Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Workshop sessions
 Workshop sessions
 Appendix A: Conference agenda
 Appendix B: Conference participants...
 Appendix C: Workshop assignmen...
 Appendix D: Workshop reports
 Back Cover

Group Title: Women in development : researchers and development practitioners conference, November 17 - 18, 1978, Rosslyn, Virginia
Title: Women in development
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00081839/00001
 Material Information
Title: Women in development researchers and development practitioners conference, November 17 - 18, 1978, Rosslyn, Virginia
Physical Description: 30 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Women in Development
Pacific Consultants
Publisher: The Office
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Publication Date: 1978?
Subject: Women in development -- Congresses   ( lcsh )
Women -- Social conditions -- Congresses   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
conference publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: sponsored by Office of Women in Development, United States Agency for International Development ; under contract with Pacific Consultants.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00081839
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 41308121

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Workshop sessions
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Workshop sessions
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Appendix A: Conference agenda
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Appendix B: Conference participants and organizational affiliations
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Appendix C: Workshop assignments
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Appendix D: Workshop reports
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Back Cover
        Page 31
Full Text
W Ib ,,FI-t-


Researchers and Development
Practitioners Conference

November 17 18,




Sponsored by



Under Contract with
2020 "K" Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20006


Researchers and Development Practitioners Conference

November 17 18, 1978

Rosslyn, Virginia

Sponsored by



Under Contract with

2020 "K" Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20006

I N D E E 0 M N

W 0 E

The material in this publication was prepared
pursuant to Contract number AID/OTR-C-1680
with the Agency for International Development.
Contractors undertaking such projects under
government sponsorship are encouraged to
express freely their judgment in professional and
technical matters. However, the opinions
expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the
position or policy of the Agency for International
Development, and no official endorsement by the Agency
for International Development should be inferred.






Workshop #1 Formal and Informal

Workshop #2

Workshop #3

Workshop #4




Women's Organizations

as Vehicles for Development

- Women, Food and Agriculture

- Education and Training for Women

- Rural Development and Women




A. Conference Agenda

B. Participants

C. Workshop Assignments

D. Workshop Reports

1. Formal and Informal Women's Organizations
as Vehicles for Development

2. Women, Food and Agriculture

3. Education and Training for Women

4. Rural Development and Women


The Office of Women in Development of the U.S. Agency for International
Development has begun a variety of activities including in-depth research and
data collection on women in development issues, creation of policy for project
design and implementation, and a series of conferences, workshops and meetings.
University researchers, development practitioners, leaders of women's organiza-
tions and others with expertise in the development process have participated
in these activities.

A series of gatherings began with the Houston Consultation which was
held before the National Women's Conference in November 1977. This was followed
by the Tucson Conference on Women and Food in January 1978, a meeting of women
in development researchers in Washington, D.C. in February, and the Title
XII Workshop, which was co-sponsored by the Board of International Food
and Agriculture Development and AID in Washington, D.C. in August 1978.

These meetings centered around three interrelated areas of concern:

1. The productivity of rural women and girls and their
contributions to development.
2. Education and training for women and girls in the
developing world.
3. The participation of women in women's formal and
informal organizations.

In addition, participantsemphasized The need to develop networks -- both
national and international -- to exchange information among women in
development researchers and practitioners, as well as to disseminate more widely
research findings.

A fourth conference was held November 17-18, 1978, in Rosslyn, Virginia,
and is the subject of this report. General aims of the conference were to
identify gaps in the knowledge about women in development, to begin working
out research and policy needs in these areas and to introduce participants to
the technical assistance needs and requirements of AID.

Perhaps most important of all, the meeting brought women in development
researchers together with AID personnel for an unprecedented exchange of views.

This report sets forth the ideas expressed at the conference, session by session,
and participants' recommendations.


Twenty-six researchers, primarily faculty members from U.S. land grant
universities, attended the day-and-a-half conference, along with practitioners
from AID and other development agencies and two staff representatives from the
U.S. Congress. (See Appendix B for a complete list of participants and their

The conference opened on Friday morning, November 17, with a presentation
by Arvonne Fraser, Coordinator of the Women in Development Office, AID, on "Current
and Proposed Programs of the Women in Development Office." A panel
presentation on technical assistance filled the balance of the morning and a
working lunch period. Friday afternoon was devoted to two workshops, which
together covered four areas of research and policy needs. Participants were
pre-assigned to two of the four workshops on the bases of individual background
and expertise. (See Appendix C). Saturday morning's agenda began with reports from
four small workshops, followed by a discussion on information dissemination
and exchange.

The conference had four main purposes:

Strengthening and extending the network of researchers
and technicians who possess interest and expertise
concerning women in development.

Assessing needs for technical assistance from an AID
perspective and providing practical insights from
technical assistance consultants.

Identifying research and policy needs in four areas,

-- Formal and Informal Women's Organizations as
Vehicles for Development

-- Women, Food and Agriculture

Education and Training for Women

-- Rural Development and Women

Identifying techniques and strategies for disseminating and
exchanging research findings within the development community
within the United States and in developing countries.


This section was designed to elicit opinions on technical assistance
from AID staff members and to allow for description of field projects by a
number of outside consultants who have worked for AID. Panel participants
are listed on the next page, followed by summaries of views expressed by
the two groups.


Peter Benedict, Near East Bureau
Ray Van Raalte, Asia Bureau
Richard Newberg, Asia Bureau
John McCabe, Africa Bureau
William Kuschak, Latin American Bureau


Kate Cloud,School of Education, Harvard
University, Cambridge, MA
Ramon Daub6n, Battelle Institute,
Washington, D.C.
Myra Buvinic, International Center for
Research on Women, Washington, D.C.
Rae Blumberg, Dept. of Sociology,
University of California, LaJolla, CA
Carolyn Bledsoe, Dept. of Anthropology,
University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM

Panel members addressed the following questions:

What are the technical assistance needs of AID and what is the
role for outside consultants?

Who recruits and selects technical assistance consultants?

What are the special skills and qualifications desired in
a consultant?

Representatives from AID identified several different points of access to
AID for outside technical consultants. First, the need for consultants has
increased because of current reductions in AID personnel both in Washington
and overseas. Recruitment of consultants, traditionally a task of AID Washing-
ton, is shared more and more by the overseas mission staff, host-country
implementing agencies and individual consultants or firms which receive
the initial request for assistance. All of these organizations still rely
heavily on U.S. based experts for recruitment.

With the transition from traditional infrastructure and capital-
intensive projects to an emphasis on basic human needs and "soft-sector"
projects, outside experts are required primarily in the fields of agriculture,
rural development, nutrition, education and human resources, health and
population and special development projects, such as women in development
projects. AID's largest demand for consultants arises in connection with
developing detailed project designs.

AID panelists named the following skills and qualifications as
desirable in a consultant, not necessarily in order of importance:

Language proficiency (heavily stressed)
Good writing skills
Creativity, the ability to improvise
Sensitivity, an open and flexible attitude
Ability to work well with non-social scientists
Ability to relate well to people of other cultures
Willingness to study the culture, religion, government
structure and other aspects of an unfamiliar country
Previous field experience (one panelist cautioned against
overrating field experience).

The technical consultants shared their interesting experiences in
the field with the group. The general feeling expressed was that it is
difficult to be a consultant, and even more difficult to be a "women in
development" consultant.

Consultants named the following requirements for effective

Enough time and money to carry out the project
Clear definition of what AID Washington and the overseas
missions expect.
Broad and comparative analyses of major issues (e.g., what are the
differential effects of technical assistance projects on men and

Finally, panelists cited these qualities and skills as desirable
in a technical consultant:

Technical expertise
Language proficiency
Familiarity with the literature on women in development.

In their evaluation of this session, conferees found particularly helpful
the listing of necessary skills and qualifications of consultants by AID
decision-makers and the perspectives on how consultants on women's issues are
incorporated into AID program planning and implementation. The technical
consultants' eloquent appeal for a better defined approach to incorporating
women's issues and concerns into all technical assistance projects was also

Conferees would have liked more discussion from the consultants on
specific kinds of technical assistance assignments, the benefits, problems
and demands in the field, more general discussion on methods and strategies
for integrating consultants' and AID's concerns, and more small group
discussions and interaction with the audience.


In the Friday afternoon workshops, participants soon became aware that
little progress could be made on achieving what is needed in each of the four
areas without some attention to how certain common tasks should be approached.
For example, what methodologies and strategies should be employed in conducting
research? How can program participants be involved in the research phase of
a project? How can past and future research be integrated into program and
policy planning?

As the workshop reports revealed participants exchanged information
and shared perceptions regarding key problems and issues in each area. The
task of developing a research agenda proved too complex and the time too
short. Only a few participants had received their workshop assignments in
time to prepare an outline of research questions. The participants' lack of
common knowledge and information regarding regional differences and existing
research made it difficult to get beyond generalities. Despite these
difficulties, considerable headway was made with regard to questions of substance
from previous networking sessions. The discussions represent a good beginning
in an ongoing effort to identify and answer some of the more critical questions
in the area of women in development.

The format of the following overviews reflects differences in style and
approach to discussing each topic from one workshop to the next. Our intent was
to convey the information and at the same time to make an effort to represent
the uniqueness of each discussion, rather than to present the workshop reports
in a standardized format.



A current priority of the Office of Women in Development is to assess the
potential for and advisability of developing a new mechanism for delivering
technical assistance to women's groups in developing countries. Essential to
this end is a deeper understanding of what kinds of women's organizations
exist, what their actual and potential role in the development process is,
and what kinds of organizations facilitate economic and public policy
participation by women. Questions that workshop participants feel need answering
as part of this assessment are grouped below.

What are the differences between informal and formal organizations?

How do their activities contrast (espically privileged versus
non-privileged groups)?
Do formal women's organizations cut across class and regional
Are informal organizations more class-specific or region-specific?
How do informal and formal organizations exchange information,
or do they?

What is the process whereby an informal network becomes a formal

What factors determine a group's survival during this transition?
Is it possible to assist self-help networks in achieving a legal
identity which will better serve their members?
How can technical assistance agencies channel financial resources
to informal organizations?

What happens to the informal group when faced with integration with
a more formalized and perhaps stronger organization?

Do formal organizations tend to reinforce the status quo?
Do they tend to distribute resources in an inequitable or
self-serving manner?

What is the nature of exchange between members of a group?

Is the exchange based upon skills?
Is it related to employment?
Is it based upon attitudes or role models?

What are the criteria for determining intervention?

What are the long-term effects of intervention?
Who benefits from it?
What are the effects of too little or too much intervention?
How is the intervention conducted?

What types of women's organizations lead to women's participation in
economic and political activity?

How can groups with a development orientation be identified?
What is the process whereby a development orientation is generated
among social or welfare groups?
What kind of linkages and networks develop between organizations
and their larger political systems?

The applicability of the Western model of "organization" and of the
related notion that formal organization leads to political activity must
always be gauged for the cultures in question. Other non-Western models
of women's organizations do exist, for example, in Peru, and offer
valuable insights into alternative approaches to organization for development.

Besides identifying research gaps, participants in this workshop developed
a guideline of questions on women's organizations and technical assistance for
those designing and implementing projects. Their outline for project
preparation, along with a detailed outline of the research agenda, appears in
Appendix D.



Discussion in this workshop centered on agricultural production and the importance
of relating research to specific development projects. The group worked out a
simple list of questions to help project planners keep practical considerations in
mind. These questions are attached in Appendix D.

Defining the client group

In this workshop, participants pointed out that an important prerequisite to
conducting research was defining the client groupss. Women of different age groups
have different needs, and will most likely assume different roles. Women with no
access to land or other resources need different kinds of support and require
different strategies for intervention from women with such access. The legal status
of different kinds of groups requires attention. Which types are accepted by the
government, recognized by national law and granted credit? All of these character-
istics of client groups must be borne in mind in the earliest stages of planning.

Project-related research

Although the participants identified broad research topics, some members challenged
the utility of doing so. That broad, cross-cultural research is valuable for theory
development in an academic context was generally accepted, yet many felt certain
practical needs to be more immediate. These were described as: relating research
to specific projects and conducting research in the context of the project and at
the time of intervention so it becomes immediately useful.



Reporting independently, two participants in this group came up with different,
yet complementary, overviews of the range of issues surrounding the education and
training of women. The summary below is a brief synthesis of the two reports.

A lack of resolution in this session regarding the differences between formal,
informal and nonformal education led workshop participants to point up the
importance of establishing the extent of overlap and similarity among these forms.

Social, cultural and economic factors affecting education and training for women

Workshop participants also emphasized the need for understanding the social,
cultural and economic backdrops where educational programs are introduced. For
instance, is formal education actually the most conducive to social mobility?
Which approach to education--formal or nonformal--has greater function for
integrating women into development processes? What are the costs and benefits of
education in the particular time and place? How do the families of women and
girls feel about such forms of education? How would such a program affect their
social status, their chances for employment? Do the program's aims correspond
or conflict with official educational goals for the nation as a whole?

_ _

Factors affecting the participation of women in education

Factors were discussed that affect women's,as distinct from men's, participation
in education. To be effective, a program must be well planned in terms of
materials, facilities, and use of mass media. How can the content of textbooks
and other materials be revised to suggest alternative roles to women and girls
or to build upon traditional, productive activities of women? Facilities,
simple or sophisticated, are useless without provision for convenient access, on
a schedule attuned to local life. Similarly, the curriculum must be designed
with the target group closely in mind. Also, in order to achieve and
maintain such educational standards, teachers and paraprofessionals need
adequate institutional support, such as ongoing training programs and refresher
courses especially for teachers in isolated rural areas.
Evaluation and Research

Finally, present programs must be supplemented and improved through continued
evaluation and research. How can participation, self-determination and
self-help be encouraged, and how can "dropping out" by women and girls be
prevented? Under which conditions is "women only" the best educational

Workshop participants saw a need for research on several different levels.
First, research on the broad, developmental questions. Next, collection of
up-to-date, project-specific data as well as formulation of methods for
answering project-specific questions. Finally, development of an effective
means of collaborating with the host country in devising curricula.

On the subject of data, one participant made a point of primary importance
that is frequently overlooked: that much of the currently available data on
education is based on largely male samples, and thus does not reflect the
situation of women and girls.



In this workshop, as in the others, participants saw a need to develop a
framework for analyzing development projects. Both the researchers and
the practitioners present emphasized three needs:

Translating existing research and appropriate terminology
for use by policy and program planners.
Finding or creating mechanisms by which to integrate research
findings into project design and implementation.
Perhaps most crucially for the practitioners, developing methods
for utilizing research to locate appropriate points of
intervention for project implementation.
The following issues were discussed and are summarized below.

The "enabling" role of women

The term "enabling" is meant to describe the process whereby women (through
support activities) make it possible for other members of the household to
enter the labor force.

How are women's support or domestic activities--the so-called "non-productive"
tasks, such as fetching water and wood, pounding, etc.--related to productive
functions? How does the relationship between women's productive and repro-
ductive functions--producing new members of the labor force and supporting
this labor power through food preparation and housekeeping--relate to
productive functions? Can such work be considered part of the support system
for production? Would documentation in this area reveal that in some regions
they have greater freedom in other areas of their lives, e.g. reproduction?

Women as producers

Emphasizing the role of women as producers rather than as beneficiaries is
critical in technical assistance efforts. For example, in a project to
introduce a corn grinder into a village, planners should emphasize the women's
increased production with the new machine instead of emphasizing the need to
reduce "drudgery," which placed the women in a receiving position. A related
question is, "To what extent is our perception of the 'drudgery tasks' of
pounding, fetching water, etc., consistent with the perceptions of the
women who perform the tasks?

Long-term impact of developmental stages on women

The chief priority developed in this workshop was the necessity of looking at
the historical and long-term impact of different stages of development on
women's conditions. Development has past causes and future effects; more
than a snapshot view is required. As one participant suggested, it may even
be helpful to look at stages of development in rural societies in the West.
This workshop ended with a review of attitudes toward women in development
that merit study. This review is attached in Appendix D.


Reports from the four workshop sessions on Saturday morning led to
discussion of three general issues: Methods to communicate research findings
and other information about women in development to a wide audience; the role
of AID's Office of Women in Development in collecting and disseminating
policy-oriented research and information to the WID community and the larger
development community; and methods to facilitate a two-way information flow
between researchers in the United States and those in developing countries.

The theme unifying these issues and the conference as a whole was
increased and improved communication among the worldwide community of
researchers and policy and program planners concerned about women in
development. Although some information and data exist, methods for
incorporating the research into program planning, or for involving
policymakers, are poorly defined and inadequate. Indeed, the general feeling
among the conference participants was that the key to translating research
findings into policies and programs remains to be discovered. This feeling
must be tempered by the recognition that similar difficulties exist in bridging
the gap between research and policy in other fields.



* Research goals should be set so as to satisfy several different
constituencies, e.g., policymakers, women in development researchers and
practitioners, and general development researchers and practitioners,
including the academic community. Researchers should:

Perform comparative analyses of existing projects, emphasizing
development goals realized because of the participation of

Continue brainstorming to design a series of experimental
research projects for comparative analysis.

Identify ways to generate more policy-related research, within
the sometimes hostile academic setting.

* A research agenda should be developed sector by sector. The preparation of
a single research agenda seems to be impossible. Steps in this direction
should include:

Compiling, translating and circulating a list of existing
research findings to policymakers.

Holding meetings for researchers, sponsored by the Women in
Development Office alone, or jointly with other organizations,
for exchange of information on current research findings.

* Research agendas and a list of policy-oriented priorities should be
distributed to AID and other development agencies and groups.

* Financial support for research should be sought from multiple and varied

* Information retrieval systems should be standardized. The Library of
Congress and a qualified consulting firm can together evaluate current
information on women with a view to instituting a uniform system of
terminology and classifications.

* Dissemination and exchange of information on women in development should
be expanded and improved.
Multiple publications should be designed and developed to
serve different needs of the various constituencies involved
with women in development.

One such publication could be a distillation of women in
development literature, emphasizing the positive effects of
women's participation in all sorts of development programs.

Other publications could be designed to facilitate
information exchange between different regions of the world
that face similar problems. For instance, Latin American
women and African women could mutually profit from an
awareness of one another's interests, needs and solutions
to various problems.

e Networks should be developed and strengthened between researchers, project
planners and field practitioners.

Ongoing regional programs which focus on the interface of
research and development assistance should be established
that link researchers and practitioners, men and women, to
facilitate collaborative interaction.

A system should be set up whereby Title XII university researchers
could directly supply field project planners with pertinent
information from their long-term involvement in specific regions.

Frequent meetings should be scheduled to maintain communication
between researchers and practitioners, to coordinate research
results and methods with the needs of people in the field.


Participants at the Women in Development/AID Researchers and Development
Practitioners Conference produced a wealth of suggestions and recommendations
during the conference and through their evaluation questionnaires. These are
summarized below.

* Facilitate policy-related research and collaboration between researchers and

Identify specific kinds of data and research required by
policymakers and development practitioners by sector and
geographic region and link research endeavors and perceived
policy issues (most notably Section 104 of the Foreign
Assistance Act).

Develop guidelines for research on the differential impact
of development cn women and men.

Translate research into language and form easily understood
and used by program planners and policymakers.

Identify techniques to integrate research findings into
policy-formation process.

Develop practical action strategies for dissemination of
research findings to program planners and administrators.

Review project proposals related directly or indirectly to
women in development, by researchers with expertise in
specific regions or issues.

* Develop or strengthen networks and informational exchange centers and systems.

Produce a loose-leaf, easily updated directory of researchers
and women in development specialists.

Exchange research methods, findings and other information via
annual meetings, conferences and other means.

Provide support to women in Title XII universities, including
development of a concise fact sheet on Title XII,and plan
regional training sessions with a focus on women in development
for both women and men at Title XII universities.

Sensitize women students attending U.S. universities from
developing countries to women in development issues and policy
implications by facilitating the assessment of women's needs and
making contact with women's organizations in their own countries.

Examine and evaluate current information retrieval systems,
bibliographic practices, and the like, with an eye to how
and why available information is used, misused or ignored.

* Provide technical assistance to AID missions in designing and
implementing projects.

Plan regional or site-specific workshops for women in development
and program officers in AID missions.

Produce technical materials appropriate to program design and
intervention strategies with an emphasis on how to translate
knowledge about women and development processes into concrete
program plans.




Friday, November 17

9:00a.m. 9:30a.m.
9:30a.m. 10:30a.m.

11:00a.m. 12:15p.m.

12:30p.m. 1:45p.m.

2:00p.m. 3:30p.m.

3:30p.m. 3:45p.m.

3:45p.m. 5:30p.m.

9:30a.m. 11:00a.m.

11:00a.m. 12:30p.m.

Coffee & Registration
AID/WID Overview:
Current and Proposed Programs,
Arvonne Fraser, Coordinator

General Assembly, Panel Presentation
Technical Assistance: Needs and Requirements.
AID staff members and selected technical
assistance consultants

Working Lunch (two groups)
Continuation of technical assistance discussion

Small Group Discussions

Workshop #1 Formal and Informal Women's
Organizations as Vehicles for Development
Workshop #2 Women, Food and Agriculture

Coffee Break

Workshop #3 Education and Training for Women
Workshop #4 Rural Development for Women

Saturday, November 18

Reports from Small Groups
Discussion: Where Do We Go From Here?

General Assembly,
Information Access and Dissemination



Julia Anderson, Associate Dean, College of Home Economics,
McKay Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011

Carolyn Bledsoe, Department of Anthropology, University of
New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico

Rae Lesser Blumberg, Department of Sociology, University of
California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 02093

Virginia Boyd, Home Economics Building, WVR 234, University
of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53702

Allison Brenner, Committee on International Relations,
2170 Rayburn Building, Washington, D.C. 20515

Lorna Butler, Western Washington Research & Extension
Center, Pioneer Way, Puyllap, Washington 98371

Myra Buvinic, Vice President, International Center for
Research on Women, 2000 P Street. N.W.
Washington, D.C. 2003:'

Melinda Cain, Office of International Programs,
Denver Research Institute, University of Denver,
Denver, Colorado 80208

Eloise Carter, Chair, Department of Home Economics,
Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee, Alabama 36088

Joan Claffey, Director, Non-Formal Education Information
Center, Institute for International Studies, College of
Education, Michigan State University, 513 Erickson Hall,
East Lansing, Michigan 48824

Kate Cloud,
24 Peabody Terrace, #1404, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138

Gayla Cook, African-American Institute. 833 U.N. Plaza, NY, NY,
Ramon Daubon, Battelle Memorial Institute, 2030 M Street, N.W.,
Washington, D.C. 20036

Ruth Dixon, Department of Sociology, University of California,
Davis, California 95616

Vivian Derryck, Director, Confererce Secretariat, U.N. decade for Women
Mid-Term World Conference International '.omen's Program, Fepartment of State
*Organizational affiliations are given as of the dates of the conference, except
when notified by the participant of a change.

Sally Findley, 1395 Eleanor Avenue, St. Paul,
Minnesota 55116

Louise Fortmann, Department of Rural Sociology, Warren Hall,
Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853

Mary Futrell, Department of Home Economics, Mississippi State
University, State College, Starkville, Mississippi 39762

Deborah Harding, 2130 P Street, NW Apt 915,
Washington, DC 20037

Shirley Harkess, Department of Sociology, University of Kansas,
Lawrence, Kansas 66045

Judith Helzner, The Pathfinder Fund, 1330 Bolyston Street,
Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02167

Carolyn Long, New TransCentury Foundation, 1789 Columbia Road, N.W.,
Washington, D.C. 20009

Kathryn March, Department of Anthropology, Cornell University,
Ithaca, New York 14853

Linda Nelson, Chair, Department of Family Ecology, Michigan State
University, East Lansing, Michigan 48823

Kathleen Newland, World Watch Institute, 1776 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.,
Washington, D.C. 20036

Mary Rainey, American Home Economics Association, 2010 Massachusetts
Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036

May Rihani, Director, Secretariat for Women In Development, New Transcentury
Foundation, 1789 Columbia Road, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009

Sonya Salamon, College of Agriculture and School of Human Resources
& Family, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801

Kathy Staudt, Department of Political Science, University of Texas, El Paso,
Texas (currently at Office of Women in Development, AID)

Rachelle Taqqu, Department of History/Women's Studies,
Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853

Irene Tinker, Director, Equity Policy Center, 1302 18th Street. N.'.
Washington, D.C. 20036 -

Anne Truax, 306 Walter Library, University of Minnesota,
Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455
Rogene Waite, Committee on International Development,
House Annex II, Room 703, Washington, D.C.

leda Wiarda, Department of Political Science, University of
Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01002

Laurie Zivetz, Research Analyst, Research Triangle Institute,
P.O. Box 12194, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709


Arvonne Fraser, Coordinator
Office of Women in Development

Elsa Chaney, Deputy Coordinator
Office of Women in Development

Faye Thompson
Office of Women in Development

Lena Goodman
Office of Women in Development

Debbie Purcell
Office of Women in Development

Lida Allen
Development Support Bureau

Coralie Bryant
Development Support Program

Douglas Caton
Program and Policy Coordination

Anne Dammarell
Near East Bureau/NENA

Aloyse Doyle
Asia Bureau/TR

Penelope Farley
Latin America Bureau/CEN

Lois Godikson
Program and Policy Coordination/ESDB

Sarah Green
Development Support Bureau/POP

Jim Hoxeng
Development Support Bureau/E

Judy Laird
AID Contractor

Mary Little
Special Assistant Private and Development Cooperation


Keys McManus
Near East Bureau/TECH

Ethel McKoy
Africa Bureau/DP/PPE

Elizabeth Maquire
Development Support Bureau/POP

Jean North
Development Support Bureau/RAD

Julie Owen
Africa Bureau/SDP

Diane Ponasik
Near East Bureau/TECH

Peggy Streit
Office of Public Affairs

Anne van Dusen
Program and Policy Coordination/PDPR/HR

Amy Nolan
Development Support Bureau/H

Ray van Raalte
Asia Bureau/PD

Peter Benedict
Near East Bureau/TECH

William Kaschak
Latin America Bureau

John Koehring
Africa Bureau/DR


Clifflyn Bromling
Project Director
Effi Barry
Conference Director
Ruby Jackson
Conference Manager


Phyllis Palmer
Director of Women's Studies, George Washington University


Ingrid Solem
Professor, University of Havana (presently at American University)



Workshop #1 Formal and Informal Women's Organizations as
Vehicles for Development





Clifflyn Bromling

Ingrid Solem

Workshop #2 Women, Food and Agriculture






Phyllis Palmer

Effi Barry


Workshop #3 Education and Training for Women






Phyllis Palmer

Effi Barry

Workshop #4 Rural Development and Women






Clifflyn Bromling

Ingrid Solem



Workshop #1

Formal and Informal Women's Organizations as Vehicles for Development


I. Distinguish between informal and formal organizations in terms of
organizational structure and mode of operation, and goals and

II. Determine capability of women's organizations to contribute to
development. Consider the stated functions and exclusivity of

A. Develop a typology of women's organizations. This should
include a description of linkages and networks between
organizations and their larger political systems, and the
structure and function of the group. The group's goals
should be identified and whether its approach is self-help
or social welfare. The group's organizational management
and financial capabilities be identified. The identity-of group
members should be established and their roles in the organization
defined, as well as the organization's role in the country
and its development. Internal and external perceptions of
group goals should be compared. The beneficiaries of each
type of women's organization should be named and its
contributions to greater equity among groups within a
population described.

B. Determine under what conditions women's organizations
operate effectively, especially with regard to cultural
conditions, regional characteristics, rural/urban
differences and local conditions.

C. Develop strategies for delivering technical assistance to
women's organizations and for their deliverance of technical
assistance to others. Steps would include:

1. Development of organizational planning and program
management skills.

2. Creation of information centers, with improved
coordination and increased selective dissemination
of information.

3. Evaluation of technical assistance projects to
determine the effects of external intervention,
for example, the effect of the infusion of
external resources on the viability of women's

III. Determine needs of research "users" (e.g., AID, World Bank)
by comparing the goals of the technical assistance agency
with the goals of the particular women's organization.


I. Identify current information on women's organizations in this
country and abroad. This can be accomplished by compiling and
distributing a list of the resource centers in various
countries which have information on women's organizations
(e.g., CEPD in Peru, CHREPRCF in Haiti, governmental
coordinating offices), and by revising the Directory of Women's
Organizations to include information collected at resource
centers. (Knowing where to get the information is probably more
useful than having all of it at one's fingertips.)

II. Identify who needs to know what and how to get this information
by incorporating a session on women's organizations into training
programs for appropriate AID staff, Peace Corps volunteers,
Private Voluntary Organization staff and members of other development
agencies. Include in the reports of such training sessions an
outline of their key points for future use by participants and by
others, such as Congressional staff members.

III. Investigate these key points to be covered in reports on women's

A. Basic information that includes existing information described
in "I" and an explanation of how the existing information can
be used in development planning.

B. Characteristics of the organizations will include information
on their structures, memberships, goals and linkages.

1. Information on structure will define whether it is formal
or informal, all female, mixed or a linked male and
female organization. Membership information will describe
its members' regions of influence, urban or rural
residence, ethnic groups and social classes represented.

2. Goals (what does the group offer its members?) will
describe the group's status and/or power, information,
emotional or psychological support, technical
assistance, economic resources (credit, loans, grants),
links to outsiders, beneficiaries and whether it is a
single issue organization or deals in some combination
of interests.

3. Linkages will be described as being within the organization
(i.e., among individual members), within the country, and
with other private organizations, the government, political
parties, and the legal system, and having incorporation
and/or tax benefits, etc., or outside the country and with
women's organizations in other countries, and development

C. The third key point will be the determination of "appropriate"
information and "appropriate" type and amount of assistance.
Too much or too little assistance can do an organization more
harm than good. The right type and amount of assistance for
a donor to offer depends upon the goals and situation of the

D. The fourth key point will be identification of factors which
determine whether an organization is an effective vehicle for
development. Considerations will be whether the organization
takes a social welfare approach (program client group dif-
ferent from membership) or a self-help approach (members
working at solving their own problems) and the degree of
management and financial capability of the organization with
involvement of local management resource people.

E. The fifth key point will be understanding the potentially
harmful effects of intervention on an organization, with
awareness that in a relationship between a development
organization and an informal women's organization, the
informal structure may not survive, and that in a relationship
between a development organization and a women's organization,
the nature of the group may be changed.

Workshop # 2 (Questions)

Women, Food and Agriculture

I. Resources and Power: Ownership, distribution and production

Resources comprise land, labor, technical assistance, credit
production inputs (feed, fertilizer, etc.).

Who has access to and control over scarce resources?

What resources do women need?

What crops do women grow?

What animals do they tend?

Country and region-specific surveys are needed.

II. Education

What are the gaps in the inter-generational transfer of skills
(e.g., food production skills--are mothers teaching their daughters
these skills)?

What extension education do women farmers need?

What shared agricultural technology and communication skills are

III. Nutrition

What are the nutritional levels of people in different countries?

Should nutritional status be studied concurrently with agricultural
issues? (Or as a sub-category?)

How is family nutrition affected by the rise of agribusiness when
production of cash crops increases and allocation of land for
subsistence farming (gardening for family needs) decreases?

IV. Technology

Do women have access to new technology?

What is the impact of modernization on women?

How do traditional food distribution systems compare to more
mechanized systems, for example?

V. Agribusiness

What effect has the shift from a traditional, self-sufficient
agricultural system to increasing cash-crop production had on
women and the local economy?

VI. Guideline for Project Planners in the Field

What do women do in agriculture?

What do they work with?

What resources do they have?

How do laws--customary, national, religious--affect women?

What are they prohibited from doing, owning, etc.?

What do they get from what they do?

Who owns the crops?

Do women get a return on their labor in cash-crop production?

What kinds of changes are occurring over time for women?

Are the changes for better or for worse?

Workshop # 3

Education and Training for Women


I. Educational Foundations

A. Examine the social, cultural and economic setting where a
program is to be implemented. Include any obstacles
to participation in education, such as economy, community,
family, access to facilities or high birth rates.

B. Determine the status conferred by education, how it
influences life style options for women and girls
and whether status and development are complementary.

C. Determine the national educational goals and the
relationship between education and individual, group and
national development goals, stated or unstated. Assess
the country's educational system support, whether and how
it advances overall development goals and whether and how
it reinforces or inhibits the integration of women in
development (e.g., with respect to status or access to

D. Describe the interface between formal and nonformal
education, whether nonformal education replaces or
complements formal education. Determine the more
functional approach in terms of integrating women into
development processes. Describe the impact of the two
different approaches on the gap between the elite and
the masses.

II. Curriculum

Apply the relevance of educational materials to the lives of
women and girls. Determine the kinds of materials needed to
foster an understanding of alternative roles for women and
girls. Identify effective uses of mass media in education of
women and girls.

III. Evaluation of Education

A. Identify the factors that determine the drop-out rate of
women and girls and the interrelationship between education
and employment.

B. Identify costs and benefits and how they are defined, and
the present status of cost/benefit analysis of education.

C. Determine whether the present entrance examinations are
unduly discriminatory, so that girls obtain lower scores.

D. Identify the recent trends in nonformal education.

B. Individual, Familial and Group Concerns

1. Strategies to encourage participation and self-determination,
self-help efforts.

2. The relationship between education and training and
realization of basic needs and other developmental needs:
and needs versus wants.
3. Preparation for traditional roles versus new cultural ideas.

4. Examination of the appropriateness of "women-only"
education (in cultural and religious contexts).

5. Exploration of the family as the unit of analysis
in educating women and girls.

C. Quality and Functional Efficiency Concerns of Educational

1. Understanding of and access to facilities and materials.

2. More effective collaboration and utilization of formal
educational and nonformal educational resources.

3. Functionality and appropriateness of curricula (literacy,
skills training--vocational, technological, managerial--
group dynamics and community development).

4. Institutional support for teachers (formal and nonformal).

5. Access to facilities and resources.

6. Follow-up support (teachers/students).

7. Use of big media (radio, television, etc.) and little
media (textbooks, visuals, etc.).

II. Knowledge Utilization

A. Collection of literature in a useful and effective form.

B. Identification of non-print resources and promotion of

IV. Teachers and Paraprofessionals

A. Identify what institutional support exists for teachers,
paraprofessionals and students (e.g., training,
refresher courses, ongoing support and follow-through),
and the kind of family support women need in order to act
as paraprofessionals, teachers and trainers.

B. Specify the effective institutional support mechanisms
that maintain family values and encourage women in
training type careers.

C. Identify the institutional restraints.

V. Informal and Nonformal Education

Define the role of the family in the advancement of
women and girls, and describe how adult family members
can be trained to act as educators.


I. Knowledge Generation

A. Structural Concerns (macro/societal)

1. Reciprocal relationships between education and
employment in rural systems and in society as
a whole.

2. Ideological assumptions, e.g., society's goals
and how the educational system is designed to
relate to that larger societal purpose.

3. The relationship between education and status,
the mass/elite gap, i.e., how the gap is created,
its effect and how it might be closed.

4. The relationship between formal and nonformal
education vis-a-vis individual and societal
social mobility.

5. Interrelationships among national education
goals, education and training.

6. Findings of cost-benefit evaluation of education
programs for women (the appropriateness of
technology transfer).

Workshop #4 (Questions)

Rural Development and Women

I. Framework for Analysis of Rural Development Production Projects

A. Production

1. How is productive activity and labor divided between
the sexes in rural areas (and subdivided by age,
class and regional groups)?

B. Resources

1. To what extent do women control productive resources
such as livestock, land, etc., as opposed to men?

2. Will greater control over productive resources mean
greater control and freedom for women in other areas
of their lives?

3. How are resources divided between the sexes in rural
areas (and subdivided by age, class and region)?

4. What proportion of the means of production do women
control, and which productive resources (land,
capital, labor, etc.)?

5. How are the fruits of production distributed, including

6. How and what types of resources do people acquire?

a. Acquisition by: descent, inheritance, exchange
or individual initiative.

b. Types of resources: capital and noncapital goods.

II. Research Priorities: Analysis of Impact of Social Change and
Intervention on Women

A. Social Change

1. What effect has the monetization of rural economy had
on women?

2. What is the impact on women when industry develops in
rural areas?

What are the effects on women's non-farm activities
on agricultural activities and production?

3. How do different stages of development affect women?

Can rural development be approached with a dual view,
one historical, one forward looking, toward the
longer term impacts of modernization on women?

B. Intervention

1. What are the effects of capitalization--new technology,
investment, forms of organization, scale--on women?

2. What effects has restricted access to technical
assistance and training had on women?

Do mechanisms exist for their participation or, for
example, do rural development projects undermine their
traditional participatory role in agriculture?

3. What have been the effects of land tenure patterns on
women's work incentives, investment behaviors and

4. What effects have changing market patterns (exclusion
from distribution channels, etc.) had on women?

5. How has male migration to cities affected women, and in
turn, household family structures, fertility and women's
perceptions of themselves?

6. Is women's rural labor organized?

What are women's attitudes toward labor cooperatives?

Are they different from men's?

III. Attitudes Concerning Women's Participation in the Development Process

A. Self-perceptions by women at different stages of life--of
different classes, ethnic origins--in terms of mobility,
economic roles, opportunities and the status quo.

1. How do women define their roles vis-a-vis rural development?

2. To what degree, for instance, does the possibility of
domestic work in cities influence decisions of mothers
to send their daughters to school?

B. Male villagers' attitudes toward women's participation in
rural development.

1. How do men perceive women's work and their degree of
control over productive resources?

C. Attitudes of male and female development planners

1. How can development planners be encouraged to emphasize
the productive role of women rather than represent themselves
as mere beneficiaries?

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