Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Interrelationship between the status...
 Draft world population plan of...
 Mobilization of public opinion...
 Annex 1: Agenda
 Annex 2: Attendance
 Annex 3: Documentation of...

Title: International forum on the role of women in population and development
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00081842/00001
 Material Information
Title: International forum on the role of women in population and development
Physical Description: 41, 11 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Conference: International Forum on the Role of Women in Population and Development, (1974
Publisher: U.N.
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1974
Subject: Development -- Women   ( lcsh )
Women's rights   ( lcsh )
Status of women   ( ltcsh )
Population   ( ltcsh )
Genre: international intergovernmental publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
General Note: ST/ESA/SER.B/4
General Note: "Provisional"
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00081842
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 24730511

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Interrelationship between the status of women, population change, and overall development
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Draft world population plan of action
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Mobilization of public opinion and support
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Annex 1: Agenda
        Page A-1
    Annex 2: Attendance
        Page B-1
        Page B-2
        Page B-3
        Page B-4
        Page B-5
        Page B-6
        Page B-7
        Page B-8
        Page B-9
        Page B-10
        Page B-11
    Annex 3: Documentation of the forum
        Page C-1
        Page C-2
Full Text



INTRODUCTION .................................................... 1 3

I. Contribution of women to the formulation and implementation
of national and international policies relating especially
to population and development ............................... 3 9

II. The interrelationship of the status of women, population
change and overall development ............................... 10 16

III. Draft world population plan of action: action to be taken by
women as individuals and organized groups ................... 17 19

Working Group I ............................................. 20 22

Working Group II ............................................ 23 25

Working Group III ........................................... 26 28

Working Group IV .......................................... 29 32

IV. The mobilization of public opinion and support for the full
integration of women in the development effort as a key factor
in achieving desired goals and policies in population and
development ............................................... 33 36

V. Conclusions of the Forum, including comments on the draft
world population plan of action ............................. 37 42

Annex I Agenda

Annex II Attendance

Annex III Documentation


A. Organization of the Forum

1. The International Forum on the Role of Women in Population and Development
was held from 25 February to 1 March 1074, with the opening and closing meetings
on 25 February and 1 March 1974 at the United Nations Headquarters in New York
and the intervening meetings on 2(, 27 and ?8 February at Airlie Foundation
Conference Center, Airlie, Virdini'..
2. The Forum was convencc as nart of the nroirar'rz of activities for the 'orld
Population Year 1974, which recorr.ized conferences, seminars and other meetings
as an iminortant element of the prorrolrie, with a view to focusing attention on
the participation of vwo:en in population -4atters in the context of development
programmes. It also fell within thie scope of General Assembly resolution 2716
(XXV) which established a nrogrammn of concerted international action for the
advancement of women, and of the International Development Strategy for the
Second United 'Nations Development Decade, the goals and objectives of which
include that 'thnt full integration of women in the total development effort
should be encouraged" (General Assembly resolution 2626 (XXV).
3. The aim of the Forum was to offer an opportunity to women leaders to consider
ways and means by which to increase the effectiveness of omen's contribution to
the formulation and implementation of international and national policies on
current vital issues in the field of economic and social development and human
rights. Special attention was f caused on questions relating to population, the
status of women and women's integration in the total development effort.
4. The Forur was organized by the Centre for Social Development and iHumanitarian
Affairs in consultation with the Population Division of the United Nations, with
the support of the I:l~ited Nations Fund for Population Activities and the United
States Agency for International Development, and in collaboration with the
International Planned Parenthood Federation, a non-governmental organization in
consultative status with the Economic and Social Council, the Population Crisis
Committee and the Airlie Foundation. The agenda for the Forum is reproduced in
Annex I.
5. The Centre was assisted by a number of invited speakers, and by 25 resource
persons who served as members of panels and also aided the discussion in the
Working Groups.

** I*


B. Participation

6. Governments were invited to nominate participants to attend the Forum in
their individual capacity. Participants from the following 111 countries took
part. These included 105 Member States, 6 non-Member States.

Member States
Aff.n stai, GAlr*t. A.rtina. Aut. ll?., rPastriiL. "'hAiti, Barbados.
Aeliium, Bo3i-via, :tlari, Burma, Byeloruc-iiarn Canada. Chad, Central
African Revublic, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica. Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, D>haouey,
Democratic Yemen, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Fcuador. Eoypt, El Salvador,
Equatorial G uinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, pAbon, Democratic Republic
tf Germany, Federal Republic of Germany, G'haa, Greece, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras,
Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast,
Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Khmer Republic, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia,
Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaysia Mali, Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco, Nepal,
Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay,
Peru, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Somalia,
South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic,
Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Tarkey, Uganda, Union of Soviet
Socialist Republies, United Kingdom, United Republic of Cameroon, United Republic
,of Tanzania, United States of America, Upper Volta, Uruguay, Yugoslavia, Zaire,

Non-Member States
Bangladesh, Holy See, publicc of Korea, Republic of Viet Nam, Switzerland
and Western Samoa.

7. The following United Nations bodies, Coenissions and Specialized Agencies
were represented at the Forum: United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEP), United
Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR), Economic Commission for
Asia and the Far East (ECAFE), Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), Economic
Commission for Europe (ECE), Economic Commission for Weat Asia (ECWA). Specialized
Agencies: Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development, International Labour Organisation (ILO), United
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), World Health
Organization (WHO).

- 3 -

The Organization of African Unity, a regional intergovernmental organization
sent a representative to the Forum. The Conference of non-governmental organi-
zations in consultative status also sent a representative.
The list of participants at the Forrm, including, the resource consultants,
has been reproduced in Annex II.

C. Opening of the Forum and Oeranization
of the Proceeins

The Foru vws opened by the Assistant :ecretary-Gen.eral for Social Develoaent
and Humanitarian Affairs representica the "eeret-ry-General, on 25 Teb~nary 1974
at 10:30, -.n. at the United Natiecu Hes.a-uarters in fevw York. The Assistant
Secretary-General also served as President of the Foru.i. Item 1 and 2, part of
item 5 and item 6 were discussed at U.I. He.adquarter- on 25 Febrary and 1 M4rch
197T while items 3 and 4 and part of item 5 were examined at the Airlie Foundation
Conference Center, Airlie, Virginia on 26, ?7 and P8 February I' ?1. Each item was
introduced by invited speakers, or by panel discussions. Four -arking groups were
established under item 4 to consider the draft world population plan of action
(second draft, document E/CN.9/292//Rev.l).
One background document was specially prepared for the Forum by a consultant.
A number of other documents were circulated or made available to participants.
The full list is given in Annex III.



.he first meeting; uf the ?orr' eonsiu{ed'of an c.nnlir.g address by th.
Assistant Secretary-General for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs who
spoke of the Crucial Role of Women in the Formulaticn and TmDlementation of
Population and Development Policies, followed by statements of senior United Nations
officials on various aspects of United Nations goals and acLivIties in the fields
of economic and social development; population; human rights in relation to
population and development (items 1 and P). However, the contribution of women
to the formulation and implementation of national and inm.ernt-tn'l plicies
relating especially to population and development constituted an und.*rlyin!
theme in all tiis- Rs-temsents.

The Assistant Secretary-General for Social *Development and Humanitarian
Affairs while welcoming the representatives, drew attention to the fact that
it was the first event in the history of the United Nations of any inter-
governmental organization, in which women nominated by 111 Governments were
attending the Forum with a view to making recommendations on subjects of crucial
importance to the future of humankind. There .;.rc, she pointed out, too few
women in both the developed and the developing countries who participated in
the formulation and implementazir"in of national, regional! or international
policies relating to economic ani social develo.:.ent and population with the
result that present plans and priorities in those matters did not adequately
reflect women's views and concerns. She reiterated the principle that States
had a sovereign right to decide on their own population policies and these often
varied according to the needs of States and certain other factors. There was
no State however that did not welcome the improvement of the quality of life of
its citizens, those born and those yet to be born. Recent studies had shown
the clear relationship between'family size on the one hand and the educational,
economic, legal and social status of women on the other. Thus, means to increase
the. opportunities of women for alternative roles to the traditional mother role,
would strengthen their capacity to make decisions about family size according
to the best interests of their families and their countries. In conclusion,
she pointed to the clear interrelationship of World Population Year 1974 and
International Women's Year 1975. Women could not hope to participate fully in
decision-making until they were able to exercise choice in their childbearing
roles. And one could not hope to reduce the rate of population growth until
wonen were able to participate more widely in their societies.
She appealed to the participants to exert their influence as leaders of
the women of the world during World Population Year and International Women's
tear so that society could confront the serious problems before it with all
not half of humanity, and all not half of its human resources.
8. In his statement to the Forum the Under-Secretary-General for Economic and
Social Affairs stressed that the development of human resources in modern
(etvilizations was an objective in itself and could not be considered exclusively

from the point of view of its utility to economic progress. He pointed out that
in the framework of the International Strategy for Development of the 1970's


demographic phenomena were treated very discreetly, reflecting the hesitations
existing in most of the MIember States. While it vas a mistake to isolate the
demographic factors from other factors and from the socio-political context
it was also a mistake to underestimate it. The pattern of development in
previous decades, he stated, was unbalanced and partial. In any case it was
subject to revision in proportion to the growing demand for equity and the
increased attention being paid to the social and political content of devcloe-
ment. It was necessary also to note that a considerable difference existed
between the consciousness of authorities with respect to the threat of over-
population and the sensibilities of family units regarding the new realities.
Much time was needed until the elements of necessary information about the
demographic policies of states would reach couples, particularly in rural
areas and even more time was required until the couples were in a position to
take advantage of it.
He cautioned that the relationship between the demographic variables and
the data of development was not a simple one, although at the present time
there was sufficient ikoirledge to determine the direction of certain correlations.
In spite of the insufficiency of knowledge in many areas, he stated that there
was a growing realization that raising the status of women was one of the
instruments of social change. In the industrial societies, the insufficiency
of the number of workers vas responsible for the inclusion of women in the
circuit of the economic and social life, even if it remained structured and
organized in such a way that a flagrant and oppressive discrimination persisted.
In the developing countries and in societies sometimes marked by unemployment
or underemployment of one third or more of the economically active population.
one could understand the hesitations regarding the dislocation of the tradi-
tional forms of households. Similarly, with lack of sufficient resources there
was a hesitation to burden the public budget with expenses of child care
facilities without which women might be inevitably confined to the homes. But
when the stabilization of the demographic growth was.consideredo by the State
to be a major objective, it mws necessary to define and undertake a policy of
enhancing the status of women. To modify the system of values which tradition-
ally gave to the woman a limited role, it was necessary also to attack the
system of values which governed the behaviour of the opposite sex and consequently
to a certain extent the traditional distribution of labour between the sexes.


9. The Executive Director of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities
spoke of U.N. assistance in the field of Population and .o-ld Population Year.
In his statement, he stressed the significance of the Forum in that it repre-
sented a change in the way woren looked upon their role which was paralleled
by a change in the perception of the international community of w-omen's role
in the development process as well as what constituted successful development
and population programmes. He emphasized that the growing interest in population
as a factor in development reinforced, in recent times, by interest in small
scale or local development planning had brought policy makers though belatedly,
to a realization of the true importance of women to the success of any scheme
of development. He pointed out that the significance of the contributions of
women in their roles of wife, mother, cook, and in agricultural societies, of
cultivator of family staples ves not fully realized. The establishment of
extension courses as well as the cumulative effect of relatively minor innova-
tions could make their arduous tasks simpler and release their abilities for
other work, for study and for a better life for them and their families. The
years of the Fund's experience, he pointed out, had shown the necessity of
involving more women in a much more active way at all levels in making decisions
which so profoundly touched upon their lives. Successful family planning
programmes in the widest sense were an essential part of successful development
programmes. In such delicate, complex and personal matters as determining
family size, it was all the more important to ensure the conmitment and
participation of -omen, in whose hands lay the ultimate decision.
10. The Secretary-General for the World Population Conference spoke of the
World Population Conference which was to be held in August 197h in Bucharest,
Romania, and vhich ushered a new stage in the life of humanity, in which the
ancestral passivity of woman was being replaced by her active participation,
in furthering the advance of culture and civilization in all aspects. He
stressed the regrettable waste of human resources arising from keeping women
in a position of inferiority, socially, politically and economically, due to
the persistence of ancient outmoded prejudices, habits and customs. The
unprecedented demographic growth was responsible, he said, for a consensus
being developed regarding the necessity of achieving a new equilibrium in the
developing vorld, one based on low rates of mortality and fecundity, with full


recognitio-. of the special needs of certain countries and subregions. To
achieve a new equilibrium demanded above, and beyond anything else an
intensification of national and international efforts towards social and
economic. progress, an increased production of goods and servi-es translated
into an improved quality of life for the great majority. While States would
in the full exercise of their sovereignty, consider the possibility of
setting.demographic targets without external pressure and with strict respect
for the dignity and fundamental rights of the human person, the opinion of
women both inside and outside of Governments would also be of fundamental
importance. Among the problems to be discussed at the World Population
Conference in Bucharest in August 1974, he mentioned, those of the accelerated.
growth of cities and of internal and international migration, the brain drain,
which were of particular significance for the preservation of the integrity of
the family and for vcr en.
11. The Director of the Population Division, while stressing the interrela-
tionship between population growth, economic development and cultural factors,
stressed the view that the excessive demographic dynamism of the Third World,
foreseen for still several future decades more, certainly made immediate
economic development more imperative, while demographic policies represented
a way of modifying the situation in the future. However, while it was true
that there existed a large consensus of opinion that the regulation of births
could not be realized without improvement of medico-social conditions and
without the raising of the socio-cultural levels, nevertheless a breakthrough
in the economic and social "threshold" was not an indispensable condition for
the decrease of population grorrth. Recent studies had clearly illustrated
the great importance of cultural factors, an impression which was confirmed
also at the recent symposia held in Cairo, on the interrelationship of population
and development, in Honolulu, on the interrelationship between the family and
population, in Stockholm on population, natural resources and environment, and
in A-sterdam, on population and human rights.
In Cairo, only a few expert- expressed doubts about the necessity of
economic progress for developing countries. The symposium in Honolulu went
farther, and declared that it was not necessary to wait for several decades


until the fertility of couDles vas spontaneously rnodi'fied, .and that new
antinatal methods permitted hopes for changes of attiturie ad that these
changes i-,,..4. in themselves be a force for change f(.' _.:iety and an institu-
tion having to a greater or lcsser extent a structural p3l.sicity, and which
itself was influenced by soclo-co:;omic modifitic-ions. Al th; syrmposium in
Stockholm in October 1973, new nroblens which were not in the ?fr.-::eoork of
old alter atives, were posed. Caertin particinants repeated the idea that
the deterioration of the environment in the Third Worl1d ras pr.ncipally
connected -ith the insufficiency of development and in any c-se~ could not
be solved without it.
As far as the use of non-renewable resources, it was noteL by the
participants of the s2yposium that the changes in the norms of consumption
of the overindustrialiled countries would be able to play, in a short and
medium term, a role as iiaT6rtant if not even more, than the decrease of the
demographic growth in the Third World.
12. In speaking on vcen in a changing world, the Deputy-Director of the
Centre for Social Development and IHumanitarinn Affairs and in charge of the
Branch for the Promotion of Equality of fMen end Women- stated that although
much had been accomplished, much still remained to be done before women could
take their rightful place in society. The accomplishments of the United Nations
important though they were, vere only a beginning. The gap between lav and
reality still remained very vide. It vas important to remember that wnen w.ho
wefe more than half the World's population and constituted half the human
resources, iere in the majority of countries, developed as 'well as developing -
educationally disadvantaged, and in terms of employment, concentrated in a
limited number.of jobs, at lo levels of skill and responsibilities with
equally low remuneration, in addition to which, millions of worsen toiled front
morning till night as unpaid subsistence farm or domestic workers. WTithin the
family, in practice, the male was the dominant partner and his decision was
final concerning matters affecting the family and its-members. In public life,
the percentage of women who held policy-malkin. posts whether in legislative,
Judicial or executive py"sition's,- or in planning boards at the national and
international levels, was small in the vast majority of countries. As the
respective roles of men and romen in society had their roots in traditions,
customs and beliefs dating far back in history, she stressed the need for
radical reforms to change them not only in the laws of nations but in the
minds and attitudes of men and women and of society.


She stated that in recent years there had been a gradual awakening to the
fact that the condition of women and the roles they played affected the
economic and social development, and conditions of development in turn affected
the position of women and their possibilities of assuming other then the- tradi-
tional roles of childbearing, childrearing, and home based economic activities.
This interdependence was reflected in the international Strategy for the
Second United nations evelop!rent Decade adopted in 1970, which stated as one
of its objects that the "integration of women in-the total development effort
shall be encourrLged". As in the case of development, so also in the population.
field a close two-way relationship had been found to exist between population
fi'ctors and the condition of women. Although action was needed on many fronts,
the statue of women had been a. largely forgotten element in the formulation of
deveiopnent or population policies, plans and programmes. High fertility
patter .s m t often were accompanied by low status of women and were frequently
both a result and a cause of underdevelopment, setting in motion a vicious
circle which wvs difficult to break, esDecially where resources were limited.
In c-onclusion, she expressed the hope that the Forum would set the stase
for the World Population Conference in August in which men and women together
would discuss and adopt the World Population Plan of Action as well as be a
prelude to new initiatives and action programmes for International Women's
Year in 1975 to achieve its goals of equality, development and peace.

- 10 -


This item was discussed under the following three sub-items, each of
which was introduced by a panel discussion followed by participation from
the floor:
(1) The changing status and roles of women in relation to population
and development:* the human rights perspective.
This sub-item was introduced by a panel consisting of: Ruth Dixon,
Anne-Marie Dourlen Rollier, Annie Jiagge, V.S. Lafossa and S. Polgar,
under the chairmanship of Annie Jiagge.

(2) The interaction of Population Growth, Structure and Distribution
and National Development: The demographic perspective, was discussed
by a panel consisting of: G. Acsadi, A. Bose, S. Farnan-Farmaian,
O. Harkavy and C. Safilios-Rothschild, under the chairmanship of
G. Aesadi.

(3) The need for Multi-faceted approaches to Population Goals and
Policies in the context of national development plans and programnes,
was discussed by a panel consisting of: M. Jaramillo, G.J.A. Ojo,
U. Olin, H. Pilpel, R. Ravenhold and Dr. N. Sadik, under the
chairmanship of H. Pilpel.

13. The changing status and roles of women in relation to population and
development: the human rights perspective

Participants considered that Governments must commit themselves to a
progressive model of development emphasizing social progress as well as economic
growth. It was also noted that development plans were political decisions and
that questions should be raised regarding the impact on development of foreign
investment, multi-national corporations and international relations and of
political and economic dominance and dependency, among other factors. Care
should be taken that development plans and policies were directed toward the
equitable redistribution of resources among and within nations if they were to
have a significant impact on raising the level of living of the majority of
the world's population.

- 11 -

Intermediate stages of development demanded a labour-intensive strategy,
in order to.utilize fully the available human resources, especially women,
rather than a capital-intensive strategy that might concentrate the wealth
in .the hands of a few, while leaving many persons unemployed.
Development plans should aim at the full incorporation of women in
productive labour,'which served as a basis for their economic independence,
equality and general well-being. At the same time, however, a social infra-
structure must be'developed to relieve women of their excessive domestic
burdens."'; en should also learn to assume their full responsibilities in the
care of home and children.
.Non-agricultural employment opportunities should be introduced and
expanded in rural areas in order to reduce the dependence of rural populations
on urban goods and services. It was of utmost importance that women in rural
areas, as well as men, be trained in modern methods of agriculture, in manufac-
turing and in the professions. Training and education should be provided
through both formal and non-formal channels.
In employment, special protective legislation might be necessary to
enable women to fulfil their social functions of motherhood, while simultan-
eously participating fully in economic production. It was pointed out, however,
that both women and men should be included in general legislation governing
such factors as pay and working conditions.
Participants recognized the crucial importance of family planning for
women as individuals, apart from any demographic considerations. If women were
to play their full part in society they must be relieved of constant childbearing,
and of the fear of losing the children they bore. More often than not constant
childbearing under conditions of poverty, malnutrition and illhealth which
prevailed in many of the world's poorer rural and urban areas, was extremely
dangerous for the health of the mother and her child, as well as restricting
her opportunities for better education, training, and consequently more skilled
and better paid employment. It was essential to ensure the freedom of choice
of couples, and especially of the women as to the number and spacing of their
children and to ensure their survival.

- 12 -

It was also considered essential that women should have other options
in addition to childbearing and childrearing, which were recognized and
accepted by the society in which they lived. This was especially important
where the esteem in which the woman was held and the protection she received
was, by tradition, dependent in large part on the number of children she bore,
especially sons.
It was also emphasized that the rights of the child must be recognized
and guaranteed in national legislation and in population and development
Educated women should recognize their special responsibilities in extending
their own advantages to less educated women and poor and rural women, particu-
larly in the provision of training and the eradication of illiteracy.
It was also agreed that it was especially important that women should
know what their rights were, mobilize others, and organize the struggle for
their own cause.
14. The interaction of population growth, structure -and distribution and
national development and its implications for women: the demographic

The discussion focused on the nature of the relationship between different
indicators of the status of women such as education, and employment and of
aspects of population such as mortality rates, migration trends, fertility and
family planning. Participants noted that the low status of women in most
societies was associated both with a high fertility level and with high mortality
rates; but also that high population growth rates were related to women's having
few options open to.them. Women's education was related to women's fertility,
but the degree of education after which fertility sharply decreased depended
upon the overall level of women's education. When that was low, even a slight
improvement in women's education such as literacy could bring about a significant
decrease in fertility. Women's employment had been found to be related to lower
levels of fertility only when women chose to work and were highly committed to
their work.

- 13 -

The low status of women was also indirectly related to high fertility,
since it was often responsible for the desire of couples to have two or three
sons on whom to depend in their old age. Thus, women's lack of skills, and
opportunities for employment, and their low pay even when employed, were also
indirectly responsible for the motivation for large families.
It was pointed out that the extent to which women had equal chances and
options with men was such an important element in the nation's development
that it could in fact be used as.'a criterion of social development. Particips
noted that while there was a close relationship between the status of Tomen a;
fertility, even nations for which family planning programnes did not rank hi'h
in priority should make special efforts to improve the condition and status of
women and to facilitate their active participation in national development.
Real progress was not possible when more than half of the population remaine&l
A nituber of specific recommendations were made, as follows:
(a) That women should be provided with the same degree of education and
training with men in each country, and that special efforts to achieve this
goal should receive priority in nations in which there was still a considerable
discrepancy between men's and women's education.
(b) That women's education, training and employment opportunities should
be improved and made equal to those of men, regardless of whether a reduction
in population was considered desirable or not in a particular nation.
(c) That all programmes relating to women's education and vocational
training, health and family planning services, ind the establishment of cottage
industries be equally distributed in rural areas and urban slums, as well as
the modern urban sector.
(d) That Governments should elaborate plans for the integration of women
in their national development plans and include women at all levels in their
implementation, and including the decision-making levels.
(e) That existing legislation concerning family law, including inheritan ;
property rights, parental rights and duties, and other aspects of the husband-
wife and men-women relationships should be carefully examined and revised on i:
basis of equality of rights and responsibilities of men and women.

- 14 -

(f) That social security plans providing urban and rural males and
females with some minimia financial security for old age be considered for
inclusion in the development plans of all nations, with a view to reducing
the incentive for large families.
(g) That rural women as well as men be provided with training in
agricultural' skills and/or skills for the establishment and management of
handicrafts and manufacturing industries to be located in rural areas and
(h) That the United Nations, specialized agencies, and other funding
agencies adopt a policy according to which all programmes requested by
individual governments relating to education, training, employment, or the
establishment of small businesses be equally open to men and women.
(i) That further research be undertaken to define the concept of the
status of women as a composite factor, so ab to permit the meaningful study
of the relationships between the status of women and fertility and other
aspects of development.
15. The need for multi-faceted aeoroaches to population goals and policies
within the framework of national development plans and vrogrcanses
Participants noted that social values and attitudes generally contained
a bias against women's equal participation in the affairs of modern society.
This bias, which had conditioned women's self-image, was pervasive, but was
particularly strong in laws and attitudes concerning women's right to control
their reproductive functions.
It was recognized that this prejudice at least in part reflected survival
mechanisms of traditional society. With the- changes brought about by develop ;n.,
these mechanisms were now operating out of context, and it was recommended tha;
these matters be analysed and explained as.a basis.for corrective action.
Women's role in population and development must be seen within a
comprehensive framework. As a useful took in maintaining a proper focus for
and bringing about a socially desirable balance between private and public
rights and obligations, it was suggested that the family might be used as a
model on which to pattern development of society as a whole. "Within this
framework the necessity to limit individual family size as a means of enhancin:

- 15 -

the welfare of the collective family, including, in many instances, its
numerical expansion, emerged as a logical conclusion. The reason was simply
that the multitude of necessary public services could be supplied on an
equitable basis under any other arrangement. Moreover, with the family as a
model for society, the limitation of individual family size need not be seen
as a suppression of fertility, but as a matter of shifting part of the
reproductive effort towards the maintenance of the public family.
There was need to plan for developm-ent at different administrative levels
of society and to take account of a vast array of different interests. Here,
too, the framework of the family was useful. Local, regional, national and
international plans were needed. Moreover, if these plans were to meet with
the necessary acceptance, they must be prepared with the active collaboration
of those concerned. This called for a significant expansion of women's
participation in decision-making, but the principle was general and vent
beyond the role of women in society.
Similarly it was emphasized that while the instrumentalities of family
planning were important, they were not irn themselves sufficient to make a
family planning programme effective. The general family size entered into
the planning and development of all societal functions, and must involve men
and women at every level. At the same time women, as mothers, had a special
interest in family planning programmes, and in ensuring that they were
delivered in the most effective manner.
In respect of means and modalities for family planning it was emphasized
that rapid progress was being made in the development of new and improved
contraceptive techniques. This was likely to facilitate the provision of
fully acceptable family planning services.
It was emphasized that the special relationship between population and
development stemmed from the obvious, but often neglected fact that development
was by and for people. To plan for the future of their children, parents must
have the means of making a living. Without it they had no control over their
fate and nothing to plan for. This problem was of special significance for
the least developed among the developing countries and for the neglected and

16 -

deprived groups in all countries. Here the primary problem was to make the
"outsiders" members of the national as well as international faraily through
appropriate measures of assistance. The poorest among rural romen everywhere
deserved special attention in this resi,,oct.
It was also recommended that at the regional level the programme of the
Economic Commtission for Africa for the advancement of women be used as a
point of reference in formulating the Forum's recommendations for the global

- 17 -


The draft World Population Plan of Action (second draft as contained
in document E/CN.9/292/Rev.l) was introduced by a panel consisting of:
Esther Boserup, Mercedes Concepcion, P. Claxton, Laila El Hamaemsy, Julia
Henderson and Leon Tabah, under the chairmanship of Leon Tabah, Director of
the Population Division of the United Nations.
A summary of the points raised in the panel discussion, which were also
examined subsequently in four working groups of participants, is given below.
The panel noted that in drafting the World Population Plan of Action,
the following considerations had been borne in mind:
(a) The diversity of demographic situations in the various countries
of the world;
(b) The differences in prevailing cultures and values systems;
(c) The principle of national sovereignty in the formulation of
population policies which must be respected;
(d) The realization of national development goals integrating population
factors through concerted'and participatory action; and
(e) The universality of the desire to improve the quality of life.
Through the use of simple, concise language, the panel thought the
dimension's of the problems of population, the targets and goals to be achieved
during the coming decade, could be presented and evaluated with the aid of
facts and figures.
The goals of the World Population Plan of Action could be on three levels -
individual, national and global. However, the panel recognized that individual
goals might conflict with tliose of society as a whole. Therefore, it was
essential to educate the individual on the facts of human arithmetic, along
with their implications for the quality of life of the community, the nation
and the world at large.

- 18 -

In revievidg the Second Draft World Population Plan of Action, it was
thought that the following points had not been fully taken into account:
(a) Woman, as a total person, had not been accorded hr proper status
in the development process. The expansion of her role.boyoan that of
marriage and procreation would lead to involvement in the political, economic
and social spheres. ier full participation in cc.au.ity and national affairs
would ensure more rapid achievement of national development goals.
(b) The draft plan tended to treat the probler.s of population in a
fragmented vay and disregarded their functional setting. There was consequently
a danger that the draft plan would be viewed as a series of pious wishes, which
would not be accepted or iaplemented by any one nation.
(c) Education a.nd awareness of.population matters, although a long-term
process, nevertheless were essential to develop emong yo-uth the norm df the
small fani-y and also to foster changes in marriage and fertility behaviour.'
(d) The full and free exercise of the 'right to decide on one's residence
proclaimed in United Hations instruments on human rights, might impinge on the
attainment of a balanced growth of towns and cities. It was important that
sub-regional development' prograanes should promote economic growth of rural
communities, discourage migration to urban centres, and contribute to a
narrowing of the income gap between urban and rural areas.
(e) The attainment of desirable population goals and targets within the
time free given implied the mobilization of governmental resources, which
might be unrealistic, given other competing demands on those resources.
(f) Measures taken to bring about smaller families involved not only
medical, but also social services. The means enabling couples to limit or
space the number of their children could be rendered more effective, when such
means were made available in places where people lived, worked.and congregated.
(g) Legislative measures and policies influenced population variables in
various ways but such influences were far-reaching and should be examined in
their totality.
Each of the four Working Grdups made a number of general observations and
suggestions on the draft world population plan of action as well as specific
recommendations concerning the status and roles of women in relation to the
draft plan. These are contained in the reports of the Working Groups which
are summarized below.

- 19 -


Chairperson: E. Boserup
Rapporteur: Ashish Bose

The Working Group discussed the draft World Plan of Action, both in its
totalit asnd with specific reference to the role of women. The most important
point which emerged vas that the draft Plan war inadequate in its treatment
of the multitude of issues concerning the status of women. Further, the draft
Plan gave the impression that many of these vital issues were peripheral to
the problems of social and economic development. The Group therefore felt
that a better focus should be restored to the draft Plan by adding new itehs,
by incorporating new material in the Foreword to the draft Plan and also by
including a preamble to chapter I dealing with Principles and Objectives.
Among the general comments made the Group considered that the draft Plan
had not given sufficient attention to the problem of natural resources and the
complex interrelationships between population, resources and environment, but
the Group noted that these questions had only recently been discussed at the
Symposium held in Stockholm. Further, there was no reference in the draft
Plan to the urgency for reducing the ga.pbetween the developed and developing
countries, the need for cutting down the wasteful consumption level in developed
countries, for better terms of trade between developing and developed countries
and for more extensive aid from developed countries for accelerating social
and economic development.
Among other points stressed was the need for rapid rural transformation,
development of leadership at the local level, policies aiming at full employment
based on imaginative mobilization of human resources, the dispersal of industries,
more extended programmes for urban slum dwellers and concern for the miseries
of migrants and their families. The Group felt that none of these issues had
been adequately emphasized in the draft Plan of Action before it.
The Group pointed out that the case for the recognition of the role of wvo-
in the total development process of any country was best illustrated by the unanio-'-
demand for replacing the word "fuller" integration of women in the'development
process by "full" integration, a modification which was far from an editorial chang-.

- 20 -

It was pointed out that in several countries, the status of women was highly
judged by legal enactments in such field as property rights., etc., but the
masses were alienated from these rights by poverty and ignorance, and unless
the national and international plans toot adequate note of these issues, the
gap between the elite groups and the rure.l masses would remain formidable.
It was suggested that an international coordinating Committee should be set
up to look into the important question of follow-up of the Plan of Action,
when finally adopted, in different parts of the world.
Regarding the Principles and Objectives of the draft Plan (E/CN.9/292/Rev.1,
para. 1) there was consensus that there should be a preamble drawing specific
attention to the role-of women in national development programmes. The Group
considered that the need for involving women in decision-making processes, in
the formulation and implementation of plans and policies for social and economic
development had not been sufficiently emphasized in the draft Plan. A plea was
also made for a similar emphasis on the role of youth in the total development
Under chapter II (Population goals and policy recommendations) (E/CN.9/292/
Rev. 1 paras 9 to 40), the Group suggested with respect to the section on
morbidity and mortality that specific targets should be given regarding the
reduction of maternal mortality (para. 9). However, there was a difference of
opinion on the philosophy of goals versus specific targets. Some felt that the
fixing of arbitrary targets might divert attention from the fundamental issue
of achieving the goals.
The inclusion in the section on reproduction and family formation of
specific recommendation on the promotion of employment opportunities for women
was suggested as well as a reference to self-employment of women, access to
credits and loans for generating such employment (para. 19).
The Group also suggested that the minimum age at marriage for women
should be 18 years and not 17 years as in the draft plan (para. 24). However,
there were misgivings about the validity of such a proposal in the absence of
adequate opportunities for study and work for women in several countries of
the world. There was also a suggestion that a new clause be added on the right.
to terminate marriage with the full and free consent of both parties, but there
was no unanimity on this issue.

- 21 -

With respect to population distribution and internal migration the Group
thought that the reference to "increasing the absorption capacity of urban
centres' (para. 27) might be somewhat misleading. It was thought more
important to improve conditions and create adequate employment opportunities
in rural areas.
In discussing rural women in particular the Group recognized that in the
absence of involvement of the rural masses and rural women in particular, the
question of status of women tended to be confined to the elite groups. Several
members highlighted the need for local leadership, a community development
approach and full participation by rural women, even if illiterate, in the
decision-making processes at the local level. In this context, the Group
thought that the mobilization of both rural men and women with a view to trans-
forming the rural economy of developing countries reserved high priority. The
reference to "revitalizing the depleted or stagnating countryside" (para. 30)
was found misleading as in most developing countries the countryside was never
vitalized and the question therefore did not arise.
The Group also stressed in the context of internal migration that the
miseries inflicted on female migrants from rural areas to cities including
problems of illicit and clandestine traffic in women should be taken into
account in the Plan of Action. In the section dealing with demographic structure
the Group thought that the findings of research by international organizations
into the implications of age structure for development and planning should be
made available to interested group and agencies as well as governments (para. 40).
With respect to chapter III on Recommendations for the promotion of
knowledge and policies (E/CN.9/292/Rev. 1) (paras. 43 to 50), the Group suggested
a new paragraph under section I on data collection, reading: "Detailed mortality,
migration, and fertility data should be collected in surveys and censuses by each
of the main indicators of women's status such as education, employment status
and type of occupation, type of marriage.
The Group also suggested that 'section 2 on research should indicate that
research should be undertaken to define the status of women as a composite factor
that would permit the meaningful study of the relationships between the status
of women ad fertility as well as other aspects of development.

22 -


Chairperson: Laila E1 Hamnasy
Rapporteur: Steven Polgar

The Working Group supported the sugagsticn that the plan should refer
in the foreword to documentation on the need for further action to obtain full
equality for women. Reference should be .made among the strategies mentioned
to General Assembly resolution 2716 (XXV) on the Programme of concerted
international action for the advancement of vomen.
The Group also thought that some statements on population dyneaics had
been put too categorically and that there was not enough attention to the aging
of the population or to measures to be taken for helping the population to
increase. It also considered that population policy needed to be more firmly
stated in the context of total development.
.The Group suggested that the Principles and Objectives of the World
Population Plan of Action (E/C1T.9/292/Rev. 1, para. 1(b). should ,be expanded to
Include such factors as sex discrimination, national sovereignty, the impossi-
bility of real development without further reduction in international tensions
and significant decreases in spending for armaments, individual liberty in
general and specifically with respect to freedom of movement, equalization of
Opportunities between women and men, freedom of expression and association,
the problem of refugees and stateless persons and the irresponsible use of
In the chapter on Population Goals and Policy Recommendations (E/CN.9/292/
Rev. 1, paras. 3-6), questions were raised as to whether the setting of
quantitative goals in paragraph 4 was not contrary to the recognition of the
principle of individuals rights (in paragraph 15(a).
The Group felt that the implications of paragraph (5) which laid down
population growth objectives could be difficult for some countries to accept,
even if they were in fact interested in reducing natality they might not be
able to commit themselves to reaching such specific levels.

- 23 -

With respect to some countries with low mortality, which might wish to
raise levels of population growth, the Group suggested that measures to
encourage natality might be mentioned in paragraph 6. Furthermore, countries
with high mortality might also wish to increase natality.
Under the Section on Morbidity and Mortality (E/CN.9/292/Rev. 1, paras.
7-14) the Group recommended that "illegal" abortions be replaced with
"clandestine" abortions. Also in paragraph 17.
The Group recommended that developed countries should help also with
research on diseases such as haemoglobinopathies, treponematoses and malnu-
trition and special mention should be given to environmental problems (physical
and emotional) occupational health (e.g. mining), general disease, etc. Also,
it was awkward to classify suicide as an "externally" caused death rather,
deaths by violence should be mentioned. (para. 12(a) and (b)).
The establishment of multipurpose clinics and special emphasis on rural
health delivery systems was considered desirable by the Group.
In the Section on Reproduction and Family Formation, the Group recommended
that mention should be made of the right to legal abortion and to the dissem-
ination of information about it. The Group also recommended that family
planning services should be available free of charge.
The Group felt that too little attention was given to child spacing. An
additional clause was recommended to the Group to be inserted between 15(c)
and (d) as follows:
"To help promote child spacing and age distribution of childbearing
consonant with optimum health of the mother and other family member".
The Group preferred wording such as "individuals and couples" in this
whole section rather than just "couples".
There was some disagreement among the Group about possibility of recommending
to Governments not to engage in sterilization programmes. There was general
support for the view that in cases where non-reversible methods are to be used,
special caution should be exercised to ensure proper reflection and truly
voluntary consent.
In the Chapter on Recommendations for Promotion of Knowledge (E/CN.9/292/
Rev. 1, paras. 44 to 66), the Group recommended that data collection relevant
to progress in attaining equality between women and men, be given greater

24 -

F:; roulp also recommended adding a new sentence between paras. 58 and
59 to read "Enco::'- .. ,uucation which does not contr-.,.:: to moulding children
into rigid sex role categories", and mentioning training of health and welfare
personui' regr.- :in Fa'~ily planning methods and the preferability of trainI:r-
famil;ry ;.3-min;:: personnel in localities where conditions are s~iiil ar t t-tho):
which they 'ill face after training.
With respect to Evaluation and Promotion of Policies (paras. 60 :c 65),
tie Croup reccamended that particular attention needed to be -:iven c sv-lzuat i .
progress in promoting equality between women and men. It also recor--'.i:', th:,
the United Nations should prepare and distribute semi-annual reports on pr.:;ia ;s
achieved on the objectives of this plan.
With respect to the Chapter Role of National Governi.nents and Internaticual
AFencies (E/Ci.9/292/Rev. 1, paras. 66 to 73), the Group recommended that the
control of the producers over the natural resources of their own country mnus'.
be stressed. The greater participation of women in decision-making. processes
in national policies was also stressed.
The Group recommended that international agencies should adort specific
target dates by which specific steps toward equality in the employment, of woaen
and men in professional ranks was to be achieved.
Progress should be monitored on the basis of specific plans, to tie in rr;ri
th& goals of the Second United Nations Development Decade, and to give equal
or greater emphasis to social as against gross economic indicators.
The problems of refugees and other dispossessed and displaced persons was
considered relevant in this context, as well.
Finally the importance of world p 'ace was stressed in order to ol.ov
greater expenditures for development rather than armaments.

- 25 -


Chairperson: Julia Henderson
Rapporteur: G.J.A. Ojo

16. The Framework of the Plan
The Group observed that the framework of the draft plan was not sufficiently
balanced in structure and content. Structurally, the emphasis was too heavily
on population, to the exclusion of many other variables which had crucial
interrelationships with population, such as natural resources, food supply,
and general level of economic development. With regard to content, the draft
plan gave the impression that the most urgent world problem of population
everywhere was that of limiting growth. It was necessary to stress, more than
had been done in the draft plan, that the quality of the population was equally
important, and also that, in some countries, over-population was not yet a
serious problem.
The Group felt that the draft plan should be re-organized under headings
which would make it more meaningful to political leaders and their followers,
taking into consideration the variety of political and socio-economic conditions
of the different parts of the world. The Group also considered that the draft
plan should not highlight only demographic factors but also the dynamics of
population in their relationships with resources and development. It suggested
that a better format would be to put all the technical points together as an
appendix to the main body of the draft plan, which should be written in a style
and language directed to political leaders and to government officials and not
only-to demographers.
17. The International Character of Population Problems
The Group felt that the foreword of the.draft plan treated some aspects
of world population but did not go far enough to specify the diversity of
population problems from one part of the world to another. It was observed
that the international character of such diversities should be treated. It
was noted that a situation, in which a relatively small percentage of the
world's population in a particular country consumed a relatively high percentage

- 26 -

of the world's resources, could generate serious international problems that
required urgent attention. The plan should express an opinion on the need
to evolve a new economic order which would ensure justice and equity among
the developed and developing countries of the world. Similarly there was a
need to underline the fact that human rights were interrelated among all the
inhabitants of the world.
18. Alternative Models of Development
The Group thought that the impression was created in the draft plan
(para. 7) that there was only one model of development towards an "urban
explosion" situation. This norm of development might not be followed in
certain parts of the world or might not even be practicable. Other alternatives
should be deemed practicable and should therefore be considered. For instance,
migration to urban centres could be reversed by the upgrading of the rural areas
of any particular country.
19. The Right of Couples
It was necessary to indicate in the draft plan (para. 5) that the right
of couples could also be exercised, in certain cultural settings, within the
context of what was acceptable in the community, with the proviso that the
rights of the children shall be guaranteed in such circumstances.
20. "Beyond Family Planning" and action by women
The Group suggested that further exploration and the utilization of
community-based ways of diffusing family planning techniques were needed.
Leaders must be trained from among the ranks of the women themselves. While
encouraging family planning, the women should also be integrated in the process
of ensuring the overall socio-economic development of the family and its general
welfare, including that of the child and the health of the mother. The Group
stressed also that the advancement and upgrading of women in their socio-
economic situation was essential within the framework of population policies
and programmes and might be considered the best available contraceptive. The
Group also stressed that greater emphasis should be placed on the need of
education for responsible parenthood.

- 27 -

21. Sex Education
The Section in the draft plan dealing with sex education should be
expanded to include family life education and sex information. Because of
the high drop-out rate from schools in some parts of the world, the use of
out-of-school education programmes (including adult education) should also
be encouraged. The scope of sex education should be broadened so that all
adults, whether or not they were to rear families, should be fully informed
in order to reduce the guilt problems often encountered by unmarried adults.
22. Expanding Roles for Women
The Group considered that it was necessary to go beyond creating job
opportunities in order to expand roles for women. Arrangements should also
be made for the advancement of women in general and their upward mobility
in the jobs and position they hold.
23. Law and Population
The Group emphasized that legal questions in relation to population
should be much more comprehensively treated, and should include many aspects
of family law in addition to age at marriage.
24. Youth
The Group recommended that every attempt should be made to train the
youth, not only through formal schools, but also through community leaders
and others, who could influence their lives for the better, so that they
could develop the proper attitudes towards population issues.
25. Evaluating the implementation of the draft plan
The Group urged that women must be involved in the further elaboration
of the draft plan of action as well as in its adoption and implementation.
Even ordinary women.whose lives were to be affected by proposals in the plan
must be consulted as far as practicable. On the whole special priority should
.be given to the role of the woman as mother, and-participant in the development
process. Finally, the Group thought that the family should also be regarded
as a focal point of national development.

- 28 -


Chairperson: S. Farman Farmaian
Rapporteur: A. Germain

The Group felt that the draft world plan of action, although it referred
obliquely to the importance of the status and roles of women in population
dynamics, did not adequately and explicitly recognize that relationship. Nor
did it propose actions to raise the status of women, provide them with equal
opportunities with men, and improve the condition of their daily lives as
part of a multidimensional approach to the solution of population problems.
It was therefore recommended that under the principles and objectives of the
draft plan it should be explicitly stated that discrimination on the basis
of sex (as well as racial discrimination and the threat of mass destruction)
was incompatible with development. A specific objective of the plan must be
the elimination of discrimination against women, advancement of their status
and expansion of their roles. It was also necessary to focus specifically
on creating awareness among all women of their current and potential role in
national life.
The Group felt that in Chapter II of the draft plan (Population Goals
and Policy Recommendations), in the Section on Morbidity and mortality,
(E/CN.9/292/Rev.l, paras. 7-14), the high rates of infant and maternal
morbidity and mortality should be recognized explicitly and that more atten-
tion should be paid to the role and significance of inadequate nutrition and
pre and post natal care.
With respect'to the Section of Reproduction and Family Formation
(E/CN.9/292/Rev.l, paras. 15-25), the Group considered that there was a great
need to educate the masses on the basic facts and implications of population
phenomena and to make a clear distinction between family planning and
population control. It was important that sex and family life education be
included in school curricula. The Group felt that there should be a better
balance in the draft plan in dealing with problems of under population and
infertility, as well as with those of over population.

- 29 -

The Group pointed out also that it was not only the fertility of women
that should be the focus of family planning and population programmes but
also the fertility of men.
It noted further that in recommending broad distribution of contraceptives
through other than medical channels, especially commercial channels, utmost
caution must be taken to protect the health of the persons using them, taking
into consideration the medical facilities and standards of the particular country.
The Group also stressed that the problems, needs and rights of the unwed
mother should be considered as well as those of the child born out of wedlock.
It was also important to recognize that child labour had important educative
economic and social functions in many societies. Therefore careful regulation
rather than elimination of it should be the goal, along with assurance of at
least minimum levels of education.
In recognizing the need for socio-economic policies beyond family planning
information and services the Group considered it important to focus specifically
on the status and roles of women as crucial determinants of population trends.
Policies should include more education and employment for women in all areas,
equal pay for equal work, special programmes, such as childcare to facilitate
their employment and to achieve the full integration of women in national life.
Special consideration must also be given to improving the conditions of life
for rural women.
All aspects of family law (not just polygamy, age at marriage and consent
to marriage) as well as labour laws and the like, should be taken into account
as they affect population dynamics and the status and roles of women. Many of
these had been recognized as human rights in United Nations instruments, and
therefore should not be put forth merely as "recommendations" in the Plan of Action.
In considering the Section on Population Distribution and Internal Migration
(E/CN.9/292/Rev.l, paras. 26-30), the Group stressed that special care should
be taken not to encourage migration to the cities, but rather that all possible
efforts should be made to encourage people to remain in the rural areas through
providing industry, better agricultural methods, better land distribution, more
social services and modern and traditional employment. However, where urbaniza-
tion had taken place attention should be paid to means of preserving national
culture among the young, as well as to easing the adjustment to conditions of
urban life.


The Group also pointed out that particular account should be taken of
the special hardships faced by women who were left behind in the countryside
and those who migrated alone to the cities.
With respect to International Migration (E/CN.9/292/ Rev.l, paras. 31-37)
and especially the "brain drain" from the developing countries, the Group felt
that it should be recognized that some of the problems might be due in part
to policies which paid national professionals less than expatriate professionals,
thereby forcing trained persons to seek more money outside their own countries.
Furthermore, those agencies and governments which provided training for people
from the developing world should help ensure that there would be jobs for the
trainees in their home countries and that they proposed to deal with the
problem of limitation of resources in their home countries.
The Group stressed that special attention should be paid to the problems
of the wives and families of migrants which should be explicitly recognized
and policies developed to cope with them.
In Part III of the draft plan (Recommendations for the promotion of
knowledge and policies) on the question of Data Collection, (E/CN.9/292/Rev.l,.
paras. 44-49), the Group thought that in addition to censuses, there should be
demographic employment and education surveys which would give data by sex.
Furthermore, social indicators of the status of women which would help in
setting goals and designing policies for improvement and change in the situa-
tion of women needed to be developed. Emphasis should be placed on making
data comparable on a cross cultural basis.
In the field of Research (E/CN.9/292/Rev.1, paras. 50-51), the Group
noted that priorities for research should certainly include investigation of
the status and roles of women as a primary concern.
In Education and Training (E/CN.9/292/Rev.l, paras. 52-59), the Group
thought that it should be explicitly stated that education and training should
be extended to both men and women. A special target should be young female
school leavers who could benefit from vocational training. Efforts should be
made to reach more than the usual handful of people who receive the training
opportunities. Care must be taken that training abroad and training done in
a country by expatriates was relevant to local needs and priorities.

- 31 -

In the Evaluation and Promotion of Population Policies (E/CN.9/292/Rev.l,
paras. 60-65), the Group considered that it was imperative to evaluate the
laws which influenced the condition, status and roles of women. It was also
important to design and promote policies which ensured that laws were
Finally as regards The Role of National Governments and International
Co-operation (E/CN.9/292/Rev.l, paras. 66-71), the Group stressed that
technical assistance experts should be well informed and trained in local
needs and conditions. Care should be taken in selecting experts and special
attention paid to finding women. The expertise and resources of women's
organizations should be fully utilized in this respect.

- 32 -


Statements were made on this item by two resource Consultants, J. Mayone
Stycos (USA) and Hilkka Pietila (Finland) who were invited for this purpose.
In his statement on "Women, Development and Population", Mr. Stycos
stressed the need for mobilizing action in favour of women in the lower
economic levels as the highest priority target of programmes of economic
development, of family planning and of women's rights. He emphasized that
there was no single solution to the problems facing women: General education,
family planning education, legal protection and meaningful employment reinforced
each other and together created the conditions necessary for true female
liberation and development. The kind of development for women meant development
in general; but what was lacking in many countries at the present time was
precisely an appreciation by women themselves as well as men of their particular
share in and contribution to the development effort.
With respect to the mobilization of public opinion for integrating women
into overall development goals, he stressed that there could be no effective
mobilization of public opinion until women first raised the consciousness of
women and mobilized their own opinions.
Female leadership and political activism were needed for a variety of
developmental fields such as education, employment and legal reform in each
country. The utilization of the mass media in information and education
programmes outside the school, was of the utmost importance as large numbers
of women in some of the developing countries had only very short exposure to
the school system. International agencies could prepare basic programmatic
outlines and lend technical and financial assistance enabling national groups
to develop and adapt material for local programming.
Ms. Pietila stated that the first aim of the mobilization of public
opinion should be to create a realistic and comprehensive global picture of
the world and the interdependence of nations and peoples.

- 33 -

She suggested that in commemoration of the International Women's Year,
1975 the U.N. might publish a special magazine for women highlighting
aspects of U.N. work of special interest to women. She stressed the need
for Member States to provide the necessary financial resources for mobilizing
public opinion and to ensure that the United Nations budget was adequate for
the purpose.
She pointed to the problem of the communications gap which tended to
arise between the United Naticns and the average individual in any country,
due in large part to the kind of language used in discussion of items and in
the relevant documents. Non-governmental organizations could play a crucial
role in bridging that gap, but financial support might be needed. Non-
governmental organizations could also play an invaluable part in keeping
contact with research and educational institutions, universities, other non-
governmental organizations and voluntary groups, and could transmit to them
U.N. documents and resolutions relevant to their work.
It would, in her view, be important to include whenever possible in U.N.
conferences, regional and inter-governmental and national non-governmental
organizations which were in contact with people at the grassroots level.
Similarly, non-governmental organizations themselves should be encouraged to
organize their own regional meetings to exchange views and experiences in the
field of information and mobilization of public opinion.
She also suggested that States should include more representatives of
various national groups which were active, such as political parties, non-
governmental organizations, and women in the delegations to the main U.N.
organs and conferences like the General Assembly, the ECOSOC, and its
subsidiary bodies, and the general conference of the specialized agencies, etc.
The main emphasis in the information and mobilization of public opinion
which should be on the national level and on a long term basis should be to
create completely new attitudes and to change social structures. The role of
education was of the utmost importance in raising active committed citizens
and the school system itself should give equal opportunities to boys and girls,
rich and poor, rural and urban children. The curriculum should be the same for
boys and girls and should have a global orientation to make the children
understand the interrelationship of world problems.

- 34 -

She suggested that the non-governmental organizations, national
commissions or organizations, U.N. association, women's organizations,
should assume the responsibility for practical action in this field, and
act as a kind of social conscience to draw the attention of the people and
the government to the need for integrating women in the development process
and promoting the equality of the sexes.
In conclusion, she stressed that the real mobilization of public
opinion was not done by conventional public information techniques alone.
It needed individuals, groups and organizations who were convinced, convincing,
devoted and consistent, and prepared to work for a life time.
The discussion on the item relating to the mobilization of public opinion
and support for the full integration of women in development and population
was continued with the emphasis on relevant U.N. programmes and activities
relating to the World Population Year 1974, International Women's Year 1975
and the Second United Nations Development Decade.
Senior U.N. officials and the President of the Conference of non-
governmental organizations in consultative status with the ECOSOC addressed
the Forum. In their statements they stressed the importance of World
Population Year 1974 and International Women's Year 1975 and outlined some
of the programmes and activities planned for the two years.
SThe Assistant Secretary-General, Office of Public Information, emphasized
that at no stage in history had public opinion been as powerful and influen-
tial as at the present time, as a result of a series of technological advances
in the field of communications which had brought about a communications
revolution, making the world resemble a "global city" and producing for the
first time a world public opinion and even a global conscience. He assured
the participants to the Forum that the mobilization of public opinion was no
longer recognized as peripheral by.the U.N. but as an integral and indispens-
able part of any major U.N. undertaking.
He explained that while in the political sphere it was extremely difficult
for the U.N. to engage in an activist promotional information policy, these
constraints were fewer in the economic and social field. With respect to the
role of women in population and development, it was considered appropriate to
adopt activist and promotional informational efforts.

- 35 -

He referred to the Forum as another example of a relatively new approach
to the mobilization of public opinion and as such, as being a public
information event which could be used to further the substantive goals.
The Director of the Centre for Economic and Social Information, also
stressed the fact firstly that the information component was regarded as an
essential component of any event in the U.N. and secondly that the mobiliza-
tion of public opinion to aid and advance economic and social development
was of the utmost importance. The global approach with a full realization of
interdependence was most essential and suitable for the integration of women
in development, starting from the schools, elementary, secondary, and through
the universities. In the past, he pointed out, information had been directed
to circles that were converted to the cause, in the hope that they would sell
it. The time had now come to have a dialogue with these who did not wholly
share those views, such as Chambers of Commerce, shipping, trade unions,
manufacturers, associations, etc., ...with a view to providing a new and
fruitful dialogue.
The President of the Conference of non-Governmental Organizations in
consultative status with the ECOSOC spoke of the significant force which was
represented by the non-governmental organization in mobilizing public opinion.
In connexion with the activities of the World Population Year, the NGO's were
planning a Population Tribune which would be an activity parallel to the World
Population Conference of August 1974, in which some of the topics discussed
would be population, social justice and development, migration and distribution
of people, changing situation of families and the status of women, population
and environment. In addition to the Tribune, the non-governmental organizations
had scheduled a Forum for Youth Leaders in Bucharest to be held a week before
the World Population Conference.

- 36 -


As the basis for its conclusions, the Forum considered the suggestions
and recommendations of the Working Groups relating to the Second draft
Population Plan of Action (E/CN.9/292/Rev.l) on which there was consensus
in all the Working Groups. These were adopted, with a number of oral
amendments, as the conclusions of the Forum. The text is given below:

PLAN OF ACTION (E/CN.9/292/Rev.l)

1. The Forum made the following general comments on the draft World
Population Plan of Action as a whole, bearing in mind that States have*a
sovereign right to formulate and promote their own population policies, with
due regard to the principle that the size of the family should be the free
choice of each individual:
(a) The draft Plan places too great an emphasis on the reduction of
population growth and not enough on other variables, which have crucial
interrelationships with population. It gives the impression that the most
urgent problem of population is that of limiting growth, and does not stress
sufficiently the quality of population, and the fact that for some countries,
overpopulation is not, and will not be, a serious problem for some time to come;

(b) The Plan should make clear throughout that family planning should be
interpreted to mean not merely birth control, but also child spacing and the
means of relating family size by choice, to the benefits of family health,
welfare and resources within particular cultural situations. This positive
emphasis should be implicit in all discussions of population structure and

(c) The Plan should emphasize that the unwanted child is the principal
victim of irresponsible parenthood;

(d) .Although overpopulation is not a serious problem for some countries
the relationship between family planning, the status of women and development
is relevant for all countries;

(e) While the draft Plan refers by implication to the status and roles of
women in population dynamics, it d9es not adequately and explicitly recognize
that relationship, nor propose actions to improve the condition of women as
part of an approach to the solution of population problems;

(f) Among other issues not adequately emphasized are: the need for
balanced rural transformation without diminishing the need for labour in rural
industries; development of leadership at the local level; policies aiming at
full employment based on imaginative mobilization of human resources; dispersal
of industries; more extended programmes for urban slum dwellers; and concern
for the problems of migrant workers and their wives and families;

- 37 -

(g) The draft Plan should highlight not only demographic factors, but
also the dynamics of population in their relationships with ecological
questions, natural, human, and economic resources, and economic and social
development of society as a basis for the solution of population questions;

(h) While Governments have the sovereign right to pursue their own
population policies, population matters in one country are interdependent
with those of other countries in the global context. Governments should be
aware of this, and have continuous dialogues'between Governments concerning
population.matters on a global level;

(i) The draft Plan should be reorganized and written in a style and
language directed to political leaders and Government officials who will have
the responsibility for implementing it, rather than demographers.


2. The Forum considered that in the Foreword which briefly describes present
global demographic factors, several crucial points are omitted:

(a) Among the several international strategies, the Programme of Concerted
International Action for the Advancement of Women (General Assembly resolution
2716 (XXV) refers directly to questions concerning the integration of women in
development and population and fertility and should be mentioned;

(b) The vicious circle of low educational and employment status of women
and high fertility has been documented in the Special Rapporteur's report on the
Status of Women and Family Planning (E/CN.6/575 and Add.l-3). Lack of education
and adequate employment opportunities for women frequently result in high
fertility, and high fertility in turn often limits educationaand job opportunities;

(c) High fertility and high infant mortality also create a further vicious
circle in which frequent births lead to high infant mortality and high infant
mortality in turn encourages more frequent births;

(d) To interrupt these cycles, millions of women urgently need better
education, economic opportunities, greater knowledge of, and access to, family
planning; more health and nutrition services, and support from families,
communities, and Governments. Health, education and all other social services
must become involved;

(e) This massive task will require the support of Governments of both
developed and developing countries, international agencies, and non-governmental
organizations. It will require a greater sharing of total world resources.
Funds should be diverted from armaments and conflict as well as from wasteful
or extravagant consumption to mobilize world support on the scale required to
meet this urgent need for improved family welfare;

(f) To maintain the goal of balanced human development, the United Nations
must remain vigilant in crisis situations (such as population, energy, or food
supply) to ensure that nations (and even the United Nations itself) are not
exploited by power groups.

- 38 -


3. The Forum suggested that:

(a) -It should be explicitly stated among the principles that discrimin-
ation on grounds of sex (as well as racial discrimination and the threat of
mass destruction) is incompatible with development;

(b) Other factors should also be mentioned among the principles, such as
national sovereignty, reduction in international tensions and decreases in
expenditure on armaments, proper use of resources, individual liberty, especially.
with respect to freedom of expression, association and movement, equality of
opportunity for men and women;

(c) Among the objectives mention should be made of the advancement of
national and international understanding of the interrelationship of the
condition of women, family size and demographic behaviour;

(d) Specific objectives should include: the advancement of women and
expansion of their roles; the full participation of women in the formulation
and implementation of population policies; the creation of awareness among
all women of their current and potential roles in national life;

(e) The aim of the population programme should be the equality of life
of the future generation rather than control itself.


4. The Forum considered that in its concern with goals and policies aimed at
affecting population the draft Plan omits reference to many factors which have
a crucial interrelation with population. While many of these may form parts
of national and international strategies for promoting economic and social
well-being they have a rightful place among population goals and recommendations.
Greater attention needs to be given in the draft Plan to integrating these
strategies in order to achieve population goals.

5.. The Plan should recognize the importance of goals and policies affecting
the situation and roles of women as crucial determinants of population trends.
Among those requiring specific mention are the following:

(a) National development plans and programmes should include the promotion
of opportunities for the employment of women in all existing fields, with equal
pay for equal work and, where appropriate, the formation of new industries and
services to encourage women to enter the labour force and overcome prejudices
against their participation. Such programmes could include the promotion and
support of small-scale, labour-intensive rural industries. Child care and family
planning services should be offered in conjunction with these new employment
opportunities to ensure that all women are able to benefit from them. Special
consideration should also be given to policies aimed at improving the condition
of life of rural women by the use of simple, inexpensive, local systems;

- 39 -

(b) The choice of roles for women beyond marriage and motherhood which
could also provide them with a source of livelihood as well as social and
economic well-being should be emphasized;

(c) With regard to internal and international migration, particular
account should be taken of the special hardships faced by women who are left
behind in the countryside, by women who migrate alone to the cities and are
excluded more frequently than men from education and employment, especially
when urban employment is high; the problems of wives and families of migrants
should also be fully recognized and policies developed to cope with them. In
addition the problems of wives who are often obliged to choose between
following the place of their husband's work and giving up their own employment
or separating their families must also be taken into account;

(d) There is need for education on the basic facts and implications of
population phenomena and for making a clear distinction between family planning
and birth control. It is important that sex and family life and education be
included in school curricula, but because of the high drop-out rate from school
in some parts of the world out-of-school education should be encouraged;

(e) It is essential to improve the conditions in rural areas and create
adequate employment opportunities in rural areas, rather than "increase the
absorption capacity of urban centres". It is essential to encourage the
decentralization of agricultural and other industries for the development of
smaller villages and towns in order to encourage more job opportunities,
educational facilities and community services.


6. The Forum recommended that women and youth should be encouraged to
participate fully in the development and dissemination of knowledge and in
decision-making and implementation of policies relevant to population.

7. Data collection should include statistics on the economic and social roles
of men and women,'which can serve as indicators of the relative status of men
and women. Such data, which should be available to the public and interested
groups as well as government policy-making bodies, should be used to evaluate
regularly and systematically the progress made in achieving equality between
men and women. Further research on law and population is needed.

8. Education and training, for both men and women, is a long-term process
essential to widespread understanding of population issues and deserves high
priority. Training in family planning methods should be provided to health
and welfare personnel to suit local conditions and should be directed to both
men and women.

- 40 -

9. Education in all levels and forms vocational, professional, formal,
informal; local, regional, or international should be equally open to both
sexes and should avoid sex biases in directing children or other persons
toward careers. Mass media should depict opportunities and roles for women
which encourage achievement and community service and do not denigrate women's
capabilities. Educated women in turn have a responsibility in eliminating
female illiteracy and in encouraging other women to continue education or
training to enable them to make a still greater contribution to family and
national welfare.

10. Governmental and non-governmental organizations should be encouraged to
support and undertake communication and research to implement action programmes
(a) to eradicate sex-role stereotyping; (b) to increase understanding of the
changing roles of women and the contributions their talents and capabilities
can make to improve the quality of life for all; and (c) to use the power of
mass media to effect the necessary legislative and cultural changes.

11. Among the areas of research the following should be added: (a) further
study of the interrelationship between the status of women, fertility, and
other aspects of development; and (b) further research on the effects of oral
contraceptives on women's health as well as on the health of future babies.


12. Since the laws enacted by national Governments and the extent of their
de facto implementation influence population, development, and the status of
women, each Government should review and appraise all national legislation
relating to fertility and the status of women to ensure that human rights and
national population policies are taken into full account. The rights of men
and women in family law should be equalized. The effects of specific legislation
on fertility should be reviewed and evaluated and model laws developed to meet
national or regional needs, taking into account the right of couples to decide
on the number and spacing of their children.

13. National legislation having a bearing on the status of women and family
planning programmes should be reviewed to ensure compliance with relevant
international instruments and in particular laws concerning age at marriage,
inheritance, property rights of married women, divorce, education, employment
and the rights of the child.

14. Specific policies need to be established to enhance the viability of the
various laws in effect in order to reduce the frequently wide discrepancy
between legislative requirements and de facto conditions.

15. Women should be assured full participation in decision-making particularly
in legislative and executive branches of government and implementation of
national laws and policies affecting population.

- 41 -

16. Technical assistance experts should be well informed and trained in
local needs and conditions. Care should be taken in selecting experts and
special attention paid to finding competent women.

17. In order to encourage developed countries to give more tangible and
meaningful assistance to developing countries the Forum should consider
meeting on a regional basis to establish a regional community of interests.


18. Governments should devise their own national versions of the World
Population Plan of Action, setting targets for all sectors including those
specifically concerned with women. Progress would be reported to the United
Nations. United Nations should release semi-annually reports evaluating
progress and achievements in respect to goals of the national plans. The
endeavour should constitute an activity within the United Nations Second
Development Decade. The social aspect of development should be given
importance equal with the economic aspects.

19. Progress towards achieving legal, social and economic equality in the
status of women and men should be evaluated as a significant factor in
population changes and in the achievement of the goals of this Plan.

20. Qualified women should be recruited and women's organizations utilized
to provide technical assistance in population fields and to participate in
international reviews and appraisals.



1. Contribution of women to the formulation and implementation of national
and international policies relating especially to population and development.

2. United Nations goals and activities in the field of

(a) Economic and social development
(b) Population
(c) Human rights in relation to population and development.

3. The interrelationship of the status of women, population change and over-all

4. Draft World Population Plan of Action: action to be taken by women as
individuals and as organized groups.

(a) To create full awareness of the crucial interrelationship between
the status of women, population change and over-all development
(b) To promote universal recognition of women's rights in respect of
responsible parenthood
(c) To promote the full integration of women in the total development

5. The mobilization of public opinion and support for the full integration
of women in the development effort as a key factor in achieving desired
goals and policies in population and development.

6. Conclusions of the Forum including comments on the draft World Population
Plan of Action (E/CN.9/292/Rev.l).




A. Participants nominated by Governments

Afghanistan: Kobra Noorzai, Presidente de la Direction Nationale de
1'Education des Adultes et de l'Alphabetisation Fonctionelle
Ministere de l'Education Publique, 32, Karte 3, Kaboul,

Algeria: Hania Semichi, Fonctionnaire, Ministere des Affaires Etrangeres
5, Avenue Souidani Boudjemaa; Djenan El Muphti, Alger, Algeria

Argentina: Yolanda Ortiz (Licenciada) Secretaria de Estado de Recursos
Naturales y Ambiente Humano del Ministerio de Economia.
Curapaligie 945, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Australia: Elizabeth Anne Reid, Personal Adviser to the Prime Minister of
Australia on Domestic Issues including Women's Affairs. c/o Prime
Minister's Office; Parliament House, Canberra

SAustria: Elfriede Karl, Secretary of State in the Austrian Federal
Chancellery; XIII Vienna, Veitingerg, 15 Pb.

Friedrich A. Hamburger, Secretary of Embassy; Permanent Mission of
Austria to the United Nations; 809 United Nations Plaza, 7th floor,
New York, N. Y. 10017

Bahamas: Senator Doris Johnson, President of the Senate. President National
Women's Movement. P.O. Box N 4646, Nassau, Bahamas

Barbados: Getrude Lilian Eastmond, Member of Barbados House of Assembly;
Parliamentary Secretary (Junior Minister) Health and Welfare;
Upper Collymore Rock; St. Michael, Barbados.

Maisie Irene Welch, Chairman, National Organization of Women;
"Kew House", Accommodation Rd. St. Michael, Barbados.

Belgium: Christiane Hoogstoel-Fabri, Adviser, Foreign Affairs, Delegate
of Belgium to the Commission of the Status of Women; Av. Jean Laudy, 10
1200 Brussels, Belgium

Bolivia: Mary Carrasco, Jefe, Departamento Organismos Internacionales,
Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Avenida 16 de Julio 1732, La Paz,

Bulgaria: Elena Lagadinova, President of National Women's Committee; Member
of the State Council, San Stefano 14/A, Sofia, Bulgaria


Burma: Daw Thin Kyi, Professor of Geography, Arts and Science University;
University P.O. Rangoon, Burma

Prof. Daw Khin Kyii, Deputy Director, Central Statistical and
Economic Department; Strand Road, Rangoon, Burma

Byelorussian SSR: Mme. Dmitrieva Tamara, Vice-Chairman of the Peace
Committee; 2 Kirov St. Minsk

Canada: Mrs. Jean W. Edmonds, Assistant Deputy Minister Immigration
Department of Manpower and Immigration. Ottawa, Canada

Central African Republic: Jeanne Marie-Josephe Valaga-Ndede, Secrdtaire
G6ndrale & la Presidence de la Republique, charge des Oeuvres
Sociales; Pr6sidente de 1'Union des Femmes Centrafricaine (U.F.C.A.)
Bangui, Republique Centrafricaine

Chad: Bintou Malloun, Directrice Affaires Sociales; Administrateur Civil;
Direction Affaires Sociales

Chile: Silvia Gavildn, Asistente Social Jefe Desarrollo Social, Oficina de
Emergencia del Ministerio del Interior; Esteban Dell'Orto 6731,
Las Condes, Santiago, Chile

Colombia: Lilia Sgnchez-Torres, Presidenta de la Comisi6n Nacional de la
Mujer; Transv. 27 No. 37-22, Apto. 502, Bogota, Colombia

Costa Rica: Elizabeth Odio, Profesora en la Facultad de Derecho; Asesora
de la Cancilleria en Materia de Poblaci6n; Calle 21 Av. Central
y 2a., San Josd, Costa Rica

Cyprus: Frosso Parrisiadou, Legal Adviser, Office of the Attorney General
of the Republic of Cyprus; 16 Herodotu St., Athens, Greece

Czechoslovakia: Elena Litvayova, President of the Central Committee of the
Union of Slovak Women, Member of the Slovak National Council;
Drotarska 55, Bratislava, Czechoslovakia

Dahomey: Veronique Lawson, Docteur en Medicine, Directrice du Centre de
Protection Maternelle et Infantile de Cotonou, Carre 52, B.P.L.
Cotonou, Dahomey

Democratic Yemen: Salwa Ben-Humam, Planning Officer; c/o Central Planning
Commission. P.O. Box 1193, Aden

Denmark: Inge Jespersen, Deputy Commissioner of Health in Copenhagen;
52, Rygards Alle, Hellerup 2900, Denmark

- 3 -

Dominican Republic: Martha Olga Garcia de Mejia, Vice-Dean Faculty of
Economics and Social Science Calle la. Block 1"D", El Cacique II,
Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

Ecuador: Ana del Carmen Izurieta, Economista de la Divisi6n de Desarrollo
Social de la Junta Nacional de Planificaci6n. Junta Nacional de
Planificaci6n, Av. 10 de Agosto 608, Quito, Ecuador

Egypt: Aziza Hussein, Chairman, Cairo Family Planning Assoc. 10 Ahmed
Nessim St., Giza, Cairo, Egypt

El Salvador: Dra. Alicia Rivera de Cepeda; Profesora de Cardiologia, Jefe
del Servicio de Cardiologia, Instituto Salvadoreno del Seguro
Social. Final 67 Av. Sur, Pasaje 2, San Salvador. El Salvador

Equatorial Guinea: Marina Alene Mba, Miembro del Comite Central del Partido
Unico Nacional de Trabajadores; Calle de los Paises no Alineados
(Bata) Rio Muni, Apartado 473

Ethiopia: Wederyelesh Kebede, Acting Director-General for Family and
SChildren's Affairs; c/o Ministry of National Community Development
and Social Affairs. P.O. Box 2056, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Fiji: Anaseini Qonibaravi, Chairman, Statutory Board, Lot 56, NLTB B
Sub-Division, Tamavua, Suva, Fiji Islands

Finland: Briitta Koskiaho, Associate Professor University of Tampere
Tuomiokirkonk 1, 33100 Tampere 10, Finland

France: Marcelle Devaud, Membre du Conseil Economique et Social; Pr4sidente
du Comitd du Travail Fdminin; 14 rue Montrosier; 92200 Neuilly s/Seine

Gabon: Azizet Fall-N'Diaye, Directrice des Affaires Sociales B.P. 672,
Libreville, .Gabon

VWronique Hounnou, Chef Service Affaires Culturelles; Ministbre
Affaires Etrangbres et de la Cooperation, Libreville, Gabon

Germany, Democratic Republic of: Margit Raetzsch, Dean of the Chemical
Department of Chemical University Werseburg; Technische Hochschule fur
Chemie, 42 Merseburg, Gensaer Str.

Germany, Federal Republic of: Kate Strobel, Former Federal Minister for
'Youth, Family and Health, 85 Nuernberg Jul. Lossmannstr. 10 Federal
Republic of Germany

Sabine Vollmar, Counsellor, Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic
of Germany to the United Nations, 600 Third Avenue, New York, 10016


Ghana: Diana Gladys Azu, Senior Co-ordinator in Planned Parenthood
Association of Ghana; No. B 24/3 Nasia Rd. Off. Link Rd.,
Accra, Ghana

Greece: Anastasia Sakellabiadi, Director of the Agency for Manpower
Employment; Ventouri 7, Holarqos, Athens, Greece

Guinea: Sophie Maka, Deputd A l'Assembli6 Nationale; Secretaire gendrale
du Comit4 National des Femmes du Parti Demogratique de Guin4e
Permanence Nationale, Conakry, Guinee

Jeanne Martin Cisse, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Permanent Representative to the United Nations; Permanent Mission
of Guinea to the United Nations, 295 Madison Ave. 24th floor,
New York, N.Y. 10017

Haiti: Danielle Marius, Inspectrice Generale Section Primaire, Ministere
de 1'Education Nationale, 15 Ruelle Nazon, 15, Port-au-Prince, Haiti

Honduras: Maria Bertrand, Delegada por Honduras ante la Comisi6n Interamericana
de Mujeres; Inspectora de Farmacias de Honduras; Tienda Xur-EK No. 517,
Tegucigalpa, D.C. Honduras

Hungary: Hanna Bokor-Szego, Professor in International Law; Orszaghaz V.30
Budapest I, Hungary

India: Tara Ali Baig, President, Indian Council for Child Welfare; Chairman
Family Planning National Awards, R 8 Hayz Khas, New Delhi 16, India

Indonesia: Suwarni Saljo, Member, Board of the Indonesian Women's Congress
Jalan Sriwijaya 4, No. 5, Kebayoranbaru, Jakarta-Selatan, Indonesia

Mrs. Adnoes, Member of the Indonesian National Commission on the
Status of Women, Jalan Letj. Haryono No. 2, Jakarta, Indonesia

Iran: Kokab Moarefi, Vice Minister of Social Affairs, Ministry of Labour
and Social Affairs, Teheran, Iran

Iraq: Janan Sukkar, Scientific Researcher, National Center, Social and
Criminological Research, Baghdad, Iraq

Ireland: Thekla J. Beere, Chairman, Commission on the Status of Women in
Ireland; Moyudley, Glenalbyn Road, Stillorgar Co., Dublin, Ireland

Israel: Zena Harman, Chairman, Demographic Council, 50 Shmalyahulevin Street
Jerusalem, Israel

Italy: Maria Eletta Martini, Member of the Italian Parliament; Via Jacopo
della Fuercia 12, Lucca 55100, Italia


Ivory Coast: Faber Elisabeth Thiam, Directeur de Cabinet, Ministere due
Travail et des Affaires Sociales; B.P. 1714, Abidjan, Ivory Coast

Mrs. Haddad, Chargee d'6tudes Ministere du Plan de developpement
Ministere du Plan, B.P. 649, Abidjan, Ivory Coast

Jamaica: Lucille Mair, Member, Social Development Government of Jamaica,
University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica

Japan: Shigeru Ishimoto, Vice Minister, Ministry of Health and Welfare
c/o Ministry of Health and Welfare; 1-2-2 KASUMIGASEKI, Chiyodaku,
Tokyo, Japan

Kasuko Yokoo, Official, Medical Affairs Bureau, Ministry of Health
and Welfare; c/o Ministry of Health and Welfare; 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki,
Chiyodaku, Tokyo, Japan

Jordan: Nayfeh Tarawneh, Head of the Voluntary Activities at the Ministry
of Social Affairs and Labour, Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour
Amman, Jordan

Kenya: Miriam Chege, Social Welfare Officer, Nairobi, P.O. Box 21000,
Nairobi, Kenya

Khmer Republic: Mlle. Phlech-Phiroun, Inspecteur des Affaires Sociales
Ministere de l'Action Sociale et du Travail, 23, Gkuba Men,
Phnom Penh, Khmer Republic

Laos: Sunthone Bulavarn, Directeur de la Prevoyance Sociale; Direction
de la Prevoyance Sociale, Vientiane, Laos

Lebanon: Haifa H. Hamdan, Co-ordinator of Social Studies and Research;
Ministry of Planning, Bir Hassan, Beirut, Lebanon

Lesotho: Bernice Mohapelva, Member of Parliament; P.O. Box 507, Maseru,

Liberia:' Elizabeth Kedaa Collins, National President, Liberian Women Social
and Political Movement; 275 Tubman Boulevard, Sinkor, Monrovia,

Luxembourg: Astrid Lulling, Member of Parliament, Mayor Schifflange,
14 rue Medange

Madagascar: Lucette Ramanantsoavina, Assistante Sociale, Direction de la
Population, Ministere des Affaires Sociales; Lot II E 11 B
Amyandrianoon, Tananarive, Madagascar

Malaysia: Sharifah Abdullah, Administrative and Diplomatic Service, Ministry
of Labour and Manpower, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Maimum Din, Administrative Officer; Ministry of National Unity,
Jalan Dato Onn, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


Mali: Hawa Diallo, Conseiller Technique du Ministere de la Sante Publique
et des Affaires Sociales; Ministere de la Sante Publique etdes
Affaires Sociales a Bamako; Bamako, Mali

Mauritius: Yvette N. Walter, Town Councillor, President of Women's
Friendship League for Peace, Eau Coulee, Mauritius

Mexico: Luisa M. Leal, Adviser to the Secretary of the Interior; President
of the National Population Council; San Jer6nimo No. 5-2, Mexico
20, D.F. Mexico

Morocco: Rachida Laraki, Charg6e des Communications dans le domaine de la
Planificacion familiale; Ministere de la Sant6 Publique; "Villa
Dr. Laraqui". Chantilly-Souissi, Rabat, Morocco

Nepal: Puspa Kafle, Chairman, Morang District; Women's Organization;
Biratnagar Morang District in Nepal; Block No. 4/28

Netherlands: Regina W. Noesjes-Hommes; Professor in Sociology; University
of Rotterdam; Member of Board of Labour Market of State Commision
on Populations Problems; Homeruslaan 4, Oegstgeest Z.H., Netherlands

New Zealand: Dorothy Catherine Jelicich, -MP., Member of Women's Rights
Parliamentary Select Committee; 62 Newcastle Road, Hamilton,
New Zealand

Nicaragua: Amelia Borge de Sotomayor; Miembro de la Comisi6n de la Condici6n
Juridica y Social de la Mujer; 9a. Calle SO 3a y 4a. Ave., Managua,

Nigeria: Ruda T. Mohammed; Counsellor; Permanent Mission of Nigeria to the
United Nations; 757 Third Avenue, 20th floor; New York, N.Y. 10017

Norway: Liv Aasen, Member of Parliament; Stortinget Karkveien 17,
Oslo I, Norway

Pakistan: Ashraf Abbasi, Deputy Speaker, Pakistan National Assembly;
Abbasi Health Home, Larkona, Pakistan

Panama: Otilia A. de Tejeira, President of the Interamerican Commission
of Women, Apartado 4711, Panama 5, Repb. de Panama

Paraguay: Leonidas Paez de Virgili, Senador de la Naci6n; O'Leary 556,
Asunci6n, Paraguay

Peru: Violeta Villarcorta; Dem6grafa, Jefe de la Unidad de Analisis
Demografico de la Oficina Nacional de Estadistica y Censos; Las
Magnolias de Surco Manzana E, Casa 23, Surco, Lima, Peru

Yolanda C6pedes, Dem6grafa de la Oficina Nacional de Estadistica
y Censos, Pasaje Manuel Seoane 292, Urbanizaci6n Villa Los Angeles,
Casilla 5521, Lima, Peru


Philippines: Leticia R. Shahani, Ambassador of the Philippines, Chairman
Commission on the Status of Women (25th session)
22 Solar Street, Bel Air, Makati, Rizal, Philippines

Poland: Zofia Morecka, Professor Economics; Pro-Rector Warsaw University
Warsaw, Wolska 111/2, Poland

Romania: Yolanda Eminescu, Deputy-Director, Institute of Legal Researches
Str. Claudian 20; Bucharest, Romania

Rwanda: Beatrice Ntahobari, Directrice des Foyers Sociaux au Ministere
de la Sant6 Publique et des Affaires Sociales. B.P. Kigali, Rwanda

Sierra Leone: Lati C. Hyde-Forster, President/Executive Member of Clubs/
Association Annie Walsh Memorial School. PO. Box 21, Freetown,
Sierra Leone

Singapore: Margaret Loh, Executive Secretary, Singapore Family Planning
and Population Board, Ministry of Health, Palmer Road, Singapore,
2, Singapore

Somalia: Fatina Issak Bihi, First Secretary, Permanent Mission of Somalia
to the United Nations, 747 Third Avenue, 22nd floor, New York,
N.Y. 10017

South Africa: Ada Jansen, Public Relations Officer;c/r. Frere and Sir
Alfred Avenues, Lansdowne, Cape Province, South Africa

, Spain: Belen Landaburu, Procurador en Cortes y Consejero Nacional
Director General de Asistencia Social, Cea Bermindez 66, Madrid 8

Sri Lanka: S.A. Dissanayaka, Honorary Secretary, Family Planning Assoc.
S of Sri Lanka, Sri Aalaya, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka

Sudan: Fatma Abdel-Mohmoud, Minister of Health and Social Welfare, General
Secretary, Sudan Women Union, Khartoum, Sudan

Mohamed Ayoub, Assistant Researcher, Secretary of Sudanese National
Population Committee, Economic and Social Research Council, P. 0.
Box 1166, Khartoum, Sudan

Swaziland: Aylline Dlamini, Matron-in-charge Public Health Nursing Services,
Public Health Unit, P.O. Box 1119, Mbabane, Swaziland

Sweden: Eva M. Bernhardt, Head of Section, Population Division, Swedish
International Development Authority, Malmvhgen 22B, Sollentuna, Sweden

Syrian Arab Republic: Salma Nagib, Membre du Conseil du Peuple, Vice-President
de l'Union des Femmes; Damas Mohagerine, Kawakbi


Thailand: Poonsapaya Navawongs, Member, Advisory Board, Office of State
Universities, President, Zonta Club, 166 Sukhumvit 23, Bangkok,

Togo: Adjoa Mivedor, Sage-Femme, Directrice de la maternity du CHU Lome
78 Av. de Deusburg, B.P. 594, Lom6, Togo

Trinidad and Tobago: Ruby Felix, Parliamentary Secretary for Problems on
Status of Women, Ministry of Labour, 1 Albion Street, Port-of-Spain,
Trinidad, W.I.

Tunisia: Jelila Daghfous, Director de la Cooperation; Office National du
Planning Familial et de la Population, Ministry of Health,
6 rue Imam Chaffal, El Menzal, Tunis, Tunisia

Turkey: Samira Yener, Expert, State Planning Organization, Social Planning
Department, Selanik Cad No. 62/7, Yenizehir, Ankara, Turkey

Uganda: A.K.H. Bagenda, Senior Community Development Officer, Ministry of
Culture and Community Development; c/o Box 7136, Kampala, Uganda

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: Alexandra Birukova, Secretary of the
USSR Trade Union Committee, Leninski 42, Moscow

Elena Shibarina, Soviet Women's Committee, Chief of Department,
23 Pushkin Street, Moscow

United Kingdom: Joan Chapman, Sociologist, Population Bureau; Overseas
Development Administration, 35 Derwent; Road, Ipswich, England

United Republic of Cameroon: Mengata Ebolo Ekotto, Inspectrice Enseignement
Adjoint au Delegue Provincial de l'Education pour le Centre Sud
Pharmacie de Messa, B.O. 2009, Yaounde

United Republic of Tanzania: Judge Julie Manning, Box 9-04, Dar-es-Salaam,

United States of America: Patricia Hutar, U.S. Representative to the
United Nations Commission on the Status of Women; 912 Huber Lane,
Glenview, Illinois 60025

Harriett S. Crowley, Deputy Assistant Administrator for Population
and Humanitarian Affairs, 4808 45th Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20016

Shirley Hendsch, Director of International Women's Programs;
Department of State, Washington, D.C.

Upper Volta: Vicens Raoul Moussokoro, Coordinatrice Nationale du Project
UNESCO Haute Volta d'Egalite d'acces des femmes et des jeunes filles
a l'Education B.P. 111, Ouagadougou, Upper Volta

t *


Uruguay: Graziella Dubra, Officer, Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
Rosario, Uruguay

Yugoslavia: Vida Tomsic, Member, Council of the Federation of Socialist
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. President, Federal Council Family
Planning of Yugoslavia. 61000 Ljubljana, ValvazorJeva 7

Zagorka Ilic, First Secretary; Permanent Mission of the Socialist
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to the United Nations, 854 Fifth
Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10021

Zaire: Lunama-Lu-Nimy, Chef de Division, charge de la promotion social
et de l'inspection social; Departement des affaires sociales,
Kinshasa/Gombe, Zaire

Sekela Kaninda, First Secretary Permanent Mission of the Republic
of Zaire to the United Nations, 866 Second Avenue, 7th floor,
New York, N.Y. 10017

Zambia: G.M.H. Mutukwa, Advocate in Ministry of Legal Affairs, Ministry of
Legal Affairs; P.O. Box RW 106, Lusaka, Zambia

Non-member States represented by observers

Bangladesh: Azra Ali, Member, Bangladesh National Parliament, 25/A
Tikusfan Road, Dacca

Holy See: Margaret J. Mealey, Executive Director, National Council of
Catholic Laity, 1312 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C.
20005, U.S.A.

Korea (Republic of): Young Ja Kim, Director, Bureau of Women and Child
Welfare, Ministry of Health and Social Affairs, CPO Box 143, Seoul,

Switzerland: Danielle Bridel and Dr. E. Biaudet-Hedinger

Vietnam (Republic of): Pham Thi Tu, Directrice de l'institut des Activities

- 10 -

Resource Persons

Resource Consultant

Gy6ry Acsadi

Ashish Bose

Esther Boserup

Professor, Demographic Research Centre
Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi Univ.

Copenhagen, Denmark

P. Claxton

Special Assistant to Secretary for
Population Matters
Department of State, Washington, D. C.

Mercedes B. Concepcion

Ruth Dixon

Laila El Hamamsy

S. Farman-Farmaian

Adri'enne Germain

Julia Henderson

Dr. Mario Jaramillo

Annie Jiagge

Dean, Population Institute
Manila, Philippines

Department of Sociology
University of California

Director, -Social Research Center
American University in Cairo
20 Nassan Sabri, Zamalek, Cairo, Egypt

Teheran School of Social Work
P.O. Box 2851, Teheran, Iran

Programme Officer-in-Charge Population
Office, International Division
Ford Foundation, New York

IPPF, London, England
44 Cadogan Sq., London, S.W. 1, England

Medellin, Colombia
Calle 49A, 68-14

High Court Judge
Accra, Ghana

- 11 -

Violeta Sara-LaFosse

Maria del Carmen Elu de Lefero

G. J. A. Ojo

Ulla H. Olin

Hilkka Pietila

H. Pilpel

S. Polgar

Pontifica Universidad Cat6lica de
Agrupamiento Risso B-104 Lima 14, Peru

Institute Mexicano de Estudios
Sociales, Ave. 2 No. 75, Mexico 18
D. F. Mexico

Head Department of Geography and Dean
Faculty of Social Sciences
Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Senior Programme Development Officer
United Nations Development Programme

Sec. General of Finnish UN Association
Helsinki, Finland
Jussaarenkuja 5 N. 00840 Helsinki 84

Greenbaum, Wolff and Ernst
New York, N. Y.

Carolina Population Centre
University of North Carolina

S eimert Ravenholt

Dr. Anne-Marie Dourlen Rollier

Nafis Sadik

Constantina Safilios-Rothschild

Dr. J. Mayone Stycos

Leon Tabah

Director, Office of Population
Bureau of Population and Humanitarian
Assistance, AID, Washington, D. C.

Secretaire G6n6rale
Association Nationale pour l'Etude de
L'Avortement, Paris, France

Chief, Projects Division
.United Nations Fund for Population
Activities, Administrative Section
30 Fremont Road, N. Tarrytown, N. Y.10591

Professor of Sociology and Director,
Family Research Center, Dept. of
Sociology, Wayne State University
2900 E. Jefferson, Detroit, Mich.

Director, Cornell University
International Population Program
Ithaca, New York

Population Division

-" 4


Documentation of the Forum

Title and Author

Background document prepared for the Forum:

"Some Aspects of the Roles of Women in
Population and Development": by
Adrienne Germain, Consultant

Other background documents circulated:

Study of the Special Rapporteur on the
Interrelationship of the Status of Women
and Family Planning

Report of the Secretary-General on the
draft World Population Plan of Action
(Second draft)

International Development Strategy for
the Second United Nations Development

Programme of concerted international
action for the advancement of women

Draft Programme for International
Women's Year, 1975

Pamphlets and other material concerning
the Programme for World Population Year

Human Rights:. A Compilation of Interna-
.tional Instruments of the United Nations

Report of the Secretary-General on the
Implementation of a programme of concerted
international action for the Advancement
of Women and their Integration in

Report of the Secretary-General on
World and Regional Population Prospects

Report of the Interregional Meeting of
Exports on the Integration of Women in

Equal Rights for Women: A Call to Action
(Declaration on the Elimination of
Discrimination against Women)

ESA/SDHA/AC.5/3 and Add.X

E/CN.6/575 and Add. 1-3


GA resolution 2626 (XXV)

GA resolution 2716 (XXV)


Sales No. E.73.XIV.2



United Nations publication,
Sales No. E.73.IV.12




Title and Author

The following documents were also made available:

1. Report of the Secretary-General on
Demographic trends in the world and its
major regions

2. Report of the Secretary-General on
the World Population Situation

3. Possible impact of population trends
on concepts of human rights and values,
by Sara Lafosse

4. Report of the Secretary-General on the
Influence of mass communication media
.on the.formation of a new attitude towards
the role of women in present-day society

5. Report of the Secretary-General on the
Implementation of the-Declaration on the
Elimination of Discrimination against
Women and of Related Instruments

6. Report of the regional seminar on the
Status of Women and Family Planning for
Countries of the Western Hemisphere,
Santo Domingo, 9-22 May 1973

7. Report of the regional seminar on the
Status of Women and Family Planning for
Countries within the Economic Commission
for Asia and the Far East Region,
Jogjakarta, 20-30 June 1973

8. Report of the Symposium on Population
and Development, Cairo, 4-14 June 1973










9. Women's Rights and Fertility


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