he need not worship at all if not inclined.
The royal family, and most of the population of Holland, belong to the
Protestant (Reformed) Church. In round figures there are 2,500,000 of
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
Protestants, 1,500,000 of Catholics, 25,000 Christians of various other
denominations, and 80,000 Jews. The government of the Reformed
Church is Presbyterian, while the Roman Catholics are under an arch-
bishop and four bishops. There are Government allowances from the
public funds for the Protestant and Catholic Churches, and also for the
synagogues of the Jews, but the latter is smaller in proportion than
that of the others. In the year 1.-- the Protestant Churches received
115,796, the Roman Catholics 48,028, and the appropriation for the
Jews was .tli;':.'."
"That will do very well for the religious condition of Holland,"
said Mrs. Bassett, "and I'm sure many of your readers will be obliged
for the information."
"It's my turn now," said Mary, "and I want to know something
about education in Holland, and what the schools are like."
"I thought you would have a question to ask on that subject," said
Frank, "and so I commissioned Fred to find out. Here, Fred, tell us
"Education has progressed in Holland," said Fred, "about as it has
in other countries of Europe. In the rural districts about one-fourth
of the grown-up men and one-third of the women can neither read nor
write. Of the conscripts for the army in one year, nine per cent. could
neither read nor write, and in one province, North Brabant, the per-
centage of illiterates was seventeen. Within the last thirty years sev-
eral education laws have been passed, so that the young people of to-
day and the generation to follow them will be almost universally able
to read and write. There are primary schools all over the country,
which are supported partly by the communes and partly by the General
Government, and attendance at these schools is compulsory, unless the
pupils are attending private schools, of which there are more than one
thousand. Then there are evening schools, technical schools, high
schools, academies, and similar advanced establishments, and there are
four great universities."
"I was reading, yesterday," said Mary, about the University of
Leyden, and hope we'll have a chance to see it. Do we visit Leyden ?"
she asked, turning to Frank.
Yes," was the reply, we shall visit Leyden, and your wish will be
"Thank you ever so much," Mary responded; "and now isn't it
time to go to the museum ?"
Frank accepted the hint, and in a few minutes the party was on its
'~F~l :~ ~;~r..;I; ~ )l b:
" THE DAN,CING DOG."-(From a pinlilng by Jan Stecn.)
way to the famous art collection of the Hague. It is in the museum,
which is one of the buildings overlooking the Fish-pond and rising di-
rectly from its banks. It is known also as the Jiau ritshuis, from its
having been erected by Prince 3.1,'i ... of Nassau, who was at one time
the Governor of Brazil.
Mary and Fred could hardly restrain their impatience to stand in
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
front of the celebrated paintings which the gallery contains. They left
Mrs. Bassett and Frank in the vestibule, where the former had paused
to look at one of the pieces of statuary that adorns the entrance. Doc-
tor Bronson had gone to call on his old friend Mr. Roosevelt, the Min-
ister of the United States at the Court of the Netherlands, and expected
to join the party in the museum.
We have not a tenth part of the time and space necessary for a de-
scription of the paintings in the gallery, and will leave our young friends
to tell us of the most celebrated works of art they saw there.
"There are two hundred and seventy-four paintings in the collec-
tion," said Fred, and they include, works by every Dutch artist known
to fame, and some who are not especially famous. Th1.-n there are
works by artists whose native land is elsewhere than Holland, but the
Dutch artists hold by very far the most prominent place. Indeed, I
have heard-it said that the only use of paintings by foreign artists in
this gallery is to show the superiority of the home talent.
Just look at the list of artists represented here, or rather a part of
it, as the whole would be tedious reading: Rembrandt, Teniers, i .:-!,
Douw, Van de Velde, Ostade, Wouvermans, Mieris, Paul Potter, Van
Dyck, Weenix, Murillo, Velasquez, Holbein, Diirer, Jordaens, Snyders,
Rubens, Schalken, Berchem, and F. Bol-all are represented, and many
more. All these names are familiar to you if you have a fair acquaint-
ance with the history of oil-painting.
"One of the first pictures to attract our attention was a poultry-
yard by Steen, and we stood for some time in front of it. There were
ducks, chickens, and pigeons, pleasantly grouped together, and there
was a peacock in the limbs of a leafless tree; a girl was holding a sau-
cer, out of which a lamb was drinking, and close by was a man holding
a basket of eggs, and evidently talking to the girl. Another man, with
a chicken under his arm, was looking at the girl, and quite likely wait-
ing for an opportunity to say something.
"In the same room is the celebrated School of Anatomy,' by
Rembrandt, which is familiar to people all over the world by reason
of the great number of engravings and lithographs that have been
made of it. You know the subject; the anatomist, Nicolaus Tulp, a
friend of Rembrandt, is explaining to seven listeners and an invisi-
ble audience the muscles in the arm of a corpse that lies before him.
The listeners that are visible are not students, but members of the
guild of surgeons of Amsterdam, as you can see from a paper that
one of them is holding. As we looked at the picture we felt like turn-