Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Cropping systems and farmers in...
 Development of activities of the...
 Efforts of other UFLA advisors...
 Evaluation of the cropping systems...
 Recommendations for future efforts...
 Appendix A. Cropping systems and...
 Appendix B. Status of other UFLA...
 Appendix C. Trip itinerary
 Appendix D. Cropping systems backstopping...
 Appendix E. Graduate training alternatives...

Title: stop trip report on cropping systems in Bolivia
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00081804/00001
 Material Information
Title: stop trip report on cropping systems in Bolivia
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: William, R. D.
Publisher: Hildebrand, Peter E.
Publication Date: 1979
Copyright Date: 1979
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00081804
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 191731189

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Cropping systems and farmers in the Chapare
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Development of activities of the cropping systems project
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Efforts of other UFLA advisors to improve cropping systems in Bolivia and in the Chapare Region
        Page 5
    Evaluation of the cropping systems project
        Page 6
    Recommendations for future efforts in farm systems research and extension in the Chapare
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Appendix A. Cropping systems and farmers in the Chapare
        Page A-1
        Page A-2
        Page A-3
        Page A-4
    Appendix B. Status of other UFLA team projects
        Page B-1
        Page B-2
        Page B-3
        Page B-4
        Page B-5
    Appendix C. Trip itinerary
        Page C-1
        Page C-2
        Page C-3
    Appendix D. Cropping systems backstopping activities by TDY's
        Page D-1
    Appendix E. Graduate training alternatives for Bolivian cropping systems staff
        Page E-1
Full Text

01(" 61


By: R. D. William & Peter E. Hildebrand

September 14 to 25, 1979


I. Cropping Systems and Farmers in the Chapare

II. Development of Activities of the Cropping Systems Project

III. Efforts of Other UFLA Advisors to Improve Cropping Systems in
Bolivia and in the Chapare Region
A. Fruit and Perennial Crops
B. Economic Analysis
C. Communications and Extension Programs

IV. Evaluation of the Cropping Systems Project

V. Recommendations for Future Efforts in Farm Systems Research and
Extension in the Chapare

VI. Appendices
A. Status of Cropping Systems Project
B. Status of Other UFLA Team Projects
C. Trip Itinerary
D. Cropping Systems Backstopping Activities by TDY's
E. Graduate Training Alternatives for Bolivian Cropping
Systems Staff


Ray D. Williaml/
Peter E. Hildebrand

The University of Florida was contracted by USAID, PRODES and IBTA to

conduct research into alternatives to coca production in the Yungas and Chapare

areas of Bolivia. The initial group of scientists arrived in the country about

three years ago and the present group has been on site for approximately one

year. The purpose of this TDY was to backstop (support and evaluate) the

cropping systems efforts of the UFLA project with major efforts in the Chapare

region. Edwin C. French, III is the Cropping Systems Advisor. Other UFLA

advisors are Larry Janicki, Chief of Party; Joseph Goodwin, Agricultural

Economist; Ralph Scorza, Tropical Fruit and Van Crowder, Communication and



Increased development of the Chapare region in Bolivia began about 1972

when a semi-paved road was constructed from Cochabamba to Puerto Villaroel on

the eastern slope of the Andes mountains. To populate the region, small-scale

limited resource farmers from the altiplano and miners lacking farming skills

moved to the Chapare region to farm 10 to 20 ha of forested land in this tropical

region. Both groups of people lacked resources and experience of producing

crops under humid, lowland conditions with rainfall ranging from 1800 to over

4500 mm.

During the first year, most new colonizers learn to cut and burn 1 to 2

ha of the forest in September and plant subsistence crops such as rice, corn,

cassava and peanuts. Within the same year, perennial cash crops such as coca,

bananas, plantains and citrus can be interplanted in the field with the staple

-/Respectively, Vegetable Crops Extension Specialist, IFAS, and Agricultural

Economist, The Rockefeller Foundation.

crops or planted sequentially before weedy plants predominate and before soil

structure and fertility become limiting factors. Except for citrus, these

crops begin producing cash revenues in the second and third year after establish-


During the second year, another 1 to 2 ha may be cleared for staple food

crops and the cycle repeated until approximately 3 to 5 ha are under cultiva-

tion. Because declining soil structure, fertility and rapid weed growth become

limiting factors for production of most annual crops within about 2 years, some

cultivated land is abandoned and additional forest is cut and burned. As this

cycle continues, short-term perennial crops may be interplanted as required

to maintain productivity and crop rotations. This cycle continues until the

original forest is cut and burned completely. Then the forest regrowth on

previously abandoned land is cut and burned to continue the cycle of producing

crops on the 10 to 20 ha of land with limited resources.

Although these new colonizers lack production resources and experience

within the region, they can obtain planting materials and production technologies

locally for these annual and perennial crops. However, because these small-

scale farmers basically cultivate their own land, labor seems to be a major

constraint within the region. Competition for labor, especially with coca

harvest 3 to 4 times per year, is a major factor that seems to influence the

farmer's decision-making related to which crops to grow. In addition, rapid weed

growth and declining soil structure and fertility limit the total area that a

farmer can cultivate. Other constraints include limited crop production resources,

energy availability and long distances to cash markets which result in the use of

hand-production technologies and reduced on-farm prices for agricultural products.

Agricultural research conducted in the Chapare region must consider all

of these aspects so that relevant technologies will be produced and adopted by

the farmers.


When the crop systems advisor first contemplated the position, there was

general discussion about the possibilities of at least some group effort in

cropping systems research work. Different arrival times for advisors and the

stationing of all but the systems advisor in La Paz, negatively influenced the

possibility of this group effort occurring early in the project. As a result,

work began in the systems project without the interaction of the entire UFLA team

which limited decision-making and interchange with others.

Between February and April 1979, discussions were conducted by the team

on the possibility of concentrating in the Chapare. A verbal proposal was made

to modify the terms of the contract. The decision was made, however, that the

team should continue working in both the Yungas and the Chapare, with the exception

of the systems advisor. Attempts were made at that time to continue coordination

in the Chapare, but a close team effort could never be effectively established

because of the problems invoked by physical separation and the need to travel

to two widely separated regions.

In the Chapare, cropping systems research was initiated on the basic grain

(corn-rice) systems of the farmers in the area. (See Appendix A for detail of

project status). Plant densities, nitrogen fertilizer levels and the effect of

land clearing procedures on yields and changes in the soil structure and fertility

were emphasized. This initial research activity provided a learning opportunity

for the technicians and the advisor about the farming conditions of the area.

Early conclusions were that weeds and soil deterioration combined with the

limited resource situation of the farmers were the principle limiting factors

encountered in the area.

Because the farmers have profitable alternatives for the investment of their

limited capital, they do not risk investment in their basic grain crops. For

this reason, a trial was designed to explore the possibilities of using cover

crops (legumes, grains or vegetables) within the basic grain system. These

_____ sl__n__L__LIWLI___d____


cover crops can provide additional products for consumption, for sale or for

use within the traditional cropping system yet improve and conserve soil pro-

perties, make low demands for capital investment, and provide incentive for the

farmer to stay on his land.

The popularity and importance of tomatoes within the cropping system has

increased over the past four years. A trial was established in early April to

incorporate tomatoes in the second phase of the basic crop (corn-rice) sequence.

This study will generate information to be included in a basic crop production

system of corn-rice followed by a high value crop. Their objective is to produce

crops year-round rather than allow the land to revert back to forest regrowth.

A next logical step was to evaluate cover crops interplanted with perennial

crops. To conserve limited research resources, a cooperative farmer volunteered

production resources for studies involving basic grains and the use of legumes,

both for forage and for food, in a perennial pineapple crop. The shift to

a farm trial at this time was opportune due to lack of labor at the "La Jota"

station. The farmer on whose land the trial was established provided the

labor necessary for the trial. Presently, Bolivian technicians are looking

for about 5 more farmers to collaborate in farm trials beginning in November.

The most promising treatments from the work of the present year will be incor-

porated into these trials.

One of the most limiting factors related to conducting the cropping systems

trials is the shortage of labor available to the technicians on the station.

This has forced many modifications as well as cancellation of trials that had

been planned.

Most materials for research trials have generally been supplied by IBTA

within their own budget. A limiting factor in conducting more farm trials

is the lack of transportation. Thus, the advisor must act as a taxi service

for counterpart technicians, thereby limiting the advisor's work efficiency.

One of the most beneficial aspects has been the UFLA "becario" program that has


provided additional manpower for the Chapare project.
Field days have been held for the corn-rice and the pineapple trials.

These field days have demonstrated the need for more complete and broader

orientation of the scope of work before initiating these research projects. For

example, during the pineapple field day, one of the technical recommendations

was to plant the pineapple between January and May. The local, small-scale

producers of pineapple who were attending the field day pointed out that it was

not practical to plant during that season because their land clearing and burning

activities terminated in September when the rains started. Later planting dates

in January were unfeasible because the fields would be completely overgrown

with weedy plants. This type of information can be detected by early agro-

socioeconomic studies in the project area.


Depending on their arrival in Bolivia, current UFLA team members have

accomplished or planned the following projects for implementation during the

forthcoming cropping season which begins in late 1979 (references are to details

and stage of implementation listed in Appendix B):

Fruit and Perennial Crops

To complement the cropping systems efforts, projects involving disease

resistance and prevention (1,2,3), plant production and disinfection in crop

seedbeds (4,5),. intercropping with cover crops or passion fruit (6,7), analysis

of citrus fruit quality (8), and translation of relevant technical information

for Bolivian counterparts (9) have been proposed or implemented for both the

Chapare and Yungas regions in Bolivia. In addition, a joint project to train

extension personnel in the Chapare region about production of citrus in seedbeds

has been planned for implementation during this cropping season (10). In the

Yungas region, a Mediterranian Fruit Fly survey (11), citrus quality study (8)

and coffee rejuvenation program (12,13) are being continued.

Economic Analysis

Both macro (14) and microeconomic analyses for the Chapare region (15,16)

are being evaluated to estimate demand/price elasticity and potential profit-

ability with alternative assumptions relating to price, credit and labor.

Communications and Extension Programs

To improve the communication and extension capabilities of the Bolivian

institutions, several local (communication technicians) have been trained in

Colombia to improve their skills in both written and radio media (17,18). Some

A-V equipment has been purchased and proposals written to equip extension and

communication technicians with minimal equipment both at the national level

and within the Yungas and Chapare region (19). In addition, farmer training

meetings (20), production guides and technical bulletins (21), and a communication

survey in the Chapare region and a "becario" to work in radio programming (22)

are in progress.


Even with the problems that have occurred, progress in cropping systems

work has been substantial. IBTA staff and "becarios" have received training in

project orientation and design, on conducting trials and analyzing and inter-

preting results. Several on-station and on-farm trials have been completed or

are underway. Future research work is continually being planned and excellent

counterpart associations have been developed between the Cropping Systems advisor

and IBTA staff.

It is interesting to speculate on the possible achievements of the entire

UFLA group, had the team been able to work together as a unit as had been pro-

posed. Having a young and enthusiastic staff interested in working with each

other has been worthwhile but by having to work in scattered locations, they

have not had the best opportunities to do so. This lack of interchange is

evident not only in the systems work which may be most important, but also in

the work of the other team members. In part, this could have been overcome had

there been an experienced team leader to 1) help them coordinate their activities,

2) reinforce the generation of ideas and broaden perspectives, and 3) provide

stronger support in dealing with USAID and Gainesville.

The abrupt change of Chief of Party was demoralizing to the group and has,

without doubt, reduced team productivity. This, coupled with the uncertainty

concerning the future of contract positions and the contract has made it

difficult for the team to make further reaching, long-term decisions.


Based on discussions with the UFLA team and on observations in the Chapare

area, we recommend that future research and extension efforts be undertaken by

an integrated, multidisciplinary team of scientists, all of whom would be

stationed in the area. Since only a relatively small-amount of technology is

readily available for transfer at the present time, initial emphasis should be

in research. Within three to five years, extension efforts could be increased


As previously mentioned in this report, not enough is known about the

farmers, their conditions and production practices in the area. In the first

year:of a team effort, greatest emphasis should be put on getting acquainted

with these conditions through surveys, crop and livestock records and by

conducting simple trials under actual farm conditions. After the team is

satisfied that it can duplicate farmer results, emphasis can shift toward the

solution of the technical problems encountered, always keeping in mind the

socio-economic capabilities of the farmers to absorb the technologies being


The greatest research effort should be conducted on farms and designed

to consider the requirements of the farm as a system. However, initial screening

of genetic materials and other trials requiring high levels of control or with

high or unknown risk possibilities should be conducted on the experiment stations

within the area.

In general, farm trials can be of two types. First, technical agronomic

or animal trials can be conducted using standard experimental design. A check

treatment should be included and be representative of the present technology of

the farmers in the area. Second, numerous agro-economic trials can be conducted

with fewer treatments and without replications on farmers' fields in the region.

On each farm, a check should be included which represents the practice of the

farmer on whose land the agronomic (or animal) trial is being conducted. Economic

and risk analyses can be conducted. Evaluation criteria should be consistent

with the farmers' criteria. Finally, farmers should be incorporated into the

evaluation system by designing simple farmers' tests in which they are permitted

the opportunity to evaluate the most promising technologies.

Passive extension efforts can begin at the technical and agro-economic

farm trial stages through field days for the extension agents. Active extension

efforts should be initiated at the farmers' test stage. The delay of one or two

years in arriving at the farmers' test stage will correspond with increasing local

staff numbers and build-up of infrastructure so that when validated technology

is ready for massive extension efforts, the staff and equipment should be large

enough to be appropriate for the task.

Initial efforts of the integrated team will be in the established farming

areas of the Chapare. As local staff is trained and new areas are opened, new

nuclei can be formed with experienced staff.


STATUS OF CROPPING SYSTEMS PROJECT (French & Bolivian counterparts)

With a basic work objective to develop cropping systems technology that is

acceptable, adaptable and beneficial to small farmers of the Chapare, the

following research approach was developed.

Given the traditional farm system that begins with land clearing followed

by seeding of rice and corn in association, a logical approach in systems

research for the Chapare is to examine the first step which is rice-corn in

association. An improvement of the basic system can provide greater security

to a farmer. With the security of having his subsistence crops, he can then

move into higher income crops (vegetables or perennials).

1. Densities, Fertilizer Levels and Land Clearing Methods for Rice-Corn Association

The first step to this approach began with an experiment which examined

densities, fertilizer levels and land clearing methods for rice-corn in association.

The primary objective of this research is to determine the economic feasibility

of injecting improved technology into the rice-corn phase of the system and to

determine the effect of the various treatments on soil over time. Status: The

rice-corn association which represents phase one of the traditional cropping

sequence has now undergone one year of testing. The data are nearing the point

of publication. At least one more year of data is needed to provide confidence

in the results; however, a continuation of this trial on the same land for

several years is planned to provide information on the effect on the soil over


2. Densities, Nitrogen Levels and Land Clearing on Phase Two Tomato

As Phase Two to the traditional system following rice-corn, tomatoes are

becoming commercially important as a potential high income crop. Therefore, an

experiment designed to look at tomato densities and fertilizer levels under the

same land clearing systems used for corn-rice was initiated. The primary

objective is to obtain basic information for nitrogen levels and plant densities

-^'lil' ''~~"-.-."~~-~'""~"'----------------------- C-- -.~- II- II L~^ ^U __ I _~ili


and determine economic feasibility. Status: The experiment is currently in

progress with completion scheduled for end of October. Tomatoes will be

immediately followed by corn-rice as done previously in Phase One with plans

for a repeat of the tomato experiment in 1980.

3. Tomato Technology Package

Within the traditional cropping systems, a tomato study was programmed

to provide additional cultural information to be available for the 1980

production season.

The following studies were to be undertaken during the 1979 tomato


Tomato variety trial sown at 3 different planting times.
Tomato fertilizer trial
Staking practices
Seed-bed preparation

Status: The first planting of the variety trial was completed and data

remains to be analyzed. However, due to the lack of labor, the other two

planting periods were not seeded. Expectations to have a complete package for

1980 were not met due to lack of labor to initiate the other research projects.

4. Cucumber Variety Trial

A cucumber variety trial was initiated as another alternative cash crop.

Status: Cucumber variety trials for 1979 have been completed. Other plans for

development of cucumber were cancelled due to lack of labor, but hopefully will

be carried out in 1980.

5. Feasibility Study For Radish Production In Chapare (French & Bolivian counter-

To establish the feasibility of producing radish under Chapare conditions,

a small variety trial was conducted to evaluate this short-term crop in various

cropping patterns. Status: The trial has been completed and ready for

statistical analysis.

6. Sweet Pepper Virus Detection

Virus in vegetables may become a limiting factor to vegetable production.

In cooperation with Dr. Allen Cook in Florida, plans were made to plant sweet

pepper varieties that would serve to indicate or identify specific viruses.

Status: This project failed to be initiated due to lack of support.

7. Legume Cover Crops In Association Or Rotation With Basic Grains and High
Income Vegetable Crops

The principal objectives of this study are to: develop a system which

is acceptable to small-scale farmers, improve or maintain soil productivity,

reduce the need for greater capital investment in commercial fertilizers, determine

the feasibility of lime application, reduce weed incidence, provide for an

additional source of animal or human food production, and provide a feasible

link in the transition from basic grain production to a perennial crop.

Status: The field trial was initiated the first part of April, 1979. Phase

I of the corn-legume association is now complete and data include:

1) soil samples; 2) nodulation count for the various legume species as effected

by lime and no lime treatments; 3) incidence of weeds in each treatment by

species; 4) soybean yields; 5) and forage yields. Soil compaction readings

are programmed for October, 1979.

Following these treatments, Phase II will focus on the production of a

high income vegetable crop which is cucumber this year (1979) and retun to

basic grain production which begins Phase I again and extends into 1980.

8. Basic Grains in Association With Pineapple

To maintain crop productivity during the transition from the basic grains

to perennial crops, corn and soybeans were chosen as short-term intercrops in

pineapple during the plant establishment phase of pineapple production.

Status: The annual crops were planted on June 1, 1979. Soybeans have been

harvested with corn harvest planned for November. Cucumber will be planted in

Phase II of the system and staked on existing corn stalks. Cucumber seeding is

programmed for the end of October, 1979.


9. Legume Cover Crop in Association With Pineapple

An experiment was designed to evaluate potential cover crop species and

management of these species within a pineapple crop, the effect of these crops

on pineapple yield and quality, grain and forage yields, weed control. Status:

Nodulation data for the various legumes and weed incidence by biomass and by

species has been collected under each cropping regime. Soybean yields have been

collected with yield of other crops to be sampled in November.



1. Introduction of Citrus Rootstock and Scion Material for the Chapare and Yungas

(Scorza and Florida Backstop Person)

Plant materials having resistance to disease and nematodes and having an

extended fruiting season are being introduced and tested under Bolivian

conditions for both the Chapare and Yungas regions. Status: Plant materials

have been and continue to be introduced and evaluated.

2. Citrus Virus Survey and Registration Program (Scorza and TDY Backstop)

The program is designed to identify serious viruses of citrus and to initiate

d budwood certification program at La Jota and Coroico experiment stations.

Status: Project planned for TDY visit in February.

3. Citrus Canker Training Program (Scorza and Bolivian Counterparts)

Citrus canker (xanthomonas citri) is a serious disease in Brazil, Argentina

and Paraguay, but not Bolivia. To acquaint Bolivian counterparts with identifi-

cation and control of the disease, two extension agents and three researchers

attended a short course in Bella Vista, Argentina. Status: A technical

bulletin is in preparation by Max Rojas and R. Scorza for distribution to

agricultural workers throughout Bolivia.

4. Seedbed Disinfection (Scorza and Bolivian Counterparts)

Basamid (Mylone) is currently recommended for use as a seedbed disinfectant

but has been reported to be ineffective for nematode control in Bolivia.

Status: A project proposal has been submitted and approved to evaluate various

soil disinfectants in seedbeds regardless of crop species to be planted. Imple-

mentation date is October.

5. Citrus Plant Production Program (Scorza and Bolivian Counterparts)

To improve citrus plant production, a seedbed and nursery study involving

fertilizers, soil disinfectants, plastic sacks, etc., is being initiated this

year at two experiment stations in the Yungas and Chapare regions to supplement


the "citrus vivero" training project (10). Status: Presently being initiated.

6. Legume Cover Crops-Citrus Interplant Study on Newly Established Orchard With
Incidence of Phytophthora Infestations to be Monitored (Scorza, French and
Bolivian Counterparts)

In the Chapare region, various legume cover crops interplanted among young

'Cleopatra' citrus rootstocks will be evaluated to determine 1) soil improvement,

2) weed control, 3) human and animal food production potential, 4) citrus tree

growth, and 5) effect of intercropping on Phytophthora. Imposed on these main

treatments are various chemical controls for Phytophthora. Status: Implementation

will begin in October unless limited labor continues to be a problem.

7. Interplanting of Passion Fruit in Pineapple (Scorza, French, Bolivian
Counterparts and local farmer)

Primary objectives of the experiment will be to 1) measure the effect of

the dominant crop (passion fruit) on the understory crop (pineapple), 2)

determine optimum return for both production and earnings. Status: Passion

fruit has been seeded into plastic bags with planting date expected in October

or November depending on seedling growth and field preparation.

8. Analysis of Citrus Fruit Quality (Scorza and Bolivian Counterparts)

Because fruit quality often affects the saleability and market duration of

citrus, a fruit quality study was initiated to measure size, color, juice,

quantity, brix, acidity, etc. of citrus produced in the Chapare region.

Status: Currently, data from one year are being analyzed. The project is being

continued this year.

9. Translation Series (Scorza and Bolivian Counterparts)

Relevant and current research papers have been translated into Spanish

for use by Bolivian counterparts in seminars. Status: Four articles have been

translated, but seminar presentations by Bolivian technicians have not occurred

to date.

10. Farmer Training Project for Citrus Plant Production (Scorza, Crowder and
Bolivian Counterparts)

A joint extension-research project on citrus plant production was planned

in cooperation with "sindicato" members in the Chapare region where local people

supply land and labor within their communities. Based on the research results

from the citrus plant production program (5), farmer training component involves

providing citrus production and cultivation technology to "sindicato" represen-

tatives using the vivero as a training base. Status: The project proposal

has been submitted to AID, IBTA, and PRODES for approval. Local farmers have

begun planting seed which was sent from the Yungas, but funding is required so

that proper leadership, adaptive research and extension activities can be


11. Mediterranean Fruit Fly Population Survey (Scorza, Janicki and Bolivian

The survey is designed to provide quantitative information on the movement

and population fluctuations to help plan effective control methods for this

important citrus pest of the Yungas region. Seven extension agents are involved

along with the head of extension for the region in the monitoring of fruit fly

populations. Status: By February, 1980, 1.5 years of data will be available for


12. Rust Resistance Coffee Introductions (Janicki and a Bolivian "Becario" and
other Counterparts)

Recent shipments of rust resistant coffee cultivars have arrived and been

introduced to local farmers in the Yungas region. Status: A "becario" student

has been measuring the growth rate of promising cultivars.

13. Coffee Fertilization and Weed Control Trials in Yungas Region (Janicki and
Bolivian Counterparts)

To rejuvenate abandoned coffee plantations, both fertilization and weed

control projects have been implemented in the Yungas region. Status: Some

data are available for analysis, but this program has been slowed drastically

since Mr. Janicki assumed responsibility as Chief of Party.

14. Demand/Price Elasticity Estimates for Banana, Plantains, Oranges, Pineapple
and Papaya in Bolivia (Goodwin and Bolivian Counterparts)

A macro economic study. Status: Analysis completed, but not yet written.


15. Simulating Potential Profitability of Oranges, Plantains, Papaya, Coffee,
Cacao and Oil Palm in the Chapare Region Under Alternative Price and Credit
Availability (Goodwin and Bolivian Counterparts)

A micro economic study for the Chapare region. Status: Computer work

finished and results are being analyzed.

16. Agricultural Calendar and Labor Coefficients for Crops Grown in the Chapare
(Goodwin and Bolivian Counterparts)

Status: Statistical work completed but not published.

17. Technician Training in Communications and Extension (Crowder and Bolivian

Both a series of seminars/"cursillos" on communication and extension

methodologies and techniques and a one-month training effort were held in Colombia

for IBTA/PRODES personnel in radio and written media.

18. Radio Station Proposal for Chapare Region (Crowder and Bolivian Counterparts)

A proposal was submitted to PRODES/AID for an audio-recording studio and

radio station in Villa Tunari. Status: Project has been placed "on hold" until

the impact study (23) is completed for the Chapare and a similar study is completed

for the Yungas region. It was proposed to PRODES that in lieu of the radio

station being constructed and equipped immediately, funds could be used to prepare

a weekly farm program to be broadcast from CBBA. This proposal is being

considered by PRODES staff.

19. A-V Equipment and Program Implementation (Crowder and Bolivian Counterparts)

A project proposal was written requesting funding for A-V equipment to be

used in current-and future extension programs in Bolivia. Funding support has not

been received but a few items have been purchased from local project funds to

initiate immediate program efforts. Status: Funding has been allowed for

purchases but due to current funding situations, the order has not been placed

to complete these program efforts.

20. Farmer Training Activities in Chapare and Yungas Regions (Crowder, UFLA
Staff and Bolivian Counterparts)

Status: Several farmer training meetings have been planned and implemented

in both regions about grafting and.pruning citrus, cultivation of tomato and


and other relevant topics. The Bolivian counterparts normally provided local

leadership and presentation of information.

21. Extension and Technical Publications (Crowder, UFLA Staff and Bolivian

A series of publications for both farmers and technical personnel are

in progress. Some bulletins for farmers have been prepared in mimeograph

form. Status: A proposal has been submitted for funding of these publications,

some of which are now ready for printing. (Farmer publications: 3 pruning

citrus, somosis, grafting and pineapple cultivation; Technical publications;

Citrus Canker and the Communications Report (22).

22. Communication Study to Evaluate Communication Channels Used by Farmers in
the Chapare Region and to Determine Future Strategies (Crowder and Bolivian

Local farmers (n = 216) were interviewed to evaluate demographic data,

use of mass.media, interpersonal communication (relationships to change

agents) and use of improved production practices. Status: Data have been

collected, analyzed and a preliminary report has been prepared.



September 14, Friday

4:30 PM Left Gainesville

September 15, Saturday

Scheduled departure from Miami 8 hours late

September 16, Sunday

5:00 AM Arrived La Paz

1:00 PM Lunch with the UFLA Staff based in La Paz

September 17, Monday

11:00 AM Arrived in Cochabamba

2:00 PM Meeting with MASI group, PRODES Regional Director, Cochabamba and

Director of La Jota Station.

Leonard Kornfeld, Leader, MASI group

Curry Brookshire, MASI

Don Leeper, MASI

Carlos Soria, PRODES

Emilio Salaues, IBTA

Purpose: Called by Kornfeld to brief us on how the UFLA group and

backstop staff could provide information for their project and how

we could interact during TDY trip.

5:00 PM Meeting with IBTA personnel in Cochabamba

Mario Perez, Director, IBTA, Cochabamba

Lucio Antezana, Director of Extension, Cochabamba

Emilio Salaues

La Jota Group

MASI Group

Purpose: Brief Perez and Antezana on purpose of TDY trip and brief

us on conditions and ongoing work in the Chapare


September 18, Tuesday

Day Travel to the Chapare with full UFLA Group (excluding Janicki who was

travelling to Florida). Toured Chapare area and the La Jota Station


Evening Meeting of UFLA Group with MASI

Purpose: Discussion of problems and strategies for the Chapare

SDevelopment proposal.

September 19, Wednesday

8AM-2PM Field day on farm of Roberto Vasquez on Pineapple and associated

crops. MASI and PRODES personnel also attended.

3 4PM Lunch with MASI group. It was decided that Crowder and Goodwin would.

meet with MASI and IBTA/PRODES on extension and return late to


4 7PM Return to Cochabamba and discussed providing of backstop materials

for cropping systems advisor from Gainesville (Appendix D )

9PM-2AM Broad ranging discussion with UFLA Staff.

September 20, Thursday

AM Discussion of the development of each UFLA staff member's program

in Bolivia and development of a general proposal for a research

strategy for the next five-year period in the Chapare.

2 4PM Meeting with MASI, PRODES, and UFLA.

Purpose: Present research strategy and specific recommendations on

priority crops for Chapare development.

4 5PM Wrap-up meeting with UFLA group before return to La Paz.

9 11PM Meeting with Tom Stillwell, agronomist, CID group and Simon Maxwell,

agricultural economist, British Tropical Agricultural Mission in

Santa Cruz.

Purpose: Discuss farm trial strategies and statistical analyses.

Also promised to provide them with the TI-59 calculator programs.

September 21, Friday

AM Discussion with French specifically on the crop systems program.

PM Writing report.

September 22, Saturday

AM Visit to Cochabamba central market.

1 2PM Lunch with William Brown, CID plant pathologist.

2 6PM Meeting with IBRA cropping systems specialist and UFLA becarios.

Purpose: Familiarization with the TI-59 programs. Review of

research data and discussion of analytical procedures and interpre-

tation. Prepared soil samples from cropping systems trials for

delivery to Soils backstop member in Gainesville.

September 23, Sunday

Report writing and photographing slide series on La Jota program

and pineapple technology.

September 24, Monday

8:30AM-12 Return to La Paz. Unsuccessful attempts to duplicate TI-59 program
tapes. Phone conversations with Larry Janicki and Chris Andrew in


2 4PM Meeting at PRODES with Winston Estomadoiro and Howard Steele

(Entire UFLA Group)

4 5PM Meeting with Ing. Pereira and Ing. Machicado of IBTA (Tito French).

5 6PM Meeting with Dick Peters, USAID.

September 25, Tuesday

8:30 Meeting with Dan Chaij, Dick Peters and Howard Steele (Entire
UFLA group).

10:00AM Left for "El Alto" airport for return trip.


Cropping Systems Backstopping Activities by TDY's.

1. Inform Dr. Bill Blue (Soils Dept.-Gainesville): a) Cropping systems
advisor wondered about measuring soil porosity with a small cylinder
and the rate of water infiltration or perhaps measure bulk density.
Dr. Blue is requested to advise Dr. French about alternatives, b)
carry soil samples to soils lab for analysis.

2. Inform Dr. Gordon Prine and assist with computer search of information
pertaining to a) weed control and cover crops, b) "living" mulches,
c) cover crops and liming, and d) liming effects of nitrogen fertiliza-

3. Send PANS mailing address and format for possible publication of
research results.

4. Send ASPAC reference pertaining to water-buffalo.

5. Govt. farm record sheets to be sent by Pete.

6. Split plot TI-59 program.

7. Copies (magnetic cards) of all other programs discussed.


Graduate Training Alternatives for Bolivian Cropping Systems Staff

1. Dr. Gordon Prine, Agron. Dept., University of Florida. Research
programs involving cropping systems, crop rotations, and cover
crops planted in rotation to control nematodes.

2. Dr. Sanders, Vegetable Crops Dept., Cornell University. Research
programs involving dry beans and cropping systems including inter-
planting with winter grains such as wheat.

3. Dr. R. R. Romanowski, Horticulture Dept., Purdue University. Research
and Extension programs in vegetable crops and weed control.

4. Dr. R. D. William, Horticulture Dept., Oregon State University. Re-
search and Extension programs in cropping systems involving weed
management in horticultural crops.

5. Dr. Al Putnam, Horticulture Dept., Michigan State University. Research
programs involving weed management in horticultural crops (Normally
specific weed biology projects).

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