BACKSTOP TRIP REPORT
ON CROPPING SYSTEMS
PROGRAM IN BOLIVIA
By: R. D. William & Peter E. Hildebrand
September 14 to 25, 1979
I. Cropping Systems and Farmers in the Chapare
II. Development of Activities of the Cropping Systems Project
III. Efforts of Other UFLA Advisors to Improve Cropping Systems in
Bolivia and in the Chapare Region
A. Fruit and Perennial Crops
B. Economic Analysis
C. Communications and Extension Programs
IV. Evaluation of the Cropping Systems Project
V. Recommendations for Future Efforts in Farm Systems Research and
Extension in the Chapare
A. Status of Cropping Systems Project
B. Status of Other UFLA Team Projects
C. Trip Itinerary
D. Cropping Systems Backstopping Activities by TDY's
E. Graduate Training Alternatives for Bolivian Cropping
BACKSTOP TRIP REPORT ON CROPPING SYSTEMS
Ray D. Williaml/
Peter E. Hildebrand
The University of Florida was contracted by USAID, PRODES and IBTA to
conduct research into alternatives to coca production in the Yungas and Chapare
areas of Bolivia. The initial group of scientists arrived in the country about
three years ago and the present group has been on site for approximately one
year. The purpose of this TDY was to backstop (support and evaluate) the
cropping systems efforts of the UFLA project with major efforts in the Chapare
region. Edwin C. French, III is the Cropping Systems Advisor. Other UFLA
advisors are Larry Janicki, Chief of Party; Joseph Goodwin, Agricultural
Economist; Ralph Scorza, Tropical Fruit and Van Crowder, Communication and
CROPPING SYSTEMS AND FARMERS IN THE CHAPARE
Increased development of the Chapare region in Bolivia began about 1972
when a semi-paved road was constructed from Cochabamba to Puerto Villaroel on
the eastern slope of the Andes mountains. To populate the region, small-scale
limited resource farmers from the altiplano and miners lacking farming skills
moved to the Chapare region to farm 10 to 20 ha of forested land in this tropical
region. Both groups of people lacked resources and experience of producing
crops under humid, lowland conditions with rainfall ranging from 1800 to over
During the first year, most new colonizers learn to cut and burn 1 to 2
ha of the forest in September and plant subsistence crops such as rice, corn,
cassava and peanuts. Within the same year, perennial cash crops such as coca,
bananas, plantains and citrus can be interplanted in the field with the staple
-/Respectively, Vegetable Crops Extension Specialist, IFAS, and Agricultural
Economist, The Rockefeller Foundation.
crops or planted sequentially before weedy plants predominate and before soil
structure and fertility become limiting factors. Except for citrus, these
crops begin producing cash revenues in the second and third year after establish-
During the second year, another 1 to 2 ha may be cleared for staple food
crops and the cycle repeated until approximately 3 to 5 ha are under cultiva-
tion. Because declining soil structure, fertility and rapid weed growth become
limiting factors for production of most annual crops within about 2 years, some
cultivated land is abandoned and additional forest is cut and burned. As this
cycle continues, short-term perennial crops may be interplanted as required
to maintain productivity and crop rotations. This cycle continues until the
original forest is cut and burned completely. Then the forest regrowth on
previously abandoned land is cut and burned to continue the cycle of producing
crops on the 10 to 20 ha of land with limited resources.
Although these new colonizers lack production resources and experience
within the region, they can obtain planting materials and production technologies
locally for these annual and perennial crops. However, because these small-
scale farmers basically cultivate their own land, labor seems to be a major
constraint within the region. Competition for labor, especially with coca
harvest 3 to 4 times per year, is a major factor that seems to influence the
farmer's decision-making related to which crops to grow. In addition, rapid weed
growth and declining soil structure and fertility limit the total area that a
farmer can cultivate. Other constraints include limited crop production resources,
energy availability and long distances to cash markets which result in the use of
hand-production technologies and reduced on-farm prices for agricultural products.
Agricultural research conducted in the Chapare region must consider all
of these aspects so that relevant technologies will be produced and adopted by
DEVELOPMENT OF THE ACTIVITIES OF THE SYSTEMS PROJECT
When the crop systems advisor first contemplated the position, there was
general discussion about the possibilities of at least some group effort in
cropping systems research work. Different arrival times for advisors and the
stationing of all but the systems advisor in La Paz, negatively influenced the
possibility of this group effort occurring early in the project. As a result,
work began in the systems project without the interaction of the entire UFLA team
which limited decision-making and interchange with others.
Between February and April 1979, discussions were conducted by the team
on the possibility of concentrating in the Chapare. A verbal proposal was made
to modify the terms of the contract. The decision was made, however, that the
team should continue working in both the Yungas and the Chapare, with the exception
of the systems advisor. Attempts were made at that time to continue coordination
in the Chapare, but a close team effort could never be effectively established
because of the problems invoked by physical separation and the need to travel
to two widely separated regions.
In the Chapare, cropping systems research was initiated on the basic grain
(corn-rice) systems of the farmers in the area. (See Appendix A for detail of
project status). Plant densities, nitrogen fertilizer levels and the effect of
land clearing procedures on yields and changes in the soil structure and fertility
were emphasized. This initial research activity provided a learning opportunity
for the technicians and the advisor about the farming conditions of the area.
Early conclusions were that weeds and soil deterioration combined with the
limited resource situation of the farmers were the principle limiting factors
encountered in the area.
Because the farmers have profitable alternatives for the investment of their
limited capital, they do not risk investment in their basic grain crops. For
this reason, a trial was designed to explore the possibilities of using cover
crops (legumes, grains or vegetables) within the basic grain system. These
cover crops can provide additional products for consumption, for sale or for
use within the traditional cropping system yet improve and conserve soil pro-
perties, make low demands for capital investment, and provide incentive for the
farmer to stay on his land.
The popularity and importance of tomatoes within the cropping system has
increased over the past four years. A trial was established in early April to
incorporate tomatoes in the second phase of the basic crop (corn-rice) sequence.
This study will generate information to be included in a basic crop production
system of corn-rice followed by a high value crop. Their objective is to produce
crops year-round rather than allow the land to revert back to forest regrowth.
A next logical step was to evaluate cover crops interplanted with perennial
crops. To conserve limited research resources, a cooperative farmer volunteered
production resources for studies involving basic grains and the use of legumes,
both for forage and for food, in a perennial pineapple crop. The shift to
a farm trial at this time was opportune due to lack of labor at the "La Jota"
station. The farmer on whose land the trial was established provided the
labor necessary for the trial. Presently, Bolivian technicians are looking
for about 5 more farmers to collaborate in farm trials beginning in November.
The most promising treatments from the work of the present year will be incor-
porated into these trials.
One of the most limiting factors related to conducting the cropping systems
trials is the shortage of labor available to the technicians on the station.
This has forced many modifications as well as cancellation of trials that had
Most materials for research trials have generally been supplied by IBTA
within their own budget. A limiting factor in conducting more farm trials
is the lack of transportation. Thus, the advisor must act as a taxi service
for counterpart technicians, thereby limiting the advisor's work efficiency.
One of the most beneficial aspects has been the UFLA "becario" program that has
provided additional manpower for the Chapare project.
Field days have been held for the corn-rice and the pineapple trials.
These field days have demonstrated the need for more complete and broader
orientation of the scope of work before initiating these research projects. For
example, during the pineapple field day, one of the technical recommendations
was to plant the pineapple between January and May. The local, small-scale
producers of pineapple who were attending the field day pointed out that it was
not practical to plant during that season because their land clearing and burning
activities terminated in September when the rains started. Later planting dates
in January were unfeasible because the fields would be completely overgrown
with weedy plants. This type of information can be detected by early agro-
socioeconomic studies in the project area.
EFFORTS OF OTHER UFLA ADVISORS TO IMPROVE CROPPING SYSTEMS IN BOLIVIA AND IN
THE CHAPARE REGION
Depending on their arrival in Bolivia, current UFLA team members have
accomplished or planned the following projects for implementation during the
forthcoming cropping season which begins in late 1979 (references are to details
and stage of implementation listed in Appendix B):
Fruit and Perennial Crops
To complement the cropping systems efforts, projects involving disease
resistance and prevention (1,2,3), plant production and disinfection in crop
seedbeds (4,5),. intercropping with cover crops or passion fruit (6,7), analysis
of citrus fruit quality (8), and translation of relevant technical information
for Bolivian counterparts (9) have been proposed or implemented for both the
Chapare and Yungas regions in Bolivia. In addition, a joint project to train
extension personnel in the Chapare region about production of citrus in seedbeds
has been planned for implementation during this cropping season (10). In the
Yungas region, a Mediterranian Fruit Fly survey (11), citrus quality study (8)
and coffee rejuvenation program (12,13) are being continued.
Both macro (14) and microeconomic analyses for the Chapare region (15,16)
are being evaluated to estimate demand/price elasticity and potential profit-
ability with alternative assumptions relating to price, credit and labor.
Communications and Extension Programs
To improve the communication and extension capabilities of the Bolivian
institutions, several local (communication technicians) have been trained in
Colombia to improve their skills in both written and radio media (17,18). Some
A-V equipment has been purchased and proposals written to equip extension and
communication technicians with minimal equipment both at the national level
and within the Yungas and Chapare region (19). In addition, farmer training
meetings (20), production guides and technical bulletins (21), and a communication
survey in the Chapare region and a "becario" to work in radio programming (22)
are in progress.
EVALUATION OF THE CROPPING SYSTEMS PROJECT
Even with the problems that have occurred, progress in cropping systems
work has been substantial. IBTA staff and "becarios" have received training in
project orientation and design, on conducting trials and analyzing and inter-
preting results. Several on-station and on-farm trials have been completed or
are underway. Future research work is continually being planned and excellent
counterpart associations have been developed between the Cropping Systems advisor
and IBTA staff.
It is interesting to speculate on the possible achievements of the entire
UFLA group, had the team been able to work together as a unit as had been pro-
posed. Having a young and enthusiastic staff interested in working with each
other has been worthwhile but by having to work in scattered locations, they
have not had the best opportunities to do so. This lack of interchange is
evident not only in the systems work which may be most important, but also in
the work of the other team members. In part, this could have been overcome had
there been an experienced team leader to 1) help them coordinate their activities,
2) reinforce the generation of ideas and broaden perspectives, and 3) provide
stronger support in dealing with USAID and Gainesville.
The abrupt change of Chief of Party was demoralizing to the group and has,
without doubt, reduced team productivity. This, coupled with the uncertainty
concerning the future of contract positions and the contract has made it
difficult for the team to make further reaching, long-term decisions.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE EFFORTS IN FARM SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND EXTENSION IN
Based on discussions with the UFLA team and on observations in the Chapare
area, we recommend that future research and extension efforts be undertaken by
an integrated, multidisciplinary team of scientists, all of whom would be
stationed in the area. Since only a relatively small-amount of technology is
readily available for transfer at the present time, initial emphasis should be
in research. Within three to five years, extension efforts could be increased
As previously mentioned in this report, not enough is known about the
farmers, their conditions and production practices in the area. In the first
year:of a team effort, greatest emphasis should be put on getting acquainted
with these conditions through surveys, crop and livestock records and by
conducting simple trials under actual farm conditions. After the team is
satisfied that it can duplicate farmer results, emphasis can shift toward the
solution of the technical problems encountered, always keeping in mind the
socio-economic capabilities of the farmers to absorb the technologies being
The greatest research effort should be conducted on farms and designed
to consider the requirements of the farm as a system. However, initial screening
of genetic materials and other trials requiring high levels of control or with
high or unknown risk possibilities should be conducted on the experiment stations
within the area.
In general, farm trials can be of two types. First, technical agronomic
or animal trials can be conducted using standard experimental design. A check
treatment should be included and be representative of the present technology of
the farmers in the area. Second, numerous agro-economic trials can be conducted
with fewer treatments and without replications on farmers' fields in the region.
On each farm, a check should be included which represents the practice of the
farmer on whose land the agronomic (or animal) trial is being conducted. Economic
and risk analyses can be conducted. Evaluation criteria should be consistent
with the farmers' criteria. Finally, farmers should be incorporated into the
evaluation system by designing simple farmers' tests in which they are permitted
the opportunity to evaluate the most promising technologies.
Passive extension efforts can begin at the technical and agro-economic
farm trial stages through field days for the extension agents. Active extension
efforts should be initiated at the farmers' test stage. The delay of one or two
years in arriving at the farmers' test stage will correspond with increasing local
staff numbers and build-up of infrastructure so that when validated technology
is ready for massive extension efforts, the staff and equipment should be large
enough to be appropriate for the task.
Initial efforts of the integrated team will be in the established farming
areas of the Chapare. As local staff is trained and new areas are opened, new
nuclei can be formed with experienced staff.
STATUS OF CROPPING SYSTEMS PROJECT (French & Bolivian counterparts)
With a basic work objective to develop cropping systems technology that is
acceptable, adaptable and beneficial to small farmers of the Chapare, the
following research approach was developed.
Given the traditional farm system that begins with land clearing followed
by seeding of rice and corn in association, a logical approach in systems
research for the Chapare is to examine the first step which is rice-corn in
association. An improvement of the basic system can provide greater security
to a farmer. With the security of having his subsistence crops, he can then
move into higher income crops (vegetables or perennials).
1. Densities, Fertilizer Levels and Land Clearing Methods for Rice-Corn Association
The first step to this approach began with an experiment which examined
densities, fertilizer levels and land clearing methods for rice-corn in association.
The primary objective of this research is to determine the economic feasibility
of injecting improved technology into the rice-corn phase of the system and to
determine the effect of the various treatments on soil over time. Status: The
rice-corn association which represents phase one of the traditional cropping
sequence has now undergone one year of testing. The data are nearing the point
of publication. At least one more year of data is needed to provide confidence
in the results; however, a continuation of this trial on the same land for
several years is planned to provide information on the effect on the soil over
2. Densities, Nitrogen Levels and Land Clearing on Phase Two Tomato
As Phase Two to the traditional system following rice-corn, tomatoes are
becoming commercially important as a potential high income crop. Therefore, an
experiment designed to look at tomato densities and fertilizer levels under the
same land clearing systems used for corn-rice was initiated. The primary
objective is to obtain basic information for nitrogen levels and plant densities
-^'lil' ''~~"-.-."~~-~'""~"'----------------------- C-- -.~- II- II L~^ ^U __ I _~ili
and determine economic feasibility. Status: The experiment is currently in
progress with completion scheduled for end of October. Tomatoes will be
immediately followed by corn-rice as done previously in Phase One with plans
for a repeat of the tomato experiment in 1980.
3. Tomato Technology Package
Within the traditional cropping systems, a tomato study was programmed
to provide additional cultural information to be available for the 1980
The following studies were to be undertaken during the 1979 tomato
Tomato variety trial sown at 3 different planting times.
Tomato fertilizer trial
Status: The first planting of the variety trial was completed and data
remains to be analyzed. However, due to the lack of labor, the other two
planting periods were not seeded. Expectations to have a complete package for
1980 were not met due to lack of labor to initiate the other research projects.
4. Cucumber Variety Trial
A cucumber variety trial was initiated as another alternative cash crop.
Status: Cucumber variety trials for 1979 have been completed. Other plans for
development of cucumber were cancelled due to lack of labor, but hopefully will
be carried out in 1980.
5. Feasibility Study For Radish Production In Chapare (French & Bolivian counter-
To establish the feasibility of producing radish under Chapare conditions,
a small variety trial was conducted to evaluate this short-term crop in various
cropping patterns. Status: The trial has been completed and ready for
6. Sweet Pepper Virus Detection
Virus in vegetables may become a limiting factor to vegetable production.
In cooperation with Dr. Allen Cook in Florida, plans were made to plant sweet
pepper varieties that would serve to indicate or identify specific viruses.
Status: This project failed to be initiated due to lack of support.
7. Legume Cover Crops In Association Or Rotation With Basic Grains and High
Income Vegetable Crops
The principal objectives of this study are to: develop a system which
is acceptable to small-scale farmers, improve or maintain soil productivity,
reduce the need for greater capital investment in commercial fertilizers, determine
the feasibility of lime application, reduce weed incidence, provide for an
additional source of animal or human food production, and provide a feasible
link in the transition from basic grain production to a perennial crop.
Status: The field trial was initiated the first part of April, 1979. Phase
I of the corn-legume association is now complete and data include:
1) soil samples; 2) nodulation count for the various legume species as effected
by lime and no lime treatments; 3) incidence of weeds in each treatment by
species; 4) soybean yields; 5) and forage yields. Soil compaction readings
are programmed for October, 1979.
Following these treatments, Phase II will focus on the production of a
high income vegetable crop which is cucumber this year (1979) and retun to
basic grain production which begins Phase I again and extends into 1980.
8. Basic Grains in Association With Pineapple
To maintain crop productivity during the transition from the basic grains
to perennial crops, corn and soybeans were chosen as short-term intercrops in
pineapple during the plant establishment phase of pineapple production.
Status: The annual crops were planted on June 1, 1979. Soybeans have been
harvested with corn harvest planned for November. Cucumber will be planted in
Phase II of the system and staked on existing corn stalks. Cucumber seeding is
programmed for the end of October, 1979.
9. Legume Cover Crop in Association With Pineapple
An experiment was designed to evaluate potential cover crop species and
management of these species within a pineapple crop, the effect of these crops
on pineapple yield and quality, grain and forage yields, weed control. Status:
Nodulation data for the various legumes and weed incidence by biomass and by
species has been collected under each cropping regime. Soybean yields have been
collected with yield of other crops to be sampled in November.
STATUS OF OTHER UFLA TEAM PROJECTS
1. Introduction of Citrus Rootstock and Scion Material for the Chapare and Yungas
(Scorza and Florida Backstop Person)
Plant materials having resistance to disease and nematodes and having an
extended fruiting season are being introduced and tested under Bolivian
conditions for both the Chapare and Yungas regions. Status: Plant materials
have been and continue to be introduced and evaluated.
2. Citrus Virus Survey and Registration Program (Scorza and TDY Backstop)
The program is designed to identify serious viruses of citrus and to initiate
d budwood certification program at La Jota and Coroico experiment stations.
Status: Project planned for TDY visit in February.
3. Citrus Canker Training Program (Scorza and Bolivian Counterparts)
Citrus canker (xanthomonas citri) is a serious disease in Brazil, Argentina
and Paraguay, but not Bolivia. To acquaint Bolivian counterparts with identifi-
cation and control of the disease, two extension agents and three researchers
attended a short course in Bella Vista, Argentina. Status: A technical
bulletin is in preparation by Max Rojas and R. Scorza for distribution to
agricultural workers throughout Bolivia.
4. Seedbed Disinfection (Scorza and Bolivian Counterparts)
Basamid (Mylone) is currently recommended for use as a seedbed disinfectant
but has been reported to be ineffective for nematode control in Bolivia.
Status: A project proposal has been submitted and approved to evaluate various
soil disinfectants in seedbeds regardless of crop species to be planted. Imple-
mentation date is October.
5. Citrus Plant Production Program (Scorza and Bolivian Counterparts)
To improve citrus plant production, a seedbed and nursery study involving
fertilizers, soil disinfectants, plastic sacks, etc., is being initiated this
year at two experiment stations in the Yungas and Chapare regions to supplement
the "citrus vivero" training project (10). Status: Presently being initiated.
6. Legume Cover Crops-Citrus Interplant Study on Newly Established Orchard With
Incidence of Phytophthora Infestations to be Monitored (Scorza, French and
In the Chapare region, various legume cover crops interplanted among young
'Cleopatra' citrus rootstocks will be evaluated to determine 1) soil improvement,
2) weed control, 3) human and animal food production potential, 4) citrus tree
growth, and 5) effect of intercropping on Phytophthora. Imposed on these main
treatments are various chemical controls for Phytophthora. Status: Implementation
will begin in October unless limited labor continues to be a problem.
7. Interplanting of Passion Fruit in Pineapple (Scorza, French, Bolivian
Counterparts and local farmer)
Primary objectives of the experiment will be to 1) measure the effect of
the dominant crop (passion fruit) on the understory crop (pineapple), 2)
determine optimum return for both production and earnings. Status: Passion
fruit has been seeded into plastic bags with planting date expected in October
or November depending on seedling growth and field preparation.
8. Analysis of Citrus Fruit Quality (Scorza and Bolivian Counterparts)
Because fruit quality often affects the saleability and market duration of
citrus, a fruit quality study was initiated to measure size, color, juice,
quantity, brix, acidity, etc. of citrus produced in the Chapare region.
Status: Currently, data from one year are being analyzed. The project is being
continued this year.
9. Translation Series (Scorza and Bolivian Counterparts)
Relevant and current research papers have been translated into Spanish
for use by Bolivian counterparts in seminars. Status: Four articles have been
translated, but seminar presentations by Bolivian technicians have not occurred
10. Farmer Training Project for Citrus Plant Production (Scorza, Crowder and
A joint extension-research project on citrus plant production was planned
in cooperation with "sindicato" members in the Chapare region where local people
supply land and labor within their communities. Based on the research results
from the citrus plant production program (5), farmer training component involves
providing citrus production and cultivation technology to "sindicato" represen-
tatives using the vivero as a training base. Status: The project proposal
has been submitted to AID, IBTA, and PRODES for approval. Local farmers have
begun planting seed which was sent from the Yungas, but funding is required so
that proper leadership, adaptive research and extension activities can be
11. Mediterranean Fruit Fly Population Survey (Scorza, Janicki and Bolivian
The survey is designed to provide quantitative information on the movement
and population fluctuations to help plan effective control methods for this
important citrus pest of the Yungas region. Seven extension agents are involved
along with the head of extension for the region in the monitoring of fruit fly
populations. Status: By February, 1980, 1.5 years of data will be available for
12. Rust Resistance Coffee Introductions (Janicki and a Bolivian "Becario" and
Recent shipments of rust resistant coffee cultivars have arrived and been
introduced to local farmers in the Yungas region. Status: A "becario" student
has been measuring the growth rate of promising cultivars.
13. Coffee Fertilization and Weed Control Trials in Yungas Region (Janicki and
To rejuvenate abandoned coffee plantations, both fertilization and weed
control projects have been implemented in the Yungas region. Status: Some
data are available for analysis, but this program has been slowed drastically
since Mr. Janicki assumed responsibility as Chief of Party.
14. Demand/Price Elasticity Estimates for Banana, Plantains, Oranges, Pineapple
and Papaya in Bolivia (Goodwin and Bolivian Counterparts)
A macro economic study. Status: Analysis completed, but not yet written.
15. Simulating Potential Profitability of Oranges, Plantains, Papaya, Coffee,
Cacao and Oil Palm in the Chapare Region Under Alternative Price and Credit
Availability (Goodwin and Bolivian Counterparts)
A micro economic study for the Chapare region. Status: Computer work
finished and results are being analyzed.
16. Agricultural Calendar and Labor Coefficients for Crops Grown in the Chapare
(Goodwin and Bolivian Counterparts)
Status: Statistical work completed but not published.
17. Technician Training in Communications and Extension (Crowder and Bolivian
Both a series of seminars/"cursillos" on communication and extension
methodologies and techniques and a one-month training effort were held in Colombia
for IBTA/PRODES personnel in radio and written media.
18. Radio Station Proposal for Chapare Region (Crowder and Bolivian Counterparts)
A proposal was submitted to PRODES/AID for an audio-recording studio and
radio station in Villa Tunari. Status: Project has been placed "on hold" until
the impact study (23) is completed for the Chapare and a similar study is completed
for the Yungas region. It was proposed to PRODES that in lieu of the radio
station being constructed and equipped immediately, funds could be used to prepare
a weekly farm program to be broadcast from CBBA. This proposal is being
considered by PRODES staff.
19. A-V Equipment and Program Implementation (Crowder and Bolivian Counterparts)
A project proposal was written requesting funding for A-V equipment to be
used in current-and future extension programs in Bolivia. Funding support has not
been received but a few items have been purchased from local project funds to
initiate immediate program efforts. Status: Funding has been allowed for
purchases but due to current funding situations, the order has not been placed
to complete these program efforts.
20. Farmer Training Activities in Chapare and Yungas Regions (Crowder, UFLA
Staff and Bolivian Counterparts)
Status: Several farmer training meetings have been planned and implemented
in both regions about grafting and.pruning citrus, cultivation of tomato and
and other relevant topics. The Bolivian counterparts normally provided local
leadership and presentation of information.
21. Extension and Technical Publications (Crowder, UFLA Staff and Bolivian
A series of publications for both farmers and technical personnel are
in progress. Some bulletins for farmers have been prepared in mimeograph
form. Status: A proposal has been submitted for funding of these publications,
some of which are now ready for printing. (Farmer publications: 3 pruning
citrus, somosis, grafting and pineapple cultivation; Technical publications;
Citrus Canker and the Communications Report (22).
22. Communication Study to Evaluate Communication Channels Used by Farmers in
the Chapare Region and to Determine Future Strategies (Crowder and Bolivian
Local farmers (n = 216) were interviewed to evaluate demographic data,
use of mass.media, interpersonal communication (relationships to change
agents) and use of improved production practices. Status: Data have been
collected, analyzed and a preliminary report has been prepared.
September 14, Friday
4:30 PM Left Gainesville
September 15, Saturday
Scheduled departure from Miami 8 hours late
September 16, Sunday
5:00 AM Arrived La Paz
1:00 PM Lunch with the UFLA Staff based in La Paz
September 17, Monday
11:00 AM Arrived in Cochabamba
2:00 PM Meeting with MASI group, PRODES Regional Director, Cochabamba and
Director of La Jota Station.
Leonard Kornfeld, Leader, MASI group
Curry Brookshire, MASI
Don Leeper, MASI
Carlos Soria, PRODES
Emilio Salaues, IBTA
Purpose: Called by Kornfeld to brief us on how the UFLA group and
backstop staff could provide information for their project and how
we could interact during TDY trip.
5:00 PM Meeting with IBTA personnel in Cochabamba
Mario Perez, Director, IBTA, Cochabamba
Lucio Antezana, Director of Extension, Cochabamba
La Jota Group
Purpose: Brief Perez and Antezana on purpose of TDY trip and brief
us on conditions and ongoing work in the Chapare
September 18, Tuesday
Day Travel to the Chapare with full UFLA Group (excluding Janicki who was
travelling to Florida). Toured Chapare area and the La Jota Station
Evening Meeting of UFLA Group with MASI
Purpose: Discussion of problems and strategies for the Chapare
September 19, Wednesday
8AM-2PM Field day on farm of Roberto Vasquez on Pineapple and associated
crops. MASI and PRODES personnel also attended.
3 4PM Lunch with MASI group. It was decided that Crowder and Goodwin would.
meet with MASI and IBTA/PRODES on extension and return late to
4 7PM Return to Cochabamba and discussed providing of backstop materials
for cropping systems advisor from Gainesville (Appendix D )
9PM-2AM Broad ranging discussion with UFLA Staff.
September 20, Thursday
AM Discussion of the development of each UFLA staff member's program
in Bolivia and development of a general proposal for a research
strategy for the next five-year period in the Chapare.
2 4PM Meeting with MASI, PRODES, and UFLA.
Purpose: Present research strategy and specific recommendations on
priority crops for Chapare development.
4 5PM Wrap-up meeting with UFLA group before return to La Paz.
9 11PM Meeting with Tom Stillwell, agronomist, CID group and Simon Maxwell,
agricultural economist, British Tropical Agricultural Mission in
Purpose: Discuss farm trial strategies and statistical analyses.
Also promised to provide them with the TI-59 calculator programs.
September 21, Friday
AM Discussion with French specifically on the crop systems program.
PM Writing report.
September 22, Saturday
AM Visit to Cochabamba central market.
1 2PM Lunch with William Brown, CID plant pathologist.
2 6PM Meeting with IBRA cropping systems specialist and UFLA becarios.
Purpose: Familiarization with the TI-59 programs. Review of
research data and discussion of analytical procedures and interpre-
tation. Prepared soil samples from cropping systems trials for
delivery to Soils backstop member in Gainesville.
September 23, Sunday
Report writing and photographing slide series on La Jota program
and pineapple technology.
September 24, Monday
8:30AM-12 Return to La Paz. Unsuccessful attempts to duplicate TI-59 program
tapes. Phone conversations with Larry Janicki and Chris Andrew in
2 4PM Meeting at PRODES with Winston Estomadoiro and Howard Steele
(Entire UFLA Group)
4 5PM Meeting with Ing. Pereira and Ing. Machicado of IBTA (Tito French).
5 6PM Meeting with Dick Peters, USAID.
September 25, Tuesday
8:30 Meeting with Dan Chaij, Dick Peters and Howard Steele (Entire
10:00AM Left for "El Alto" airport for return trip.
Cropping Systems Backstopping Activities by TDY's.
1. Inform Dr. Bill Blue (Soils Dept.-Gainesville): a) Cropping systems
advisor wondered about measuring soil porosity with a small cylinder
and the rate of water infiltration or perhaps measure bulk density.
Dr. Blue is requested to advise Dr. French about alternatives, b)
carry soil samples to soils lab for analysis.
2. Inform Dr. Gordon Prine and assist with computer search of information
pertaining to a) weed control and cover crops, b) "living" mulches,
c) cover crops and liming, and d) liming effects of nitrogen fertiliza-
3. Send PANS mailing address and format for possible publication of
4. Send ASPAC reference pertaining to water-buffalo.
5. Govt. farm record sheets to be sent by Pete.
6. Split plot TI-59 program.
7. Copies (magnetic cards) of all other programs discussed.
Graduate Training Alternatives for Bolivian Cropping Systems Staff
1. Dr. Gordon Prine, Agron. Dept., University of Florida. Research
programs involving cropping systems, crop rotations, and cover
crops planted in rotation to control nematodes.
2. Dr. Sanders, Vegetable Crops Dept., Cornell University. Research
programs involving dry beans and cropping systems including inter-
planting with winter grains such as wheat.
3. Dr. R. R. Romanowski, Horticulture Dept., Purdue University. Research
and Extension programs in vegetable crops and weed control.
4. Dr. R. D. William, Horticulture Dept., Oregon State University. Re-
search and Extension programs in cropping systems involving weed
management in horticultural crops.
5. Dr. Al Putnam, Horticulture Dept., Michigan State University. Research
programs involving weed management in horticultural crops (Normally
specific weed biology projects).