Front Cover
 Title Page
 FVA negotiation with stakehold...
 Methodological approaches to understanding...
 Gender and natural resources in...
 Gender analysis and its practical...
 Conservation strategy
 List of acronyms
 Back Cover

Group Title: Case studies series on gender, community participation and natural resource management ; no. 2
Title: Gender, conservation, and community participation
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00081829/00001
 Material Information
Title: Gender, conservation, and community participation the case of the Jaú National Park, Brazil
Series Title: Case studies series on gender, community participation and natural resource management
Physical Description: 13 leaves : ill., map ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Oliveira, Regina
Anderson, Elza Suely
Schmink, Marianne
Publisher: MERGE, Managing Ecosystems and Resources with Gender Emphasis, Tropical Conservation and Development Program, Center for Latin American Studies, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville FL
Publication Date: 1999
Subject: Conservation of natural resources -- Citizen participation -- Brazil   ( lcsh )
Women in conservation of natural resources -- Brazil   ( lcsh )
National parks and reserves -- Brazil   ( lcsh )
Parque Nacional do Jaú (Brazil)   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Brazil
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaves 12-13).
Statement of Responsibility: Regina Oliveira & Elza Suely Anderson ; translated by Marianne Schmink.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00081829
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 42860889

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
        Title Page 3
        Title Page 4
        Page 1
        Page 2
    FVA negotiation with stakeholders
        Page 3
    Methodological approaches to understanding gender and natural resources
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Gender and natural resources in Jau Park
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Gender analysis and its practical application in the case of Jau
        Page 10
    Conservation strategy
        Page 11
        Page 12
    List of acronyms
        Page 13
    Back Cover
        Page 14
Full Text

*fdeelopes an osrvto *rjcs MERGEI

the MERGE Case Sudies Sries o GendeCommnity^^
P c*ici ion, and Natural Resour 0an*gem6 nt. *
304 S rite r H*ltS
PO Box 11.. . .

Kimplementai on of geii~ndr tirainn rorminldn
av 1*4q S 5606 *

0 *00.@. ^DIRECSTOR S 66S^
MSrianne Schmink, Ph.D.


and Community
The Case of the Jau
IIMotnnl Dnrlk

iMuuuu iui Il u In iV


Regina Oliveira
Elza Suely Anderson
Case Study No. 2
June, 1999



C -




Gender, Conservation, and Community
Participation: The Case of the Jau National
Park, Brazil

Regina Oliveira and Elza Suely Anderson

Published by


grupo de pesquisa6 em ien<;o em
sistemas agroflorestais do Acre


Supported by

The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation



Case Study No. 2
June, 1999





MERGE (Managing Ecosystems and Resources
with Gender Emphasis),
Tropical Conservation and Development Program
Center for Latin American Studies
University of Florida
P.O. Box 115531
Gainesville, FL 32611
E-mail: tcd@tcd.ufl.edu

John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation
University of Florida

Marianne Schmink (University of Florida)

Constance Campbell (The Nature Conservancy)
Avecita Chicch6n (MacArthur Foundation)
Maria Cristina Espinosa (IUCN)
Denise Garrafiel (PESACRE)
Susan V. Poats (FLACSO Ecuador)

Elena Bastidas
Victoria Reyes-Garcia
Ronaldo Weigand Jr.
Amanda Wolfe

University of Florida
PESACRE Acre Agroforestry Research and
Extension Group
WIDTECH -A Women in Development
Technical Assistance Project
FVA Vit6ria Amaz6nica Foundation
USAID/Brazil US Agency for Intemational
John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation
FLACSO/Ecuador- Latin American Social Sciences
UNDP- United Nations Development Programme
The Nature Conservancy
Conservation Intemational Peru

The MERGE Case Studies Series on Gender,
Community Participation and Natural Resource
Management, supported by grants from the John
D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and
WIDTECH, is designed to show how a gender
focus has been relevant and useful in natural
resource management projects. The cases focus
on concrete examples from extension, applied
research, and participatory planning activities
involving rural communities, especially those in and
around protected areas primarily from projects in
Latin America with which the MERGE program has
collaborated. The format lends itself to practical
applications as well as training in gender and
natural resource management. The cases are
translated into English, Portuguese and Spanish,
and are available on the Internet
The following are the first case studies of the
1. Conceptual Framework for Gender and
Community-Based Conservation, by
Marianne Schmink, 1999
2. Gender, Conservation and Community
Participation: The Case of Ja6 National
Park, Brazil, by Regina Oliveira and Suely
Anderson, 1999


Case Studies Series on Gender, Community Participation and
Natural Resource Management, No. 2

Gender, Conservation, and Community
Participation: The Case of the Jau
National Park, Brazil
Regina Oliveira & Elza Suely Anderson

Translated by Marianne Schmink

June, 1999

Gender, Community Participation and Natural Resource Management, No. 2, 1999

Gender, Conservation, and Community Participation: The

Case of the Jau National Park, Brazil

Regina Oliveira & Elza Suely Anderson

1II u I

This document is the result of a joint effort
of the FundagAo Vit6ria Amazbnica (FVA) and
MERGE (Managing Resources and Ecosystems with
Gender Emphasis) to try to describe the experience of
FVA in including gender, community participation
and partnerships in their conservation activities in the
Jai National Park (PNJ). One of its objectives is to
serve as an example of how gender as a variable can
contribute to research, management plans, community
participation, and other basic activities in the
consolidation of conservation areas such as the PNJ.
This document is aimed at an audience of
environmental and social non-governmental
organization (NGOs), government environmental
agencies, the scientific community, and
grass-roots organizations.
FVA is a NGO based in
Manaus, whose mission is to work
1. How
towards biodiversity conservation and
the development of the riverside- socieco
dwelling populations, in order to Ecolog
consolidate the Conservation Units (CU) flo
of the Rio Negro basin. The PNJ was nr
indirect i
chosen as an example of conservation
and gender issues due to the pioneering
power i
work carried out by FVA in the Park, in [takeho
collaboration with governmental 3. Ho c
institutions and national and
international NGOs. Moreover, FVA is anah s
analysis i
one of the few local organizations in the 4n wh
4. In wha
Amazon region that incorporated gender ith nata
issues at the level of the institutions,
.use, accr
using this knowledge in its activities in roa
the Park.
The MERGE program, 5. Does
coordinated by the University of Florida,
S processes
includes four countries: Brazil, i ess
Ecuador, Peru and the United States. .
MERGE developed in Brazil, in part, co u
based on the former GENESYS project analysis
(Gender in Economic and Social
7. How c
Systems), both of which were supported
the long
by USAID with the principal objective tuto
of assisting the projects in the r
UAIDBrail environment program.
USAID/Brazil environment program. ....

MERGE seeks to address the challenge of promoting
participative strategies and deepening the
understanding of gender and natural resource
management in tropical areas.
The thread of the text is based on the
questions outlined in the MERGE conceptual
framework, listed in Box 1 (Schmink, 1999).

1.1 The Jati National Park
The PNJ is located in the state of Amazonas,
in the municipalities of Novo Airao and Barcelos.
With an area of 2,272,000 hectares, it is the largest
National Park in Brazil, and the largest protected area
of tropical forest in the world. The apparent
biological value of the region where the PNJ is
located first aroused the interest of naturalists in the

Box 1: MERGE conceptual framework.

is the potential lor communitv-based conservation projects
ed or enhanced by historical, ecological. cultural.
nomic and political factors at diverse scales? [Political
are the multiple stakeholder groups involved in direct or
negotiation for resources? In what ma rs are their interests
entaor and'or in conflict9 How do their different levels of
and resources afl-ct the outcomes of negotiations?
Rider analysis]
*an participation by local cormmunitzes contribute to goals of
Conservation with iniproved livelihoods? [Stakeholder
within the commnunitr]
it 'was do gender relations differentiate people's connections
ral resources and ecological systems? (including knowledge.
'ss. control, and impact on natural resources. and attitudes
resources and consenranoni [Gender relations and
stakeholder participation in gender-focused learning
s improve the ability of local actors to negotiate their
in conservation? [Project analysis]
are changes tn resource use and management by local
ties linked to biodiversity conservation' [Sustainability

an stakeholder learning contribute to conserv'aton success in
run? How can it be incorporated into a broader s'tategy for
nal change and partnership that provides continuing in
exchange, technical assistance and other participatory
with local communities? [Ins.titutional analysis]

Gender, Community Participation and Natural Resource Management, No. 2, 1999

late 1960s, when Haffer (1969), studying the
distribution of birds, identified a small Pleistocene
refuge -hypothesized to have remained as a humid
refuge for plants and animals during drier climate
conditions of the Pleistocene period in the lower Jaiu
and Unini rivers. The lower Jaui area later was also
included in the Pleistocene refuge defined in an area
north of Manaus, based on the distribution of plants
(Prance, 1973). Today the evidence for
the refuges is questioned (Salo, 1987), but
the fact is that these two studies provided As h
the basis for the proposal to create a alh(
reserve in the area (Schubart et al., 1977), prote
with the objective of conserving a black-
water basin from the source to the mouth, decree
from interfluve to interfluve. the cre
Conservation Units occupy a PNJ d
central role in biodiversity conservation,
because they are considered to be the best i c
way to preserve wildlife, rare species, the pi
scenic ecosystems, genetic resources, people
beautiful landscapes, water sources, and
historic and archaeological patrimony the
(Padua, 1986). However, traditional the bor
conservationists tend to see only the of the
aesthetic and biological values of the
forest, but not the people who are there area
(Rebelo, 1995). Ali
1.2 The History of Human peop.
Activity in the PNJ decay
The area surrounding the PNJ has occI
a history of human occupation which locale
predates the colonial period. Upon arrival nature
in the 17" century, the Portuguese
recorded the presence of the Cauari avail
Indians, the oldest known residents. The
Cauari belong to the Arawak linguistic group and
represented an important branch of the commercial
route, trading products with the Yurimaguas of the
Japuri and Solim6es rivers, and with the Guaranaguas
of Rio Branco, who themselves traded products with
the Dutch of Rupununi (Porro, 1992).
The colonial occupation of the region began
in 1658 with a Jesuit expedition, departing from
Maranhio, which founded the Tarumas Mission
(IBGE, 1957). In 1694, the Carmelites founded the
settlement of Santo Elias do Jaui, at the mouth of the
Jau river. In 1786, now elevated to the category of
village and named Airao, the region was home to
Arawak, Manaus, Bare and Tucun Indians, as well as
merchants of European descendence, and the priests.
All together there were 148 people in 22 houses

)st all
:j -

(Ferreira, n/d). The area was the site of great
commercial activity involving products such as:
different varieties of rubber (seringa, sorva, and
balata), animal pelts (jaguar, alligator and otter),
tortoises, and vegetable fibers. During the beginning
of the twentieth century, the region's commerce was
controlled by the Vianna family. Beginning in 1955,
a patron from the rubber boom period named
Francisco Bezerra de Vasconcelos called
himself owner of the recently-created
ns in municipality of Airio. After a long period
the of economic decline and political fights
ireas between the local bosses and politicians
appointed from the state capital, there was
Brazil, a shift in settlement to the locality called
of the Tauapessassu (100 km. downriver), today
+ +-, known as Novo Airao.

IU 11UL Lia eV
presence of
residing in
irk. Within
ders of 86%
Sin South
rica, live
le who for
ides have
upied the
and used the
il resources
able there.

1.3 The Creation of the PNJ
The PNJ was created by decree
no. 85,200, on September 24, 1980. As
the goal of a co-management agreement
between the Brazilian Institute for
Environment and Renewable Natural
Resources (IBAMA) and the FVA, a
management plan was elaborated for the
Park under the responsibility of the latter.
As happens in almost all the
protected areas decreed in Brazil, the
creation of the PNJ did not take into
consideration the presence of people
residing in the Park. Current legislation
does not permit the presence of residents
in protected areas. The general practice is
for the state to expropriate and indemnify
the residents, in an attempt to consolidate
the conservation of the area. Within the

borders of 86% of the protected areas in South
America, live people who for decades have occupied
the locale and used the natural resources available
During the first phase of Brazil's Plan for
the System of Conservation Units, in 1979, the Jaui
area was proposed as a Biological Reserve, one of the
most restrictive management categories with regard
to exploitation of natural resources and human
presence. In 1982, however, during the Plan's second
phase, the unit was reconfigured as a National Park.
The criteria that guided the creation of the Park were:
"proximity to Manaus, center of great touristic
concentration, the scenic beauty of the region, and
facility of access to the region" (BRASIL. MA-
IBDF/FBCN, 1982: 58).

Gender, Community Participation and Natural Resource Management, No. 2, 1999

The question of whether or not residents can
stay in the PNJ is a subject of much discussion lately,
due to the impasse between the legislation and reality.
Most of the residents (73%) know that they live in a
National Park, but they do not know all objectives of

are the Brazilian legislature and civil society at large,
which also have interests in the management and
control of the Amazon region.
Various strategies and actions continue to be
undertaken by FVA in order to integrate the different

a Park. Among 29 residents who said they
did know, 22 mentioned only preserving
nature, and none mentioned the other three
objectives listed in the 1965 Forest Code,
which specifies that National Parks should
have "educational, recreational, and
scientific objectives" (art. 5"). The current
legislation does not permit the presence of
residents in the Park, but the reality is that
they continue to reside there, seventeen
years after the Park's creation. For this
reason, contrary to IBAMA's rules, the
FVA took a position in favor of allowing
the residents to stay in the Park, and of
their participation in the Management
Plan. The FVA understands that
participation in a co-management
agreement does not mean simply

Consolidation of a
protected area in
the Amazon region
involves various
segments of civil
financial interests,
and residents of
the area.

executing a set of rules, but rather is principally a
process of negotiating and proposing more
appropriate solutions, derived from the knowledge of
and direct actions in the Park. From the perspective
of FVA, the question of whether or not residents
remain in protected areas must be treated in different
ways depending on each Conservation Unit.

Consolidation of a protected area in the
Amazon region involves various segments of civil
society, principally scientists, politicians, financial
interests, and residents of the area. It is a difficult
task. There are many conflicts in protected areas. In
the PNJ, conflicts occur mostly due to diverse
interests in the use of resources (timber, tortoises, and
tropical fish). Some residents believe that
"outsiders" should not be permitted to enter the Park
to extract resources. The administrative tasks of
enforcing such rules, and the laws prohibiting
residents within the Park also are problems.
Different groups currently are involved in
the consolidation of the PNJ, either directly or
indirectly. We identify as groups with a direct
interest the FVA, IBAMA, and the Park residents.
Those with indirect interests include local
governments, politicians, fishing tourists, tropical fish
merchants, and loggers. Even less directly involved

groups and act in a multi-institutional way
to consolidate the Park. First, FVA
worked jointly in the PNJ with the
National Health Service (FNS), with the
objective of getting to know the area and
its residents. An initial socioecomic
survey carried out among a sample
population in 1990 indicated the need to
develop a deeper study of the area. As a
result, FVA proposed and carried out the
first Action Plan for the Park in April of
1992, with the participation of researchers
from local and national institutions such as
IBAMA, the National Institute of Amazon
Research (INPA), and the Federal
University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), who
identified the principal problems facing
the Park.
FVA's participation in cultural activities in

the municipalities to which the Park belongs
contributed to closer ties with the local governments
and other local social groups (schools, associations).
The result was a joint effort in environmental
education for children and youth, which sought to
raise their consciousness about the importance of
protected areas.
With the Emergency Action Plan, in 1995,
FVA sought to bring different groups together to
discuss, plan, and carry out a series of activities in
order to identify and minimize the impacts on natural
resources and, as a consequence, contribute to the
conservation of the PNJ. The work was productive,
and resulted in the elaboration of a document that
reflected the consensus of the various stakeholders,
and served as a guide for actions in the Park, while
the Management Plan was produced.
Throughout the process, from the first action
plan to the elaboration of the Management Plan,
FVA's strategy involved multi-faceted actions.
Alongside the political work with institutions
concerned with research, health, and management of
the PNJ, an effort was undertaken to involve the
population that lived in the Park. Park residents were
invited to participate in the discussions and
elaboration of the Management Plan, and the socio-
environmental research activities related to resource
use and gender. FVA understood that direct
participation in decisions by the population of the

Gender, Community Participation and Natural Resource Management, No. 2, 1999

Park would help guarantee the consolidation of the
PNJ and, consequently, biodiversity conservation.
Significant difficulties were encountered in creating a
network of elected park residents committed to
participating in management activities. For example,
when a representative of the residents participated in
the Emergency Action Plan discussions, we could see
that he had great difficulty understanding and
participating in the issues discussed during the
meeting, and even more trouble passing on this
information to the other residents. After this
experience, FVA initiated a training and learning
process with the PNJ residents.
Another strategy for collaboration among
stakeholders was the suggestion to establish a
Technical Board for the Conservation Unit, to be
convened by the IBAMA Superintendent in Manaus.
The Board would bring together representatives of
governmental institutions and NGOs, with the basic
purpose of uniting the diverse stakeholder groups to
seek common solutions to problems involving CUs in
the state of Amazonas. The Superintendency finally
acted on this suggestion two years after negotiations
began. The delay in making the Technical Board a
reality undermined the actions of the stakeholders,
who depended on official convocation of the meetings
where decisions would be made about monitoring of
the area. With no means to get together and discuss
these issues, stakeholders ended up
drifting apart and losing contact, which
made the process more difficult since In
IBAMA, the management entity, was also convert
in sole charge of actions to be taken, local
Distanced from the discussion process,
due to the lack of any form of notice
representative organization and because of fel
the complexity of the process, the co
residents of PNJ were left out of the initial
discussion, with no concrete way to an,
negotiate their needs and interests. qu
To involve the diverse formula
stakeholders and guarantee the effective
participation of the population in the WOm
discussions, FVA sought to promote t
meetings and informal gatherings within
the Park, on topics that had to do with
priority questions for the conservation of the PNJ and
that were of interest to the various groups. One
example was the meeting on conservation and
management of tortoises, which took place in July of
1995 in a place called Seringalzinho. Participative
methods (group dynamics) used during the meeting
helped to lay out the issues for the residents and, as a

d thai
It moi
en or

result, solutions were suggested with broad local
This experience led FVA to plan other
meetings with quite specific related themes, in order
to avoid difficulties of understanding and to increase
the potential for information to be passed on between
residents. Even this method, of holding meetings, is
difficult when the work team is not armed with all the
necessary information and well-prepared in advance.
The FVA also held several meetings with
small groups of residents in different areas of the
Park, related to the mapping of areas used by the
residents for subsistence and commercial activities.
These meetings focused on mapping of areas of
natural resource use were part of a strategy that also
included a permanent field team, with the purpose of
training residents, learning to communicate
effectively with them, and working with them to
identify problems and solutions. Another strategy
which yielded good results was to hold meetings with
leaders indicated by the residents of the Park. These
meetings were held outside the Park in order to
prepare the leaders to act in other fora for debate.
Dynamic, participatory activities and group work led
to profound discussions about the understanding of
the role of each resident in the process of elaboration
of the Management Plan (FVA 1998a, 1998b).

is with
n, we 3.1 Gender-specific
t they Questionnaires
re Before going to the field to carry
ble out the census and socio-economic survey
of 1992, an FVA team spent eight days in
ng the PNJ pre-testing the questionnaire.
ns When we arrived in the houses we were
by the received by the family, and the questions,
although heard by all, generally were
Sthe answered only by the head of the family,
usually men, with little or no participation
by women in the responses. We observed
that for the census questions (name and number of
children, documents, and schooling), the women were
consulted by the men. The men, on the other hand,
insisted on answering the questions about
consumption of natural resources, principally hunting
and collecting of turtles and turtle-eggs.
In separate conversations with the women,
we noticed that they felt more comfortable answering

Gender, Community Participation and Natural Resource Management, No. 2, 1999

questions that were formulated by the women on the
team. One of these questions came to be about
cooking, and ways of preparing certain dishes
consumed by the family. In this way we were able to
get an estimate of the consumption of game with this
question: "When was the last time you cooked....?"
followed by a list of possible game animals. Since
they were responsible for preparing meals and
managing the household's food, women's information
about game consumption was more complete than
that provided by the men, who feared reprisals
(thinking we were from IBAMA) and therefore
omitted much data related to game.
Whenever we began to ask questions about
fertility and mortality, leisure activities, migration,
and consumption, the male heads of household called
on their wives to respond. In houses where women
were heads of the family (principally widows or
single women), women also answered the questions
about marketing, essentially a masculine activity,
which they had taken on. We therefore concluded
from the pre-testing of the questionnaire that if we
used questionnaires differentiated by gender in the
full survey, along with other instruments such as the
24-hour recall and activities profile, we would be
better able to understand the way of living of the
residents of the Park.
Although this methodology of applying
separate questionnaires to men and women can run

the risk of reinforcing traditional spheres of
knowledge, we decided that this would serve as an
initial step in valuing women's knowledge and in
drawing them into the larger dialogue about the park.
To carry out the work of applying the final
questionnaire to all households in the Park, the field
team was composed of four women and four men,
researchers with different backgrounds (biologists,
engineers, agronomists and health specialists).
Questionnaires differentiated by gender were
prepared and applied nearly simultaneously by pairs
of interviewers consisting of a man and a woman.
Interviews with the male and female heads of
household were held in separate locations by male
and female interviewers, respectively, to try to avoid
the contamination of answers of one by the other, and
using reinforcing questions. The interviews were
done in the most informal way possible, with one
person interviewing (guided by the questionnaire) and
the other alongside writing down the answers. There
were times when it wasn't possible to follow this
methodology, principally when we were in communal
spaces. We needed to avoid making the questions
known in advance because sometimes people who
were yet to be interviewed gathered in the houses
where we were carrying out interviews. Each
interview lasted around two hours, or even longer
when it was with residents who were merchants or
who were considered to be leaders. In thirty days we

10 30 N 40 50 00 km


* Communities
Drainage basin
Borders of the PNJ

Borders of the 10 km
Location in Amazonia

Figure 1: Map of localities in the Jafi National Park

Map elaborated based on Projeto RADAMBRASIL, Brazilian
census data, and 1996 Socioeconnmic Survey
Lambert cone projection

Gender, Community Participation and Natural Resource Management, No. 2, 1999

interviewed all the residents in the Park, 167 domestic
groups distributed along the rivers and streams that
make up the PNJ (see Figurel).
Interviewing men and women separately
resulted in a more complete picture of the situation of
the residents of the Park, because the same problems
were contemplated from different points of view.
One of the results from the socio-economic survey is
that the use of natural resources in the Park is directly
linked to the seasonality of the region, and that gender
differentiates both consumption and production. The
organization of family labor, described in the 24-hour
recall of a Jail family (see Box 2), and also in the
profile of subsistence and commercial activities,
demonstrates well this differentiation. In addition to
results from the census and the socio-economic
survey, the experience of living with some families
and participating actively with them in their day-to-
day life also served as a way to understand this
differentiation. In general the families are large, and
the children over eight years old already participate in
some activity directly related to work outside the

home such as agriculture and extractivism.

3.2 Mapping of Natural Resource Use
Another method we used with great success
to obtain information on the use of natural resources
was mapping along with the residents of the PNJ.
This research and extension work consists of two
stages: first, a team of researchers visits each family
unit, where they talk about their daily life, agricultural
work, and production, and together with the family
they draw a map of their area of use, locating the
house, agricultural fields, and areas for hunting,
fishing and extractivism (Figure 2).
These locations later are geo-referenced and
named in accordance with the information of the
residents visited. The data collected are processed
(included in maps derived from satellite images), and
a similar team returns to the area in a second stage,
using these maps as a point of departure for a broader
task in collaboration with groups of residents.
The methodology is simple. In the first
stage of the individual maps, we use newsprint and

Box 2: One summer day for a family on the Jail River.

This family has eight members: a man. his pregnant wife, and six children (two boys I1 and 4 years old.
and four girls ranging in age from 8 to 2 years old). The family lives on the edge of the Jau River. with six
agricultural plots dating from different years. The I 1-year-old boy is responsible for fishing, peeling vines, caring
for the agricultural plot. and watching his younger siblngs. The 8-year-old girl is responsible for taking care of her
younger siblings, as well as making the cooking fire. cleaning fish, peeling vines, weeding the agricultural plot and
the homegarden. taking care of the chickens, and other tasks.
At 6:00 a.m. the man leaves to go fishing, along with his older son. The woman goes to the river to wash
clothes and the oldest daughter stays behind to take care of the younger boy and three little girls. The women returns
from the laundering, hangs out the clothes and goes to the field with the other children to weed until 11:00, when
they go back to the house to wait for the husband and son to return. They eat some fruits from the homegarden and
the woman goes to prepare her caieira. a pit for making charcoal: with the help of the children, she collects sticks
and trunks scattered around the area near the house, uses the spade to dig a shallow rectangular hole about one by
two meters, arranges all the sticks collected, sets them on fire and covers it with earth. Afterwards she goes to weed
the homegarden with the children's help. The children stay around the house eating fruit or cassava flour.
Between 2:00 and 3:00 p.m.. the man and his son return from fishing, and the woman and her older daughter
go to the river to clean the fish and salt those that will not be eaten for lunch. They start preparing the fire in the
wood-burning stove. The fish is boiled in a sauce and seasoned with salt and onions from the herb garden. Ifthere is
nee or beans, these are prepared too, and the whole family gathers to eat lunch. They usually eat sitting on the floor
in the kitchen w here the pots and plates are placed. After lunch, the woman and her eldest daughter sweep the floor,
gather the dishes in a tub or bucket, and wash them at the river's edge. This often means going up and down slippery
ramps carrying full tubs and buckets on their heads.
In the afternoon, the woman, her husband and the older children peel vines or go to weed the field, where
they stay until 4:00 p.m. When the sun begins to set they all bathe and carry water to the house (a task cared out by
the woman and older children). Between 6:00 and 7:00 p.m. dinner is prepared and served by the women, with her
children's help. They all have dinner, and the woman and oldest daughter sweep, gather the dishes that will be
washed the next day, and at 8:00 p.m. the children retire to sleep. The man, the woman and the older children peel
%ines until 10:00 p.m.. when they also retire.

Gender, Community Participation and Natural Resource Management, No. 2, 1999

pencils (black and colored), as well as a GPS
(Geographical Positioning System, used to furnish the
geographic coordinates), and the residents participate
to the extent of their interest and ability to use
pencils. In the second stage FVA created maps of specific
regions of Jai, showing most of the streams and lakes.
These maps were taken to specific locations, where groups
of residents met together, and information was checked
and complemented with their help.

.. ,.. ,,--

Figure 2: PNJ dweller drawing a map of his area.

In addition to the maps, the FVA team created icons
(computer-made graphics) to represent resources or
practices like the house, river port, flour-making shed,
agricultural fields, hunting, fishing, collection of
tropical fish, turtles, rubber, copaiba (an oil palm),
vines, etc. (sixteen in all). For each icon we made
several small flags (2cm square) on the computer as
well, which were cut out and mounted on a large pin.
On one side of the flag was the icon, and on the other
the color chosen to represent each family or domestic
group. The members of the family received a badge
with their chosen color, and a small tray (about 10cm.
by 25 cm.) full of already-prepared flags. The flags
already indicated spaces and uses of resources by
gender, since the division of activities had been
identified in the interviews of the socio-economic
The work consisted in explaining the icons
to the families, demonstrating first on letter-sized
paper, and then sitting down with them around the
maps, on the ground, so that they could place the
flags in the correct places. In this way it was possible to
locate the various locations of agricultural fields, hunting,
fishing, and other extractive activities of various kinds.
The process also stimulated the residents' participation, as
well as discussion of complex topics such as the
Management Plan, zoning, and community organization.

4.1 The Population of the Jaui National

Currently there are approximately 984
residents of the Park (approximately 159 domestic
groups), of which 54% are male and 46% female of
all ages. The population is distributed unevenly in the
PNJ, with the majority living around the border areas
(59%), which includes the communities of the Unini
River, and the isolated residents of the Paunini River
and the Rio Negro. In the interior of the PNJ live
41% of the residents, including residents of the Jad
and Carabinani rivers, and the Papagaio and Guariba
streams (see Map 1).
The population that stayed in the PNJ is
distributed in a more or less linear fashion along the banks
of the principal rivers, living on the high river banks that
allow them to use the rivers and streams to fish, and as a
means of transport, and the uplands to plant their
agricultural plots and carry out extractive activities.
Almost all residents are from the state of
Amazonas (97%), many born in the area of the PNJ. The
population is predominantly young, with an average age of
18. If we take 15 and 20 years as indicators of youth, 55%
and 64% of the population is young, respectively (Figure
3). There are 50% more males than females among the
population of young people between 15 and 20 years of
age, suggesting an out-migration of young women from
the PNJ. Women start having children and building
families at 16 years of age, and these families may or may
not take up residence where the women were born.

>; I

all i
Ir ^

Figure 3: Age
National Park.


Number of Irndivduma

pyramid of residents of the Jai

Women's mean fertility rate, which
corresponds to the number of live births plus the

Gender, Community Participation and Natural Resource Management, No. 2, 1999

number of stillborn children, is seven children per
woman in the Park's population. This is more than
twice the overall fertility rate of Brazilian women,
which is less than three children (Rebelo, 1995).
However, life expectancy is quite limited due to the
many risks to which residents are exposed in the Park,
and the quite precarious health conditions.
Over the past twenty years, official registries
and scientific data indicate a progressive decrease in
the population that historically lived in this area,
which was declared a Conservation Unit seventeen
years ago (Table 1).
The current density of 0.04 inhabitants/km2
verified in the PNJ is even smaller than the
population density in the municipalities of Novo
Airao (0.37 inhab/km2) and Barcelos (0.09
inhab/km2), and much smaller than the population
density of the state of Amazonas (1.34 inhab/km2),
which is one of the lowest in the country (IBGE,

Table 1: Evolution of the population density in the
area of the Jaii National Park
Year No. of No. of Density
Families residents (inhab/km2)
1977 3536 0,13
1990 225 1530 0,07
1992 167 1019 0,04
1996 159 984 0,04

4.2 Subsistence Natural Resource Use
Many of the activities carried out in the PNJ
are directly related to the region's seasonality, the
area of use by the residents, and distribution of
existing resources in the locale where they live.
Thus, there are different techniques for using
resources in the PNJ, and diverse gender relations in
their use. The roles of men, women and children in
natural resource use are differentiated according to
needs, concepts, and attitudes. Men and women in
the PNJ have varied interests in the Park's natural
resources for consumption, medicines, commercial
production, or family survival. Ethnobotanical
research carried out in the Park in 1995 revealed
gender-differentiated interests in the use of medicinal
plants by different specialists (traditional healers and
Data collected by FVA on the principal
agricultural and extractive activities contributed to the
elaboration of an agricultural calendar for Ja-i. For
this purpose, we held meetings with residents so they
could put together a map of their agricultural plots,
with the participation of both men and women. The

men generally drew the map, while women indicated
the places where crops were planted.
Fishing: In the PNJ, various fishing
techniques are practiced for catching fish and turtles,
which vary by gender of the fisher. Men usually go
out fishing in the morning, when they use fishing
lines (espinhel) or bow-and-arrow, techniques used
during periods of fish scarcity (when the river is
high). They use crickets and grasshoppers as bait for
the line, which are collected by the children in their
backyard and stored alive. When the men are in the
forest occupied with other extractive activities,
younger boys and women are responsible for fishing,
and prefer to use a pole (canigo), with the same kind
of bait. Women generally go fishing with their
younger children, including babies, when they don't
have children old enough to take care of their younger
During the high water season (May to
August), the fishing technique used is fachio, which
consists of going out at night (usually at nightfall,
beginning at about 7:00 p.m.), using a flashlight to
blind the prey and a harpoon to capture it. This
activity can take up to eight hours, depending on the
quantity of fish required. It is practiced more by men,
although in some families women also do it. Treating
the fish is almost exclusively a feminine task,
involving women and daughters as young as 8 years
old, who clean and salt the fish to preserve it.
The capture of tortoises is exclusively a male
task. However, women and children collect eggs,
principally in the dry season (August-September).
Cleaning and roasting or boiling the turtle meat is the
men's job, although some dishes (batido and guisado)
are prepared by women. Men also are exclusively
responsible for preparing the corrals where turtles are
kept in reserve.
Hunting: Hunting is more accentuated
during the flood season, when a larger area is
underwater and therefore fish are less concentrated.
The techniques used are traps, tracking and blinds. In
trapping, the hunter sets up a loaded shotgun in places
where he previously saw traces of an animal. The
trap is left for a day and checked later to see if it was
successful. Blinds are used to wait for animals in a
place where they are likely to pass, such as near trees
producing fruit that they eat. Tracking is used to
follow animal trails, generally with the help of dogs.
Hunting may be planned as a means to
guarantee food during the preparation of the
agricultural plot or extractive activities, or it may
simply happen by chance, when people go out to fish
or to collect forest products, taking their shotguns

Gender, Community Participation and Natural Resource Management, No. 2, 1999

along. The principal game animals eaten are: paca
(Cuniculus paca), peccaries (two species of Tayassu),
and tapir (Tapirus terrestris), among others.
This is a male activity, although in some
families women hunt too. The work of treating and
preparing the game is a task for both men and
Agriculture: From clearing the land to the
harvest, the whole family participates. It is up to the
men, with help from their sons, to cut the smaller
trees and clear the underbrush and, with axes, cut
down the larger trees, leaving the -
Brazil nut trees, which are protected
by Federal law. Men and their sons 8
years old and higher also pile up the
larger trunks and bur them. Many
residents of the PNJ make a firebreak,
which consists of a two-meter-wide
trail around the area to be burned, in
order to avoid spreading to other areas.
After the burning begins the
planting of manioc, corn and fruits,
with the participation of the whole
family. When it is time to prepare the
soil, plant, and harvest, both men and -
women participate. Women plant
different varieties of cassava as well as
food crops such as sweet potatoes, .
card,and arid. Men also plant cassava, .
in addition to commercial crops such
as bananas. Women and children
generally care for the plot. Young children are taken
to the field when there is no one with whom to leave
them. These tasks include weeding (with a large
knife), usually four times a year. Men, women and
children participate in the cassava harvest.
The whole family participates in the process
of making cassava flour (Figure 4). Part of the
cassava harvested is soaked and the rest is peeled by
women, older people and children. In the flour-
making shed, the cassava is grated and pressed by
women, men and children. Men do the pressing,
which requires great physical force to put the mass in
the press and squeeze out all the water. After being
pressed, the cassava mass is sifted (by the women and
young children), and toasted on the oven. Men and
women carry the firewood, and also share the task of
constantly mixing and turning the flour on the oven.
Women are the ones in charge of preparing
other products originated in the making of cassava
flour, such as tapioca, tucupi sauce (the liquid
extracted from bitter manioc and used as a regional
seasoning), and beiju (a kind of dry pancake), with

the help of children of both genders from 8 to 16
years old.

4.3 Commercial Natural Resource Use
Commercial extractivism also is seasonal,
varying in accordance with market prices.
Vines: These are a winter product. Men
generally go to their "centers" (forest camps), where
they stay for a week or more. They try to leave food
with their families, generally game meat. They may
go alone or in partnership with close neighbors.

1.0 J

Figure 4: Making of cassava flour.

When they are in the camps, they process the vines
with permission from the neighbor closest to the
camp (who may belong to a third family). According
to one resident, vines are collected principally when
men need to pay debts to a merchant, by collecting a
large quantity of the product.
When they collect vines in areas near the
house, it is up to the women and children to peel and
process them after they return. The peeling is done
by hand or with knives. Once they are peeled, the
vines are cut in lengths of about 40-50 cm. Women,
men and older children then shred the vines in the
The vines are used to make utensils such as
paneiros (large baskets to carry cassava, or Brazil
nuts, from the fields or forest), brooms and baskets.
The paneiros are made by the men, and brooms and
baskets by the women, although some men make
these items as well. Men, generally household heads,
are exclusively in charge of selling vines as a raw
material. Women sell the crafted goods like baskets
and brooms to local merchants.

Gender, Community Participation and Natural Resource Management, No. 2, 1999

Brazil nuts: This also is a winter product.
The whole family participates in the collection of the
nuts, sometimes moving to other areas of the Park
where Brazil nuts are found, and building small
shelters. To go into the forest and collect the nuts is
the men's job, using paneiros to carry the fruits.
Women and older children use a large knife to break
open the nuts. The nuts removed from the outer husk
are left in the shell, and are bagged and marketed by
the men.

With the results of the socio-economic
survey of 1992, carried out with support from the
GENESYS Project, FVA was able to begin the first
work with the Park residents. The previous work had
focused directly on basic research on the functioning
of the ecological system in order to increase
knowledge of the area. The 1992 survey allowed us
to form interdisciplinary research teams and to make
the PNJ a priority with IBAMA. The survey also
contributed to helping FVA carry out the PAE, secure
resources for its projects and, above all, to opt for
allowing the residents to stay in the area and to have
them as possible allies in the consolidation and
conservation of the Park.
Using a gender-specific questionnaire,
FVA learned vital information about the Park's
population which helped to define future project
activities. In terms of education, through information
obtained from the female questionnaire FVA learned
that 74% of the population of the Park were illiterate,
including adults and school age children. Among the
literate population, 61% were men. Another example
of the information obtained from the female
questionnaire was that the communication system with
the residents should be through the widely-heard
radio program that broadcast announcements.
Women also are responsible for family
health to a great extent. Generally they maintain a
small medicinal plant garden that they use when
necessary. Information from the women gave us
knowledge of ways of using these plants, and also
about the people who cared for residents' health, such
as prayer healers (men and women), curers (only
men) and midwives (only women).
Aside from the household surveys, the
FVA team learned a great deal about the social
dynamics of people living in the Park through FVA's
daily contact with residents. Observations during the
process of building the Seringalzinho Community

Box 3: Building the Seringalzinho Community

The need arose to be able to close temporarily
the sides of the Center so that classrooms would not
suffer from direct sunlight during certain morning and
afternoon hours. Parents and FVA technical staff met to
discuss a viable solution for this problem. Some ideas
included making walls of thatch, as in their houses. This
option %was discarded because, when there were
meetings or parties, it would be difficult to remove the
thatch walls, and their durability was questionable.
Finally, one of the participating women suggested using
mats of tupes. According to D. Joelina, the rupes could
be removed as long as they were mounted on supports,
and immediately the women started identifying other
weavers who know how to weaxe the mats.
Other issues then arose: Where to collect the
aruma fiber to make the mats? Who would collect it.
and when? Who would make the mats? And above all.
how much would need to be extracted? Sr. Bere, one of
the residents, ceded an area near his house, where they
had worked previously with arumi and vines. It was
then agreed that the following day theN would go to the
forest to extract the aruma. and then and there begin the
work of preparing it for use. Thirty people (ten women
and twenty men) left in five wooden canoes, paddling
until they reached the spot. then walking for an hour and
a half until they reached the arnmun.al (concentrated
grove of aruma in the forest). The men collected the
fibers, women and some children extracted the pulp. and
others tied them in bunches. Another group of three
Women and four men stayed at the Center to take care of
Sthe fish and prepare lunch. The group stayed in the
forest until 4:00 p.m., when we carried all the fibers to
the Community Center, and later distributed it among
Sthe weavers to make the mats. Some days later the mats
were brought and mounted by the residents in the
Community Center. This experience demonstrated
the commitment to communal work, the effective
participation by women in decisions, donation of
resources for the Center, and the community's
capacity for planning.

Center, with the participation of men, women, youth
and children, showed that it would be possible to plan
such future community-based activities with the
residents. They collected the thatch to cover the
Center, fished in groups to guarantee lunch for all,
and collected arumi, a fiber used to weave tupes
(mats) to make the walls of the Center.

Gender, Community Participation and Natural Resource Management, No. 2, 1999

Box 4: Fibrarte Project.
As an example of the application of gender
analysis, FVA developed the Fibrarte Project in the area
of influence of the Park. with the objective of support
the group of artisans w ho use vegetable fibers to make
their products. Training for these artisans in
organization, marketing and management of their
products is the goal of this project. The population that
lives in the PNJ extracts and markets some of these
fibers. The relationship of the Fibrarte Project with the
strategy for the Park is in research on the ecological
sustainability of one of the fibers (cip6 titica) marketed
by the residents, and also in strengthening an economic
alternative that appears to be ecologically sustainable.
During the mapping carried out in the Park, we were
Sable to identify the artisans along the Jail River by
Gender, the principal fibers they use, and what they
produce. This information was obtained through the
open-ended questions directed at the head of household
as well as the woman.

The use of gender analysis for conservation
activities of the Park, principally as regards the
Management Plan, still is not a constant practice in
FVA. We believe that many of the answers regarding
differentiated participation by women and men in
management and conservation of the PNJ can be
better understood as we acquire more confidence in
our relationship with residents. We believe that
having a team in the field, with more contact and
daily participation in residents' activities, can
contribute to a more accurate evaluation of the
varying types of participation by women and men.
Currently the team stays a total of eight months of the
year in the field, all together, which is insufficient to
fully assess this dynamic.
Gender analysis can contribute to the
understanding of how natural resources are used in
protected areas, to the extent that proposals recognize
men's and women's roles. For FVA the question of
gender in relation to natural resources is evolving, as
the field activities expand, guaranteeing more interest
and participation by the local community in questions
related to the Management Plan of the Park.

The strategy used by FVA to integrate
conservation and gender includes diverse activities,
among them training, research, mapping of resource
use, institutional strengthening through training of
field teams, participatory elaboration of management
plans, and monitoring and evaluation.
Beginning with the training received by the
FVA team through the GENESYS Project, FVA
started its work with the residents. The training
included topics like Socio-Economic Research
Method, Rapid Rural Appraisal, and Marketing of
Non-Timber Forest Products. Among the later
training courses carried out jointly by GENESYS and
MERGE, the one that stands out was a course in Rio
Branco in 1994 that focused on Gender Analysis
Tools, which included training in methods of
participatory mapping. This course was very relevant
for FVA, and served as the basis for all the mapping
work we now carry out. The learning acquired
through the GENESYS and MERGE training was
used in the Fibrarte Project with residents of the PNJ
and in the questionnaires carried out by the
environmental education team of FVA, in activities in
the town ofNovo Airao.
The participation of the local population in
FVA projects still is preliminary. Generally the
meetings are called by FVA. The population of the
Jaui River has participated in activities along with
researchers, acting as guides, taking measurements
with some instruments, accompanying researchers
along the rivers and in the camps. They also
participated in infrastructural activities, such as
construction of the community center and school
lunchroom, and during the mapping activities. The
population of the Park, through their representatives,
proposed a zoning for the PNJ, participated in the
workshops that defined the management programs for
the Park, and currently participate in the meetings in
Brasilia, at IBAMA, to define the proposals for the
Management Plan.
It is the institutional policy of FVA to
work with partners. The Foundation sees clearly that
it will not be possible to reach its objectives alone.
Through work strategies that involve and guarantee
the participation of the various institutions that work
in the area, we believe we can act to assure the

Gender, Community Participation and Natural Resource Management, No. 2, 1999

conservation of Protected Areas in the Amazon. The
organizations with whom we have effective
partnerships include: Brazilian Agricultural Resarch
Enterprise (EMBRAPA), National Institute of
Amazon Research (INPA), Oswaldo Cruz Foundation
(FIOCRUZ), National Health Foundation (FNS),
University of Amazonas (UA), Brazilian Institute for
the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources
(IBAMA), and Managing Ecosystems and Resources
with Gender Emphasis (MERGE).
The consolidation of the Jaui National
Park is the goal of the Foundation. To reach this goal
we understand a key factor to be the participation of
the residents for full use of the area, guaranteeing
biodiversity conservation. This democratic,
participatory environmental management should
incorporate not only elements of modem science and
ethnocultural knowledge, but constitute a process of
negotiation that takes into account local aspirations
and ways of life, and the historical contribution of
traditional populations for conservation and
environmental management. The incorporation of
these populations into the democratic process of
environmental management will lead to the discovery
of strong and constant local allies for conservation,
against speculators from outside the reserves, who are
the true devastators of biodiversity.


1982 Parques Nacionais Brasileiros. Brasilia:
Ferreira, A R.
(n/d) Viagem Filos6fica ao Rio Negro. Bel6m:
Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi. (apud
Victor Leonardi)
FVA (Fundagao Vit6ria Amaz6nica)
1998a Genese de um Plano de Manejo. O Caso
do Parque Nacional do Jaui. Manaus:
FVA (Fundagio Vit6ria Amaz6nica)
1998b Piano de Manejo do Parque Nacional do
Jai. Manaus: FVA e IBAMA.
Haffer, J.
1969 Speciation in Amazonian Forest Birds.
Science 165: 131-137.


1957 Enciclop6dia dos Municipios Brasileiros,
Vol. XIV. Rio de Janeiro.
1993 Geografia do Brasil: Regiio Norte; Vol. 3.
Rio de Janeiro.
Leonardi, V.
1996 Velho Airio: apontamentos sobre a
hist6ria de uma povoagio amaz6nica.
Brasilia: UNB.
Padua, M.T.J.

1986 Conservag~ o da Natureza no Brasil:
situagao atual. Silvicultura, 11 (41): 13-16.
Porro, A.
1992 Os Povos Indigenas da Amaz6nia A
Chegada dos Europeus. pp.11-48. In:
Hoornaert, E. (Coord.) Hist6ria da Igreja
na Amaz6nia. Ed. Vozes, Petr6polis.
Prance, G. T.
1973 Phytogeographic support for the
Theory of Pleistocene forest refuges
in the Amazon Basin, based on
evidence from distribution patterns in
Caryocaraceae, Chrysobalanaceae,
Dichapetalaceae and Lecythidaceae.
Acta Amazonica 3 (3): 5-28.

Rebelo, G.H.
1995 Os Moradores do Parque Nacional do
Jail. Fundaglo Vit6ria Amaz6nica
(manuscript). 55p.
Salo, J.
1987 Pleistocene forest refuges inthe amazon:
evaluation of the biostratigraphical,
lithostratigraphical and geomorphological
datas. Annales Zoologici Fennici 24: 203-
Schmink, M.
1999 Conceptual Framework for Gender and
Community-Based Conservation. MERGE
Case Study No. 1. Gainesville, FL:
University of Florida.
Schubart, H.; Ramos, A.R.; Gondim, C.J.E.; Silva,
C.J.; Bacca, L.E.; Amorozo, M.C.M.; Reis, N.R.;
Dantas, M.; Braga, R.A.P.; Almeida, R.; La Torraca,
S.M.; Asakawa, N.M.; and DAmorim, L.M.M.K.

Gender, Community Participation and Natural Resource Management, No. 2, 1999

1977 Relat6rio da Excursao ao Rio Jai conm
Vistas a instalacgo de uma Reserva
Natural. Manaus: INPA.

Silva, R. O.
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Vit6ria Amaz6nica. (manuscript). 85p.
Silva, R. O.
1996 Anotaq6es do Diirio de Campo

CU Conservation Unit
EMBRAPA Brazilian Agricultural Research
FNS National Health Foundation
FVA Fundagao Vit6ria Amaz6nica
GENESYS Gender in Economic and Social Systems
IBAMA Brazilian Institute for Environment and
Renewable Natural Resources
INPA National Institute of Amazonian Research
MERGE Managing Ecosystems and Resources with
Gender Emphasis
NGO Non-Governmental Organization
PAE Emergency Action Plan
PNJ Jail National Park
SUPES State Superintendency representing IBAMA
UFMG Federal University of Minas Gerais
USAID United States Agency for International

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