Title: Trip report and program suggestions for Population Council programs on women in Latin America
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00081750/00001
 Material Information
Title: Trip report and program suggestions for Population Council programs on women in Latin America
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Schmink, Marianne
Publisher: Center for Latin American Studies, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1979
Subject: South America   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: South America -- Brazil
South America -- Argentina
South America -- Chile
South America -- Peru
South America -- Colombia
South America -- Venezuela
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00081750
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text

University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611

October 19, 1979 Room 3
Linton E. Grinter Hall

TO: Axel Mundigo
Judith Bruce__

FROM: Marianne Schmink

----RE:- Trip Report and Program Suggestions for Population Council Programs on
Women in Latin America (Confidential)

This report is intended to inform Population Council staff of contacts and
findings which.emerged from my recent trip to five South American countries.
The main purpose of the trip was to carry out research in Brazil under a Popu-
lation Council grant, whose results will be reported in two technical documents
to be distributed more widely. However, an additional task was to make pre-
liminary contacts with potential contributors to Council programs on Women in
Latin America. It was therefore decided to prolong the travel period to include
.stops in additional countries, in order to broaden initial contacts and assess
priorities on a more regional basis. For this purpose modifications were made
in the original grant budget to cover the additional travel expenses and time.
The present document is intended as an informal and confidential reporting on
these travel activities, to be used as a reference resource in future program
activity in the region. It begins with an account of my trip to five countries,
plus a note on Venezuela, followed by a discussion of overall impressions as a
result of the trip, and a series of concrete suggestions for future program
.activities related to Women in Latin America. The report is accompanied by
appen-dices which list those persons and groups contacted and supply additional
information for some.


During a two-month stay in Brazil, visits were made to several cities,
where some time was devoted to making contacts with groups and individuals
who might play some role in future Population Council programs on women. These
will be described on a city-by-city basis.

A. Rio de Janeiro

1. IBGE. Contacts were made with various persons in the Brazilian sta-
tistical bureau, IBGE. Within the Department of Population Studies (DESPO),
there is already a constituted work group.dealing with the topic of women's
work. It includes Mary Castro (who was out of the country during my visit),
Rosa Maria Ribeiro da Silva (who was a member of the organizing committee for
the IUPERJ-sponsored conference on Women in the Labor Force in Latin America,
December 1978), Lilibeth Maria Cardoso, and Celso Simoes. One of their proposed
work projects is a study-of women's position in production and consumption, to


be carried out as.part of a larger study of social groups and consumption
patterns, using data from the 1974-5 National Study of Family Expenditures
(ENDEF). The.proposal was outlined as early as January of 1978 by Mary Castro
and others (many of whom have since left IBGE) in the institution's Boletim
Demografico. However it has not gone forward because the researchers' time
has been required for other projects. They hope to get back to it in Septen-
ber of 1979. Their work may also be given an impulse by the presence of Maria
Helena Henriques, a demographer who'joined DESPO in August and who will be in
charge of designing the 1980 National Household Sample Sur7ey (PNAD) with its
special supplement on fertility and nutrition.

At the suggestion of members of the work group, I also talked with the
head of DESPO, Nelson do Vale Silva, who is an economist who recently took
over -the department from long-time chief Joao Lyra Madeira. He and a promi-
nent Brazilian economist currently working in the U.S., Amaury de Souza, are
planning to work on a smaller-scale survey which would measure'time allocation
in order to investigate patterns of employment and underemployment. It re-
quired some debate and presentation of evidence with Silva to elicit an in-
~trest in a specific focus on women, and he argued that studies of time al-
located to domestic activities had been proven to be useless (since the time
budget appears to be fixed regardless of income levels). The overall impres-
sion was that of a fairly rigid neo-classical economist with little patience
for open-ended methodologies. Other reports indicated that Amaury de Souza
feels that women are poor questionnaire respondents. Still, Silva eventually
displayed moderate interest in the idea of some future form of collaboration
with the Population Council, for example at a seminar devoted to the labor
force in Brazil--apparently a suggestion made to him by Axel Mundigo--similar
to those which have been held by the Ford Foundation on mortality and fer-
tility. Here a focus on women would of course be an important priority. In
general it appears that DESPO is a useful institutional contact to continue,
even as a means of stimulating and legitimating the already-existing interests
of the women's work group in the eyes of the department head.

Contacts were also made with people in charge of the analysis of ENDEF.
In the Department of Studies of Consumption (DESCO) I talked with Tania Lustosa
and Denise Williamson. ENDEF data have begun to appear in published form but
not yet broken down by income; data are now carefully controlled before being
released because the study is a politically sensitive one and the first pub-
lished results were subject to much public attention and debate. IBGE is often
accused of holding back the results because they demonstrate the shamefully low
standard of living of poor people in Brazil. These problems probably account
for the apparent reluctance of researchers to enter into much detail about
their work at first. Eventually, however, the two contacts began to show a
great deal of interest in what I had to say.

Tania Lustosa is in charge of the nutritional analysis. They are attempting
to create appropriate nutritional measures for Brazil based on anthropomorphic
data from households with incomes equivalent to 30 minimum salaries or more--
or about 5-6 minimum salaries per capital. Calculations are made separately
for adults and children, on the basis of "commensal-adult-days". These units
will be used in place of per capital measures of nutritional intake by taking
into account: meals eaten outside the home by some household members; different
caloric weights at different meals; and age differences. The measures are

weighted for different "alimentary rhythms" based on the proportion of the
four daily meals which are consumed in the home by each member. This is an
extremely complicated measure for which she gave me some documentation. .These
estimates were criticized earlier for being "manipulated" because their re-
sult is a higher nutritional level than that which per capital measures would
yield. (No one else she knows of has used such a measure, including INCAP in
Guatemala, which uses per capital measures).

Once the bugs are out of these measures, she plans to use them to compare
the nutritional levels of different social groups: migrants vs. natives (the
subject of her proposed doctoral dissertation at Stanford) and male vs. female-
headed households. Occupational groups will also be compared, using the cate-
gories suggested by economist Paulo Renato in a paper presented at the recent
meeting of the Brazilian graduate economics association (AMPEC). Each occu-
pational group will be assigned a weight in caloric expenditures, based on a
British study. This will allow her to look at nutrition and caloric needs by
economic activities; this analysis will be carried out for both sexes.

ENDEF contained no measures of distribution of food within the family,
although it would be easy to generate a table comparing the locale of a meal
(home, work, visit) or its presence or absence, by sex and family character-
istics. She was interested in discussing her methodologies with other re-
searchers and is trying to track down information on approaches to collect-
ing information on internal food distribution. She will be collaborating on
the.nutrition portion of the 1980 PNAD, which will use fertility and mortality
questions from ENDEF, and plans to insert some questions about the food con-
sumption patterns of children and pregnant and lactating women. I agreed to
try-to locate examples of research on this topic for her.

Denise Williamson is in charge of the analysis of consumption patterns
(other than food). After a brief dicsussion, she agreed that a comparison
of male and female-headed households would be interesting. She also sugges-
ted the creation of a measure of households with more adult females, which
could be compared with less "female-dominated" units.

Although I got-conflicting reports, the last word was that there would
be a new ENDEF in 1980, to be coordinated by Joao Solimao Bosco. Maria
Helena Henriques was to help him with the content. I suggested that some
attempt be made to introduce measures of internal .distribution of food and
other resources.

I also met with members of the Department of Social Indicators (DEISO).
Jane de Souto Oliveira, who participated in the IUPERJ conference in Decem-
ber, was out of town, as was another personal contact, David Vetter. I met
Lucia Ribeiro de Souza and. another women named Maria Helena. Lucia has just
finished a study of the family in Brazil, which will soon be published by
IBGE. The Department has also carried out a number of studies of social in-
dicators in Brazil which will be coming out in published form soon. These are
mostly compiled from existing data sources at the aggregate level and there-
fore have little breakdown by sex.

In general the people I met with in IBGE were extremely receptive to my
suggestions and ideas, and many were already involved in research related to
women and family in each department. The institution is an -important locus

of researcher/planners with good demographic capabilities. Their biggest re-
search problem is the demand placed on them by the institution which impedes
continuity of focus .on their own research interests. But the available data
are extremely rich. A final unknown is the impact of the sudden change in
directors which occurred just after I left Brazil.

2. Other Contacts. Neuma Aguiar, organizer of the December conference,
continues to carry out a series of activities related to women's studies in
Latin America. She is collaborating in an international effort to compile a
roster of professional and academic women, working as a Latin American repre-
sentative along with Ursula Oswald (UNAM, Mexico), Marta Kaplan (an Argentine
living in Mexico), Heleieth Saffioti (Brazil), and Berenice Carroll. The
questionnaire, which has been translated into Spanish and Portuguese, was sent
out along with the final report on the December conference in June of this
year. She cites at least four other existing international rosters of women:
one compiled by Suzanue Aurelias of CEPAL in Chile (updated as of May 1979);
one compiled by Alicia Clara Marchant of ILO in Lima4 one available from Trans-
century Foundation; and one carried out in Canada called MATCH which matches
women professionals to jobs. Neuma is trying to publish selected revised pa-
pers from the December conference in English and is seeking money for the trans-
lation. (See prospectus, Appendix II,) She is also trying to find a publisher
in Spanish.

Alice de Paiva Abreu is a sociologist who was a member of the organizing
committee of the December conference, co-authored the review paper on women in
the urban labor market, and was responsible for the text of the final confer-
ence report. She is currently writing a dissertation on home-based female
textile workers for which she has completed the in-depth interviewing. When
we met she was enrolled in a short course on sources of data in Brazil, and we
agreed that she would spend about three days compiling a list of those sources
which were potential sources for analysis of women's situation, along with the
kind of information they contained. (This information will be incorporated
into the technical report as part of my grant activities.) She has extremely
impressive language abilities in English and Spanish, is well-connected with-
in the women's network and has g*-,'d theoretical and analytical capabilities.
She would be a good candidate for future Council programs. (The Council al-
ready has a copy of her curriculum vitae.)

Leni Silverstein is an American anthropologist currently residing in Rio
where she is writing her dissertation (on women's roles in spirit religions
in Salvador, Bahia) and teaching a course on Anthropological Perspectives on
Women at the National Museum's Anthropology program. She has a diverse
work history (see curriculum vitae, Appendix III), including city planning
work in New York, psychological.testing in Harlem, welfare work, and the en-
tertainment industry. She is currently interested in studying 1) how dif-
ferent levels of the population view abortion and birth control (folk be-
liefs and options); and 2) their interpretation of the Church's position on
abortion and birth control. She is actively involved in the women's move-
ment in Rio. She would be another good candidate for future Council work.

B. Belo Horizonte

1. Researcher/Planners. Some interesting conversations were had with re-
searchers in the city planning agency, PLAMBEL. Aurora Maria de Castro Domingos
da Silva and Vicente de Azevedo are in the Department of Urban Economics and
both are interested in housing, as well as the characterization of family be-
havior. Vicente has carried out a historical study of the housing and land
market in Belo Horizonte, which has just been published by PLAMBEL. Aurora is
in charge of the "residence process" processso de morar") survey carried out
by the agency in 1976. She has been waiting for months for the data to be
cleaned and has already submitted the first set of tabulations to be carried
out. The long delay is at least partly due to the state requirement that all
state-owned data be analyzed by one processing institution. Two reports are
planned for the immediate future: one locating and characterizing (socio-
economically) the population in different parts of the metropolitan area, and
one focussing on the housing process. The study is apparently detailed and
well-managed. A second phase of field work is planned which will entail open-
S ended -interviews to be carried out by a small group of PLAMBEL researchers and
other hirees, to gather life history information (migration and employment;
housing). These interviews will be carried out with a small sub-sample in
various parts of the city, within the next year. I suggested family compo-
sition variations be considered in structuring this sample. A preliminary ver-
sion of the first reports should be available by early next year.

Aurora was very open to suggestions for looking at family structure vari-
ations (sex of head; life cycle), and female participation in housing projects
and solutions. We had a long conversation about these subjects. She expressed
interest in participating in a hypothetical working group as long as it was
not .too time-consuming. We were joined in our conversations by Laudelina
Garcia, an architect who also deals with housing questions within PLAMBEL.
These individuals represent the most likely contacts within planning organi-
zations in Belo Horizonte for potential working group participation. Within
othe. organizations such as the Fundaqao Joao Pinheiro, for example, others
might exist but I had no success in locating them.

Maria das Gra;as Pinho Tavares is an anthropologist doing nutritional
studies within the State Technology Center (CETEC). Because she is a personal
friend as well, we had several long conversations about my work for the Popu-
lation Council, and about related projects she is involved in. These include:
1) Development of nutritional measures for a poor rural area in the north of
the state of Minas Gerais. She will probably analyze these variables within
their different socioeconomic contexts (class, household structure) for her
Ph.D. dissertation at the University of Sao Paulo. 2) Founder of a day-care
campaign at CETEC, exploring mixed solutions including a center on the premi-
ses, as well as repayment to individuals who pay for private services (using
a sliding scale to 100% for the lowest pay categories). She is organizing a
day-care demand survey within CETEC. 3) Proposed research on nutritional be-
havior in the Jequetinhonha Valley--one of the most poverty-stricken areas
of rural Brazil. 4) Proposed research on health and nutrition in Belo Hori-
zonte. She envisions a project with three nuclei: a. medical: anthropo-
metric and other health and nutrition measures, including attempts to diagnose
past causes of mortality through interview.recall; b. sociological: collection
of socioeconomic and demographic information; c. anthropological: intrafamilial

distribution of food; food strategies (acquisition, etc.) with emphasis on
the role of the kitchen garden; migration and food consumption. 5) Breast-
feeding campaign: she would like to see a media campaign. in favor of breast-
feeding--a series of articles outlining different aspects of the issue. She
wrote an article in the CETEC bulletin. She would like to find a journalist
to work with on this project.

Solange Barbi Resende is a sociologist working on the Urban Social Centers
(CSU) program. She is discouraged by the lack of progress made by the program
in Belo Horizonte, but showed great interest in issues related to women's
urban service needs. CSU surveys have shown that women don't work outside
the home primarily because of lack of day-care facilities, yet the CSU pro-
grams do not call for day-care provision because of the high cost and small
number of children who would be reached. Day-care programs which do exist
(i.e., LBA) are more like kindergartens than day-care, since there are no
specialists, children stay only part of the dany, and only older children
are accepted. Solange might be another potential candidate for a future
working group.

2. Academic Researchers. Glaura Miranda has now completed her disser-
tation on education and employment of women in Brazil (Stanford). She continues
to be active in the women's studies network in Brazil, and will return to the
committee which governs the Carlos Chagas Foundation research competition on
women in Brazil. She is now beginning work on a cross-national study of women's
vocational training, to be funded by the Ford Foundation. Although very busy
with these as well as teaching aid administrative responsibilities, she would
be an obvious candidate for work related to women or participation in a working

Two researchers at the Development and Regional Planning Center (CEDEPLAR)
are also potential candidates. Maria do Carmo do-Vale, a demographer, is in-
volved in a study of women's labor force participation and fertility beha-
vior in'Belo Horizonte from a historical perspective. She is interested in
expanding and continuing her research in such areas. Diana Saw-r, a staLis-
tician with public health background, is just finishing a Ph.D. dissertation
on mortality in Sao'Paulo (Harvard). She would like to do more in-depth and
policy-oriented research on health conditions in poor neighborhoods of Belo

C. Sao Paulo

1. Action Groups. Sao Paulo is undergoing a process df mobilization
which makes it an extremely interesting research site. The general political
"opening up" is.very recent and incipient and therefore relatively unstudied,
but diverse action groups are flourishing. Within this general picture, a
wide range of women's organizations have appeared within the last couple of
years. More significantly, they have recently achieved a working integration
in an organizational structure which united groups with different political
orientations and social class membership, and which allows a central commit-
tee to speak and function in the interest of Sao Paulo women in general.

It is only possible to appreciate the novelty of this achievement in the
context of the history of women's action groups in Brazil. Since the impetus

provided by the Year of the Woman in 1975, a number of small organizations
have appeared which might be characterized as feminist in orientation and func-
tioning. These have typically been composed of middle class young women pro-
fessionals interested in opening debate on the position of women in society, and
usually attempting to somehow reach and respond to poor women living in mar-
ginal urban neighborhoods. The latter attempts have usually been unsuccessful,
in part due to the very different social and political worlds inhabited by middle-
class and poor women in Brazil. Indeed in other Brazilian cities for the most
part women's action groups remain middle-class. In Rio, they have tended not
to be able to agree even among themselves, with continual splitting and dis-

.On the other hand, since 1977 poor women have increasingly become active
in their own organizations based in neighborhood associations, mother's clubs,
and the national-level Cost of Living Movement (which started out as a Mother's
Club). Many of these organizations have been able to function due to the in-
frastructural support of the Catholic Church. While they have begun to form
in Belo Horizonte and probably other cities, they have been particularly strong
in Sao Paulo. (Anthropologist Ruth Cardoso of the University of Sao Paulo has
been actively involved with these groups but I did not meet with her on this

With the advent of a more balanced organizational system, the last year
or so has seen the beginnings of an integration between the two types of groups*
first institutionalized in the constitution of a coordinating committee repre-
senting nearly 50 entities (see list in Appendix IV) to plan the First Congress
on Sao Paulo Women, which was held for 2 days in March of this year and attended
by about 200 women. After the conference, the coordinating committee continued
to function. It is composed of representatives of several lesser representative
committees (from each area of Sao Paulo as well.as labor union groups) which
in turn represent a variety of independent groups: Information flows from
these groups to the central committee and back, and there is a strong commit-
.ment to'the principle of democratic participation in the actions eventually
taken by the central committee. Despite their continuing ideological differ-
ences, the entities agreed on a minimal program of priority issues: 1) day-
care; 2) opposition to the government-sponsored Program to Prevent High-Risk
Pregnancy; and 3) equal pay for equal work.

The third issue is probably self-explanatory and programmatically least
complex. The second requires a note of explanation. They are in favor of
birth control programs, but demand that it be accompanied by guaranteed adequate
medical treatment, to be offered through government Health Posts. There is a
strong preference for health services offered in neighborhood sites, which has
been impeded so far by the high cost of equipment. But they hope to begin by
calling for pre-natal care in the neighborhoods.

*Marize Egger-Moellwald, member of the Sao Paulo Center for Development of the
Brazilian Woman and co-author of a research project on day-care in Sao Paulo,
outlined these recent events for me.

The child-care demand is the most developed action program of the Coordina-
tion and has its own parallel structure of committees called the Unitary Day-Care
Movement, uniting 150-200 people. Many of those involved are neighborhood
groups, some of which have functioning community day-care centers. There is
also a Consulting Coordinating Committee,.mainly consisting of professional
women, who carry out research on day-care availability and are making a film.
Above all, the women want neighborhood day-care centers. Generally they feel
that day-care should be a demand made by already-formed women's groups (and
not thrust upon an unorganized community) who receive financing from the muni-
cipal government but who maintain quality control (so centers are not mere
"child dumps").* Marize notes that women often don't fight for day-care fa-
cilities until they are abandoned by their husbands and have to work, can't
leave their children either with family or neighbors and are desperate. They
view day-care centers (creches) as poor environments for their children, who
will not be well cared-for or well-fed.

In spite of the preference for neighborhood creches, they don't want to
give up fighting for creches in the workplace as well, since these are the
only facilities provided for by law (despite widespread non-compliance). They
are studying experiences in other countries such as the U.S. where employers
give female employees a coupon which can be used to pay for services in resi-
dential day-care centers.

Ideally, buildings which house creches also have the potential for being
turned to other-purposes (such as meetings and literacy courses) during per-
iods when not in use, particularly after a community organization gains in
strength and purpose (such as the 15-year-old Housewives' Association). This
is sometimes impossible when creches run on government or church property are
not allowed to be used for other activities. Another medium-term goal is
generally the improvement of conditions in the day-care facilities, which
typically run for years precariously. Members of the Housewives' Association
complain that all their energy and resources go into keeping the creche op-
erating despite insufficient funds, which impedes the improvement of the fa-
ci"lties and also the expansion of the Association's activities.

I was able to attend meetings of both the Central Coordination and the
consulting body for the day-care movement, which gave me a sense of the flavor
of interchange and activities. In attendance at the Coordination meetings were
11 women from at least four different feminist groups (Centro da Mulher
Brasileira; Brazil Mulher; NSs Mulheres; Asociaqao das Mulheres) as well as
numerous neighborhood and labor union groups. They heard the report of a woman
who had attended a meeting of Brazilian exiles in Portugal; discussed an up-
coming meeting on women's political participation to be held by a female poli-
tician; considered their role in the coming Metalworkers' Congress (they will
read a motion in support of female workers' demands); and planned their activities
for the Week of the Child (a pamphlet and demonstration). The creche consulting
body meeting was composed of seven people, all professionals (invited repre-
sentatives from the Bank Workers' Union didn't appear). They discussed: a

*The concrete activities of the Movement are mainly directed at aiding and
orienting community groups in their demand for day-care centers.

film on day-care to be bought, borrowed or begged; a locale for meetings (this
one was in someone's home); and the contents of the pamphlet to be distributed
during the Week of the Child. The woman leading the meeting was Regina Stella
Moreira P.ires.

Later I spoke with a woman from one of the neighborhood associations who is
a member of the Coordination about her perspective on the unification effort. I
had- observed some friction on the part of these neighborhood women during the
meeting because they felt decisions were being made and activities carried out
without sufficient input from neighborhood groups. The woman admitted the meet-
ings were a burden for thesewomen, who had to travel from far-flung regions to
attend (during the meeting it was decided to change from a weekly to bi-monthly
rhythm). She also felt that.their differences of opinion were far from re-
solved, and that at times the feminist organizations objected to the activities
of other entities in neighborhoods where they worked, which hampered coopera-
tion. But she still felt the effort was worthwhile, and cited the continued
high attendance at meetings as evidence of this belief by those involved.

Perhaps the strongest feminist group is the Centro de Desenvolvimento da
Mulher Brasileira-Sao Paulo sector. They have various commissions with sep-
arate activities: creche (participates in movement -and carries out research);
health (sexual orientation); work (studies of labor legislation); history; edu-
cation (literacy courses and adult education); the Center's bulletin. They
were one of the first groups to begin successfully working with neighborhood
associations, and were approached last year to give a talk on the subject of
sexuality for a group of couples in a poor neighborhood. They found a woman
with many years of experience in sexual therapy with lower class families to
present the materials, and the event was a tremendous success. The neighbor-
hood groups then asked for a six-month course on sexuality, but the Center
can't come up with the human resources to design.and carry it out, lacking
persons who combine the necessary time, skills in the topic, and familiarity
with the socioeconomic context of these couples. With some funding they felt
they could put together not only this course but other health and nutrition-
related activities.

As it turns out, the-expertise and facilities for this kind of service al-
ready exist in Sao Paulo in a group called Family Orientation Services (SOF).
I spent the day at their center in a suburb of Sao Paulo talking with Cleide
Alves dos Santos and Jenny M. Prado. Since this group is known to the Centro
-de Desenvolvimento da Mulher Brazileira, their failure to work together in this
instance is probably an example of the occasional rivalries which continue to

SOF began in 1963 with funding from the World Council of Churches at the
initiative of a group of professionals in the health fields. They set up a
clinic which would provide low-cost health and counseling services to poor fami-
lies. When the initial financing was withdrawn after seven years, they were
faced with the prospect of closing their doors, and called a series of small
meetings with their clientele to explain the situation. Their clients sug-
gested they become paying members as a means to keep SOF functioning. But
since annual dues are extremely low (currently less than $1), they have pieced
together their financing from Brazilian and international sources, including
church groups and the U.S.-based World Neighbors. The clinic is currently
housed in a new building.financed by OXFAM. The staff is underpaid but dedi-
cated; membership consists of 3,000, mainly women.

Their philosophy is to promote "development" of the woman client. They
begin by teaching her her history, i.e., discussing the (patriarchal) family
of past eras. This leads women to recognize their current repression. They
also emphasize group interaction and encourage women to participate in group
activities in their communities. Two client-members are now part of the 17-
member Directorate, and members are beginning to be integrated more intensively
into the clinic's functioning.

One client who had taken a training course came in to chat. SOF had es-
tablished a clinic in a neighborhood and was forced to close it for financial
reasons. They decided to carry out a course in leadership training directed
at neighborhood groups (women, youth and neighborhood associations) to prepare
them to take over the clinic, which they eventually did. The women said first
they learned to communicate (through techniques such as the "telephone game")
and next learned to value the skills each person had (i.e., that "culture"
doesn't come only with book learning). I also sat in on a group session with
overweight women. Overall, their work, almost exclusively with women, is ex-
tremely impressive. This impression was confirmed by two Americans from World
Neighbors who happened to be at SOF finishing a short course on audio-visual
materials the day I visited. They particularly emphasized SOF's training
skills, and felt that the main problem with the clinic is that it is not self-
sufficient nor on its way to becoming so. They felt this problem might be
helped if the clinic had more publicity and could sell its services to a
greater extent.

As it is, the clinic functions as a result of a continual-funding scramble.
They have recently sent a proposal to a Dutch church group asking for money to
hire an assistant nurse and a social worker for their community education work.
They are now working on designing a pre-natal health-care program which empha-
sizes educational and group aspects. This sort of program is apparently non-
existent in Brazil. They are also interested in. experimenting with barrier
methods of contraception, which are practically unknown in Brazil. I sent
them a copy of the recent Population Council book on this topic.

-Given their long experience in. working with health educaticx and communi-
ty orientation, this group has developed important skills which are apparently
unavailable in other parts of Brazil and even Latin America. Yet they are not
known at all outside Sao Paulo. The Council might think seriously about sup-
porting the dissemination of their accumulated knowledge and methods to other
groups interested in developing health-care programs oriented to the expressed
needs of the user, and to a more holistic approach to health services provision.

2. Academic Researchers. The most cohesive and dynamic group of researchers
interested in studies of women in Brazil is housed at the Carlos Chagas Founda-
tion under the direction of Carmen Barroso. During my visit the committee was
meeting which would administer the second round of their small-grants competi-
tion on women (funded by the Ford Foundation). Carmen is also working to struc-
ture a research project on family survival strategies for which the Carlos
Chagas Foundation would give institutional support to two new staff persons.
Sociologist Maria Moraes would be hired with Ford Foundation monies to carry
out field work using anthropological techniques, in collaboration with some of
the action groups described above. Sociologist-demographer Felicia Madeira
would generate her own grant funding to carry out analysis of secondary data in
the cities of Fortaleza, Salvador and Sao Paulo (see below). Carmen herself is
working with Maria Cristina Aranha Bruschini and a professional filmmaker on a

film about sex education, which includes debates among professional educators
and discussions in neighborhood group meetings. It was made in conjunction
with a training program for youth group counselors, in which a SOF staff mem-
ber (Elizabeth Nieira Gonqalves) participated.

Felicia Madeira has just finished an innovative thesis on "The Work Con-
ditions of Women and the Life Conditions of the Family--The Case of Fortaleza,
1971" for the University of Sao Paulo. Following directions in hear earlier
work, she criticizes the use of concepts like "employment," "economically
active," "unemployment" and "income" from the point of view of women's work,
and devises new measures using survey data from Fortaleza. She proposes to
continue this line of research from a comparative perspective using existing
data bases as well as a new set of data to be generated next year by the Inter-
Sindical Department of Statistics and Socio-Economic Studies (DIEESE). If
she gets funding for this study, she will be housed at the Carlos Chagas Foun-
dation and work in collaboration with Maria Moraes. The DIEESE study promises
to generate an extremely rich data base for the analysis of family strategies.
The first phase will be the application fo a detailed questionnaire on income
generation and employment (for all household members over 10 years old) as
well as housing and service conditions, to a sample of 3,000 households in
different areas of Sao Paulo. The second phase would entail a month-long re-
cording of family expenses in notebooks left with a sub-sample of the ques-
tionnaire population.

Fellcia has good data analysis capabilities and imaginative approaches to
theory construction and the use of analytical concepts; she will be able to
make good use of these data. She is also very interested in urbanization and
urban policy, and showed an immediate grasp of the importance of the kind of
work I was carrying out for the Council. She feels there are many, many al-
ready-existing studies in Sao Paulo which could be reexamined from the per-
spective of women to get a clearer picture of how urban policies have affected
them. She suggests these could be reviewed in about six months time.

Researchers at CEBRAP are also interested in the analysis of household
strategies, and have a very large data base generated from their study of re-
production in nine regions of Brazil. Data from two or three urban settings
will be analyzed by three Mexican researchers (Brigida Garcia, Humberto Muioz,
and Orlandina de Oliveira) whose 10-month stay in Brazil will be financed by
the Population Council.

Another promising group of researchers is that housed at the relatively
new Urban Development Program (PRODEUR) housed in the Architecture Faculty of
the University of Sao Paulo. I talked with demographer Neide Patarra, who is
involved in a long-term study of the impact of urban service improvements on
a peripheral neighborhood. She was also interested in carrying out a more
systematic review of the activities, demands, and objectives of Sao Paulo's
women's groups described above.

In general, the intense level of activity and the unique working inte-.:
gration achieved by diverse women's organizations in Sao Paulo make it an ideal
site for a more in-depth study of women's demands, mobilization patterns, and
policy issues in the Latin American metropolis. At the same time, a critical
mass of qualified researchers with both experience and interest in women's
issues as well as ties to the activities of action groups makes a more sys-

tematic study of recent events a feasible proposal. The foregoing section
has presented evidence of these trends to support the more concrete sugges-
tions for future Council work in Sao Paulo, which are spelled out at the end
of the report.


The political atmosphere in Buenos Aires could hardly be more different
from that described above for Sao Paulo, and clearly the immediate priorities
are therefore very different for those dealing with women's issues. While
the Argentine people are traditionally very participative, there are presently
no action groups (community,- labor union or feminist) to speak of due to the
lack of political freedom. Neither is the moment one of potential collabora-
tion between researchers and government planners, since acceptable social pro-
grams are virtually nonexistent. As one researcher put it, "there are no
housing programs; there are only slum eradication programs."

There are, however, a number of competent researchers with promising pro-
jects underway in Buenos Aires, despite the difficulty of carrying out original
survey field studies. The most promising group is that housed at the Center
for Studies of.the State and Society (CEDES). The institution has a commit-
ment to a long-term study of urban poverty and access to urban services, from
a cross-national comparative perspective. They have requested funding for this
program from IDRC; one component of the program would be a December State-of-
the-Arts conference comparing urban poverty in Buenos Aires, Santiago and Sao
SPaulo. Since the conference is imminent and funding unlikely to come through
in time to support it, CEDES is committed to having the conference even if they
have to finance it themselves. Researchers from the three countries have already
been invited. Because of the excellent quality of CEDES research, their long-
term commitment to issues directly related to Council priorities, and the cross-
national content of the planned conference, it would appear to be a top-priority
Opportunity to invest a very modest amount of funds for which important re-
turns would be assured. A brief summary of the, conference proposal is attached
in Appendix V.

The urban poverty research program includes a number of separate projects
being carried out by CEDES researchers, to be coordinated by Jorge Balan. They
include studies of consumption strategies and health care among poor populations
in Buenos Aires, a historical analysis of the provision of basic urban services,
and the comparison of these findings with those for other countries.

The most advanced project and that most directly concerned with women's
issues is being coordinated by Elizabeth Jelin, and has-several components with
independent funding. Basic funding for the study of "Domestic unit and level
of living in the urban popular strata: strategies of labor participation and
consumption in Buenos Aires" came from the Program of Social Research on Popula-
tion in Latin America (PISPAL). The field research is being carried out among
approximately 20 low-income families, using qualitative techniques of various
sorts: recurring open-ended interviews, life-history collection, and studies
of the utilization of time, space and material resources. The study aims not
only to collect concrete data on domestic strategies but also to refine concep-
tual tools and data collection techniques used in such studies. Findings to
date have raised questions, for example, about the appropriate unit of analysis
for different kinds of consumption (housing, monetary income, health services)

and about the.nature of the household unit over time in relation to the life
histories of each of its members. The study promises to be an important con-
tribution to the burgeoning research interest in the topic of household stra-
tegies in Latin America.

Other components of the research include an analysis of the impact of
historical changes in service provision on women's roles in the household di-
vision of labor, domestic work, and patterns of consumption, for which funding
has been requested from the Ford Foundation. ILO has been asked to support a
study of women in the labor market in relation to domestic responsibilities,
consumption needs, and personal life histories. For this purpose an additional
five female-headed households will be added to the sample population. The re-
searchers are also interested in moving away from the household unit to a more
dynamic perspective which will look at family history, personal histories, and
residence history in order to conceptualize the way households are formed by
the intersection of individual life histories at certain points in time, how
resources are distributed and exchanged among people -inside and outside the
household unit, and how housing solutions are related to these individual and
household trajectories. Still needed are funds to support a full exploration
of methodologies to treat these complex conceptual issues. Finally, Jelin
would like to find funding to cover the re-analysis of recently-discovered 1970
survey data fotoBuenos Aires, in order to test and explore the findings from the
qualitative study.

Demographer Susana Torrado of the Center for Urban and Regional Studies
(CEUR) is also carrying out a study using the concept of family survival stra-
tegies, also with financing from PISPAL. Her study closely follows the de-
tailed outline of current research priorities for PISPAL, of which she is the
author, and will use exis-ting sources of secondary data to explore the follow-
ing model:
Formation of
Marital Unions
JLabor Fertility
Development I Market Family Survival
Styles / Strategies Mortality
Life (Actions which
Conditions tend to assure (Material) Migratory
of the the reproduction Behavior
Population of.,the Family
Unit) \Rates of

Contact was also made with Esther Hermitte, an anthropologist at the In-
stitute for Economic and Social Development (IDES) who has done studies of
rural women weavers and participated in the December conference in Rio. She
is currently carrying out interviews with migrants (males and females) to study
mental models of health and disease. The migrants come from provinces (Cata-
marca, Charcos) where they carried out an earlier study of the same topic. The
project is being carried out with several young anthropologists and a medical
doctor as consultant. She also participated in a nutritional study in the pro-
vince of Missiones in connection with a government-sponsored food supplementa-
tion program. She is interested in applied uses of her research, such as dia-
logue with doctors, and is eager for funding.


A group of demographers at the Center for Population Studies (CENEP) has
also had a long-term interest in the study of issues related to women: Catarina
Wainerman, Ruth Sautu, and Zulma Recchini de Lattes. The latter two attended
the December conference. The three collaborated on a study of the female labor
force in-Argentina, Bolivia and Paraquay, with each going on to study particular
aspects of the question. Ruth Sautu is mainly interested in rural woman and has
just returned.to Buenos Aires from abroad. Catarina has carried out a study
tracing the history of ideas related to women and work in Argentina, along with
Marysa Navarro of Dartmouth. Zulma has focused on cohorts and family relation-
ships, and would like to carry out further research along these lines. She is
also the coordinator of a CLACSO working group on women, which will meet in
Montevideo in early December- after a period of inactivity.

Catarina and Zulma are also just completing a study for ECLA of the con-
cept of economic activity as applied to women in census and household surveys in
Latin America. First they analyzed the conceptual frameworks applied to women
--and how these have been operationalized. Second, they measured differences in
results associated with different concepts. Then they suggested how these prob-
lems of conceptualization and operationalization could be dealt with. This
200-page study has recently been turned in to ECLA. They had only five months
to do the analysis, and now would like a few more months to revise it. Then
they would like to have it widely distributed in its revised form (aside from
ECLA's own distribution network) for discussion. As it is they have no funds
even for xeroxing the manuscript, and without revision the information tech-
nically belongs to ECLA. This would be an ideal opportunity for the Council
to invest a small amount of money in a project which could form the discussion
basis for future working groups. The authors are competent and well-known
scholars. They also would like to find funding for a reader on women in the
labor force in Latin America.

A final Argentine contact was with Beatriz.Schmukler, a sociologist pre-
sently pursuing her doctorate at Yale (formerly of CEDES), who has studied
urban families in Buenos Aires and attended the December conference. She was
the only person interviewed who was active in non-academic groups. Her recent
activities include: 1) Participation in a.2-month seminar with various social
scientists and others, on women in Argentina, meeting on a weekly basis. 2)
Work with the Instituto Guette--a German Cultural Institution where she partici-
pated in a symposium on women, attended by 200 psychiatrists and others. 3) She
has been approached by a Psychotherapeutic Community. clinic about the possibi-
lity of working with them to develop community problems oriented to women.. I
promised to send her information on SOF in Sao Paulo. Her overriding interest
is in ideology and consciousness. She and others would like.to edit some kind
of magazine related to women's issues. She would be an excellent candidate for
policy-related work related to women in future Council programs.


Policy-oriented research is difficult in Santiago for the same reasons
as in Buenos Aires. This impression was confirmed by my visit to the National
Women's Secretariat on my first day in the city. I met with one of the Sec-
retariat's lawyers and later with a public relations officer who joined us and
who offered to take me to visit some of their projects.

The lawyer informed me that their programs aim at making women more able
to use the little they have, basically through skills training programs. These
include: budget balancing; how to buy; nutrition; sewing on a budget; how to
decorate the home to-make it more agreeable to the husband and therefore keep
him from abandoning the home (for example, hang a little curtain, even it it's
made from a sack). They also have handicrafts courses, or places where women
can make products and sell them, learn to sew, etc. When asked about courses
more specifically aimed at developing income-earning skills, she responded that
most poor women were simply laundresses.

In response to the question "what is the most difficult problem faced by
poor women" the political philosophy behind the Secretariat's programs became
clear. She replied that it was not lack of resources, which is an old problem,
but the bitterness ("amargura") poor women have due to the false expectations
which resulted from the activities of the previous government (Allende). The
main goal of the.Secretariat is to reorient these women to use what they have
as best they can and not have unrealistic expectations. For example, the
Mothers' Centers (which date from the Frei regime) were maintained but restruc-
tured to do away with their political emphasis. She claims the Secretariat's
programs have been very successful because of their six years' continuity--
unlike previous eras when during political campaigns poor people were sought
out and later forgotten.

It is not surprising that people in research and action groups were cri-
tical of these government programs. I had a long meeting with five members of
the Circle on Women's Condition in which women's situation in Chile in recent
years was discussed. Because the Mother's .Clubs are now government-controlled,
they have little effective participation by poor populations. The military
government has done away with therapeutic abortions, which were formerly a-
vailable, and is discouraging birth control (emphasizing the risks involved
in contraception and arguing that the woman's place is in the home, and that
for national security reasons Chile needs to populate its borders).. A govern-
ment seminar on Chilean women held the week I was there (and attended by
Pinochet's wife) emphasized the importance of.women adding other roles to the
woman's "natural role" of wife and mother. Even employment is difficult for
women given the extremely high rates of unemployment. The group essentially
sees political participation and change as the only means to really improve
women's situation.

In the meantime they have carried out certain activities using the informal
sponsorship of the Academy of Christian Humanism (they are still waiting for
official approval by. the Academy, which is undergoing reorganization). They have
organized two meetings, attended by about 200 middle class and professional
women. One was a general meeting in which a working document.on the Chilean
women (prepared by Circle members) was discussed; the second focused on women
and work, during which a packet of documents was discussed. They are now think-
ing of organizing small work groups who would then elaborate documents on various
topics to be presented at the end of the year at a third seminar. Eventually
they would also like to elaborate concrete research projects, but the group is
really just beginning to function. However they.are mostly social scientists
and other professionals and eventually might be a good target for program acti-
vity given their seriousness of purpose and accumulating organizing abilities.


They also informed me of one health program being developed by Dr. Fran-
cisco Mardones, the husband of Circle member Maria Isabel Cruzat. It is a
pilot project with an educational and group-oriented approach, similar in
philosophy to SOF in Sao Paulo. They have spent a year working on a work
methodology, and will begin working in four government health centers (two'only
in health education and two in clinical attendance as well). They hope to
expand later to other centers. One of their main objectives is to convince
women to breast-feed their children. I promised 'to send them copies of SOF

Aside from this one action group and the Women's Secretariat, there are
a number of international organizations in Santiago which have persons or
divisions specifically focused on women's problems. For various reasons I
did not have contact with any of these people. However several of them whose
names were suggested to me, and whose presence in Santiago I confirmed, are
listed in Appendix I.

I also met with a Jesuit sociologist, Cristian Vives, who has done re-
search related to the Church-sponsored infant feeding centers currently a-
vailable in Santiago. These centers are a response to the "wage squeeze" which
has occurred under the present government. He feels it was a mistake not to
involve the whole family unit because the program 1) contributes to social
.disorganization by separating children from the family, and 2) does not take
advantage of the organizational capacity of poor populations. This is true
despite the fact that mothers do the cooking for these centers. It is a tes-
timony to the dramatically severe living conditions faced by Chilean poor
S families that two institutions--the infant feeding centers and handicrafts
centers for unemployed workers ("cessantes")--are such familiar substitutes
for more normal family and workplace situations.

Vives explained what is happening to poor families in the following terms:
1) Males (due to the high unemployment rates) are unable to uphold their tra-
ditional economic and authoritarian roles; 2) wives are forced to work outside
the hcmc, abandoning their traditional domestic roles; 3) children are also
forced to work; 4) very young.children are further separated from the family
unit by eating in the feeding centers; 5) males suffer a loss of prestige and
respond first by turning to drink, then to violence within the home, and finally
by abandoning the home; 6) daughters and wives become prostitutes sometimes with
the husband's/father's consent. While he confirms that there are few scientific
studies of these trends, similar stories appeared in conversations with other
researchers, and even in an excellent play I attended which centered around
four poor women working for the handicraft centers ("Tres Marias y Una Rosa").

Scientific research is greatly restricted on such sensitive topics since
all sociological surveys must first be approved by the government. One very
interesting study of the families which use infant feeding centers was carried
out by a social worker, Nidia Aylwin de Barros, and documents the multiple di-
mensions of privation they suffer. I was unable to reach this researcher during
my brief stay, but recommend her study. A Church-group publication called
SOLIDARIEDAD also recently published an issue devoted to poor families, but I
was unable to locate a copy.

There is an additional group of researchers interested in the family, whose
best-known member is Paz Covarrubias of the Catho-lic University. She and others

recently organized a seminar on the Chilean family, and maintain an on-going
work group which includes sociologists, psychologists, a social worker, a
geographer and an architect. They are currently trying to define research
directions related to the family and hope to carry out an interdisciplinary
research.project in the future. Paz has edited (with Rolando Franco of ILPES)
a massive volume which collects recent research on Women in Chile, called
Chile: Mujer e Sociedad. She has also done studies of families of workers
involved in the government-sponsored "Minimum Employment Plan" and is currently
studying families of "children in irregular situations" ("menores de situation
irregular")--an official concept which includes everything from undernourished
to abandoned minors. -She is extremely interested in contact with researchers
on the family in other Latin American countries.


In Lima I was fortunate to have institutional help in making contacts and
_.-setting up meetings, since the great variety of activities was in distinct con-
trast to the limited situations in Buenos Aires and Santiago. Walter Mertens
of the Ford Foundation's Lima office put me in touch with several important
people and allowed me access to recent Foundation reports on the situation of
women in Peru and Colombia. Alicia Clara Marchant of the Lima office of ILO
set up a joint meeting of 14 women involved in one way or another with women's
issues. Since virtually all groups and individuals of direct interest for this
report with whom I had contact were also present at this meeting,'the remainder
of the section dealing with Peru will discuss the meeting and its participants.

.Alicia Clara drew up a list of participants from her own contacts, from
names I had suggested, and from those suggested by others. She did not per-
sonally know most of those present, and the meeting therefore served to expand
her own network of acquaintances as well. A whole spectrum of groups and in-
dividuals were represented, and the meeting itself was somewhat formal. It
consisted of a brief introductory statement on the ILO by Alicia Clara, a sum-
mary description of my own objectives for the Population Council, and then a
statement by each person present of her activities and interests. At the end'
there was interest expressed for continuing, such meetings, and Alicia set a
date for a second reunion at which the results of an up-coming regional meeting
of ILO would be presented- and discussed. There was an evident division between
those persons tied to government and official organizations, which tended to be
older, and those linked to grass-roots groups of diverse types, which tended to
be much newer and among which there was a much greater degree of communication.
-Two additional action groups were not represented, including a group called Cambio
y Cultural (Change and Culture) which is headed by two nuns, and which publishes
a bulletin.' They were spoken of very highly in the Ford Foundation report.

Those in attendance at the meeting (roughly in seating order) are as follows;

1) Ana Maria Portugal: general coordinator of Action for the Liberation of
the Peruvian Woman (ALIMUPER), an organization with six years of existence.
Their work is urban-oriented and includes "denunciations",. a bulletin, seminars
and talks. They published a book called To Be a Woman in Peru, a collection of
personal testimonials.

2) Narda Henriques: social scientist. She is interested in the urban labor
market and social movements. She has been involved in planning and was part of

the (now-defunct) Peruvian Women's Commission. After the 1978 seminar on Women
in Development was held in Lima, she became a member of the Centro Flora Tristan
(named for a prominent feminist) along with many others present. She is very
interested in planning issues, in maintaining contact with official organiza-
tions and in cross-national comparisons. Her interests and the quality of her
participation in the meeting suggest that she would be an especially likely
candidate for future Council work.

3) Virginia Vargas Valente: organizer of the 1978 seminar on Women in
Development. -The seminar was a month-long session of training and research
for which Kate Young (anthropologist from IDS, Sussex University), Magdalena
Leon de Leal (from ACEP in Bogota) and Moema Viezzer (author of Se Me Permitan
Hablar) were brought to Peru. Attendance was by invitation only and participants
appeared to have a high regard for the conference. One concrete outcome of the
seminar was the formation of the Centro Flora Tristan, formed three months be-
fore our meeting. Its objectives.are:

--dissemination (a bulletin?)
--documentation (on women in Peru and Latin America; Alicia Clara
offered access to all ILO publications)
--popular education (health programs in shanty towns)

The Centro is also thinking of organizing a general meeting on the subject of
women in Peru next year.

4) Jeanine Anderson: American anthropologist, resident in Peru for 10
years, member of Centro Flora Tirstan and Asociacin Peru Mujer. She did work
with Elsa Chaney and others in Lima a few years ago, researching women market
vendors and domestic servants, using photographs as an eliciting technique.
She describes the Asociacion Peru Mujer as having two basic types of activities:
provision of child-care services, and training of women in how to conduct leader-
ship training courses. Their interests and contacts emerged from participation
with Emily DiCicco in a study of child-care arrangements carried out by Overseas
Education Fund. They have sent funding proposals to AID to support projects to:
develop methodologies for identifying women leaders; train leaders; and create
models of day-care centers.

5) Blanca Figueroa, psychologist and member of Asociacion Peru Mujer as
well. She works closely with Jeanine Anderson and was highly recommended to me
by Emily DiCicco. She is a soft-spoken and serious young woman who dined with
me (and Jeanine) after the meeting. She described three main areas of activity
of the Associaci6n (which has both male and female members):

--integrated development projects, both rural and urban, with an
emphasis on women. These include income generation; health and
nutrition; child-care; education (self-image; literacy). The
purpose is to create models of projects for income generation,
health and family planning.

-channel financing for small projects not normally funded by large
funding institutions, such as student theses (like the Carlos
Chagas Foundation small grants competition in Brazil?)

--promote interest in studies of Peruvian women generally, through
meetings, possibly an international one next year which would bring
in foreign scholars (such as Elsa Chaney and Carmen Diana Deere)
who did research on women in Peru. They are concerned with involving
a younger cohort of women in their projects.

The Associacion Peru Mujer appeared to be,a very dynamic, directed organization
whose goals and activities closely parallel the policy-oriented kinds of projects
the Council might want to develop in the future.; They have research experience
and good_grass-roots contacts, as well as grantsmanship skills. It would appear
to be an excellent group to be considered for future Council activities related
to women.

6) Nita Gamic de Barrenechea: delegate to the Inter-American Women's Com-
mission. She is a career diplomat who feels that the priority issues related
to women in Peru are vocational training and appropriate technologies (such as
cooperatives) in order to raise rural women's income and keep them from migrating
to urban areas.

7) Dora Beuzeville Ferro and Maria Teresa Ochoa: members of the Research
and Popular Promotion Center (CENDIPP). They have on-going development programs,
including a project for women's promotion (see description, Appendix VI). Con-
crete programs include:

--creation of food production enterprises controlled by local women
(in planning stage)

--food consumption programs, to chdapen and enrich diets of poor pop-
ulations by such measures as the introduction of soy products

--literacy programs.

This is another action group with activities compatible with Council objectives.
Since I didn't have further contact with their work, I can only recommend future
cor%-ersations he pursued.

8) Adela Augusto de Munoz: president of the Rights of Women Movement, with
12 years of existence. Their main activity is informing women of their legal
rights and pressuring for legal changes, as well as changes in population policies.
They have had seminars and other projects, including one related to indigenous
women in Iquitos. They also would like to provide legal and counseling services
to women.

9) Gabriela de Perez Albela and Maria Isabal Miyan de Chiabra: president
and member of the Association for the Development and Integration of Women (ADIM).
Their activities are focused on community development through the training of
community leaders. They are planning a three-week seminar in January which will
teach the development of leadership qualities, and employment and income genera-
tion strategies. They are currently seeking funding for some of their projects
and showed interest in the Council's programs; it would be worth having closer
future contacts with this group. (A copy of part of ADIM's statutes is included
in Appendix VII). Gabriela is also a member of the Peruvian Institute for Re-
sponsible Paternity (founded in June), whose objective is to disseminate infor-
mation on sexuality and birth control. They also have maternal-infant programs

~~~__I_______~__ _^_

and provide incentives for students working on theses on related topics. This
organization should also be contacted again in the future.

10) Violeta Sara-Lafosse: Sociologist at Catholic University. I had con-
versed at length with Violeta prior to the meeting, when she described her many
activities related to women's issues. She is an extremely dynamic woman in-
vovled in a variety. of research and action projects and appears to be well-
respected by all who know her. She may be the most important single contact
in Lima for programs related to women.

She coordinated a study of families in two income strata (working with
Blanca Fernandez Montenegro, who is currently finishing a doctorate in sociology
at the University of Wisconsin). They carried out the survey but were unable
to finish the analysis of the data because of lack of funds, Peruvian social
scientists are extremely low-paid, and many have left the country for this
reason. Blanca herself lost her job at the Catholic University when she decided
to get her degree in the U.S. They would like to complete their analysis of
family structures, but need money to pay for the time of necessary researchers
(such as Blanca).

Violeta is currently working on a UNICEF-funded study of skills training
for women. They are currently surveying women in two occupational groups, in
industry. Both are tied to training issues in similar ways because they are
home-based. Questions being raised are: why do vocational training courses
not address women's productive needs and activities? Why are .training courses
limited to sewing, thus destining women to piece-work? They are also examining
work conditions of pieceworkers and their family activities. Contrary to expec-
tations about the compatibility of home-based work and family responsibilities
their long hours of work make them neglect child care. These women represent
the largest occupational category after domestic servants. The 1961 census
classified them separately from factory workers--32,000 as opposed to only 8,000
working in textile factories--but in 1970 it classified them together. Violeta
is trying to re-introduce this separation into the 1980 census. The pieceworkers
work for all the largest textile companies, as well as several large intermediary
firis, and not just clandestine sweatshops as is commonly believed. The study
includes nearly 2,000 cases: "1,000 peasant women and 800 pieceworkers. Data
are currently being coded. Besides Violeta there is one full-time researcher on
the project; people in each region were used as well.

Violeta is also involved in action projects with domestic servants, offering
legal orientation and sexual counseling and information through the training
schools. Her organization, founded in 1972, is called Promotion of the Peruvian
Woman and is tied to the Institute of Culture and Change. In addition, as a re-
sult of their research with piece-workers, one of the researchers is currently
organizing these women to form their own work groups. Violeta is also involved
in the Peruvian Population Studies Association (AMIDEP) and has been collecting
information on studies of women; they have also held two recent seminars on

11) Delma del Valle de Vargas: Labor Ministry representative. The Ministry
is involved in training of peasant women. They are currently planning an 18-
month seminar for 2600 peasant leaders, coordinating the efforts of the Ministries
of Education, Health and Agriculture. They also have 10 smaller projects.

Because of the brevity of my visit, there was no chance to visit indi-
vidually with each of these groups and individuals. It is evident, however,
that Lima houses a broad range or organizations carrying out activities of po-
tential interest to the Population Council in its future programs on women.
Particularly with regard to grass-roots programs specifically aimed at women,
it was the city which presented the widest variety of possible models already
functioning or in the proposal stage. For this reason Peru might be con-
sidered a priority setting for visits by Council.staff in the near future.


In Bogota my contacts were more scarce and scattered. I talked with
deomographer Elsa Gomez of the Universidad de los Andes, who is doing an ana-
lysis of female labor force participation within the family and household con-
text. She has a long-standing academic interest in women's issues. In a brief
telephone conversation, Magdalena Leon de Leal brought me up-to-date on her
latest activities. She is working on a book from the study of rural women in
Colombia, which will be finished by the end of the year and published pending
a commitment from the Population Council. She would then like to get involved
in some action projects, mainly educational. This interest arose from the 15-
20 talks she gave to popular audiences based on the results of her research on
Colombian women. She is hoping to make contact with action groups in Colombia
for this purpose, and use ACEP and/or the Council as an institutional base for
-such activities. I also attempted to contact Amparo Heraldo, who participates
in a resources and action group focused on women's issues, bu.t she was in the
U.S. during my visit to Colombia. Also absent was Cornelia Flora of the Ford
Foundation, who has been extremely helpful in providing suggestions and con-
tacts throughout the trip.

My longest meeting in Bogota was with members of the Foundation for the
Integral Development of Women and the Family: Luz Helena Sanchez, Olga Amparo
Sanchez, and Helena Gonzalez. The Foundation evolved out of a feminist group
which has been meeting for about a year. They decided a few months ago to form
an entity which would enable them to carry out research and action projects.
One of their motivations was the recognition that there increasingly are funds
available for projects on women, and that many persons and groups with no par-
ticular interest in the topic are beginning to compete for these funds for op-
portunistic reasons. They are concerned that projects be carried out by femi-
nists, and therefore formed a group to which they attracted other colleagues
with research and action experience (i.e., female and male doctors and psycho-
logists) and began to elaborate projects and submit them for financing,

They are extremely critical of the way family planning programs have been
carried out in Colombia by international and national agencies., and are cautious
about their own sources of funding. They feel that women have often been the
victims of these programs. They are not a political group since they want to
focus on women's problems independently--although neither would they charac-
terize themselves as "apolitical." That is, as individuals many of them are
committed politically, but as a group they are careful not to take a position.
They are also wary of uniting with other feminist groups before their own ac-
tion framework is underway, in order to avoid debilitating political and ideo-
logical debates. They specify two advantages of their group: the inclusion of
seasoned and respected doctors and researchers in the group, and a year's func-
tioning as a feminist group to provide some kind of common ground for working

They described a full nine projects currently in the proposal stage, most
of which have already been submitted for funding somewhere, This list attests
to their imagination, and resourcefulness in proposal-writing and grantsmanship
skills. Luz Helena is currently working on a degree in Publish Health at
Harvard and plans to do some fund-raising for the group during her stay in the
U.S. As a group they were one of the most impressive action organizations I
encountered in Latin America, and deserving of closer contact in conjunction
with future Council activities.

1) Study of child-care patterns of poor families with children in govern-
ment-sponsored child-care centers (CAIPs). The centers are funded from a cen-
tral fund formed from taxes-on all firms above a minimum size. The group has
contacts with people involved in the government administering organization
(National Institute of Social Welfare) and in one of the actual CAIPs. These
contacts (who are also members of. the group) have detected several major prob-
lems in their functioning:

--children in the CAIPS come to resist going home because of the
great disparity in alimentation, physical environment, toys, sani-
tation, etc.

--mothers are not involved in running the-centers or in any other

--communities are not able to control their centers. Sometimes this
is because they do not have their own locations on which to estab-
lish it (and thus the physical property remains the property of the
of the Institute) and more generally the Institute applies its own
criteria to the CAIP's functioning, which are not necessarily the
same as those of the community.

They propose to study child-raising patterns in the family setting with
those in the CAIP, for children presently enrolled. Their objective is to pro-
vide suggestions to the Institute on how to improve the effectiveness of the
CAIPs. They mentioned some truly community-oriented day-care centers in Carta-
gena which might provide more appropriate models (though they had not considered
a comparative study before I mentioned it).

They submitted this project to the Population Co.uncil in January and were
told it might be financed if they concentrated on an overall evaluation of the
CAIP program: how money had been spent; how many centers had been built; what
the impact had been on women's income and access to income-generating activities.
While in principle they are interested in doing the study (which could include
their own original-proposal) no one in the group has yet demonstrated a willing-
ness to take charge of the study.

2) Study of the life conditions of children in families in tenement houses
("inquilinatos"). This proposal has been submitted to UNICEF in response to a
request for a study of conditions of poor children in general. Inquilinatos
are large tenement houses where the poorest of the poor reside in Bogota. There
is a high incidence of female-headed households, underemployment, and other
social conditions associated with poverty. There are apparently no systematic
studies of these housing units.

3) Study of beliefs, explanations and practices of women in relation to
menstruation, conception; childbirth, abortion, breast-feeding, and (possibly)
newborn infants. They want to learn how women see themselves, and return this
knowledge to women through some kind of action program. They submitted the
proposal to the Population Council, but the response was that the Council would
be interested in funding only the breast-feeding aspect. This was too narrow
for their interests. Their vision was more like an Our Bodies, Ourselves

4) A study of hysterectomies in Colombia, which has been submitted for
funding to the Ford Foundation (see proposal in Appendix VIII). They will
analyze changes in criteria-for recommendation of the hysterectomy procedure
in four hospitals-during the period 1969-1979.

5) An informative publication on women which would have the following ob-

--coordination of research and action work on women in Latin America:
a communications network
--bibliographical review and commentary
--eventually a regional journal on women's issues?

6) A clinic to carry out therapy, counseling.and service-oriented research,
dealing with couples (sexual therapy) and adolescents. They are unsure at which
class level they would aim these services: middle or poor.

S7) A "women's house". This is a pet project but one for which they have
less hopes of funding. It would begin with a series of seminars of various types,
probably with union groups of women .since they already have these contacts (how-
ever they are also developing contacts with women in peasant groups and would
like to work with neighborhood groups as well but the latter are all government-
controlled). Seminars would aim at developing women's personal skills and rais-
ing their self-awareness.

At the same time there would be a functioning day-care center to allow
women to attend the seminars. This would become a concrete project of the "house"
as women became interested in learning to run a permanent day-care center--and
eventually to train others and open additional centers. The "house" would also
provide the Foundation with a home base and a place for meetings of diverse

8) Integrated Development Project--aimed at women and the family. The
project would begin with a. health center, in which community members would re-
ceive paramedical, midwife, and nurses-aid training. Some group members have
already been involved in.such a project, which was successful until its patrons,
a Jesuit group, reportedly asserted complete control and alienated the com-
munity. From health concerns the project could eventually move to other sec-
tors. This proposal has been submitted to a Dutch source, which has demon-
strated interest.

9) The last and largest proposal is for seed money for the Foundation, to
pay for an office, secretary, and two full-time people for a couple of years.
They estimate approximately $80-85,000 would.be needed. Until now Luz Helena
has been the main force in the foundation because she recently had a baby and

wasn't working, but now she is leaving for Boston to get an M.A. in Public
Health and there will be no one to carry out activities on a full-time basis.


Although I did not visit Venezuela, a personal acquaintance there has
written informing me of several woman-oriented activities planned or underway.
Cathy Rakowski, a sociologist studying at the University of Texas at Austin,
is carrying out research on family strategies with an emphasis on women's roles.
She reports that she and Venezuelan sociologist Maria Pilar Garcia have dis-
cussed doing a study of technical training internship at the Universidad Simon
Bolivar, looking at male-female specialization differences in different tech-
nical fields, at employer requests (by sex) and reports of satisfaction, and
at the type of internship-which is allocated to students, in order to see what
sex differences exist. They have also thought of teaching a series of sex-
role seminars for women professionals in academia and public administration.
----She-reports that there are very active women's groups, especially the Federa-
tion of Women Lawyers, who are lobbying to get laws changed and to enforce
legislation which already protects women's rights. They have had an impact on
the discretionary actions of judges in custody cases, In the past there have
been active neighborhood women's groups in Caracas.


Despite great differences encountered among the several countries visited,
some common themes emerged which might serve to guide future Council programs
on women in Latin America. One was an interest in studies of the family unit
and women's roles in that context. In Brazil, Argentina and Chile this interest
was most focused on the'"family strategy" concept, which generally denoted an
emphasis on the family's manipulation of economic resources in order to fulfill
its consumption needs. In the other countries the approach was somewhat broader.
A second general commonality was an interest in approaching poor women through
their involvement in community programs. For example, every country visited had
at least one group working to develop community-based models of health services
provision whose clientele would be mainly women. These two levels, family and
community, are particularly appropriate for addressing the needs of low-income
Latin American women.

At the same time, it is useful to distinguish two kinds of priorities which
might be pursued in future Council work. One is the elaboration of adequate
conceptual tools with which women's roles may be analyzed. This task requires
both the critique of existing.concepts as applied to women and the elaboration
of new techniques and concepts which are more appropriate. A second priority
is the development-of program models, generally at the community level, which
can effectively reach and involve low-income women. These models of necessity
must have both specific goals (such as service provision) and general objectives
in permitting women to develop their own skills and potential for participation.

In conformity with these general remarks, the remainder of this report
will list several concrete program suggestions. They range from the specific
and immediate to the exploratory and long-term, in part depending on my own
familiarity with different groups and individuals. They are intended to draw
on my own impressions during the past months of work for the Council in evalu-
ating the capabilities and potential contributions of contacts described in
this report.

1) Financing of the proposed seminar on urban poverty in Buenos Aires,
Santiago, and Sao Paulo to be organized by CEDES in Buenos Aires (see proposal
in Appendix V.) This is an immediate program need, since the seminar is planned
for December of this year. My reasons for supporting its financing are spelled
out above. The seminar promises to bring together a competent and experienced
cross-national group of researchers to address key conceptual and policy issues
of interest to the Council. The Council might also consider financing research
being carried out at CEDES, which is likely to make important contributions to
the elaboration-of conceptual tools and methodologies to deal with women's roles;
on the other hand, they appear to have been successful in generating research
monies from other sources.

2) Financing of the revision and publication of the analysis of economic con-
cepts applied to women in Latin American statistical sources carried out by the group at
CENEP in Buenos Aires. This document might serve as the basis for future dis-
cussions in a working group setting, and has the advantage of addressing cru-
cial conceptual issues on a region-wide basis. Like the seminar, this project
would require a minimum investment and could serve to disseminate important
research findings.

3) Financing of a case study of the Sao Paulo context, to be carried out
by Felicia Madeira, Neide Patarra and/or others. Sao Paulo would appear to be
an extremely interesting research site because of: the already-existing re-
search which might be re-analyzed from the perspective of women; the existence
of a critical mass of qualified and imaginative researchers with an interest in
women's issues; and a recent and unstudied process of popular mobilization which
has fostered the growth of organizations concerned with poor women's problems.
It would be feasible to carry out a "state-of-the-arts" study of Sao Paulo in
about six months time, with a budget in the neighborhood of $20,000. The ob-
jectives of such a study would be to: systematize the priority needs faced by
urban poor women; focus on those urban services and mechanisms by which poor
women's access to resources can be improved; and suggest viable program direc-
tions for future Council work. The study could also elaborate concrete policy
suggestions, and structure a working group which would serve as a vehicle for
making the study's results known to policy makers. The research focus of the
study .could have three major components: a) Women's groups: neighborhood asso-
ciations and feminist groups and their articulation; their principal demands and
objectives; their methods of actions; their impact on participants and bene-
ficiaries. b) Government agencies: program objectives and philosophy as applied
to women; functioning of programs for poor women and their impact on participants
and beneficiaries. c) Existing sources of data and on-going research: re-
analyzed from the perspective of women in the metropolis.

4) Dissemination of methods and programs developed at SOF, and/or support
for development of additional projects (such as a self-help health manual).
While SOF has many years' experience in community-oriented health programs
oriented to women's needs, there are groups in every other city visited which
are just beginning or planning to create similar models of health services
provisions. It would be very productive to bring representatives of these
groupstogether, possibly in a seminar based at SOF. SOF should also be en-
couraged to document their experience and expertise so that it can be available
to groups in other cities in Latin America.


5) Evaluation of models of community programs oriented to women, especially
in Brazil and Peru. In Lima there are a number of on-going projects mentioned
in this report whose experiences might be useful for groups in Sao Paulo which
have recently begun to organize. Some mechanism for bringing together repre-
sentatives of these diverse groups might be suggested, after additional contacts
have been made. These might include both private and selected government-
sponsored programs in Brazil and Colombia (such as the creche program). Addi-
tional information on community programs in Brazil can be found in my grant
document; virtually all but SOF are in planning or experimental stages.

6) Fostering of cross-national communication among researchers interested
in the family. Significant research has been carried out in all Latin American
countries on this topic recently, and in most cases on-going working groups
exist which might benefit from greater interchange of ideas. One major area
of emphasis is on the family unit as a strategic mediating structure which helps
to define individual-level responses to structural changes. Also important for
understanding women's behavior is the analysis of how family structures and
behavior are represented at the.ideological level. This important issue has
been much less developed by researchers.

Appendix I

Persons and Groups Contacted


A. Rio de Janeiro

Mary Castro
Rosa Maria Ribeiro da Silva
Celso Simoes
Maria Helene Henriques
Nelson do Vale Silva

Tania Lustosa
Denise Williamson

Jane Souto de Oliveira
David Vetter
Lucia Ribeiro de Souza

Neuma Aguiar

Alice de Paiva Abreu

Leni Silverstein

B. Belo Horizonte

Aurora Maria de Castro Domingos da
Vicente de Azevedo
Laudelina Garcia

Visconde de Niteroi 1246-89 andar, Bloco B
20.941 Rio de Janeiro, RJ
Tel. 228-3393

Visconde de Niteroi 1246-119 andar, Bloco B
20.942 Rio de Janeiro, RJ
Tel. 264-5174; 248-8417

Visconde de Niteroi 1246-119 andar, Bloco B
20.941 Rio de Janeiro, RJ
Tel. 284-7989

Rua da Matriz 92
22.260 Rio de Janeiro, RJ
Tel. 286-0146; 286-0996

Rua Redentor, 290/101
Rio de Janeiro, RJ
Tel. 287-3837

Caixa Postal 33142
Rio de Janeiro, RJ
Tel. 274-0923

Depto. de Economia Urbana
Av. Brasil, 688
Sao Lucas
30.000 Belo Horizonte, MG
Tel. 226-5522


Maria das Gragas Pinho Tavares

Solange Barbi Resende

Glaura Vasques Miranda_

Maria do Carmo do Vale
Diana Sawyer

Rua Rabelo Horta, 55/02
.Sao Jose-Pampulha
30.000 Belo Horizonte, MG
Tel. (CETEC) 461-2933; r. 206; 265

Centros Socials Urbanos
Rua Ouro Preto, 1272
30.000 Belo Horizonte, MG
Tel. 335-2618

Rua Joaquim Linhares, 537/102
30.000 Belo Horizonte
Tel. 225-2490

Rua Curitiba, 832
30.000 Belo Horizonte, MG
Tel. 201-3211

C. Sao Paulo

Marize Egger-Moellwald

Regina Stella Moreira Pires

Ruth Cardoso

Cleide Alves dos Santos
Jenny M. Prado
Elizabeth Nieira Gongalves

Carmen Barroso
Maria Cristina Aranha Bruschini
Maria Moraes

Felicia Madeira


Rua Itarare,.216
Bela Vista
Sao Paulo, SP
Tel. 259-7179

Rua IguatemI, 64/43
Itaim Bibi
Sao Paulo, SP
Tel. 881-7085

Depto. de Ciencias Sociais
Cidade Universitaria
05508 Sao Paulo, SP
Tel. 211-2269

Rua Jacamim, 2
Santo Amaro
04742 Sao.Paulo, SP
Tel. 521-8362

Fundaeao Carlos'Chagas
Av. Francisco Morato, 1565
Sao Paulo, SP
Tel. 211-4511

R. Conselheiro Fernandes Torres, 101
01235 Sao Paulo, SP
Tel. 262-6087

Alameda Campinas 463/139
01404-Sao Paulo, SP
Tel. 284-2296

Neide Patarra

Depto. de Historia
Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo
Rua E, setor 3
Cidade Universitaria
05508 Sao Paulo, SP


Elizabeth Jelin,
Jorge Balan

Susan Torrado

Esther Hermitte

Catarina Wainerman
Zulma Recchini de Lattes
Ruth Sautu

Beatriz Schmukler

H. Yrigoyen 1156
1086 Buenos Aires
Tel. 37-1956; 7604

Barbolonic Oritre, 2212
1039 Buenos Aires
Tel. (home) 825-3092

Guemes 3950
1425 Buenos Aires
Tel. 71-6197

Casilla 439
Buenos Aires

Dept. of Sociology
Yale University
New Haven, Connecticut 06520
Tel. 436-8641; 8250


Maria Isabel Laenz H.

Secretaria Nacional de la Mujer
Tel. 221202 r. 391

Maria Isabel Cruzat (home 29-44-75)
Maria Soledad Lago (home 29-07-46)
Isabel Ganon (home 26-85-47)
Rose Bravo'(CEPAL 48-50-51)

Francisco Mardones

Nidia Aylwin de Barros

Academia de Humanismo Cristiano
Casilla 6122, Correo 22

Program Lactancia Materna
Tel. (home) 29-44-75

Escuela de Trabajo Social
Pontifica Universidad Catolica de Chile
Vicuna MacKenna 4860
Tel. 519012

Paz Covarrubias

Suzanne Aurelius
Marshall Wolf.e
Jorge Gracierena

Institute de Sociologia
Universidad Catolica
Tel. 51-90-12

Casilla 179-D

Martha Mauas

Victor Tokman

.--Rolando Franco

Casilla 13970
Tel. 289515




Fundacion Ford
Apartado Aereo 6025
Tel. 31-0111

Alicia Clara Marchant

Ana Maria Portugal

Nard. Henriques

Virginia Vargas Valente

Jeanine Anderson

Las Flores, 295
Tel. 40-4850

Capac Lupanqui 957-104
Jesus Maria
Tel. 328808

Equipo de Poblacion
Depto. de Ciencias Sociales
Univ. Catolica de Lima
Fundo Pando
Tel. 622-2540

Centro de la Muj.er Peruana Flora Triatan
Av. Largo Herrera 1383
.D. Magdalena
Tel. 620443

Apartado 949
Lima 100, Peru
Tel. (work) 36-0707

Walter Mertens


Nita Gamic de Barrenechea

Dora Beuzeville Ferro

Maria Teresa Ochoa

Adela Augosto de Munoz

'Maria Isabel Miyan de Chiabra

Gabriela de Perez Albela

Violeta Sara-Lafosse

Blanca Figueroa

Delma del Valle de Vargas

Blanca Fernandez Montenegro

Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores
Palacio de Torre Tagle
Sub-Secretaria de Politica Exterior
Tel. 278306

Las Begonias 1504
SResidencial San Felipe
Jesus Maria
Tel. (CENDIPP) 405952

Jose Quiniones 189
Vista Alegre-SURCO
Tel. (CENDIPP) 405952

Hermllio Hernandez 147
Lima 27, Peru
Tel. 22-11-20

Caminos del Inca 69 cuadra,
Lima 33, Peru


Las Aguilas 262
San Isidro
Tel. 412083

Agrup. RISSO B-104
Lima i4, Peru
-Tel. 71-8455

Coronel Inclan 915
Lima 18, Peru
Tel. 46-88-76

Ministerio de Trabajo, Of, 106
Av. Salaverry s/n
Jesus Maria
Tel. 23-5016

Santo Domingo 255
Jesus Maria
Tel. 24-33-90


Elsa Gomez

Calle 51, 13-70, apt. 704
Bogota 2, Colombia
Tel. 255-1937

Magdalena Leon de Leal

Amparo Heraldo


Luz Helena Sanchez

Olga Amparo Sanchez G.

Helena Gonzalez

Calle 117, 6-55, Interior. G
Tel. 2201301

Transversal 39-A, 41-92
Tel. 244-8328

Fundacion Ford
Apartado Aereo 52986

203 Park Drive, Apt. 26
Boston, Mass. 02115

Carrera 13, 43-59, apt. 401
Tel. 245-46-99

Transversal 75, 5A-28
Tel. 273-8409


Cathy Rakowski

c/o Sociology Dept.
University of Texas
Austin TX 78712

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