Table of Contents
 Introduction to the project
 Overview of the project
 Management of the working groups...
 Setting priorities/awards
 Generating information to influence...
 Publications and seminars
 Proposed activities fall 1984 to...
 Appendix 1: Summary of project...
 Appendix 2: List of project...
 Appendix 3: Working group...
 Appendix 4: Working group...
 Appendix 4: Working group...

Title: Women, low income households and urban services in Latin America and the Caribbean
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00081746/00001
 Material Information
Title: Women, low income households and urban services in Latin America and the Caribbean
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Subject: Caribbean   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: South America -- Peru -- Caribbean
North America -- Mexico -- Caribbean
North America -- Jamaica -- Caribbean
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00081746
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
        Page i
        Page ii
    Introduction to the project
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Overview of the project
        Page 4
    Management of the working groups and their process
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Setting priorities/awards
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Generating information to influence policy
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Publications and seminars
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Proposed activities fall 1984 to fall 1986 and budget
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Appendix 1: Summary of projects
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Appendix 2: List of project documents
        Page 31
    Appendix 3: Working group in Jamaica
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Appendix 4: Working group in Peru
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Appendix 4: Working group in Mexico
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
Full Text



Proposal for Funding
April, 1984



I. Introduction to the Project
II. Overview of the Project

Participation in Working Groups
Management of the Working Groups and Their
Setting Priorities
Generating Information to Influence Policy
Publications and Seminars


III. Proposed Activities Fall 1984 to Fall 1986 and Budget

1. Support for the Urban Working
Jamaica, and Mexico and Their
for 1984-1986

Groups in Peru,
Core Programs

(A) Mexico

(B) Jamaica

(C) Peru
2. The Central Awards Fund

3. Technical Collaboration
4. A Planning Grant to Develop a Course for Urban Planners

5. Budget

IV. Appendices



List of

of Projects
Project Documents
Group in Jamaica
Group in Peru
Group in Mexico

The project entitled "Women, Low Income Households and Urban Services in

Latin America and the Caribbean began July of 1981 through a cooperative

agreement between the Population Council and the office of Urban Development

of USAID. Recognizing women's critical role in urban service delivery and

their organizational potential, and in light of the declining budgetary re-

sources of most Latin American municipalities, the Council sought a program-

matic approach that would bring low income women's concerns into the existing

urban planning and service delivery process. The mechanism designed for

achieving this was the creation of local working groups in Lima, Peru, Mexico

City, Mexico and Kingston, Jamaica.

These working groups, now in operation for two and a half years, are com-

posed of urban planners, government researchers and administrators, practical

development workers participating in or leading action projects, and social

scientists doing research on and familiar with the urban poor, particularly

poor urban women. The working groups create connections, often for the first

time, between these diverse sectors. Information about the urban poor, which

is currently compartmentalized, is pooled and realistic priorities for action

are distilled out of wide experience that transcends any one group's narrow

self interest. These working groups have become unique local resources of

substantive knowledge about low income women and their families.

The Council has provided to these working groups an action/research awards

fund which at the present time supports fourteen relatively low budget pro-

jects such as the documentation of work of exceptional and innovative commun-

ity level projects, the piloting of new service approaches, the reanalysis of

existing quantitative data, particularly as it reveals unintended discrimina-

tion in the provision of services, and the generation of new qualitative in-

formation. The priority areas for this work as defined by the groups after

extensive deliberation are income generation and employment, shelter and basic

services, and food distribution.

The information and policy advice based on the working group's collective

judgment and the information derived from these action research projects are

distributed locally through working papers in Spanish and ih English, indivi-

dual meetings, and seminars. More formal publications are planned for late

1984. These include a monograph consolidating the knowledge generated by the

three groups and a documentation of the waste management project in Mexico as

part of the SEEDS publication series.* Aside from these concrete products,

the project has learned a great deal about the interdisciplinary working group

as the mechanism through which knowledge is applied to practical problems.

This proposal requests the continuation and deepening of the three working

groups through support for (i) core programs distinctive to each site for

1984-1986, (ii) a central awards fund to support innovative projects currently

outside the boundaries of any of the three groups' core program, (iii) a fund

for technical collaboration to permit, among other things, the establishment

of similar working groups in other Latin American and Caribbean countries, and

(iv) the planning of a course for urban planners based in Latin America in


* The SEEDS series documents small to medium scale efforts by low income women
to improve their productivity. It is a joint project of the Population
Council, the Ford Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation. Selected edi-
tions of the series are available in French and Spanish.

I. Introduction to the Project

The project entitled "Women, Low Income Households and Urban Services in

Latin America and the Caribbean' began in July of 1981 through a Cooperative

Agreement between The Population Council and the United States Agency for In-

ternational Development Office of Urban Development. Funds from USAID's

(now-defunct) Integrated Improvement Program for the Urban Poor were provided

to support the project. Recognizing women's critical role and their organiza-

tional potential and in light of the declining budgetary resources of most

Latin American municipalities, the Council sought a program approach that

would bring low income women's concerns into the existing urban planning and

service delivery process. The mechanism designed for achieving this was the

creation of local working groups in Lima, Peru, Mexico City, Mexico, and

Kingston, Jamaica.

These working groups are composed of urban planners, government re-

searchers and statisticians, practical development workers, and social scien-

tists doing research on and familiar with the urban poor, particularly poor

urban women. Working group members are convened around their common interest

in improving the living conditions of the urban poor. The working group

forges links between the persons influential in the government bureaucracy, in

academic circles and at the community level. The sustained pressure-free in-

teraction of monthly meetings has varying benefits for different members.

Planners are frequently looking for assistance in how to integrate women into

their projects but are unaware of academic resources and have little contact

with community-action groups in the low income areas of the city. Researchers

often have clear and systematic minds, and are knowledgeable of the survival

strategies of the urban poor; however, many call their work "policy-focused"

without having direct information from planners about the types of data they

need and at what point this information will be strategic. Those who execute

small scale action projects often have a wealth of descriptive information

about life in poor neighborhoods and the capacity of community groups to deli-

ver critical services; however, they often lack the skills to systemize the

information and the context to disseminate it. The working group creates con-

nections often for the first time between these groups. Information about the

urban poor which is currently compartmentalized is pooled and realistic prior-

ities for action are distilled out of wide experience transcending any one

group's narrow self-interest. These working groups have become unique local

resources of substantive knowledge about low income women and their families.

The specific objectives of the project are:

1. To increase the flow of information on living conditions and specific

problems conditioning the access of low income urban women and their families

to critical services.

2. To identify and help initiate or demonstrate optimal approaches that

will help low income women and their families gain better access to basic re-

sources and services.

3. To promote collaborative efforts between planners, government-based

and university-based researchers, managers and community leaders to identify

policy and program factors limiting access to services and to design solu-


4. To build a local resource group with the capacity to provide informa-

tion, technical assistance and policy advice on urban services for low income

women and their families.

The project consists of three interrelated activities. First, the Council
stimulated the establishment of working groups in Jamaica, Mexico, and Peru.

These working groups serve as a primary mechanism through which problems are

defined and actions taken. They also constitute standing interdisciplinary

resource groups that can lend their expertise to other local persons or insti-

tutions. Second, the Council provided to these working groups an action/re-

search awards fund which supports relatively low-budget projects such as docu-

mentation of the work of action projects, the piloting of new service ap-

proaches, the reanalysis of existing quantitative data, and the generation of

new qualitative information. Finally, information and policy advice are dis-

seminated locally by the working groups, and more broadly via the Council's

extensive network, through a series of local working papers in Spanish and

English, individual meetings and seminars to share the results of specific

studies as they bear on crucial policy issues.

The project has produced concrete results in the form of fourteen re-

search-action sub-awards and twelve preliminary reports to date (see Appen-

dices I and II). More formal publications of different types, and aggressive

strategies for dissemination of the groups' work to a variety of audiences,

with priority attention to the local policy community, are now being pursued.

Aside from these concrete products, the project also has a strong emphasis on

the process of group interaction as a model for improving the application of

knowledge to practical problems. The process of group consolidation has par-

alleled the increasing importance of group tasks during the project's history.

This evolution has created a momentum that is evident in recent activities of

the groups as they take on a more outwardly-oriented role based on a growing

consensus about goals and strategies for action. Funds requested in this pro-

posal will permit the groups to capitalize on this momentum by carrying addi-

tional projects which experiment with new service approaches, broadening their

contacts with policy makers, and pursuing a strong program of publications and
workshops aimed at planners, researchers, low income communities, and public

opinion at large. The stimulation of working groups in other Latin American

countries and the development of a regional training program for urban plan-

ners would also be supported.

The proposal begins with an account of the project to date. More detail

on activities in each of the three locations is provided in Appendices III-V.

The final section outlines projected activities for the 1984-1986 period for

which support is requested.

II. Overview of the Project

The first steps were taken towards setting the project in motion in the

fall of 1981 when project managers Judith Bruce and Marianne Schmink travelled

to the sites to explore institutional and human resources for the working

groups. During the project's first year, local coordinators were chosen and

they worked with project co-managers in interviewing and selecting working

group members in each site (see Appendices III, IV and V on the final composi-

tion of the groups). This period of consultation required to make a proper

selection of group members took somewhat longer than had been anticipated, and

was crucial to the project's enduring success.

Participation in Working Groups

A careful balance was sought among participants of varied perspectives,

skills, experiences and links to relevant institutions. The most important

qualities in prospective members were their willingness to work with other

people with different orientations, and their personal involvement in concrete

work related to the theme at hand. Representing those both in and outside of

government, different political parties, men and women in a variety of profes-

sions, they are respected as independent non-partisan policy groups. The Lima

working group, for example, includes a city councilman who directs municipal

services, a social worker who specializes in business self management, and a

transport consultant. In Jamaica, members come from a local social assistance

organization, from the Masterbuilders Association, and from the National Plan-

ning Agency. The initial selection period has paid off in producing remarkab-

ly stable yet diverse sets of talented people with strong commitments to work-

ing group goals.

Management of the Working Groups and their Process

Each group is coordinated by a local individual who receives a small sal-

ary. This person is a trained social scientist who also has had experience in

government having served in social or economic planning units. The coordin-

ators' tasks are manifold. They help to initially select group members, orga-

nize the meetings, develop the agenda, and invite policymakers such as World

Bank or housing trust or other key government planners to address the work-

ing group. They serve as a conduit for written materials that bear on the

group's interests. The coordinators are in charge of getting out all the pub-

lications; each group issues a series of publications describing both their

policy views and the substance of the awards made in key areas. The coordina-

tors have proved invaluable in making the interdisciplinary process work.

Further, they are essential to the process of influencing government policy.

They take a great deal of time to visit, on a regular basis, key governmental
offices and make them aware of the work the group is doing.

Management of the project has been decentralized in structure and flexible

in style. Frequent contact is maintained between project co-managers and

local coordinators, by correspondence, telephone and cables. Each site has

also been visited at least five times by project co-managers. Marianne

Schmink was present at the first working group meeting in each site and re-

turned to review project proposals. On more recent visits she discussed with

each working group their evaluations of achievements to date and future goals.

The co-managers, local coordinators, and the Council's regional representative

for Latin America and the Caribbean have met annually at the Council's Mexico

City office (in November of 1982 and September of 1983). These meetings have

provided invaluable opportunities for cross-national exchange and for joint

project planning. In the future, greater contact between members of the three

working groups, especially among those working on related themes, would be


In late 1981 and early 1982, the three working groups began meeting on a

regular basis. In the original project plan these meetings had been proposed

for once every one to two months. In practice they have generally been on a

monthly or more frequent basis throughout the intervening two years (see Ap-

pendices III, IV and V). Meetings last several hours. Despite the fact that

they are not paid for attendance, and most are very busy persons, working

group members had remarkable attendance records. A report by Lima coordinator

Amelia Fort, for example, calculated attendance rates for each group member

ranging from 53% to 94% of the first seventeen meetings, with an overall aver-

age of 72%.

Setting Priorities

During the first year or so of meetings, each group worked together to id-

entify issues and priorities and focus their attention on specific geographic-

ally and demographically-defined target groups. These discussions served to

form the basis of the heterogeneous group's collective identity. The starting

point for these substantive discussions was the concrete work carried out by

individual members and invited outsiders. The groups developed an annual

agenda in which each meeting was devoted to a sectoral focus such as employ-

ment, housing or transport (see Appendices III, IV, and V for dates and themes

of meetings). During this period the groups developed a consensus on priority

areas that included income generation, shelter and basic services, and food


This collective sifting of priorities generated the criteria used to judge

proposed awards. Thus, the granting of awards was far different than a simple

research competition in which individuals with special writing skills and of-

ten academic backgrounds articulating personal research agendas most frequent-

ly succeed. Rather, the awards were a product of the group as a whole and

each benefited from an internal review, abiding technical guidance and a com-

mitment to promote policy applications.

The award process had a number of stages. First, initial project ideas

were discussed in the working group and with project co-managers. If the idea

seemed promising and relevant to the project's goals and philosophy, it was

developed further as a pre-proposal. At this stage technical feedback from

other group members and from co-managers was incorporated into a full proposal

format, and eventually approved by the Population Council and USAID. Each

proposal in its final form therefore bore the imprint of a pool of expertise,

although functional responsibility for carrying it out lay with one or more

individuals. For the most part the fourteen sub-awards were proposed by group

members; however, some awards were made to persons outside invited to work on

a specific project and later into the group (see Appendix I). Several pro-

jects are being carried out by teams involving persons with very different

skills and backgrounds, and most involve direct inputs from the low income

client populations. Eight projects have been completed and strategies are now

being designed for disseminating their results to a variety of audiences. Six

more are underway. All have a strongly pragmatic focus on specific programs

and policies; five include direct action components.

Examples of projects underway or completed include:

The documentation of the role of the community, particularly women, in

waste management. In Mexico there are two cooperatives which recycle urban

waste and produce fertilizer for income. This documentation includes, as one

of its products, a practical guide for other low income community groups.

This experience will be circulated worldwide as a SEEDS pamphlet.

An analysis of the public and private communal kitchens in Lima. With

intensifying poverty, affordable food is scarce and communal kitchens help

groups of low income people purchase and prepare foods at a lower cost.

In Jamaica, an extensive study is underway of the higglers the women

who sell vegetables, other foodstuffs and products at low cost in poor areas

in Kingston. It is the purpose of this investigation to document the sources

and rates of credit, transport and wholesaling procedures, and sanitation

facilities, and to make policy recommendations regarding market redevelopment

to the Urban Development Corporation of Jamaica.

Analysis of data on 9,702 recipients of mortgage loans from Jamaica's

National Housing Trust compared repayment performance of women and men. Wo'nen

were found to be especially disadvantaged on the housing market, but performed

somewhat better than men in repaying their loans.

A study of women's role in the management, design, financing and execu-

tion of self-help housing projects will compare patterns in a government-con-

trolled and a spontaneous community in Mexico. Interviews with housing offi-

cials will contribute to the assessment of how women's participation in self-

help housing and the management of basic services can be improved.

A special training course in construction skills was offered to a group

of unemployed women in Jamaica who were subsequently placed on construction

sites. The pilot project generated training and employment recommendations

for both the public and the private sector.

While current project funds have been exhausted, new project ideas are

still being discussed by the groups. Many of these involve follow-on actions

emerging from work already completed. Others propose individual projects in

new sectors or more global projects that combine the talents of several group


Generating Information to Influence Policy
Despite their diversity, projects carried out to date have demonstrated

some common problems faced by low income women in gaining access to urban ser-

vices. Women's low and/or irregular income often limits their access to

training and credit programs they especially need. Legal obstacles may also


stand in their way. The projects have documented the active role played by

low income women in the management of urban services and in generation of fam-

ily income. These activities have not been effectively recognized in specific

programs of service delivery such as housing, credit and food distribution.

Nor has the potential of service programs for strengthening women's individual

skills and collective organization been fully explored. For example, some

projects completed to date have resulted in the following:

Administrators at the National Housing Trust of Jamaica learned that

their beneficiaries were disproportionately male, not female as they had be-

lieved. While less than forty percent of mortgage holders were women, they

had higher visibility than men due to their crucial role in loan repayment.

The design of the waste-recycling system in Mexico was modified when it

was discovered that women were its primary managers. The women themselves

have become more conscious of their potential role in community affairs and


the study of communal kitchens in Lima produced a recommendation that

the municipal government support small scale kitchens serving twenty families

rather than the large-scale models proposed, which did not permit the same

level of cooperation among women users. Aside from their nutritional contri-

bution, the collective kitchens can also reduce women's domestic workload and

strengthen mutual aid relationships.

Private contractors in the Jamaican construction industry were receptive

to hiring women once the group had received the necessary initial training.

Trainees themselves gained not only technical skills but also self-confidence

and a support group.


During the project's second year the working groups greatly expanded their

outreach to persons and institutions outside the membership of the groups.

Within their own context, each of the working groups has begun to be seen as a

policy resource with local and national governments reaching out to them and

asking their advice on specific programs. In each site, contacts were estab-

lished with public, community, and academic institutions. For example, the

Jamaica working group has been addressed by representatives of the national

Women's Bureau, the United Nations Development Projects, the USAID, the Small

Business Association, and the University of the West Indies. The Lima Mission

of USAID requested a review by the Peru working group of its planning document

for future women's programs The group also invited two Ecuadorian visitors

to discuss with the group the Solanda Project, a low income urban development

project in Quito. In Mexico, a subset of group members was drawn into the

consultative commission that developed policy suggestions for the new Presi-

dent with regard to the distribution urban services. The Colegio de Mexico's

Permanent Seminar on Research on Women has invited the working group to pre-

sent a series of talks based on their work. In all three sites the working

groups or individual members have worked directly with planning institutions

to make concrete policy recommendations. The degree to which the working

groups are now functioning as resource groups in their local settings has sur-

passed even the expectations of the original project design.

International outreach is just beginning. Following the November 1983

meeting, local coordinators and selected working group members from Mexico and

Peru participated in a Population Council-sponsored workshop session entitled

"Women and Urban Resources in Latin America and the Caribbean" as part of the

annual meeting of the Latin American Studies Association, held in Mexico. Six

papers were presented by the local project coordinators (reporting on the pro-

ject's functioning in each site) and by working group members from Peru and

Mexico reporting on specific awards (community waste management; transporta-

tion and physical security). A participant representing a similar working

group in Uruguay (initially supported by the Population Council) spoke about

research on support organizations for domestic servants in Montevideo. Prob-

lems in the measurement of female labor force behavior were addressed by the

Argentine participant. Finally, there was a discussant from Brazil. This

workshop was an opportunity to bring the project to the attention of a wider

audience of planners and academics.

Publications and Seminars
Twelve reports of various types have been produced by the project so far

(see Appendix II), and altogether some eighteen to twenty reports and publica-

tions can be expected to emerge from the project by December of 1984. In ad-

dition, each report will be considered for its possibilities as a publication

with wider appeal through the networks of the Population Council.

Each report will have a local dissemination strategy. Reports may be cir-

culated in their full form, as revised summaries or project "briefs', and/or

in popularized formats accessible to low income populations. Two of the

awards in Mexico have focused on the design of pamphlets to orient low income

women regarding decisions and services in vocational training, employment, and

health care. Dissemination strategies include not only decisions concerning

publication format, but also methods for presenting and discussing these re-

ports with relevant planners, community groups, and the wider public. All

three groups are arranging meetings and workshops with public sector agencies

and community groups, and are making selective use of the mass media. For

example, seminars on communal kitchens in Lima will be held with planners and

with groups of low income women who use the kitchens. In Jamaica, the pilot

experience of women's training in construction work is being disseminated

through the Caribbean News Agency. Further details of these activities are

provided in Appendices III, IV, and V. As broader dissemination becomes a

growing priority in the project's future activities, more resources, including

the expertise of writers and editors need to be devoted to these tasks.

A monograph to be produced as the project's final report will bring to-

gether articles based on the findings of selected awards, analytic pieces on

selected aspects of the problem of urban services for poor women and their

families, an evaluation of the working group mechanism, and invited articles

sharing findings from related projects in housing, food distribution and urban

planning. The monograph will provide a synthesis of current learning about

women's roles in urban projects in Latin America.


In evaluating the experience of the project, working group members have

explictly recognized the various stages of a process through which the groups

have evolved. The pragmatic, task-oriented nature of the group is cited as a

key element in drawing together a heterogeneous group and transcending both

political and professional differences in the interest of common goals. The

opportunity for cross-fertilization of ideas is recognized as particularly

useful in dealing with the complex and intractible problem of improving the

conditions of the urban poor. The value of the working group, as described by

one member, is in providing a "pool of expertise and experience by which

solutions and strategies can evolve." To succeed, the working group model

requires a task-orientation, a heterogeneous but experienced and committed set

of individuals, skilled coordination, and an interest in the process of col-

lective learning that takes place over time. The groups also function as re-

source and information networks for members and, increasingly, collateral re-

lations. The central management of the overall project has been sufficiently

flexible and invisible to encourage a strong sense of autonomy and local iden-

tity. At the same time it has helped to maintain the common focus of project

activities and to provide an additional source of technical assistance that

will enable project results to be disseminated to a broader audience. Groups

in all three sits are working to include new members and to explore means by

which their activities can have a greater impact on planning and on community

organizations in low income areas.

Ideas for concrete projects are far from exhausted. Each of the three

groups has consolidated a 'core' program for 1984-1986 out of their strongest

accomplishments. Given the success of the project in achieving its original

goals, and the strong momentum that currently exists for continued and

expanded work, in Section III funds are requested to support project

activities for an additional two-year period.

III. Proposed Activities Fall 1984 to Fall 1986 and Budget

We are requesting support to pursue four mutually supportive but distinct

activities from October 1, 1984 to September 30, 1986. These are:

(1) Continuing support for the working groups in Peru, Jamaica and Mexico

and their core research, action, publication and policy outreach programs;

(2) A central awards fund to provide support for exceptional projects

proposed by any of the three groups beyond their planned core activities;

(3) A technical collaboration fund to permit continual sharing of informa-

tion between the three groups and to provide seed money and advice to begin-

ning groups in other Caribbean, Central and South American countries;

(4) A planning grant to design a course for urban planners, in Spanish,

based in Latin America drawing on: (i) materials generated out of the work-

ing group's research, action and policy experiences and (ii) relevant work

assisted by the International Center for Research on Women, the Equity Pol-

icy Center, and other organizations both indigenous and international having

an interest in the provision of urban services to disadvantaged groups in

Latin America and the Caribbean.

Details of each of these activities are provided below. The overall co-

ordination needs of each activity are broken out separately in budgetary

terms. A comprehensive budget can be seen on pages _.

(1) Support for the Urban Working Groups in Peru, Jamaica, and Mexico and

Their Core Programs for 1984-1986.

As noted in the introductory text and review of the activities at each

site, the three working groups have defined priority urban service areas

around which their research action and policy work is centered. These three

concerns are broadly food distribution, shelter and income generation.

Based on what has been learned by each group about the needs of its indi-

vidual setting, possibilities for policies change and the results of projects

undertaken to date, each group has set goals and a distinct program which ap-

plies this knowledge. The approximate time frame of the work outlined below

is October 1, 1984 to September 30, 1986.

(A) Mexico

The Mexico City working group has defined a group project which will draw on

the varied talents of working group members; architects, city planners, envir-

onmental scientists, leaders of action groups, social psychologists, sociolo-

gists, economists will all have a role to play. The projects seek to link an

understanding of the demands on low income urban women who support families to

the definition of appropriate service policies. The group was chosen to focus

on women in several different categories of poor women representative of major

sectors of the urban poor in Mexico City. These are women street vendors,

women street sweepers, women who do not have outside employment but manage low

income households, and women factory workers. For each of these types of

workers, the project will develop information about the physical and emotional

stress of balancing competitive roles: income generation outside the home,

family management, domestic based production, and participation in community

organizations including action projects. Based on those in-depth profiles,

the project will seek to inventory the factors in the environment defined to

include service policies, which effect women' performance of these four

roles. This investigation will result in what the groups term "a service

profile" which will describe alterations in current urban service policy which

would make the environment in which these women operate more hospitable to and

supportive of them and their families. These service profiles will emphasize

policies bearing on provision of health services, safe and ample domestic

water supplies, sanitation, housing, income generation and credit.

Different members of the group will be drawn into studying different as-

pects of the experience of the women in these categories. All members of the

working group would be active at some point in this overall study. As the

work progressed, groups of women representative of the four worker types will

be drawn in not only as 'informants' but as a constituent group for improved

services lobbying for the implementation of some of the service recommenda-

tions once they are determined. This direct linkage with low income popula-

tions has been a feature in virtually all the Mexico City working group pro-

jects to date.

(B) Jamaica

The Jamaica working group will continue to focus on the West Kingston Re-

development Area as this represents the very poorest section of Kingston.

They will intensify their focus on income generation through the expansion and

follow-up of three activities initiated in 1982 and 1983. These are:

(i) Expanding women's opportunities in heretofore 'male only' construc-

tion work by integrating women into the Master Builders Association, in-

corporating them into vocational training courses, and introducing them

into major construction sites. (As discussed above, the construction in-

dustry is one of the very few sectors of the Jamaican economy where em-

ployment is expanding significantly.)

(ii) The establishment of a business based upon the successful piloting
of dried fruits and vegetables for sale in low income areas: this business

would train and employ unemployed and unskilled female heads of household.

Raw materials would be supplied from low cost and no cost cast off fruits

and vegetables from West Kingston markets. These foods will be solar

dried and sold as nutrutious low cost snack food to school aged children

and their families.

(iii) Development of support projects for the higglers; pilot efforts will

provide low cost credit on appropriate terms, assist the establishment of

higglers cooperatives and possibly address the questions of safe and

clean storage and transport. Further, the working group will advise the

Urban Development Corporation on alternative designs for the market re-

development soon to be implemented in West Kingston based on the 1982-

1984 study and these pilot efforts.

(C) Peru

The Peru working group would like to focus its 1984-1986 program on the

related issues of food distribution to the very poorest urban residents and

support for the street vendors. It is working through the details of a core

program now. Under strong discussion is the establishment of a pilot communal

kitchen which would include all the features of scale, source of supply and

organization which the 1983-84 study found to be effective in attracting sus-

tained community participation. Linked to this communal kitchen demonstration

project may be the development of kitchen gardens to minimize dependence on

U.S. imported food as a source of supply.

Another likely area for 1984-86 work would be the development of action

projects with the street vendors. Based on the inventory of the role of

street vendors in supplying food to the poor, and the knowledge gained about

the constraints on their operations, sources of credit, storage facilities,

and so forth, the group would design and implement pilot projects possibly

similar to those envisioned in Jamaica. The range of interventions under con-

sideration includes assisting the formation of comparative organizations which

may create low cost credit sources, and improve the quality and range of their

products. Finally, because of the strict limits in Peru on street vendors,

the group would seek to engage policy makers in a dialogue about the economic

and urban policies which compromise street vendors' operations.

The Peru group wishes to broaden its policy work (as is true of the other

groups, but is of particular note here). They wish to expand the publication

program to include publications distributed directly to urban marginal groups,

articles for inclusion in the popular media, and policy oriented pieces for

planners. Exemplary of their desire to increase their advice giving role in

current policies and in line with their plan to diversify materials according

to audience, three seminars are planned to share the results of the communal

kitchens' investigation. One seminar will be held with people who work with

communal kitchens directly as promotores. Another will be held for the women

who participate in the kitchen to hear what alternative models are being ap-

plied and to help devise policy recommendations. A third seminar will be

directed at the public, the media, and the planners. All of these will be un-

dertaken in the Spring of 1984.

Overall, the three groups wish to provide a continuing bridge between the

low income populations, (particularly doubly disadvantaged women-headed house-

holds) and those who administer and set policies in critical service sectors.

Their strategies for effecting this linkage include a fuller use of the media

where members of the working group with writing skills will provide descrip-

tive articles to the newspapers, fuller use of personal contact and advocacy

on the part of group members to draw in urban planners and diversified public-

ations targeted to low income communities, and seminars held for community


As to the management of the working groups, the coordination mechanism es-

tablished for the first two years has been effective. However, all groups

would like to experiment with rotating coordination at some point. Each group

is seeking an institutional base or bases which will provide space free of

charge and possibly provide some marginal support services. These measures,

apart from saving costs, also reflect the commitment of the group to continue

and the increasing respect and goodwill extended by major institutions. None-

theless, each group will need to have donated funds to sustain their core pro-

gram of activities.

The support and coordination provided by the Population Council to the

groups must continue for the next two years but not at the level previously

established. As the working group capabilities increase, and they become more

cohesive and their identities established, the Council's role will increasing-

ly become one of information brokering and technical cooperation. As time

goes on it is the coordinators and members of the groups who are in the best

position to provide technical advice, not only to each other's efforts but to

other groups in formation. The Council sees its role as providing an inter-

national linkage and program context. We help the working groups double check

their thinking, connect them with resources they may not know of, and we serve

as partners and support in this enterprise. In both Mexico and Peru, it is

possible the working groups will be registered as independent, interdisciplin-

ary organizations in late 1984 or 85. Formal incorporation and greater visi-

bility is something they now want. This could not have been said at an ear-

lier point when members were still getting to know each other and the idea of

an interdisciplinary group was still being tested. Over the long term, each

group would like to collaborate with local, regional and international agen-


A comment on the budget. We are asking for similar amounts for each of

the three groups. We have assumed a range of coordinating seminar and public-

ation costs between fifteen and twenty thousand dollars. We have assumed core

program costs between thirty and thirty-five thousand dollars. Each group

will meet to decide how it wants to allocate the budget and give a specific

breakdown. Our budget provides some provisional guidelines. Funds for pro-

gram work beyond the thirty to thirty-five thousand dollars will be sought

from the central awards fund (which is to some degree competitive). From the

point of view of building a strong program, it seems advisable to grant each

group substantial core funds to allocate over a two year period rather than

require them (as was done in the 1982-1984 phase) to seek funds for each in-

dividual project. Whereas, from 1982 to 1984 there was much more dialogue and

review on the part of the Council, the groups have evolved their purposes

enough to be able to make judgments long in advance as to how they would spend

the money allotted them in pursuit of their designated program plans.

(2) The Central Awards Fund

The central fund is reserved for projects which the groups consider either

too large to support in their entirety out of core funds, and innovative pro-

grams or projects which emerge in the course of the 1984-1986 experience.

These funds will be awarded along the lines of the 1982-1984 process wherein

each group would develop a general idea for discussion. This idea will be

circulated to the Council's coordinating unit and the other working groups.

After comments have been received on the general idea, a pre- proposal will be

developed by the working group (including the talents of both working group

members and possibly outsiders invited by the working group). This provision-

al proposal would be reviewed formally by the central awards fund committee.

This committee is to be composed of co-managers Schmink and Bruce, the three

coordinators of the working groups, and two outsiders (yet to be selected)

with expertise in the urban service provision in Latin America. The committee

will sort proposals into three categories (i) accept with minor revisions,

(ii) accept pending major revisions, and (iii) not acceptable. The not accep-

table category will be reserved for projects which are too far afield of urban

service issues, projects with very large financial requirements exceeding fund

resources, and projects appropriate for other donors which in some instances

we will try to identify.

The central awards fund is designed to bring leverage to bear on the

groups to compete and produce their best work, and on other donors who might

be encouraged to support major initiatives if seed funding were available from

another source. Examples of such major initiatives of large scale financial

assistance include providing revolving funds for extensive credit or housing

loan guaranteed schemes or the large scale introduction of women into training

in non-traditional employment. The key issue here is one of scale. A pilot

can be supported but a program for a whole city or for a section of a city

cannot be.

(3) Technical Collaboration

In the 1982-1984 phase of this program, technical collaboration was en-

couraged within countries, between common projects (for example, two waste

management programs in Mexico were linked) and between countries (a housing

trust group in Ecuador visited the Peru working group). We seek funds for the

1984-1986 period to continue this.

Technical collaboration funds would provide for an annual meeting between

the coordinators of the three groups and one or more of the co-managers and

representatives on the central fund awards committee. The fund could be used

to support visits to especially innovative projects sponsored by any of the

groups or visits by any of the project managers to likely sources of technical

help (for example, the principal investigators associated with the street ven-

dors' project in Peru and higgler's project in Jamaica might be interested in

visiting Panama and Nicaragua to learn more about credit programs for market

women). Another possible use for the technical collaboration funds would be

travel grants to individuals representing informal groups or formal institu-

tions in neighboring countries who have an interest in developing and applying

the working group model. All requests will be reviewed on an individual basis

by the same group that reviews proposals made to the central awards fund.

Provision has been made in this budget for small seed grants (up to five

thousand dollars) to perhaps two different efforts to establish working groups

with compatible goals in other Caribbean, Central or South American coun-


(4) A Planning Grant to Develop a Course for Urban Planners.

What has been learned through the research and action projects should not

be lost. Similarly, there are other relevant efforts in Latin America coor-

dinated by organizations such as the International Center for Research for

Women, the Equity Policy Center, and others which are developing information

about how to serve low income women's needs and demonstrating the relevance of

gender in the analysis of large scale urban policies. To make this knowledge

available on an ongoing basis to a broader set of urban planners, the Popula-

tion Council in concert with the International Center for Research for Women

would like to devote time and energy in late 84 and 85 to developing a course

for urban planners to be conducted in Spanish at a Latin American institu-


Tentative discussions are being pursued with a number of institutions

ranging from municipal planning institutes to departments of economies at

major universities, to independent research groups who provide training. How-

ever, time and site visits are needed to explore these. As part of preparing

the development of this course, the coordinator of the Peru working group will

be attending a special course which explores the relevance of household struc-

ture and women's roles to urban planning procedures. This course is being of-

fered under the direction of Dr. Caroline Moser at the Developing Planning

Unit at London's University College. Dr. Moser has extensive work experience

in Latin America and would likely participate in designing and finding a site

for the proposed course.

As noted in the text above, a monograph is planned as one output of the

women, low income households and urban services project. This monograph is

designed to be a key source for such a course. We are seeking to reflect

Latin American experience not only in the texts used in the curriculum, but

also in the individuals who serve as guest lecturers and trainers. Resource

people would likely include members of the working groups. Happily, a number

of people working in the Caribbean setting are also Spanish speaking so their

talents can be applied here. Finally, there are possibilities for opening an

adjunct course or for feeding similar curriculum material to those in the Car-

ibbean through the University of the West Indies and its Extral Mural Women

and Development Unit, WAND. WAND is pursuing the establishment of courses on

women and development planning in a number of sectors.

What is required to plan this course, is support to visit and work with

prospective institutions, develop a curriculum and find staff and funding for

students. The Population Council has done this once before in the case of

collaborating with the Economic Commission for Africa Women's Training and Re-

search Center in encouraging the East and Southern African Management Insti-

tute to provide a base for a course on women and development planning. This

program is now in its fourth year, well regarded, well supported and well in-

tegrated into that institution.

The Council and the International Center for Research on Women look for-

ward to finding strong Latin American collaborators who within two years would

take over all responsibilities for the course.



Budget: January 1, 1985 to December 31, 1986

Direct Costs

Salaries and benefits


Travel and expenses

Policy seminar
Other direct costs
(Communications, supplies)


Total Direct Costs

Indirect Costs

Program services1
Support rvices2










TOTAL $111,772























1. 20.0% x total direct costs less consulting fees. A copy of the
Population Council's Negotiated Indirect Cost Agreement with AID
is attached.

2. 11.5% x total direct costs including program services less
consulting fees.

Appendi:. I: Summary of Projects

1. Housing and Service Needs of the Aged (Jamaica)
Survey of target population of elderly women and men and assessmenrrt of
their needs and capabilities. Recommendations for the process of reloccton
of the target populations, to be presented both to the working group and t.t
planners. Project completed December, 1982. Principal Investigator:
Karlene Evering, Operation Friendship. Budget: $6,243.

2. Urban Services for Women in Mexico City (Mexico, No. LAC/83.4r01.A)
Overview of institutions that target their services to low income womin'-
in the Federal District and evaluation of their implementation.
Recommendations to planners to improve effectiveness of service provision.
Project completed September, 1983. Principal Investigator: Lourdes Ronmero
Aguilar, Centro de Estudios y Programas Sociales. Budget: $2,433.

3. Waste Management (Mexico, No. LAC/83.400A)
Documentation of technical and social aspects of the "Integral System
for Recycling Organic Waste" currently being used in a community in the
Valley of Mexico, with emphasis on the role of women. Preparation of
pamphlets and reports for dissemination of the experience. Project
completed September, 1983. Principal Investigator: Fernando Ortiz
Monasterio, Human Settlements Secretariat. Budget: $4,315.

4. Communal Kihtchens (Peru, No. 183.13A.)
Study of forms, locations and beneficiaries of existing communal
kitchens. Analysis of role of women as consumers and service providers, and
of effects of communal kitchens on consumption patterns and the division of
labor within the domestic unit. Recommendations for the design and
functioning of communal kitchens. Project completed February, 1984.
Principal Investigator: Violeta Sara-Lafosse, Catholic University. Budget:

5. Women Street Food Vendors of Prepared Foods (Peru, No. 183.14A)
Survey of social and economic characteristics of street food vendors.
Recommendations of actions to improve their work conditions. Participative
pilot training programs followed by a public seminar to discuss results.
Report due April, 1984. Principal Investigator: Estrella Picasso,
Institute Peruano de Empresas de Propiedad Exclusiva de Trabajadores.
Budget: $9,910.

6. IransporatLion anrd Phyi5cal Security (Peru, No. I83.21A)
Study of limitations posed by transportation and physical security
considerations on the use of urban services, and of the informal mear, itfed
to deal with these problems. Recommendations for the design of support
services that can increase real access to existing services. Report due.
March, 1984. Principal Investigators: Jeanine Anderson Velasco and Nel Eon
Panito Vera, Peru-Mujer. Budget: $14,910.

7. Food ereareation Outlet (Jamaica, No. 183.34A)
Feasibility study of employment creation for women in marketing of
prepared foods using surplus market produce. Initial skills training,
market testing, identification of sources of technical assistance and
credit, assessment of costs. Project completed January, 1984. Principal
Investigator: Sonja Harris-Williams, Culltural Development Institute.
Budget: $9,850.

8. Self-Help Housing and Basic Services (Mexico, No. IA84.02A)
Study of women's role in management, design, financing and execution of
self-help housing. Comparison of women's participation in a
government-controlled and a spontaneous community. Analysis of mecharisms
to support women's participation in self-help housing and management of
basic services. Report due July, 1984. Principal Investigator: Genovevc
Arredondo F. Budget: $6,033.

9. B_'epEyent of Mortgage Loans (Jamaica, No. I83.33A)
Study of data at National Housing Trust on mortgage loans awarded since
1976. Documentation of socioeconomic characteristics of female loan
recipients as well as their repayment performance compared to men. Focus on
the problems leading to women's delinquency in loan repayment. Project
completed October, 1983. Principal Investigator: Florette Blackwood,
Women's Bureau. Budget: $3,300.

10. Bool:lets on Training and Work (Mexico, No. LAC/83.403A)
Evaluation of existing services and opportunities for training and
employment for low income women. Compilation of two pamphlets to orient
women in their use of these services and in decisions about
income-generating activities. Recommendations for up-dating and
dissemination of information. Project completed November 1983. Principal
Investigator: Melba Pinedo Guerra. Budget: $3,300.


11. Selfrhele pamphlet (Mexico, No. LAC/83.404A)
Design of pamphlet containing information to serve as a bass 4 or
self-help health care. Focus on most common health needs of low income,
women and their families, how these problems can be prevented and treated,
and available health services. Dissemination of pamphlet to public lhe~lth
education institutions and programs. Report due January, 1984. Pr ncapel
Investigator: Elsa RodriqueZ Rojo. Budget: $4,866.

12. Child Care Strategies (Mexico, No.. LAC/83.405A)
Study of informal means of child care, their effectiveness and possible
ways to support them. Estimation of supply and demand for institutional
services. Evaluation of existing services and suggestions for integration
with other programs. Report due January, 1984. Principal Investigator:
Maria Luisa Acevedo. Budget: $7,621.

13. Higglers (Jamaica, No. 183.49A)
Study of the informal commercial sector in Kingston, including
historical and socioeconomic characteristics of higglers and their
enterprises. Recommendations of policies to improve their economic
activities. Report due March, 1984. Principal Investigators: Alicia
Taylor, Elsie LeFranc, and Donna McFarlane-Gregory, Institute of Social and
Economic Research. Budget: $19,300.

14. Women in Construction Work (Jamaica, No. 183.50A)
On-the-job training of ten women in construction work and continued
skills upgrading. Documentation of women in the construction trade.
Recommendations to the public sector concerning the provision of training
for women in construction skills. Reports due December, 1983 and December,
1984. Principal Investigator: Ruth McLeod, Building Research Institute.
Budget: $8,255.

SummaIry Data on Projects

No. Site P. I.

1 J Evering

2 M Romero

3 M Monasterio

4 P Sara-Lafosse

5 P Picasso

6 P Anderson/Panizo

7 J Harris-Williams

8 M Arredondo

9 J Blackwood
$3, 300

10 M Pi nedo
$3, 300

11 M Rodriguez

12 M Acevedo

13 J Taylor et al.

14 J McLeod


Housing and Service Needs of the Aged
18 weeks Aug. 1982-Dec. 1982

Urban Services for Women in Mexico City
6 months Feb. 1983-Sept. 1983

Waste Management
6 months March 1983-Sept. 1983

Communal Kitchens
12 months Feb. 1983-Feb. 1984

Women Street Vendors of Prepared Foods
8 months August 1983-April 1984

Transportation and Physical Security
7 1/2 months June 1983-March 1984

Food Preparation Outlet
9 months May 1983-Jan. 1984

Self-Help Housing and Basic Services
4 months Feb. 1984-May 1984

Repayment of Mortgage Loans
3 months June 1983-Oct. 1983

Booklets on Training and Work
5 months July 1983-Nov. 1983

Self-help Pamphlet
6 months August 1983-Jan. 1984

Child Care Strategies
6 months August 1983-Jan. 1984

8 months August 1983-March 1984

Women in Construction Work
6 months June 1983-Dec. 1983/Dec.1984

Appendix II: List of Project Documents

1. Second Annual Progress Report, October 1983 (36pp; includes ovf.rvr w cf
project, description of progress and sub-awards)

2. "Women in the Urban Economy in Latin America" by Marianne Schninl. Junr
1983 (61 pp.; overview essay also available in Spanish)

3. "Perfil de la Mujer de Bajos Ingresos en el Area Metropolitana de 1a
Ciudad de Mexico" by Liliana Kusnir, October 1983 (47 pp.; compilation of
available data on low income women in the metropolitan area of Mex;ico Lity.
in Spanish, by project local coordinator)

4. "Ciudad de Lima, Perfil de la Mujer de Bajos Ingresos y su Acesso a los
Servicios Urbanos" by Amelia Fort (approx. 50 pp; compilation of available
data on low income women in Lima, in Spanish, by project local coordinator)

5. "Characteristics of Male and Female-Headed Households in Selected Areas
of Western Kingston, Jamaica" by Alicia Taylor (23pp.; basic data from
selected areas analyzed by project local coordinator)

6. "The Performance of Men and Women in Repayment of Mortgage Loans in
Jamaica" by Florette Blackwood, October 1983 (86pp.; preliminary project
report with summary, for internal distribution)

7. "Documentacion y Evaluacion de Experiencias Tradicionales y Alternativas
para el Manejo de Residuos Urbanos en Zonas de Bajos Ingresos en el Valle dc
Mexico" by Fernando Ortiz Monasterio, Josefina Mena, and Angel Parada,
October 1983 (107 pp.; "Documentation and Evaluation of Traditional and
Alternative Experiences for Management of Urban Wastes in Low Incone Zones
of the Valley of Mexico" project report in Spanish with English summary)

8. "Community Management of Waste Recycling: The SIRDO" by Marianne
Schmink (preliminary text of a SEEDS publication based on above project.

9. "Programas Institucionales Dirigidos a las Mujeres de Bajos Ingresos en
el Distrito Federal" by Lourdes Romero Aguilar (276 pp.; "Institutional
Programs Directed at Low Income Women in the Federal District" of Mexico,
project report in Spanish with English summary)

10. "Housing and Service Needs of the Aged, Salt Lane Community, Western
Kingston, Jamaica" by Karlene Evering, April 1983 (37 pp.; preliminary
project report with summary)

11. "Informe Final sobre la Elaboracion de los Folletos Hablemos de
ITrCabaio y Hablemos de Capacitacion" by Melba Pinedo Guerra (104 pp.;
"Final Report on the Elaboration of Pamphlets SpeaLing of Wgor and SpeaLing
of Training ;' project report in Spanish with English summary, and
appendices including preliminary design of pamphlets)

12. "Servicios Urbanos y Mujeres de Bajos Ingresos: Apuntes para una
Definicion" by Maruja Barrig, November 1983 (29 pp., "Urban Services and Low
Income Women: Towards a Definition", position paper in Spanish by Lima
working group member)

Appendix; III: Workinq Group in Jamaica

A. Working Group Members (Jamaica)

Name and field

Alicia Taylor (Coordinator)
sociologist; planning/research

Florette Blackwood

Karlene Evering
social work; action/research

Sonja Harris-Williams
sociology; planning/research

Daphne Hurge
social work; action/research

Lorna Leslie
social work; action/research

Donna McFarlane-Gregory
economist; research

Hermione McKenzie
sociology; research

Dorian Powell
sociology; research

Gloria Royale
sociology; planning

Blossom White
sociology; research

Ruth McLeod
journalism; action

Ann Hodges
architecture; planning

Affette McCaw

Amy Lee
medicine; research/action


Urban Development

Women's Bureau

Operation Friendship

Women's Bureau

Urban Development

Urban Development

Paul Chen Young
& Associates

University of the
West Indies

University of the
West Indies

Urban Development

University of the
West Indies

Building Research Inst.
Masterbuilders Assn.

Urban Development

National Planning

University of the
West Indies

B. Working Group Meetings (Jamaica)


November 10, 1982

December 10, 1982

January 14, 1982

February 11, 1982

March 16, 1982

June 24, 1982

September 2, 1982

October 7, 1982

November 4, 1982

March 17, 1983

April 21, 1983

May 19, 1983

June 16, 1983

September 15, 1983

UDC West Kingston Market
Redevelopment Plan

Higglers (street and market
venders); employment generation
for women in food preparation
at the market site

Continuation of themes of
previous meeting

Proposal review process;
housing and services for
the elderly

Proposal review and preparation;
housing and services for
the elderly

Ministry of Construction
procedures for allocation of
housing and collection of
arrears; project proposals

UDC income-generating project
with seamstresses; UDC community
organization project;
self-employed women

Higglers project; ISER study of
women in the Caribbean

Small Business Association;
income-generating projects

Women in construction work;
National Family Planning Board
fertility study

AID shelter projects; group
projects in housing

Women's Bureau plastics
recycling project for women

ISER study of women in the
labor force in Jamaica

Project progress reports;

Majis Disc0ussion Themes

October 13, 1983

December 1, 1983

February 2, 1984

UNDP projects for women

Trainees in construction wort

Trainees in food preparation

C. Narrative Report (Jamaica)

1he Jamaica group was the first of the three to beq:in
meeting, in November of 1981, and since that time has held
sixteen meetings (see Appendix II). A core group of members h~s.
remained constant, and several new members have joined during the
past twelve months (Appendix I). The group is based at the Urban
Development Corporation (UDC), which has ceded the time of Ms.
Alicia Taylor to serve as local coordinator. Ms. Taylor is
trained in sociology and has several years of experience in urban
planning. She is working with her colleagues at UDC on the We'st
Kingston Market Redevelopment Plan. The working group has
focused discussions on this well-defined geographical area, where
their recommendations and projects can have a direct impact vie
the UDC project. The group includes representatives from the
Bureau of Women's Affairs, the National Planning Agency, the
University of the West Indies, the Master Builder's Association,
and a private social services organization called Organization
Friendship (see Appendix I).

Aside from their own discussions and projects, the working
group has pursued contacts with persons and institutions not
directly represented in the group. Contacts have been
established with representatives of the Ministry of Housing, the
Ministry of Culture and Information, the Council for the Aged,
the Equity Policy Center, USAID, Friends of Women's World
Banking, the Small Business Association, UNDF, the Council of
Voluntary Social Services, and the University of the West Indies.
Several outsiders have been invited to address the group on their
work related to women and urban services, including two (Blossom
White from the University of the West Indies and Ruth McLeod of
the Building Research Institute and Masterbuilders Association)
who stayed on as members. Meetings were also addressed by others
from the University of the West Indies, from the Women's Bureau,
from the United Nations Development Programs and from Jack Hjelt,
of the USAID Mission in Kingston, who spoke about the mission's
involvement in housing programs. A representative of Jamaica's
Small Business Association attended a meeting to speak on their
programs, and offered assistance for potential income-generating
projects. Finally, local coordinator Alicia Taylor has been
actively involved in the establishment of a Jamaica branch of
Women's World Banking, which should take place by the end of

A total of five awards have been approved through the
Jamaica working group, of which four have been completed and the
fifth is underway. Four of the five focus specifically on the
West Kingston area where UDC is carrying out its Market
Redevelopment Plan. Three of the five fall within the housing

The first award approved in the overall project, "Housing
and Service Needs of the Elderly," was begun in August of 1982
and completed in December of that year. Under the direction of
Karlene Evering of Operation Friendship, the project focused on

housing arrangements for elderly populations. An in-depth Sur yve
assessed the needs of the 46 elderly persons in West Kinqgton whio
are to be relocated by the UDC project. Despite the small E51=
of the sample, the study was timely in producing findings of
immediate relevance for relocation policies. Findings from the
survey revealed a higher proportion of women among the elderly
target population, more than half of whom live alone (a
proportion that is higher for women than more men). Women were
also more likely than men to have lived alone previously. Most
of the elderly have no other contributors to their meager
incomes, and indeed many support other dependents outside their
own household. Forty percent had no children to help them
financially, ard 65. were unemployed. Virtually all of the women
were previously employed as either higglers (informal
salespersons) or domestic servants.

The study found that despite the strong ties of the elderly
to the West Kingston community (average length of residence wis
24 years), their needs during their old age were not necessarily
taken care of by relatives or other community members. Most had
very limited resources, and three-quarters had medical complaints
(especially arthritis, hypertension, and vision problems) for
which they were treated locally at facilities within walking
distance. The project's final report presented these findinrcs
along with a set of concrete recommendations for meeting the
housing and service needs of this population to be relocated.
The report was discussed at a working group meeting in February
of 1983, and revised by April. In addition, Karlene Evering has.
worked directly with UDC planners responsible for the relocation
of the target population. One of these, architect Ann Hodges,
was motivated by these interactions to become a new member of the
working group. Ms. Evering has also been approached by Jamaica's
Council for the Aged to provide assistance in both architectural
and social aspects of housing for the aged in all income groups.

A second project in the housing sector that has also been
completed is entitled "Performance in Repayment of Mortgage Loans
by Women and Men in Jamaica". Carried out by Florette Blackwood
of the Women's Bureau, the study focused on the characteristics
of 9,702 recipients of mortgage loans from Jamaica's National
Housing Trust during a six-year period, and their repayment
performance, comparing women to men. A more in-depth phase of
research examined the problems leading to delinquency in loan
repayment. Women were found to be especially disadvantaged on
the housing market due to their extremely low incomes and
unemployment rates double those of men. Despite women's central
role as household heads and income-earners, the proportion of
women among Housing Trust beneficiaries was below the level
predicted by personnel at the Trust. Yet despite their relative
economic disadvantages, the data indicated that women performed
somewhat better than men in repaying their mortgage loans. They
also displayed a greater sense of responsibility for repayment of
loans in interactions with Housing Trust staff. The findings
suggest that measures that cater to the needs and constraints of

housing programs. The project report has been edited, and will
be presented and discussed at a meeting for public and private
housing sector representatives sometime in late March, 1984.
A third research/action project has just been completed in
West Kingston. "Research Study/Proposal to Establish Feasibilit,
of Food Preparation Outlet in West Kingston" was directed by
Sonja Harris-Williams of the Cultural Development Institute. The
project studied the feasibility of creating employment for
unemployed women through the marketing of a dried fruit/bated
vegetable snack using surplus fruits and vegetables from tthe
markets in West Kingston. The feasibility study included (1)
identifying the women in need of training and employment with the
appropriate characteristics to participate in a common
enterprise, (2) establishing the social and economic feasibility
of producing the snacks, (3) initial training of women in the
solar drying technology and baking skills required for the dried
fruit and vegetable patties, (4) testing three principal markets
for the snacks, (5) projecting the possible employment to be
generated against the prospective demand for the product and the
cost of producing it, (6) identifying future sources of technical
assistance ard credit for the women producing these goods, and
(7) identifying a suitable location for a production and sales
outlet and assessing the cost of these facilities. A preliminary
project report has been produced and is currently under
discussion. In addition, some of the women in the training
program attended a working group meeting to discuss their
experience. Contacts have been made with the local Nutrition
Holdings to secure a site for training and a potential outlet f cr
snacks in public schools. The group is currently exploring
potential sources of funding for a pilot demonstration project.

A fourth Jamaican project was carried out by Ruth McLeod of
the Masterbuilders Association and the Building Research
Institute. It is entitled "Proposal to Support and Document the
Entry of Ten Unemployed Women Aged 17 to 25 into the Construction
Labour Force of Jamaica." Ms. McLeod has been working with all
levels of the construction industry to investigate the problems
confronting women in gaining skills training in construction
work. The construction industry offers a potential new
employment market for women, since other sectors employing women
tend to be saturated. Working with industry groups and a local
vocational training agency, Ms. McLeod arranged for a special
training course for a small group of women. The group has
completed this course, and reported on their experience during a
working group meeting. They stressed their strong solidarity
(referring to their group as "The Gang"), a new sense of
confidence, and optimism about opportunities for employment and
further training. All of the women have now been placed on
construction sites, where their performance will be monitored.
More specialized training may follow. Their experience will be
documented, and recommendations made to the public sector
concerning the provision of training for women in construction
skills. The experience is also being disseminated in the press
through the Caribbean News Agency. The training course has
already generated a greater demand by low income Jamaican women

for training in construction skills.

The final Jamaica project, still underway, is a stud/ to be
carried out jointly by Alicia Taylor (UDC), sociologist EJlie
LeFranc (University of the West Indies) and economist Donna
McFarlane-Gregory (Faul Chen Associates) under the auspices of
the Institute for Social and Economic Research. The project.
entitled "Proposal for a Study on the Informal Distribution
Network in the Kingston Metropolitan Area," will focus on women
who work in informal sales as higglers, and will cover the
evolution of this economic activity, a typology of higglers, and
the socioeconomic characteristics of higglers and their economic
enterprises. Based on this diagnosis, recommendations will be
produced for improving their work conditions. These
recommendations could serve as the basis for improvements to be
made by the UDC through the West Kingston Market Redevelopmeint
Flan. Since most food produced in Jamaica passes through this
one market area, interventions on behalf of these higglers could
have an important impact on the island's food distribution
system, as well as on their own working conditions.

Appendix IV: Working Group in Feru

A. Working Group Members (Peru)

Name and field

Amelia Fort (Coordinator)
sociologist; research/planning

Jeanine Anderson
anthropol oy; research/action

Vilma Vargas de Balmaceda
sociology; research/planning

Maruja Barrig
journalism; action/research

Willy Bezold
architect; action/planning

Susana Galdos

Ana Marinez
social work; action/planning

Estrella Picasso
social work; action

Violetta Sara-Lafosse
sociology; research/action

Alicia Sebastiani
sociology; research/planning

Nelson Panizo Vera
transport; planning/research

Alejandro Icochea de Vivanco
architect; planning

Mario Zolezzi
sociology; research/action

Instituti or

Population Council

Peru Mujer

Ministry of Labor


Center for Initial Education

Ministry of Health

Peruvian Institute for
Self-Managed Businesses

Catholic University

Ministry of Culture

Municipality of Lima

B. Working Group Meetings (Peru)


December 8, 1982

February 5, 1982

March 12, 1982

May 7, 1982

June 11, 1982

June 18, 1982

July 16, 1982

September 3, 1982

October 22, 1982

November 26, 1982

December 17, 1982

January 21, 1983

February 25, 1983

April 29, 1983

July 1, 1983

August 12, 1983

September 2, 1983

Major Di-u.cussion Themes

Introduction to the project
and to group members

UNICEF/Health and Education
Ministries integrated services
project; urban problems

Urban planning and housing;
future agenda

Evolution of women's

Family survival strategies

Project proposal review

Ambulatory sales; domestic
service; pieceworkers;
artisans' cooperatives

Project proposals; women in
urban food services

Conceptualization of urban

Urban transport

Health services supply and
demand; state policy

Co-education policies

Evaluation of working group

Project progress reports;
agenda for future meetings

UNICEF services planning;
AID document on training
and education for women

Evaluation and future prospects

Continuation of theme of
previous meeting

on urban services

November 11, 1983

December 16, 1983

January 27, 1984

Transportation and physical
security study; continuation
of theme of previous meeting

Communal kitchens; continued
discussion of position paper

Solanda Urban Development
Frogr-am, visitors from
Ouito, Ecuador

C. Narrative Report (Peru)

The first meeting of the Lima working group was held ir
December of 1981, and they have met twenty times since that
initial meeting (Appendix II). Membership in the working group
has remained constant over the past twelve months (Appendi,. 1).
The group rents a small office to serve as its institutional base
and site for meetings, and most of their discussions center on
Lima's eueb!los IovEnes (outlying squatter settlements). Local
coordinator Amelia Fort has a Master's degree in sociology from
Sussex University and held a responsible position in the Ministry
of Transport for four years. Other working group members include
sociologists and anthropologists involved in research and action
work with a number of different institutions, and representatives
of UNICEF, the Ministry of Labor, and the Municipality of Lima.
Two different group members, from rival political parties, have
held municipal level offices with responsibility for urbarl
services. Activities of the working group have taken on renewed
importance during the past twelve months due to the economic
crisis facing Peru, and the marked deterioration in the standard
of living of low income urban dwellers.

As in Jamaica, the Lima working group has increasingly
broadened its contact with persons and institutions not directly
represented in the group membership. The group has established
its own name and letterhead (SUMBI: Servicios Urbanos y Mujeres
de Bajos Ingresos). Contacts have been established with the
Ministry of Labor, the Ford Foundation, the Inter-American
Foundation, USAID, the Peruvian National Population Council, and
INANDEP (a national population studies institution). During the
past twelve months speakers were invited to address the group
from UNICEF and from ESAN, an institution for training and
research on public and private administration. Contact has also
been established with Equity Policy Center, which is planning
research on street foods in both Jamaica and in Peru. The group
was approached by the Peruvian National Population Council for
help in the consolidation of their policies with regard to women.
The Lima Mission of USAID requested feedback from group members
on its planning for future programs on women. During one working
group meeting they discussed a document on training for women,
and channelled their comments to the mission. Local coordinator
Amelia Fort has also been asked to review the overall AID program
planning document.

The group has also been approached by other similar groups
interested in their activities. A group currently being formed
in Piura, Peru, site of devastating floods during the past year,
has requested advice from the working group on their activities.
This group is involved in urban reconstruction programs and
wishes to incorporate a focus on women into its work. A second
group in Ouito, Ecuador also contacted the working group and was
invited to attend a group meeting in Lima in January of 1984.
This group, the Fundacion Mariana de Jesus, is working with USAID
on a housing and urban development project in Quito in a low
income area with 6,000 families of which 27% are headed by women.

During their visit to Lima, the Ecuadorian visitors discussed E .
variety of aspects of their development project and its impact on
women. The working group also arranged for visits to a seric of
Peruvian agencies and projects.

Finally, the Lima working group has increasingly tal en a
public stand as a group on specific policy issues. In Mar-ch.
1983, when the government announced that co-educational programs
were to be suppressed, the group sent a letter to the Minister of
Education, as well as a statement to the press, opposing this
suppression. More recently they have been consulted on municipal
level programs for communal kitchens. They made a series of
specific recommendations regarding the design of a new massive
infant feeding program. They are also actively collaborating
with UNICEF on that institution's programming for urban women.
The circulation of a position paper on women and urban services
by group member Maruja Earrig has also brought increased
attention to the group's activities in recent weeks. All these
activities underline the group's resolution to increase the
dissemination of their ideas and results, and to find linkages to
on-going programs.

Three sub-awards have been approved in Lima, one just being
completed and two more underway. Two of the three focus on food
provision systems, an urgent need given the deteriorating
economic situation in Lima. Researchers for both have heavily
involved the target communities in the planning of their

"Communal Kitchens in Lima," was carried out by Violeta
Sara-Lafosse of the Catholic University. It was a study of about
100 existing communal kitchens in Lima that have arisen in
response to a growing problem of food provision for the poor.
The study documented the location, quality and types of communal
kitchens and their clientele. Research also focused on the role
of women as consumers and as service providers in the kitchens,
and on their effects on consumption patterns and the division of
labor within the domestic unit. Specific policy recommendations
regarding the design and functioning of communal kitchens have
been generated and channeled to relevant officials of the
Municipality of Lima, which intends to expand its program of
communal kitchens. The results of the study suggest that such
kitchens can have promising results when they are of a scale
small enough (about twenty families) to permit effective control
by the women of their own operation. Under these conditions such
programs can relieve women of some of their domestic work
obligations, contribute to minimal nutritional levels, and
provide a basis for organization by women for other purposes.
Results of the study will be published in three forms: a project
report for distribution to working group members and others; a
small book for wider distribution, and a popularized version for
the low income women themselves. The latter publication will be
financed by UNICEF. These products will be disseminated through
a series of meetings and workshops with distinct audiences.

A project entitled "Transportation and Security: Limitatiorn
on the Use of Urban Services by Low Income Women" is being
carried out by anthropologist Jeanine Anderson and transport
specialist NtL-son Panizo, under the auspices of the Peru-Murcie
Association. The study focuses on the limitations posed by
transportation and physical security considerations on the' use- of
urban services, and on the informal means used to deal with these
problems. Women's use of services is determined not only by the
existence of bus services but also by such factors as the time
spent waiting for transportation and walking to and from bus
stops, and the danger of injury or theft such activities may
entail for women and their families. The findings of the study
will form the basis for the elaboration of recommendations for
the design of support services that can increase real access to
existing services. Field research has been completed in two
neighborhoods, and data analysis is currently underway. The
project will be finished by the end of March, 1984.

The third Lima project entitled "Women Street Vendors of
Prepared Foods" is being carried out by Estrella Picasso of
INPET. Following a delay of several months for medical
treatment, she began work in August of 1983 on this
research/action project that will focus on a growing occupational
sector for low income women that also provides low-cost meals for
urban workers. Social and economic characteristics of street
food vendors are being surveyed, to form the basis for a
diagnosis of the work conditions of women in this activity.
Recommendations for actions to improve their situation will be
outlined, and discussed with the working group and with the
target population. On the basis of these discussions,
participative pilot training programs will be carried out with a
group of street vendors. The results of the project will be
communicated to planners, researchers and action groups through a
public seminar. The project should be completed by April of

Appendix V: Working Group in Mexico

A. Working Group Members (Mexico)

Name and field

Liliana Kusnir (Coordinator)
sociologist; planning/action

Maria Luisa Acevedo
sociology; research/action

Lourdes Romero Aguilar

Maria de los Angeles Leal
architect; planning

Jorge Legoreta
architect; research/planning

Larissa Lomnitz
anthropology; research

Fernando Ortiz Monasterio
engineer; planning

Margarita Nolasco
anthropology; research

Ely Rayelk
psychology; planning

Alvaro Sanchez
architect; planning

Elsa Rodrigues
communications; planning/action

Jorge Arango
architecture; research

Melba Pinedo
communications; action/planning

Maricarmen Elu de Lenero
sociology; planning/research

Norma Samaniego

Insti tuti on

Population Council

Center for Eco-development;
National Institute for
Anthropology and History

Center for Social Studies
and Programs

Human Settlements

Center for Eco-Development;
National Council for
Science and Technology

National Autonomous

Colegio de Mexico

Center for Eco-Development;
National Institute for
Anthropology and History

Ministry of Education

National Autonomous

Autonomous National
University of Mexico

Autonomous National
University of Mexico

Labor Secretariate

Secretariate of
Health and Assistance

National Commission
on Minimum Salary

B. Working Group Meetings (Mexico)


March 10, 1982

March 30, 1982

April 27, 1982

May 25, 1982

June 17, 1982

July 29, 1982

August 11, 1982

September 14, 1982

September 30, 1982

October 7, 1982

November 9, 1982

January 31, 1983

March 22, 1983

April 26, 1983

June 28, 1983

July 19, 1983

August 30, 1983

Insti tuti on

Introduction to the project

Typologies of low income women;
definition of priority groups

Basic profiles of low income
women; critiques of existing
service coverage; priority
service needs

Education, water and
transport services

Costs of services;
vocational training

Project proposals

Project proposal

Urban ecology; community
participation (held at the
Human Settlements Directorate)

Non-formal adult education

Education policies for
low income women

Project administration;
child care

Project administration;
pamphlets for low income

Family planning manual for
rural Mexico

Political participation of
low income Mexican women

Project progress reports

Evaluation and future prospects

Continuation of theme of
previous meeting

October 31, 1983

November 21-22, 1983

December 6, 1983

January 31, 1984

February 28, 1984

FubLlishing ard dissemination
str ategi es

Evaluation meeting; group
research proposal

Group research proposal

Di semination strategic es

Group research proposal

C. Narrative Report (Me.:ico)

The first working group meeting in Ilexico tool. place ii,
March of 1983, and the group has met a total of twenty time'.
(Appendix 11). In addition, various sub-committees of the
working group, created for specific tasks or projects, have met
frequently between working group meetings. Local coordinator
Liliana Kusnir is provided institutional support by the
Popular t.ion Council's Regional Office for Latin America and the
Caribbean, located in Mexico City. Ms. Kusnir has training in
sociology and many years of experience in planning and action
projects with the Argentine Ministry of Agriculture and
Husbandry, the WHO, and the United Nations. The project also hEa
the official support of CECODES (Center for the Study of Eccology
and Development), where working group meetings are sometimes
held. Working group members include representatives of the
Ministry of Education, the Secretariate of Health and Assistance,
CECODES, CONACYT (the Mexican equivalent of the National Sciencr.
Foundation), the National Minimum Salary Commission (mixed
government/private sector), the Secretariate of Labor, and
various Universities and action groups (Appendix I)

Both individually and as a group, working group members have
consulted influential institutions other than those represented
in the membership. Contacts have been established with the Ford
Foundation, the Human Settlements Directorate of Urban Ecology,
the Department of the Federal District, Commissions of Congress,
the Secretariates of Public Education and of Public Health and
Assistance, the Mexican National Population Council, the UN
Economic Commission on Latin America, and with representatives of
Mexico's dominant political party. Three working group members
participated in an invitational commission to suggest guidelines
for social development policies for the city, providing
background reports that highlight low income women as one
important target group. The Department of the Federal District
has expressed an interest in the results of group's work, as have
the Secretariate for Public Education and the Secretariate for
Health and Assistance, whose Director of Communications and
Special Projects in the Federal District, Maricarmen Elu de
Lenero, is now a working group member. The National Population
Council has consulted with the group, and members attended a
seminar sponsored by the Council. The United Nations Economic
Commission for Latin America project on women has expressed
interest in coordinating their work with that of the group, and
several group members attended an ECLA seminar on women,
education and mass media. Contacts have also been established
with academic institutions. The working group was invited to
give a radio show presentation on their work on the Women's Forum
sponsored by the Autonomous National University of Mexico. The
Colegio de Mexico's Permanent Seminar on Research on Women has
invited the group to present a series of talks based on their
work. Finally, local coordinator Liliana Kusnir has been asked
to give a short course at the Colegio on the topic of women, the
state and the planning system.

Recently the group has affirmed its own identity by cruetirq
a name (Mujer y Ciudad: Estudios y Accion). They have also
begun the development of an "umbrella" group project focusingo o n
the different kinds of stresses that women experience in their
multiple roles. Currently they are exploring sources of furdincg
for this project and for others that members have developed.
They are also devising strategies for dissemination of the
results of discussions and awards.

Six projects have been approved through the working group In
Mexico City. Three have been completed and three are underway.
Service sectors covered by the projects are diverse, but there iar
an emerging concern within the working group for developing form
of communication accessible to women in low income areas. Two of
the projects reflect this interest in designing simple pamphlets
intended to inform low income populations about available
ser vi ces.

"Urban Services for Women in Mexico City" was carried out by
Lourdes Romero of the Center for Social Studies and Programs and
completed in September of 1983. The project consisted of an
inventory and evaluation of existing services for low income
women in Mexico City in the health, education, consumption,
employment, training, and infrastructural services sectors. The
findings of the study will provide a timely input into the new
government's redefinition of priorities in urban areas. Interest
has already been expressed by the Department of the Federal
District and by the National Population Council. The report will
also provide background for a short course on women, the state
and the planning system, to be taught by local coordinator Lilian
Kusnir at the Colegio de Mexico. A summary of the lengthy
project report is now being prepared for distribution.

A second project completed in September of 1983, entitled
"Evaluation of Traditional and Alternative Experiences in
Handling of Urban Waste in Low Income Areas of the Valley of
Mexico, with Emphasis on the Role of Women and Community
Participation," was coordinated by Fernando Ortiz Monasterio of
the Colegio de Mexico. The team involved in the project included
technicians as well as representatives of low income community
organizations. The study traced the history of waste management
in the Valley of Mexico, and described the magnitude of the
current problem. A promising experience using an alternative
waste management and recycling system was then documented. The
Group for Alternative Technology, from Merida, Mexico, has
designed an "Integral System for Recycling Organic Waste" that is
managed by members of a cooperative in a low income urban
neighborhood. The system recycles both gray and black waters
using a combination of aerobic and anaerobic processes, and
produces a high quality fertilizer that can be sold to generate
income for the cooperative. It thus has income-generating
potential in addition to its merits in improving sanitation and
strengthening the potential for community organization. Aside

manual explaining the system to other communities interested in
alternative systems of waste management. This pamphlet as now
being tested. Co-manager Marianne Schmink has also visited the
original pilot system installed in Merida, and is preparing e
report on the two experiences for wider dissemination ttrougth thle
SEEDS series.

A third project in Mexico, entitled "Preparation of Two
Pamphlets for Low Income Women with Emphasis on Training arid
Work" was carried out by Melba Pinedo of the Labor Secretariate.
Findings revealed that women lacked information about existing
services to assist in their search for and choice of training an-d
employment opportunities. The project carried out a critical
evaluation of existing training and employment services and
opportunities, and extensive interviews with both planners and
low income women in order to compile necessary information in
pamphlets on training and employment. The pamphlet design uses
an accessible format to orient low income women in their use of
these services, drawing on interview material to suggest
appropriate content. For example, the importance attributed to
husbands' attitudes in influencing women's decisions regarding
work and training in reflected in the marital dialogue that
constitutes the central story line. Contacts are now being
pursued in different Ministries to find a source of support for
production and distribution of the pamphlets.

1he fourth Mexico project that is currently being completed
also has as its objective the production of a pamphlet for use by
low income women. Entitled "Self-Help Pamphlet on Women and
Health in Mexico," it is being carried out by Elsa Rodrigues of
the Autonomous National University of Mexico. The pamphlet is
intended to improve the information available to low income women
and to health institutions regarding priority health problems
from the user's perspective. Women in low income urban areas
have traditionally been responsible for handling their own and
their family's health needs. Such practices are particularly
crucial given the inadequacy of public health institutions to
respond to demand. More orientation is needed for women as to
which health problems can be treated in the home, and which
require treatment by modern institutions. In order to improve
women's ability to effectively evaluate their health service
needs and hence to rationalize the use of these services, the
project will help improve the information as a basis for
self-help actions. The focus of the pamphlet will be on the most
common health needs of low income women and their families, how
these problems can be prevented and treated, and available health
services. The project's methodology is based on extended
consultation with health providers and clients, which is
currently underway. The project report and pamphlet design are
now being completed. A synthetic report covering the production
of this pamphlet and the two described earlier will be written
for wider distribution.

Also underway is a project entitled "Child Care Strategies
in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City" by Maria Luisa Acevedo

of CECODES. The study focuses on formal ard informal means cof
child care. A survey will be carried out to detect informal
means of child care, their effectiveness and possible ways tc,
support them. Rouigh estimates of demand and of existing suppj ,
of formal child care services will be calculated. Institutional
programs will be evaluated, and recommendations produced f cr
integrating child care services with other programs.

A sixth project entitled "Analysis of Women's Role in SeJf
Help Hous rig Projects in Low Income Areas of Mexico City" has
recently begun under the direction of Genovevo Arredondo of UNA-M.
Information on women's role in self-help housing will be gathered
from existing bibliographic sources, interviews with public
officers involved in self-help housing, and survey in-ormatior,
collected from women two self-help housing projects, one
state-supported and the other independent. The project should be
finished by June of 1984.

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