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 Title Page
 Introduction
 Table of Contents
 Session I: What is gender?
 Session II: Gender analysis: conceptual...
 Session III: User perspective
 Session IV: Data collection: Who...
 Session V: Women in development...
 Session VI: What is training?
 Session VII: Specific training...
 Session VIII: Using case studies...






Title: Gender analysis and training techniques : training modules
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Title: Gender analysis and training techniques : training modules
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Kainer, Karen A. ( Compiler )
Publisher: University of Florida
Publication Date: 1992
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Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Introduction
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    Session I: What is gender?
        Page 5
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        Page 7
        Page 8
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    Session II: Gender analysis: conceptual framework
        Page 20
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        Page 37
        Page 38
    Session III: User perspective
        Page 39
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    Session IV: Data collection: Who does what when, determining access and control
        Page 56
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    Session V: Women in development training in international agencies
        Page 79
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    Session VI: What is training?
        Page 101
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        Page 134
    Session VII: Specific training techniques for gender analysis
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
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    Session VIII: Using case studies for training in gender analysis
        Page 158
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Full Text






GENDER ANALYSIS AND TRAINING TECHNIQUES













TRAINING MODULES

Compiled by Karen A. Kainer











Based on

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

WOMEN IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGPE M

Spring Seminar Series, 1992








INTRODUCTION


Sessions were delivered by a variety of faculty and others with experience in gender

analysis and training. The exposure to a diversity of training styles and activities served

to demonstrate the wide variety of training styles and techniques that can be successful,

and that facilitators are only limited by their own creativity.



Each 70-minute session was preempted by a brief explanation of how the current session

related to other sessions within the series. Following each session, the enclosed

evaluation forms were distributed to participants in order to monitor participant learning,

and to facilitate session improvement.



All materials necessary to deliver the sessions are listed in the overview of each module.

Some materials, such as particular videotapes or slides, may be easily substituted with

other appropriate materials when necessary. Overheads and handouts are included in

the modules, but suggested flipcharts must be prepared by each facilitator.



Some sessions, such as Sessions V and VIII, may be difficult to deliver without specific

experience conducting Gender Analysis training in international agencies in :t: area of

focus for that session. However, reading lists are provided with each module ;o assist the

facilitator in expanding his/her knowledge base. The facilitator may also wish to invite







outside speakers who can discuss their experiences with Gender Analysis or Women in

Development training in international organizations.



These modules lend themselves to a wide variety of uses. Practitioners are encouraged

to modify sessions as needed, and to view the modules as dynamic resources for

designing and delivering Gender Analysis training.



Readers who are interested in more information about the seminar series may contact

Lisette Staal at the International Training Division, IFAS 352 (904-392-3166). Those with

specific interest in a particular session are advised to contact the facilitator(s) of that

session.










GENDER ANALYSIS AND TRAINING TECHNIQUES


SESSION


I. What is Gender?


II. Gender Analysis Conceptual Framework


III. User Perspective


IV. Data Collection: Who does what when,
determining access and control


V. Women in Development Training in International
Agencies


VI. What is Training?


VII. Specific Training Techniques for Gender Analysis




VIII. Using Case Studies for Training in Gender Analysis


FACILITATOR(S)


Suzanna Smith


Sandra Russo


Peter Hildebrand


Mickie Swisher



Anita Spring
Sandra Russo


Van Crowder


Lisette Staal
Bea Covington
Gretchen Greene


Elizabeth Bolton
John Lichte








Gender Analysis and Training Techniques


Session I: WHAT IS GENDER?


OVERVIEW


Total Time:


Rationale:












Learning
Objectives:





Materials:


70 minutes


Research and extension projects have historically overlooked or excluded women
from the development process. Inadequate attention to differences between men
and women in agricultural production and use of technologies often leads to
inadequate planning and design of development projects. In many cases it has
also resulted in poor acceptance of innovative technologies by the farmers who use
them, and consequently, limited returns on investments. An understanding of the
roles women play in agricultural development is fundamental to achieving greater
development success. The information covered in this session provides the basic
concepts for the following sessions, and insures that all participants are at the same
beginning level of understanding.


At the end of this session participants will be able to:
1. Define gender roles.
2. Describe the reasons why women have been invisible in the development
process.
3. List the characteristics of gender-sensitive research.


* Flipcharts 1-4
* Overhead projector
* Overheads:
1.1) Definition of sex and gender
1.2) Major points about gender roles
1.3) Session one: What is gender? Questions for viewing videotape
1.4) Characteristics of gender-sensitive research
* VCR
* Videotape "Invisible Women" (Can be borrowed from the International Training
Division at the University of Florida or :, dered with the enclosed order form)
* Handouts:
1.1) Reading list
1.2) Evaluation form
* Purple and red markers









Background See Handout 1.1.
Readings:


Procedure:


There are four main activities in this introductory session. Activity I sets the stage
to open participants' minds to looking at things differently. Activity II is a small
group exercise in which participants are asked to differentiate between gender and
sex. Activity III uses a videotape and discussion to focus on gender roles in
agriculture and their implications for development projects. Activity IV examines
the basic components of gender-sensitive research.


J _







Session I: WHAT IS GENDER?


Activity I: Perceptions. (2 min)


ACTIVITY
Stand
Put up flipchart with the following: I and
R E A D. Ask what these two diagrams mean. Explain
that few people immediately see "I understand" and "Read
between the lines" because we are all trained to see things one
way, making it difficult to go beyond that initial perception.
Add that in these sessions we hope to help participants go
beyond initial perceptions in order to observe things in a
different way.


MATERIALS

Flipchart 1


ACTIVITY


Introduction. Turn to a prepared flipchart listing the session
objectives and go over the three objectives, stating that at the
end of the session participants will be able to:

1. Define gender roles.
2. Describe the reasons why women have been invisible in the
development process.
3. List the characteristics of gender-sensitive research.


Small Group Exercise. Give the following instructions:

1. Get into groups of three or four. Make sure someone is
taking notes.
2. List as many examples of gender roles that you can think
of.
3. You will have three minutes. Don't complain about the
time or you will lose time!
4. Brainstorm! That does not mean to discuss, it means to
get out as many ideas as you can in the time
allotted. Do not evaluate what people in your group say. Just
be creative and let your ideas flow.
5. After three minutes, groups will report what they listed.


MATERIALS


Flipchart 2


TIME

2 min


Activity II: What is gender? (25 min)


TIME

1 min


1 min







Break into groups and brainstorm.


3 min


10 min






10 min


Flipchart 3


Ask how many groups listed 20 gender roles? 15? 10? Ask
each group to give one example of a gender role they came up
with. List these on a flipchart with the title "Gender Roles".
Summarize the groups' themes, and use their comments as a
springboard for the short lecture.


Short Lecture. Point out that in many cases when we look at
social roles we assume they are defined by sex, that is, being a
man or a woman. We assume that these behaviors, such as
being "dominant" or "nurturing", come about naturally, and
that they are merely a reflection of being male or female.
One of the first things we want to do in talking about gender
analysis is to define gender so everyone is clear about the
meaning of this term.

Show the overhead, "Definition of sex and gender". Point to
the definition of gender and note that our interest is
understanding social behavior. Point to the definition of sex,
and ask, "How important are sex differences in understanding
human behavior for our purposes here?" (Turn off the
projector.) Continue to explain the following points.

People commonly believe sex differences to be far greater than
they actually are. One stereotype is about male strength,
which we often credit for men's greater social power. On the
average, men are somewhat taller and stronger than women
due to greater upper body strength in particular. However,
males are also more vulnerable to illness and disease, and
display higher mortality rates. In contrast, females usually live
longer; they show somewhat greater tolerance for heat, and
tend to have more body fat, which gives them an advantage in
activities requiring endurance.

The other major biological factor that consistently affects
behavior is women's role i:- reproduction. Women bear
children and can breastfeed them.

Given these basic sex differences, we have constructed social
belief systems, many of them very elaborate, about what are
appropriate roles for men and women. However, research
shows that there is very little biological basis for gender
stereotypes.


COverhead 11







Show overhead, "Major points about gender roles", and go
over each point, being sure to mention the following:

1. Gender roles are defined as the activities, behaviors, and
abilities that are associated with being a man or a woman.
Gender roles are based on socially agreed upon criteria of
what is appropriate for men and women. The small groups
came up with a list of common behaviors or traits of men or
women--we can see from the consistency of group responses
the power of society in determining our beliefs about these
roles, and in men's and women's tendency to conform to
social expectations.

2. Gender is ever-present in our lives. It structures our work
and family experiences, even the way we interact with each
other.

3. Gender role blinders introduce bias into development
projects. Expectations about what men and women do
influence development project research and extension
activities.

4. What we want to do in these sessions is to help you develop
the skills to look at things differently. We hope that the
awareness and skills you learn here will help you to be more
effective in your research and extension programs.


Overhead 12


Activity III:


TIME

2 min


What are gender roles in agriculture? What are the implications
projects? (30 min)


ACTIVITY


Introduction. Introduce the videotape, explaining that this
tape provides a more in-depth understanding of gender roles
in agriculture, and illustrates how gender roles affect
development projects. Show overhead, "Session One: What is
gender? Questions for Viewing Videotape." Ask participants
as they view the tape to think about the answers to these
questions:

1. Why are women in agriculture invisible in the development
process?
2. What are the characteristics of gender sensitive research?

Videotape. Play the videotape.


for development


MATERIALS


Owhead 13


18 min


Videotape







10 min Large Group Discussion. Discuss the videotape with the
group. List answers to Question 1 on a flipchart with the title, Flipchart 4
"Why are women invisible?" Use colored markers to code
participants' answers (i.e. conceptual biases in red,
methodological weaknesses in purple).

Emphasize and elaborate as needed on the following points
from the participants' answers:

Conceptual biases (red marker)

Household.

In conceptual schemes of agricultural systems, the household is
often represented as an undifferentiated box in the systems
diagram.

As a "black box", differences within the household go
unrecognized. In particular, there is no representation of
divisions within the household by gender or age, although
some research shows that these differences structure
agricultural production activities.

When households are considered, they are usually assumed to
be headed by men who are married to one wife. This scheme
is based on a traditional, Western nuclear family model that
doesn't take into account the activities of polygynous
households or women-headed households.

Often it is assumed that households are static. In reality
household composition and structure change over time as
people marry, give birth, rear children, age, and die. These
life cycle changes are very important to understand because
they affect the availability of labor for production, and the
demands for food and other resources within the household.

Expectations about men's and women's roles.

This Western bias also affects our assumptions aboJ .vho
does what in the farming system. Often it is assumed that men
are the farmers, not women. As a result, we expect to see
men, not women doing certain activities, such as cutting trees.
This "conventional wisdom" keeps us from seeing (a) the
realities of the division of labor; and (b) changes that are
occurring in the farming system as a result of economic or








social changes in rural areas, or the impacts of development
projects.

Methodological weaknesses (purple marker)

Who is studied. Usually, men's fields and men's activities are
studied, whereas women's work receives little research
attention. Researchers do not ask who does what, when.
(Example of yam production from video: two farmers, male
and female, using the same field for two crops, using 2
different management practices).

Do not look at the continuum of production and how this
affects adoption of technologies. Women are involved in
production at every step of the food cycle and are the link
between production and consumption decisions. This includes
post-harvest storage, processing, and marketing, as well as
planting and weeding.

Do not look at the variety of work roles men and women
play, and how they combine their work to get everything done.
Women have multiple roles and responsibilities: wage labor,
agricultural production, marketing, reproduction and child
care, household maintenance. These are influenced by family
size and life cycle stage.

Do not look at how the dissemination of technologies to men
farmers influences women and other household members,
women's total work load, and access to and control of
resources.


Activity IV: Gender-sensitive research. (13 min)

TIME ACTIVITY MATERIALS

13 min Short Lecture. State that, based on what we've said and seen
on the tape, we can probably list the characteristics of gender-
s nsitivgtesearch.

Show overhead "Characteristics of gender-sensitive research", Overead 14
and cover the following:

Look at all the activities of all household members. Who does
what, when? Make sure to look behind the scenes at who and
what otherwise might be invisible.







Target women to learn about their production practices.
For example, women are keepers of local taxonomies of plants
and animals, and determine acceptability of certain
technologies.

Identify men's and women's activities all along the food chain.
(i.e., planting, weeding, harvesting, processing, storage,
marketing.)

Carefully select project staff and cooperators:
1. Include men and women on the research team.
2. Train men to interview women and carry out gender
analysis.
3. Select women as collaborators.
4. Select women for training programs.

Assess and address the results of new technologies on
women's responsibilities and control of resources. The
introduction of a new technology may increase demands on
women's labor. More time may be needed to harvest and
process food from an increased harvest. Women may lose
control over the by-products of the harvest or over the sales of
goods if the technology is delivered to men. This can have
grave repercussions for women who are responsible for
feeding their children and paying for schooling.

(Turn off the projector.)

Summary. Conclude the session by reviewing the objectives Flipchart 1
and how these were covered in the session.

Note that this session provided the conceptual background.
Next session will provide the analytic tools to identify the
activities of household members and to determine who has
access to and control of resources.


Hand out the reading list.


Handout 1.1






DEFINITIONS OF SEX AND GENDER


Sex: Biologically-based distinctions
between males and females.


Determined through the application of socially agreed
upon biological criteria for classifying persons as
males or females (genitalia at birth, chromosome
typing before birth).


Gender: The social construction of
differences between men and women.


Determined by the application of accepted standards
for evaluating men's and women's behaviors,
abilities and traits.


- I









MAJOR POINTS ABOUT GENDER ROLES


Gender roles are the activities, behaviors, and abilities
that are associated with being a man or a woman.


Gender roles are based on socially agreed upon criteria.


Gender is ever-present in our lives.


We may wear "blinders" about what men and women do
and can do in agriculture, based on gender role
expectations. These expectations influence research and
extension activities in development projects.


This course is designed to help you develop the skills to
look at things differently. Awareness and gender
analysis skills should help you to be more effective in
your research and extension programs.











SESSION ONE: WHAT IS GENDER?
Questions for Viewing Videotape



Why have women been invisible in the
development process?



What are the characteristics of gender-
sensitive research?







CHARACTERISTICS OF GENDER-SENSITIVE RESEARCH


* Examine all of the activities of all household
members. Who does what, when? Look behind the
scenes to see what might otherwise be invisible.

* Target women to learn about their production
practices.

* Identify men's and women's activities all along the
food chain, from planting and weeding to harvesting,
storage, processing, and marketing.

o Select project staff and cooperators:
Include men and women researchers
Train men
Select women as collaborators
Select women for training programs

* Assess and address the repercussions of new
technologies on women's responsibilities and control
of resources.







Gender Analysis Shortcourse


Week One: What is Gender?

Recommended Reading

Blumberg, Rae Lesser. (1991). Income under female versus male control:
Hypotheses from a theory of gender stratification and data from the Third
World. In Rae Lesser Blumberg (Ed.), Gender, family, and economy, (pp. 97-
127). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Or see 1988 Journal of Family Issues,
9,(1), 51-84.

Cloud, Kathleen. (1988). Farm women and the structural transformation of
agriculture: A cross-cultural perspective. In W.G. Haney and J.B. Knowles
(Eds.), Women and farming (pp. 281-199). Boulder CO: Westview Press.

Fenstermaker, Sarah, West, Candace, & Zimmerman, Don H. (1991). Gender
inequality: New conceptual terrain. In Rae Lesser Blumberg (Ed.), Gender,
family, and economy, (pp. 289-307). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Huber, Jean. (1991). A theory of family, economy, and gender. In Rae Lesser
Blumberg (Ed.), Gender, family, and economy, (pp. 35-51). Newbury Park,
CA: Sage.

Marini, Margaret M. (1990). Sex and gender: What do we know? Sociological
Forum, 5(1), 95-120.

Sachs, Carolyn. (1983). Invisible farmers: Women in agricultural production.
Totowa, NJ: Allenheld, Osmun & Co.

West, Candace & Zimmerman, Don H. (1987). Doing gender. Gender and
Society, 1(2), 125-151.







WHAT IS GENDER?
Evaluation


Please circle the number that best describes your answer to the following statements.


Very Little Somewhat
1 2


Much
3


Very Much
4


1. My understanding
of the difference
between sex and
gender increased


2. My understanding
of gender roles
increased

3. My understanding
of the reasons
women in agri-
culture are in-
visible increased


4. My understanding
of the character-
istics of gender
sensitive research
increased


5. What did you like most about this session?

6. What could be improved?

7. Please rate the instructor on the following items:


Poor

1


Not too
Good
2


Content


Presentation


8. Comments


Satisfactory

3
3
3


Please complete tfis formun and tetuAn it via campuna maiu
by folding in hatl so ihe addAess on back is showing.


Good


Excellent







INVISIBLE WOMEN: Gender and Household :

Analysis in Agricultural Research and Extension

by Susan V. Poats ; ; :. .

Gainesville, Florida' :
November 1989 .
This presentation was developed to assist ',
agricultural researchers, extension workers, and ':'
;i managers of research and extension projects in learning ..
About gender issues in agriculture and to use gender
.analysis as a descriptive and analytical tool in their
:' 'work. Gender analysis is increasingly being recognized
as a critical aspect of programme and project success. .
An important first step in incorporating gender : '
awareness in agricultural development is to recognize '
Sthe roles that women play in all aspects of the food
system. Learning to 'see' women in agriculture will
:assist research and development workers to better '
understand the different roles that men and women play '
in production and to improve the design and delivery of
technology meant to assist farmers-both male and
Female. ... ..
HOW TO USE THIS PRESENTATION: This slide
presentation was developed as an introductory module.
It is meant to raise issues and stimulate discussion ,
about gender issues in agriculture. It can be used
alone, as a separate module on gender within a larger .. ..
training course, or as an introduction to other training
Activities on gender issues. .,, ',.- '
AUDIENCE Agricultural researchers, extension :' 'I ". '
workers, and managers of agricultural development .'
projects. Useful for professionals and students of :.. : .
agriculture and development ':::l;. .' '' .' '
: LANGUAGE: :Video version s available n English. Spanish and Fseb versions wil be available in 1990...'. .
LENGTH:' 18 mi"le nutcs '" l?^ ^^ ', 1'I_":.i ,. '. ".
-' .... .... +'',', ..... '3"" .;, --; ,r' ii ",* ^ *^'1-1 'J ^..... .. ^ **** .: ++ + ', "- .
4. d. L r.I< 7P ,I
FORMAT: Available as a slideset or VHS video. Accompanied by a trainer's gude that includes scripts English, Spanish
and French, and a description list f6orti slides. : -i .' '.' .-
--, .. .*...* .+.*;- : ',+ -,,, -. ,-, .,-. -, ,,. .. *+.,,-.._ ,- -':-' ;
-- --- --------------------------- ------------------------------
ORDER FORM. *"

Copies of either the slide set ,; the video may be ordered. A limited number of free sets are available to developing country
nationals. For more information,'ill ut this inforimtion 'shet and send to: .i ..i .: ,
Make checks payable in USS to Dr. Susan V. Poals. ''. '~ ...:
c/o .Tropical Research and Development, Inc 519 N.W. 60th Street, Suite D., Gainesville FL 32607 USA
-tel. (904) 331-1886; Fax (904) 331-3284, ,njn '':" .. ou ;U S, :
S .- ;.- ': t,': -- No. ,Amount m USS .,., ... -
YOUR NAME: p slide set (US $100.00) -
ADDRESS: '-' video (US $35.00) .',*".
.., '. ..--'.." .t 51,1'"''?bl' "TOT AL V T

... ., mend me information about the free videos and slide s. :.
Postage should bI added. 'rT' ., '." : -. ;
P-... ," .- -.'" .' .' "-ad' '" '., .' :'. ,. I '








Gender Analysis and Training Techniques

Session II: GENDER ANALYSIS:
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK


OVERVIEW


Total Time:


Rationale:









Learning
Objectives:




Materials:


70 minutes


Becoming sensitized to the importance of gender differences within the farm
household is the first step to conducting improved development work. Before
research, extension, and training activities are carried out, an analysis of
household labor to determine "who does what" must be implemented. This
analysis must then be followed by an examination of who has access to and control
of available resources as well as who benefits from them. This session introduces
helpful analytical tools for gathering data on farming activities, gender roles within
the farming system, and information on available resources.


At the end of this session participants will be able to:
1. Identify the farmers) in a household.
2. Use and apply analytical tools in the conceptual framework.
3. Identify gender roles within the farming system, and "who does what".


* Flipcharts 1-4
* Overhead projector
* Overheads:
2.1) Model of a hypothetical household production system in West Africa
2.2) Farm household
2.3) Two fundamental facts of life
2.4) Use of conceptual framework
2.5) Gender analysis
2.6) Farming systems calendar
2.7) Resources analysis
2.8) Benefits and incentives analysis
* Slide projector
* Family slide
* Slide show "Invisible Women" (Can be borrowed from the International Training
Division at thc University of Florida or ordered with the enclosed order form)
* Handouts:
2.1) Farming systems calendar
2.2) Resources analysis
2.3) Benefits and incentives analysis








2.4) Reading list
2.5) Evaluation


Background See Handout 2.4.
Readings:


Procedure: There are five main activities in this session. In Activity I participants are asked
to identify the farmers) in a household. Activity II reviews a hypothetical
household model and introduces a conceptual framework for gender analysis.
Analytical tools are presented in Activity III. In activities IV and V, participants
use those tools and complete a gender analysis of one case study.







Session II: GENDER ANALYSIS:
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Activity I: Identifying the farmerss. (10 min)


TIME

1 min


9 min


ACTIVITY


Introduction. Present the session learning objectives, stating
that at the end of the session participants will be able to:

1. Identify the farmers) in a household.
2. Use and apply analytical tools in the conceptual framework.
3. Identify gender roles within the farming system, and "who
does what".


Large Group Discussion. Project the slide of Kenyan (or
other) farm family. Elicit responses to the following questions:


MATERIALS


Family slide


1. Who is the farmer or who are the farmers in the household?
2. At what stage is the family in the household cycle?
3. Is there a labor shortage or abundance?
4. Who do you think the extension agent would talk to?
5. How does the family access information?

Point out that we cannot assume who the farmers) is(are) in a
family until we ask and/or observe their activities. We also
cannot assume that a large family ensures that an abundance
of agricultural labor will be available. Families and
households are dynamic. To understand labor availability for
farm activities, we must know what other-non-farm activities
the family engages in. We also need to determine the family's
life cycle stage, as this affects how many family members of
productive (and dependent) ages are available.


Activity II: Review of hypothetical household model. (15 min)


ACTIVITY


Show the overhead, "Model of a hypothetical household
production system in West Africa" with the 4 blocks within
"Household" covered with a small "post-it". Discuss general
on-farm and off-farm activities represented in the diagrams
surrounding the covered "Household" block. Remove the
"post-it" covering the "Household" block. Ask participants to


MATERIALS


O~eead 2.1


TIME

6 min







list the activities for which the adult female is responsible
(lines from "Household" block on diagram). Point out that she
is largely responsible for subsistence/household consumption in
this model.

Show the overhead, "Farm household", and point out that we
must identify the activities of each of the household members
to fully understand the operations of a farming system.

Read the overhead, "Two fundamental facts of life" as a review
of the basic tenets that agricultural households are complex
decision-making units and that each individual member in the
household has a variety of activities and responsibilities, of
which agricultural labor is only a part.


To better understand the activities of each household
member, particularly the work of adult men and women who
are primarily responsible for production, we must employ
some type of conceptual framework to disaggregate data
by gender. Review the definition of gender analysis: "A system
for analyzing the roles of men and women and application of
that analysis to decisions about research and extension."

Show the overhead, "Use of conceptual framework", and point
out that by using this framework we can quickly see the basic
functions within the household, and can identify gaps in the
information we collected.


Thoroughly discuss the overhead, "Gender analysis", identifying
key questions that extensionists and researchers must ask
themselves.


Overhead 22



Overhead 23


Overhead 24





Overhead 25


Activity III: Introduction of analytical tools. (10 min)


ACTIVITY


MATERIALS


Show the overhead, "Farming systems calendar". Tell
participants that the first step in gender analysis is to fill oct
the calendar, documenting activities carried out during the
year by each household member. Notice if and where time
gaps, or periods of relative inactivity, exist.


4 min


5 min


TIME

4 min


Overhead 26








On a flipchart with the months labeled, demonstrate an
example of the calendar for a major crop (i.e., corn). (An
example of a completed gender-disaggregated activities
calendar is found in Feldstein and Poats on page 17).

Distribute the handout, "Farming systems calendar".


Show the overhead, "Resources analysis", and'point out that it
is important to know who has access to and control of each of
these resources in order to predict and/or evaluate who should
participate in a project and who the project will potentially
impact. Again the facilitator should focus in on gender
cisaggregation of household members' use of resources.


Distribute the handout, "Resources analysis".


Show the overhead, "Benefits and incentives analysis", and
briefly point out that when we propose a change in the system
we must ask who will control the innovation and who will
benefit from it.

.Distribute the handout, "Benefits and incentives analysis".


Flipchart 1


Handout 2.1


Ovehead 27


Handout 22


Overhead 28




Handout 23


Activity IV: Mini-case study. (5 min)


ACTIVITY


MATERIALS


Introduction. Organize the participants inTo 3 groups,
corresponding to the three analytical tools that have been
reviewed. Give the following instructions to the groups:

1. View the slide show, paying close attention to the
information that is particularly pertinent for completing the
handout of the analytical tool assigned to your group.
.,2. Although you do not have enough information to fill out
iieach section of the handout, be as thorough as possible.
,3. You have 15 minutes to complete the task.
4A. Yol: will be asked to share your results with the rest of the
Group after the 15-minute period.

Slides. Project the series of slides from "Invisible Women" of
the Ivory Coast, in which researchers went into a farmer's field
that was exhibiting a decline in yam yield. The researchers


3 min


3 min


TIME

5 min


Handouts
2.1 2.3







Slides








interviewed the male farmer present, and began to make
recommendations regarding the use of herbicides and other
inputs. However, a female farmer was also present, actively
working on planting tomatoes in the same parcel. Ultimately,
the researchers noticed the woman and changed their
recommendations to take into account the joint activities on
the same parcel of land.


Activity V: Gender analysis of case study. (30 min)


ACTIVITY


MATERIALS


Small Group Work. Each group discusses and completes one
of the three analytical tools.

Large Group Discussion. A representative of each group
reports on their analysis. To facilitate this presentation, each
group is provided with a flipchart that is a duplicate of the
handout of the analytical tool they will present.

Wrap up the session by showing the slide of the Kenyan (or
other) farm family that was used at the beginning of the
session. Ask participants what other questions would they now
like to ask the family? Ask participants to whom would they
now address their questions? Reiterate that it is not always
obvious "who does what", but through adoption of the
conceptual framework and utilization of the analytical tools
presented, they will be able to determine the answers to these
questions and others on household activities and
responsibilities.


Flipchart 2
Flipchart 3
Flipchart 4


Family slide


Hand out the reading list.


TIME

15 min


10 min




5 min


Handout 2.4












CIS

SGardens
S/ Vegetables
Cattle Fruits
S1 Crop
Animal Cp Household M r Residues
Power Crop anure1
SResidues MALE FEMALE
SF ADULT ADULT Small Livestock
Upland Field ,' Goats
Goats
S Crops Male Fomale Heirdi Sheep
SChild Child
C Sorghum
Millet
Groundnuts Basic Grains
Labor Rice Crop
Residues
Fields
I y O Swamp Rice
S0. Mangrove Rice


normal WooKIy MarKet)
A---4-







FARM HOUSEHOLD


FARM


OFF-FARM


FARM


MALE FEMALE
ADULTS) ADULTS)






MALE FEMALE
CHILDREN) CHILDREN)









Two fundamental facts of life:


1. Agricultural activity:
households which
making units and
household alone.


ies


are under


are
not


complex
by the


aken by
decision
head of


2. Each individual member in a household has a
variety of activities and responsibilities, of
which agricultural labor is only a part.


Source: J. Murphy. 1990. Women and agriculture
in Africa: a Guide to Bank Policy and Programs
for Operations Staff.








USE OF THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

-organize existing information --- > pattern

identify relevant additional information
needed --- > focus topics

screen research priorities, technology options

plan on-farm trials and assessments

evaluate technologies by user-specific criteria
and impact

plan appropriate extension activities





GENDER ANALYSIS


1. Who does what?


2. Who has access to or control of resources?


3. Who has access to or control of benefits?


4. Who is included at each stage of research:
as informants?
as participants?
as decision-makers?
as evaluators of technology?
as deliverers of services?
as clients for service?
as beneficiaries of research outcomes?




FARMING SYSTEMS CALENDAR


Months/Seasons


Crop Production









Livestock







Household Production


Off-Farm Activities


.:'





RESOURCES ANALYSIS


Access


Control


Policy
Comments Issues


Capital


Cash


Inputs


Markets/
Transportation


Education/
Information


Land


Labor


~------ --~~~~~~-~~~- -"




BENEFITS AND INCENTIVES ANALYSIS

Access Control Uses/ Polic.
Preferences Issuee


Crop Production




Livestock




Household Production


Off-Farm Activities








FARMING SYSTEMS CALENDAR


Months/Seasons


Crop Production









Livestock







I Household Production


Off-Farm Activities






___ RnESOIERCIsES ANALYSIS


Policy
_____AeQss Conrol COmments ISsuesm.
'," ,


Land


Labor


Capital


Cash


Inputs


Markets/
Transportation


Education/
information





BENEFITS AND INgENTIVESAAN LYSIS

Access Control .Uses/ Policy
...Proafrlences e.liae_


Crop Production




Livestock




Household Production


Off-Farm Activities









READING LIST


Gender Analysis Conceptual Framework


Poats, Susan V., Marianne Schmink, and Anita Spring. 1988. Linking FSR/E and
Gender: An Introduction. In Poats, Schmink, and Spring, eds. Gender Issues in Farming
Systems Research and Extension. Westview Press, Boulder. 1-18.

Feldstein, Hilary Sims and Susan V. Poats. 1989. Working Together: Gender Analysis in
Agriculture. Vol I: Case Studies. Kumarian Press, West Hartford,-CT. Chapters 1 and
2.

Overholt, Catherine, Mary B. Anderson, Kathleen Cloud and James E. Austin, eds. 1985.
Gender Roles in Development Projects: A Case Book. Kumarian Press, West Hartford,
CT. Chapters 1, 2 and 3.


reading.lst








GENDER ANALYSIS CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Evaluation

Please circle the number that best describes your answer to the following statements.


Verv Litile Somrcv.liht Much \r'c, Much
1 2 3 4


1. My understand of
gender roles increased

2. My understanding of
women's roles in
agriculture increased

3. My understanding of
gender analysis increased

4. My understanding and
ability to use gender
analytical tools increased.


1 2


1 2



1 2


1 2


5. What did you like most about this session?


6. What could be improved?


7. Please rate the instructor on the following items:


Poor Not too
Go(4
1 2


Content


Presentation


1 2

1 2


Satisfactory Good Excellent


4 5


4 5

4 5


8. Comments


Please complete the form and return it via campus mail by folding in half so the address on back is showing.






Gender Analysis and Training Techniques

Session III: USER PERSPECTIVE


OVERVIEW


Total Time:


Rationale:






Learning
Objectives:





Materials:








Background
Readings:


Procedure:


70 minutes


New technologies are often introduced in rural farming areas with the hope of
improving yield and easing work loads. Oftentimes the technologies are not
examined from a user perspective prior to introduction. This frequently results in
negative impacts on various members of the household and community, sometimes
culminating in complete rejection of the new technology.


At the end of this session participants will be able to:
1. Recognize the extent to which the effects of a new technology are highly
complex; a new technology affects a variety of people in a variety of ways.
2. Identify those being impacted by the technology.
3. Identify how the technology impacts those being affected.


* Flipchart 1
* Handouts:
3.1 3.9) Role play assignments
3.10) Reading list
3.11) Evaluation form
* Slides of Guatemalan agricultural setting, or other case study developed by the
facilitator


See Handout 3.10.



There are six main activities in this session, but prior to the beginning of the
period, randomly select participants for the role play, giving each player a written
role. Defining what is meant by "user perspective" introduces the session in
Activity I. The objectives are then reviewed in Activity II. Activity III involves a
role play to facilitate discussion on the complexity of technology development. The
conversational sondeo as a method for information-gathering if presented in
Activity IV. In Activity V, a case study demonstrating problems associated with
introducing a technology is used as a springboard for an exercise in which







participants develop an action plan for discovering why the technology was not
adopted. Activity VI is a wrap up of the session.







Session III: USER PERSPECTIVE


Activity I: Define and re-define "user perspective". (5 min)


ACTIVITY


MATERIALS


5 min Solicit definitions/interpretations of "user perspective" from the
audience. Emphasize the interpretations that make it clear
that we want to examine the technology from the perspective
of all people who will be using the technology.


Activity II: State and explain objectives. (2 min)


TIME

2 min


ACTIVITY


Show flipchart with printed objectives, stating that at the end
of the session participants will be able to:


MATERIALS


Flipchart 1


1. Recognize the extent to which the effects of a new
technology are highly complex; a new technology affects a
variety of people in a variety of ways.
2. Identify those being impacted upon by the technology.
3. Identify how the technology impacts those being affected.


Activity III: Role play. (13 min)


ACTIVITY


MATERIALS


Employ a role play to facilitate discussioiron how a new
technology can have complex repercussions for many members
of a community. The players (who have received a pre-
assigned role on a written handout prior to the session)
include:


1. Male farmer
2. Female farmer (wife #1)
3. Female farmer (wife #2)
4. Villager
5. Male farmer's son
6. Teacher
7. Store owner
8. Headman
9. Iman


Handout 3.1
Handout 3.2
Handout 3.
Handout 3.
Handout 3-
Handout 3.6
Handout 3.7
Handout 3.8
Handout 3.9


TIME


TIME







8 min Role Play. Introduce the role play which is set at a village
meeting where discussion is taking place about the introduction
of a new technology -- a mule drawn plow. Throughout the
role play, participants will interject into the discussion their
concerns about how the technology will affect their lives.
Facilitator stays in the role of technology developer/provider
until the "Headman" speaks.


5 min Group Discussion. Discuss the role play with the large group,
focusing on the key point: Introduction of new technologies
has complex repercussions throughout local farming systems
and communities. It has an impact on many users. Include a
brief discussion with participants about "what happened?".
Point out that although some of the users' comments were
predictable, other users' concerns with the introduced
technology were completely unforeseen. Make the transition
to the sondeo by asking, "How can we identify all these
users?".


Activity IV: Conversational sondeo. (15 min)

TIME ACTIVITY MATERIALS

15 min Short Lecture. Introduce the conversational sondeo as a rapid
appraisal technique for identifying those people impacted by
technologies. The objective behind the sondeo is to gather
information, not just numbers. It is not a census or a survey,
but is designed to comprehend what is happening in a
particular situation by discerning who is affected by
technological introductions.

The sondeo is carried out by multidisciplinary teams without
the aid of a questionnaire. No notes are taken so that those
interviewed are more at ease and so that the interviewers will
concentrate more on what is being said than on taking notes.
By working in interdisciplinary teams the collective knowledge
base is extended and each team member will remember
different parts of the conversation. It is important to hav. a
sense.of what is being said, not just quantitative data. Ea, i
team member must train themselves to listen.







Participant application exercise: Sorghum case study. (30 min)


TIME ACTIVITY MATERIALS

5 min Introduction. Introduce a Guatemalan (or other) case study Slides
using slides. The case study is set in a dry area with small
farms on the rocky hillsides and larger farms in the valley.
Maize, sorghum, and beans are planted in consortium on the
hillsides. Land preparation involves gathering crop residue
not consumed by the livestock that traditionally graze after
harvest. There is no plowing or hoeing in the system. Rains
are fairly well distributed with a 2- to 4-week period in July or
August, after which beans are harvested. Maize requires the
rains that fall after the bean harvest, and is therefore
harvested in September/October. Sorghum is harvested in
November/December. The cropping system is well developed
for the area, and the key to success is sowing as soon as the
rains begin.

Three sorghum varieties (two yellow and a white variety) are
developed and thought to have excellent potential to improve
yield for the small farmers. The organization that developed
the varieties distributes the seed through store owners,
extensionists, and others to spread the technology as far as
possible. Many kilos are planted the year the seeds are
distributed, but none are planted the following year. The new
technology was not adopted.


10 min Small Group Exercise. Divide up the session participants into
three groups and give the following instructions:

1. Plan an approach for determining why the new technology
was not adopted. What type of methodology would you use
for discovering why the new sorghum varieties were not
planted the second year?
2. Prepare to give a 4-minute presentation of your group's
plan.


12 min Large.Group Discussion. Have each group pre- .nt the
approaches they developed.


3 min Case Study Conclusion. Tell what actually happened, i.e., why
the sorghum varieties were not adopted. Male researchers


Activity V:







were unable to discover why the varieties were rejected
because they had not requested the key information from
women. Eventually, the researchers requested assistance from
a female social scientist who quickly learned an important
detail: sorghum was planted not just for animal feed but also
for human consumption. Thus, the yellow varieties with high
tannin content were quickly rejected by the families. The
families also did not like to admit that they used sorghum for
making tortillas, as corn tortillas were preferred. Therefore
even though the white variety was suitable for human
consumption, they rejected it because the purple glums
associated with this white variety showed up in the tortillas,
"giving away" the sorghum ingredient.


Activity VI: Wrap-up. (5 min)

TIME ACTIVITY MATERIALS

5 min Summarize the session, reviewing the objectives and soliciting
questions.


Hand out the reading list.


Harxoout 3.10







DO NOT SHARE THIS WITH ANYONE ELSE


We would like you to take part in a brief role play that will
help demonstrate the complex nature of technology introduction.
Dr. Hildebrand will begin the exercise, your only task is to
speak up at the appropriate moment.

SCENE:
You are at a village meeting in the African Republic of
Nadalandia. The head of a local development agency, GENDERBLIND
Inc. (Dr. Hildebrand) has, in conjunction with the village
Headman, called a meeting to discuss the introduction of a new
technology that will increase cotton (the local cash crop)
production. The new technology is a mule-drawn plow.

YOUR ROLE:
Your name is Mohammed, you have two wives and 3 children,
one of whom is present at the meeting. You are excited about the
mule and plow technology because you will be able to prepare more
land in less time and therefore earn more money. You are also
excited about the status that will accompany the ownership of
such a visible technology (although you would never mention it to
anyone). Still, the prospect of increased status makes this plow
even more attractive. Your role is to raise your hand as Dr.
Hildebrand is completing his explanation of the plow and briefly
pledge your support based on the above information (ie. "My name
is Mohammed and as a farmer I think that this new plow will be
wonderful for our village because... and I am therefore willing
to experiment with it on my farm"). Others will follow with
other comments.







DO NOT SHARE THIS WITH ANYONE ELSE


We would like you to take part in a brief role-play that will
help demonstrate the complexity of technology introduction. Dr.
Hildebrand will begin the exercise, your only task is to speak up
at the appropriate moment.

SCENE:
You are at a village meeting in the African Republic of
Nadalandia. The head of a local development agency GENDERBLIND
INC. (Dr. Hildebrand) has, in conjunction with the village
headman, called a meeting to discuss the introduction of a new
technology that will increase cotton (the local cash crop)
production. The technology is a mule-drawn plow.

YOUR ROLE:
Your name is Gloria and you are one of Mohammed's two wives.
Hearing about the new plow and its justification makes you very
uncomfortable. After all, if more land is plowed and put under
cotton production, you will be required to do a lot more weeding,
thus taking time away from other important activities (like
caring for your children). Your role is to raise your hand after
Dr. Hildebrand has spoken of the plow and briefly voice your
concerns (ie. "My name is Gloria, and I do not like this idea of
increasing cotton production because then I will have too much
work to do...weeding... kids..etc.). Others will also be
speaking, so just jump in when you can.







DO NOT SHARE THIS WITH ANYONE ELSE


We would like you to take part in a brief role-play that will
help demonstrate the complexity of technology introduction. Dr.
Hildebrand will begin the exercise, your only task is to speak up
at the appropriate'moment.

SCENE:
You are at a village meeting in the African Republic of
Nadalandia. The head of a local development agency GENDERBLIND
INC. (Dr. Hildebrand) has, in conjunction with the village
headman, called a meeting to discuss the introduction of a new
technology that will increase cotton (the local cash crop)
.production. The technology is a mule-drawn plow.

YOUR ROLE:
Your name is Cindy and you are one of Mohammed's two wives.
Hearing about the new plow and its justification makes you very
uncomfortable. After all, if more land is plowed and put under
cotton production, you will likely lose land that you have been
using to grow food crops. This is a prospect that disturbs you
considerably because you must have crops in order to feed your
family. After Dr. Hildebrand and some others have offered their
opinions on the new plow technology, raise your hand and briefly
voice your concerns ("My name is Cindy and I am married to
Mohammed. I think this new plow is a very bad idea because...").
Others will speak before and after you.







DO NOT SHARE THIS WITH ANYONE ELSE


We would like you to take part in a brief role-play that will
help demonstrate the complexity of technology introduction. Dr.
Hildebrand will begin the exercise, your only task is to speak up
at the appropriate'moment.

SCENE:
You are at a village meeting in the African Republic of
Nadalandia. The head of a local development agency GENDERBLIND
INC. (Dr. Hildebrand) has, in conjunction with the village
headman, called a meeting to discuss the introduction of a new
technology that will increase cotton (the local cash crop)
production. The technology is a mule-drawn plow.

YOUR ROLE:
Your name is George and you are a local villager and thus a
farmer. You like the sound of this new plow technology, but you
are skeptical of the promise that it will be shared by the
villagers (ie. you are worried that your field will not be
plowed). Raise your hand and offer lukewarm support for the
project, but briefly express your concern that only a few may
benefit from this idea ("My name is George and I am a local
farmer. I feel that the donkey plow is an interesting idea but I
am quite worried about..."). Others will speak before and after
you so just raise your hand after Dr. Hildebrand and a few others
have spoken.







DO NOT SHARE THIS WITH ANYONE ELSE


We would like you to take part in a brief role-play that will
help demonstrate the complexity of technology introduction. Dr.
Hildebrand will begin the exercise, your only task is to speak up
at the appropriate'moment.

SCENE:
You are at a village meeting in the African Republic of
Nadalandia. The head of a local development agency GENDERBLIND
INC. (Dr. Hildebrand) has, in conjunction with the village
headman, called a meeting to discuss the introduction of a new
technology that will increase cotton (the local cash crop)
production. The technology is a mule-drawn plow.

YOUR ROLE:
You are a ten year old boy named Jean-Luc. You do not know
too much about plowing and field preparation, but you do know
that in your culture the children care for the animals. Owning a
mule would really be fun and you are certain that as Mohammed's
son it would be you who would be responsible for leading the mule
to pasture each day and watching over it. Your part in this
role-play requires you to raise your hand at the meeting and
after introducing yourself, briefly express your support for the
plow project (ie. "My name is Jean-Luc, I am 10 years old and the
son of Mohammed. As his son it is I who will care for the mule-
and thus feel that the project is good. I like mules"). Of
course, wait at least until your father Mohammed has spoken
before raising your hand to put in your two cents... Others will
also offer opinions.







DO NOT SHARE THIS WITH ANYONE ELSE


We would like you to take part in a brief role-play that will
help demonstrate the complexity of technology introduction. Dr.
Hildebrand will begin the exercise, your only task is to speak up
at the appropriate moment.

SCENE:
You are at a village meeting in the African Republic of
Nadalandia. The head of a local development agency GENDERBLIND
INC. (Dr. Hildebrand) has, in conjunction with the village
headman, called a meeting to discuss the introduction of a new
technology that will increase cotton (the local cash crop)
production. The technology is a mule-drawn plow.

YOUR ROLE:
Your name is Lee Ping and you are the local school teacher.
Hearing about the new mule and plow technology sounded
interesting to you until you heard Mohammed's son Jean-Luc
mention that he will accompany the mule to pasture each day and
watch over it. You realized then that this would mean that he
(and other children in the future) would be forced to miss
school. It is difficult enough for you to hold regular classes
when children do not have extra labor requirements, so you must
speak out against this new, poorly thought out technology. After
Dr. Hildebrand has spoken of the new plow, wait for little Jean-
Luc to speak and then raise your hand to speak briefly ("My name
is Lee Ping, I am the local school teacher and I must tell you
that I am concerned about this plow because..."). Others will
voice their opinions as well.







DO NOT SHARE THIS WITH ANYONE ELSE


We would like you to take part in a brief role-play that will
help demonstrate the complexity of technology introduction. Dr.
Hildebrand will begin the exercise, your only task is to speak up
at the appropriate moment.

SCENE:
You are at a village meeting in the African Republic of
Nadalandia. The head of a local development agency GENDERBLIND
INC. (Dr. Hildebrand) has, in conjunction with the village
headman, called a meeting to discuss the introduction of a new
technology that will increase cotton (the local cash crop)
production. The technology is a mule-drawn plow.

YOUR ROLE:
Your name is Latoya and you are the local store owner. When
you heard of the new plow technology, "naditas" (the currency of
Nadalandia) danced in your head. It is you who would be selling
the plows and parts and this excites you. You must voice your
support for the project at this meeting because you feel that
this could mean increased commerce for the village. After all,
if the experiment with farmer Mohammed works out many other
villagers will want plows. After Dr. Hildebrand an a few others
have spoken, raise your hand and briefly pledge your support ("My
name is Latoya and I own the local store. I think that this
village plow project is important because..."). Others will
voice their opinions before and after you.







DO NOT SHARE THIS WITH ANYONE ELSE


We would like you to take part in a brief role-play that will
help demonstrate the complexity of technology introduction. Dr.
Hildebrand will begin the exercise, your only task is to speak up
at the appropriate'moment.

SCENE:
You are at a village meeting in the African Republic of
Nadalandia. The head of a local development agency GENDERBLIND
INC. (Dr. Hildebrand) has, in conjunction with the village
headman, called a meeting to discuss the introduction of a new
technology that will increase cotton (the local cash crop)
production. The technology is a mule-drawn plow.

YOUR ROLE:
Your name is Mauricio and you are the village Headman. As
you listen to the proposal for the new mule plow technology and
its potential for increasing cotton production you are intrigued.
Although the original proposal indicated that the plow would be
tested by a local farmer, Mohammed, and then lent out to other
villagers, you are no longer happy with the plan. After all, as
Headman YOU should have rights to the plow and decisions about
its use. After listening to Dr. Hildebrand and the other seven
people offering their views on the subject, you should raise your
hand and in a strong, benevolent and dignified manner explain to
the people at the meeting that you have decided to keep the plow
for your farm to avoid any potential problems...case closed!
(ie. "My name is Mauricio and as the Headman of this village I
have listened with interest to the discussion about this new
plow. In order to avoid potential disagreements, I have decided
to use the plow on MY farm...").








DO NOT SHARE THIS WITH ANYONE ELSE


We would like you to take part in a brief role-play that will
help demonstrate the complexity of technology introduction. Dr.
Hildebrand will begin the exercise, your only task is to speak up
at the appropriate'moment.

SCENE:
You are at a village meeting in the African Republic of
Nadalandia. The head of a local development agency GENDERBLIND
INC. (Dr. Hildebrand) has, in conjunction with the village
headman, called a meeting to discuss the introduction of a new
technology that will increase cotton (the local cash crop)
production. The technology is a mule-drawn plow.

YOUR ROLE:
You are the Iman ("ee-mahn") or religious leader of this
village. You have been listening with increasing horror to the
discussion about the mule plow. Do the people not realize that
mules are not acceptable animals in your religion? After all,
they cannot reproduce which goes against the tenants of your
holy scripture! After all have spoken, and the Headman has
announced that he will, in fact, keep the plow, you must stand up
and be heard! (ie. "I am the Iman of this village and am
offended by this blasphamy! There will, in the name of God, be
NO mule in our village. Should anyone choose to have one, they
will surely bring shame and misery to the village as is indicated
in the holy scriptures. I cannot allow it!").







BACKGROUND READINGS


Feldstein, H.S. and S.V. Poats (eds). 1989. Working Together: Gender Analysis in
Agriculture, 2 volumes. Kumarian Press, Inc. West Hartford, CT.

Skonsberg, E. 1989. Change in an African Village: Kefa Speaks. Kumarian Press, Inc.
West Hartford, CT. 271p.







USER PERSPECTIVE

Evaluation
Please circle the number that best describes your answer to the following statements.


Very Littlz
1


S1. My understand of the
complexity of introducing
a proposed technology increased.

2. My understanding of the
importance of identifying those
being impacted upon by the
technology increased

3. My understanding of the
importance of identifying how the
technology impacts those being
affected increased


4. What did you like most about this session?


5. What could be improved?


6. Please rate the instructor on the following items:


Poor

1I


Content


Presentation


Somewhat Much Ver,' Much
2 3 4


7. Comments


Please complete the form and return it via campus mail by folding in half so the address on back is showing.


Not too
Good
2



2

2


Satisfactory G ood Excellent


4 5


4 5

4 5
















Total Time:


Rationale:










Learning
Objectives:







Materials:


Gender Analysis and Training Techniques

Session IV: DATA COLLECTION: WHO DOES WHAT WHEN,
DETERMINING ACCESS AND CONTROL


OVERVIEW

70 minutes


Many agricultural research and extension projects are focused on generating new
technologies and extending them to small producers. The collection of information
that allows the researcher or extensionist to identify gender and age-based
differences within the household is crucial for increasing adoption of newly-
generated technologies. This session helps participants to examine how
information is gathered from rural households in many research and development
projects. Often the institutions conducting the research are poor, understaffed, and
with limited capabilities for quantitative data analysis, and thus must prudently
choose the kinds of data they will collect.


At the end of this session participants will be able to:
1. Determine what kinds of data can be utilized to examine inter- and intra-
household differences in such factors as: (a) access to and control over
resources, (b) division of labor, and (c) social organization.
2. Determine what kinds of data are needed for the purpose of predicting
adoption of improved agricultural technologies, after examining a specific case
from Zaire.


* Overhead projector
* Overheads:
4.1) Objectives
4.2) Structure of SENARAV
4.3) RAV II Project
4.4) Organizations involved in extension in Zaire
4.5) R & D team organization
4.6) R & D team rs.; ,"onsibilities
4.7) What kinds of c,.,ta may be of interest?
4.8) Questions for t: ought
* Handouts:
4.1) Gender and Age in the Rural Zairian Household: A Case Study of the
Effects of Inter and Intra-household Differences on the Adoption of
Improved Technologies" (3 pages)
4.2) Gender training module #4, Working group 1







4.3)
4.4)
4.5)
4.6)
4.7)
4.8)


Gender training module
Gender training module
Gender training module
Gender training module
Small group discussions
Evaluation form


#4, Working group 2
#4, Working group 3
#4, Working group 4
#4, Working group 5


Background Handout 4.1.
Readings:


Procedure:


Activity I gives the background information on the national agronomic research
and extension institution in Zaire that serves as the case study. Small group work
in Activity II helps participants to examine various adoption hypotheses and to
determine what kinds of data would be necessary to collect in order to test the
hypotheses. The summary in Activity III serves to stimulate the participants to
think about methods of data collection that may be used in their work.







Session IV: DATA COLLECTION: WHO DOES WHAT WHEN,
DETERMINING ACCESS AND CONTROL


Activity I: Introduction. '(25 min)


ACTIVITY


TIME

3 min


MATERIALS


Overhead 4.1


Show overhead and explain the objectives of the training
session:

1. Determine what kinds of data can be utilized to examine
inter- and intra-household differences in such factors as:
(a) access to and control over resources, (b) division of labor,
and (c) social organization.
2. Determine what kinds of data are needed for the purpose
of predicting adoption of improved agricultural technologies,
after examining a specific case from Zaire.

Give a brief overview of the activities for the session.


Short Lecture. Introduce background information for the
case studies. Locate Zaire on a map and briefly describe the
country. Describe SENARAV (National Service of Applied
Agronomic Research and Extension) as an organization that
generates agricultural technologies to benefit small farmers.

Briefly review the structure of SENARAV, focusing on the
research and development (R & D) unit. Within this unit,
R & D teams were organized on a regional level, and were
backstopped by a farming systems unit at a research station.
Upon reviewing technology transfer within the R & D unit, it
was concluded that in reality extension did not take place
within this unit because of staff shortages. However, further
inquiry revealed that extension was taking place through
several hundred state and non-governmental organizations.
Thus it was determined that the weak areas in the technology
innovation process within the R & D unit included (a) area-
specific research and (b) technical liaison and support, given
the fact that various organizations in Zaire carried out
extension of newly developed technologies.

The regional R & D teams of the R & D unit were composed
of a regional supervisor and two or three local teams. Local
teams usually included two members with formal training in


map cfAfica





OCeihead 42



COerhead 43




Oxertead 43


Overhead 4.4


OCerhead 45


22 min







agronomy and one with some training in rural development. A
review of R & D team responsibilities demonstrated that the
teams served to provide the missing link between research and
extension.

In order to carry out their responsibilities, each R & D team
needed to collect socio-economic data for their local area.
Repeat the fact that the intention of SENARAV was not to
study the rural household per se. The goal was to understand
the gender-based division of labor within the household to
increase the probability that SENARAV-generated
technologies would be adopted. Review in some detail the
many kinds of data that may be of interest to SENARAV, but
caution about the differences between "data that would be nice
to have" and "data that is absolutely necessary". Data
collection by the R & D teams was designed to make
SENARAV more responsive to farmers, however available
money and staff were insufficient to carry out extensive data
collection.


O erhead 4.6











Overhead 4.7


Activity II: SENARAV examples. (35 min)


ACTIVITY


Instructions. Introduce the five examples that will be
examined by participants. Explain that they must determine:
(a) whether the hypothesis can be tested, and (b) what data to
collect for SENARAV in order to test each hypothesis. Divide
participants into five groups, giving each group their respective
hypothesis and a copy of the instructions for the small group
discussions. Tell the groups that they have 20 minutes to
complete the tasks, and that they will be asked to summarize
their results for the rest of the group.

Small Group Activity. Each participant group examines their
hypothesis, and determines the types of data they should
collect in order to test the hypothesis.


Large. Group Presentations. Each group has three minutes to
report the results of their small group discussion. The
facilitator should be very familiar with each of the 5 examples,
particularly the types of data that might be important to
collect. However, the facilitator should add his/her remarks
during the discussion only when absolutely necessary. The


MATERIALS


Handouts
4.2 4.6
Handout 4.7


TIME

20 min


15 min







point is to demonstrate the complexity of research given
limited resources, and the variety of approaches and data
collection techniques that may be used.


Activity III: Summary. (10 min)

TIME ACTIVITY MATERIALS

10 min Short Lecture. Summarize the session, reiterating the
: emphasis within SENARAV on collecting only information that
we had to know rather than all that we wanted to know.
Ultimately SENARAV decided to spend 50% of their efforts
on field trials and 50% on the collection of socio-economic
information.

Show the overhead and leave participants with the following Overhead 48
questions:

1. What are the differences between the approach to studying
the household introduced in the last session and today?
2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the two
approaches to data collection that you have discussed during
the last two sessions?
3. How could you apply these two approaches in your own
work?

Point out that the approach presented during the last session
emphasized general data collection of a more descriptive, or
qualitative nature, while today's session concentrated on
collecting specific numerical, or quantitative, data for the
purpose of prediction. Although the approaches are distinctly
different, they should be thought of as complementary
methods, with each being more appropriate for certain goals
and situations.







Determine what kinds of data can be utilized to

examine inter and intra-household differences in

such factors as: access to and control over

resources, division of labor, and social

organization.





Examine a specific case from Zaire, Central

Africa, in order to determine what kinds of data

are needed for the purpose of predicting adoption

of improved agricultural technologies.






STRUCTURE OF SENARAV
(SERVICE NATIONAL DE RECHERCHE AGRONOMIQUE APPLIQUEE ET VULGARISATION)





RAV II PROJECT


FIGURE 1. THE TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION PROCESS





ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN EXTENSION IN ZAIRE


STATE ORGANIZATIONS

SENASEM (Service National de Semence)
SNV (Service National de Vulgarisation)
SENAFIC (Service National de Fertilizantes et Intrants Connexes)
SNR (Service National de Reboisement)
INERA (Institut National de Recherche Agronomique)
L'lnspecteur de I'Agriculture

NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (312 total at last count)

Religious

Catholic
Kimbanguiste
Protestant Denominations

Locally Based NGO's

Farmers' Cooperatives
Indigenous Farmers Groups
Farmers' Collectives

Non-Local NGO's


Outside Funded Projects





R & D TEAM ORGANIZATION

REGIONAL SUPERVISOR

AO, 5 YEAR AGRICULTURAL DEGREE


LOCAL


TEAMS


(2-3 PER REGION)


A1, 3 YEAR AGRICULTURAL DEGREE

A2, 2 YEAR AGRICULTURAL DEGREE

2 YEAR RURAL DEVELOPMENT OR
AGRICULTURAL DEGREE, MUST
SPEAK LOCAL LANGUAGE





R & D TEAM RESPONSIBILITIES

1. CONDUCT ON-FARM TRIALS AND
SOCIO-ECONOMIC RESEARCH,
PRIMARILY RESPONSIBLE FOR
PRODUCTION TRIALS.

2. COORDINATE AND REVIEW ON-
FARM TRIALS AND SOCIO-
ECONOMIC DATA COLLECTION BY
PRIMARY COLLABORATORS,
PRIMARILY PRE-DISSEMINATION
TRIALS.

3. PROVIDE TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
TO PRIMARY COLLABORATORS.

4. PROVIDE SITE SPECIFIC TECHNICAL
TRAINING TO PRIMARY
COLLABORATORS.

5. CONDUCT PERIODIC EVALUATIONS.
OF PRIMARY COLLABORATORS.





WHAT KINDS OF DATA MAY BE
OF INTEREST?

DIVISION OF LABOR

ACCESS TO RESOURCES (LAND,
LABOR, CAPITAL)

CONTROL OVER RESOURCES

RESPONSIBILITIES OTHER THAN
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

CHILD BEARING
FOOD PREPARATION
FOOD PROCESSING
MARKETING

HOUSEHOLD ORGANIZATION

COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION




WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES
BETWEEN THE APPROACH TO
STUDYING THE HOUSEHOLD
INTRODUCED IN THE LAST SESSION
AND TODAY?

WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES AND
DISADVANTAGES OF THE TWO
APPROACHES TO DATA COLLECTION
THAT YOU HAVE DISCUSSED DURING
THE LAST TWO SESSIONS?

HOW COULD YOUAPPLY THESE TWO
APPROACHES IN YOUR OWN WORK?






GENDER TRAINING MODULE 4
M. E. Swisher, Home Economics

Gender and Age in the Rural Zairian Household:
A Case Study of the Effects of Inter and Intra-Household
Differences on the Adoption of Improved Technologies

In many agricultural development projects, even household level data are not
collected. In other cases, some data, often descriptive, about the household
are collected, but the data are rot disaggregated by gender or age.

On the other hand, a growing body of literature exists which describes .the rural
household in some detail. These studies are frequently conducted by social
scientists. This body of literature amply demonstrates that the household
cannot be regarded as a homogeneous unit. Gender and age based differences
exist within the household and individual household members' access to and
control over resources vary, as do the contribution of different household
members to agricultural production, processing of food and fiber, and
marketing, for example.

As a result of these studies, many agricultural scientists now recognize that
both inter and intra-household differences exist in the rural population.
However, it appears that this recognition has not, by and large, led to a more
sophisticated approach to the role of gender and age in determining household
decision-making. Yet, many decisions that will affect the success or failure of
agricultural development are made not by the household as a whole, but by
individuals within the household. Further, even where final decisions do
represent a "household level" consensus, this consensus may be the result of
overt or covert bargaining on the part of different members of the household.

Objectives

Our activities today are based on a actual agricultural development project in
Zaire, Central Africa. First, we will have a brief introduction to SENARAV
(Service National de Recherche Agronomique Appliquee et Vulgarisation) and
its mission and goals. Then, we will break into small groups to examine five
hypothes.,es that were developed by SENARAV's Research and Development
Teams., Our task is to determine what kinds of data should be collected to test
each of these hypotheses.


Our specific objectives are to:






Determine what kinds of data can be utilized to examine inter and intra-
household differences in such factors as: access to and control over
resources, division of labor, and social organization.

Examine a specific case from Zaire, Central Africa, in order to determine
what kinds of data are needed for the purpose of predicting adoption of
improved agricultural technologies.

Background

SENARAV generates agricultural technologies. Most technologies developed
to date consist of improved varieties of corn, manioc, and grain legumes.
Extending these technologies to Zaire's millions of farmers, predominantly
women in many regions, is SENARAV's ultimate goal.

The hypotheses that we will examine therefore all deal with how gender and
age-based differences within the household affect the adoption of these
technologies by farmers. In other words, our intention in SENARAV was not
to study the rural household per se. Rather, we were interested in how such
factors as the sexual division of labor within the household will affect the
probability that SENARAV-generated technologies will be.acceptable to farmers.


Just as we had to keep this in mind when we determined our data collection
needs, so will you. I repeatedly warned our technicians about the differences
between "data it would be nice to have" and "data we must have." I
encourage you to keep the same constraints in mind. We are collecting data
for purposes of decision-making within SENARAV. Should we conduct more
research about A or B? Should we plan on making more improved corn seed
or manioc cuttings available next year? How will we select collaborating
outreach entities? SENARAV is a small, underfunded organization. Operating
costs in rural areas are extremely high in Zaire. Data collection, even simple
field plot data collection, is a difficult undertaking. In short, I ask you to enter
into the spirit of our efforts as you work through these materials today: you're
poor, understaffed, and have limited analytical capabilities.

These are only five of many hypotheses that were developed by these teams.
They were selected because I felt that they were particularly relevant to the
issues that we have been discussing in these training sessions. I will remind
you that these hypotheses were developed by agricultural technicians, most
with two or three years of post-high school training.


Module 4 Gender Training






The Hypotheses


For your information, the five hypotheses that we will examine are provided
below. We will be working in five small groups, each dealing with only one of
these hypotheses.

Hypothesis 1:

As markets for corn and peanuts, traditionally produced by women, decline in
Bandundu, women will devote more time to hunting and less time to agricultural
production. These changes in labor allocation will negatively affect the rate of
adoption of SENARA V's improved varieties Kasail and Shaba II (corn) and JL24
(peanut).

Hypothesis 2:

The gender of the para-technical or technical assistant affects the rate of
adoption of SENARA V-generated technologies.

Hypothesis 3:

Adoption of the improved peanut varieties JL24 and JL85 will be positively
affected by membership of women in women's work squads in Kasai Occiden-
tal.

Hypothesis 4:

Increasing population in Kinshasa increases the demand for processed manioc
products (chikwonga and cossettes). Increased demand for processed manioc
products increases the labor demands placed on women and children in Bas
Zaire. These changes in labor demands willresult in increased rates of adoption
for 1-24/31 and decreased rates of adoption of F-100.

Hypothesis 5:

Women's access to revenues from manioc production is declining in Kasai
Oriental. Women will therefore move to the production of higher value crops,
including peanuts, leading to increased adoption of peanut varieties JL24 and
JL85 in Kasai Oriental.


Module 4 Gender Training






GENDER TRAINING MODULE #4
WORKING GROUP 1

Hypothesis

Changes in labor allocation in Bandandu will negatively affect the rate of
adoption of SENARA V's improved varieties Kasai land Shaba II (corn) and JL24
(peanut).


Kinshasa traditionally represented an urban market for agricultural produce from
Bandundu. The road from Kinshasa to Bandundu has seriously deteriorated in
recent years. Many "manioc" (they actually carry all types of products) trucks
travelling to and from Bandundu have ceased making the trip. Therefore, the
market for corn and beans in Bandundu declined.

As markets for corn and peanuts, traditionally produced by women, decline in
Bandundu, we observed that women appeared to be devoting more time to
hunting and less time to agricultural production. We were not sure of the
magnitude of this change in labor allocation.

Our hypothesis stated above is based on the fact that both corn and peanuts
are relatively labor intensive crops. Further, the labor demand for corn and
peanut production occurs at more or less the same time of the year in
Bandundu. Finally, labor to produced these crops must be provided in a timely
manner. Weeding, for example, must occur within a relatively short period of
time.

Although not stated in the hypothesis above, _we also hypothesized that the
changes in labor allocation from agriculture to hunting would have a positive
effect on the adoption of improved manioc varieties. Manioc, unlike corn and
peanuts, is a relatively low labor input crop. Further, the demand for labor for
manioc is spread over a long period of time, nor must labor be provided in a
very timely manner. Manioc, too, has a market in Kinshasa, although it is, of
course, a much lower value crop than corn and beans.






GENDER TRAINING MODULE #4
WORKING GROUP 2

Hypothesis

The gender of the para-technical or technical assistant affects the rate of
adoption of SENARA V-generated technologies by women.


SENARAV works with food crops, most of which are produced by women in
the areas in Zaire where we worked. The collaborating outreach agencies
which perform the actual "extension" function for SENARAV normally use
either paid or volunteer para-technical or technical assistants as "extension-
agents."

This hypothesis was an important one for us in SENARAV. We utilized a
number of criteria to select collaborating outreach agencies. One criterion was
the number of women farmers receiving technical assistance from the agency.
Another was the number (or percentage) of para-technical and technical assis-
tants in the agency who were female. Therefore, it was important for us to
know whether the gender of the technical assistant actually had an impact on
adoption rate.

Do not forget that we worked in five of Zaire's provinces. The degree to which
women were responsible for the production of corn, manioc, and grain legumes
varied from region to region. In addition, women's access to and control over
household resources also varied both between and among regions. .Therefore,
although testing this hypothesis may seem quite straightforward, we found that
the data collection needs were quite extensive because of the large number of
potentially intervening factors.






GENDER TRAINING MODULE #4
WORKING GROUP 3

Hypothesis

Adoption of the improved peanut varieties JL24 and JL85 will be positively
affected by membership of women in women's work squads in Kasai Occiden-
tal

JL24 and JL85 both respond very positively to (1) tillage prior to planting and
(2) frequency of weeding. Where no tillage occurs and/or where weeding is
infrequent, these two varieties outperform traditional varieties only marginally.
Therefore, these two varieties can be called "high labor demand" varieties.

In Kasai Occidental farmers organize themselves in a number of ways. In'some
villages, almost all work is performed individually. In other villages, women
work in groups or squads. Our hypothesis is that the high labor demand of
JL24 and JL85 can be more effectively met where women work in groups.
Therefore, these varieties should exhibit higher yields relative to traditional
varieties in villages where work groups exist.






GENDER TRAINING MODULE #4
WORKING GROUP 4

Hypothesis

Greater demand for women's and children's labor to produce processed manioc
products (chikwonga and cossettes) in Bas Zaire and will result in increased
rates of adoption for 1-24/31 and decreased rates of adoption of F- 100.


Kinshasa's population, like that of the capital city in many developing nations,
has increased greatly in population over the last two decades. Unprocessed
manioc roots are bulky and heavy to transport and have limited shelf life.
Transportation costs amount to an extremely high percentage of the total
market value of food products in Zaire because of the poor transportation
system. Refrigeration or others methods of extending the shelf life of fresh
produce are not available to the majority of urban dwellers. Therefore, many
urban dwellers prefer to purchase chikwonga (a sort of manioc paste) or cos-
settes (manioc chips) than fresh manioc tubers. The cost is probably (although
we are not sure of this) lower per kilo of actual nutrients and the processed
products definitely have a longer shelf life.

Clearly, selling chikwonga or cossettes instead of manioc tubers increases the
labor demand for the rural household. Processing manioc is primarily done by
women and children.

F-100 has a relatively low percentage dry matter, not much higher than many
traditional manioc varieties. F-100 routinely outyields .traditional varieties in
terms of tubers, even under poor production conditions. The low dry matter
content, however, means that processing is a lengthy and labor-consuming
process. The final finished product yield of F-100, particularly of cossettes, will
not be much higher than that of several traditional varieties.

1-24/31 is a new variety in its second year of release by SENARAV. Its total
production (wet tuber weight) per unit area is slightly less than that of F-100
and it does not produce as well as F-100 (relative to local varieties) under poor
;production conditions. However, it has a much higher dry matter content than
F-100. It is therefore easier to process.

Both F-100 and 1-24/31 have important characteristics, particularly resistance
to mosaic which is a major disease of manioc in Bas Zaire. Local varieties are,
in general, highly susceptible to mosaic.






GENDER TRAINING MODULE #4
WORKING GROUP 5

Hypothesis

Decreased access to income from manioc sales will lead to increased adoption
of peanut varieties JL24 and JL85 in Kasai Oriental.


Kinshasa traditionally represented an urban market for agricultural produce from
Kasai Oriental. Roads from Kinshasa to Kasai Oriental have seriously deteriorat-
ed in recent years. In the eighteen months prior to September, 1991, air trans-
port to N'Gandajika (provincial capital) also declined. As a result, the market
for peanuts (as did market opportunities for corn and manioc) in N'Gandajika
declined. Given that sale of food crops is a major source of income for wdmen,
the loss of market revenues reduced the proportion of household income earned
by and controlled by women in the province.

We in SENARAV hypothesized that women might try to offset the reduced
income from sales of food crops generally by increasing production of the
higher value crops, particularly peanuts. The higher .value crops generally
(peanuts, beans, cowpeas, etc.) have higher labor requirements than manioc.

Among peanut varieties, JL24 and JL85 can be called "high labor demand"
varieties. JL24 and JL85 both respond very positively to (1) tillage prior to
planting and (2) frequency of weeding. Where no tillage occurs and/or where
weeding is infrequent, these two varieties outperform traditional varieties only
marginally. On the.other hand, both varieties show significant resistance to
two of the most important diseases of peanuts in the region, either of which
can cause devastating yield reductions.






SMALL GROUP DISCUSSIONS

You have been provided with background information regarding one of the five
hypotheses for discussion in your group. Your task is to determine:

(1) Whether the hypothesis can be tested; and, if the hypothesis can
be tested,

(2) What types of data the R&D Teams should collect in order to test
this hypothesis.

Your group will be asked to make a five minute presentation. You will have
twenty minutes to complete your exercise. You may reformulate the,
hypothesis.







DATA COLLECTION, WHO DOES WHAT WHEN, DETERMINING
ACCESS AND CONTROL
Session 4
Evaluation

Please circle the number that best describes your answer to the following statements.


SVery Little


Somewhat Much Vcr MNuch
2 3 4


1. My understanding of the
kinds of data that can be
utilized to examine inter and
intra-household differences in such
factors as: access to and control
over resources, division of labor and
social organization increased.

2. My understanding of the
kinds of data needed for the
purpose of predicting adoption
of improved agricultural technologies
increased.


3. What did you like most about this session?


4. What could be improved?


5. Please rate the instructor on the following items:


Poor

I


Content


Not too
Good
2



2


Satisfactory Good ExcerIk t


4 5


4 5

4 5


6. Comments


Please complete the form and return it via campus mail by folding in half so the address on back is showing.


Presentation







Gender Analysis and Training Techniques


Session V: WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT TRAINING
IN INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES


OVERVIEW


Total Time:


Rationale:











Learning
Objectives:


Materials:


70 minutes


This session is the first of four sessions focusing on Gender Analysis training.
These sessions are designed to give the participants the educational skills and.
knowledge that will enable them to train others in Gender Analysis. Women in
Development and Gender Analysis training have been carried out by international
research and development institutions for the past ten years with various audiences.
Numerous conceptual approaches and training methodologies have been employed
at the various levels of development work. It is important to review these training
not only to learn from past mistakes, but also to gain an appreciation of the
historical development of this field.


At the end of this session participants will be able to:
1. Distinguish between: (a) Training women, (b) Training men and women,
(c) Women in Development (WID) training, and (d) Gender Analysis (GA)
training.
2. Describe the current thrust of GA training in the international development
agencies.
3. Identify two conceptual frameworks applied in GA training.
4. Recoghize and characterize different target groups which need to be trained
in Gender Analysis.


* Flipcharts 1-2
* Overhead projector
* Overheads:
5.1) Major development agencies
5.2) Gender definitions
5.3) Gender Analysis framework
5.4) Gender planning framework
5.5) Policy approaches
5.6) Target groups
* VCR
* FAO videotape (if available)
* Handouts:
5.1) U.N. structure







CGIAR centers
Gender planning in the Third World (Moser)
Reading list
Evaluation form


Procedure:


This session is divided into six main activities. Activity I states the objectives and
sets the stage. Two examples of international training are covered in Activity II.
Different conceptual frameworks used in Gender Analysis are described in Activity
III, focusing on two of the most common approaches. Activity IV addresses the
types of training frameworks and methodologies that might be most appropriate
for the various target groups participating in training. Activity V shows a brief
video clip of FAO's Gender Analysis Workshops. The session is summarized in
Activity VI.


5.2)
5.3)
5.4)
5.5)


Background See Handout 5.4.
Readings:







Session V: WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT TRAINING
IN INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES


Activity I: State and explain objectives, and set the stage. (10 min)


ACTIVITY


TIME

5 min


MATERIALS


Flipchart 1


Show flipchart with printed objectives, stating that by the end
of the session participants will be.able to:

1. Distinguish between: (a) training women, (b) training
men and women, (c) Women in Development (WID) training,
and (d) Gender Analysis (GA) training.
2. Describe the current thrust of GA training in the
international development agencies.
3. Identify two conceptual frameworks applied in GA training.
4. Recognize and characterize different target groups which
need to be trained in Gender Analysis.

Make it clear that for objective 1, "a" and "b" are different
target groups, while "c" and "d" are conceptually two different
topics. Training in various international agencies will be
discussed so that participants understand the differences
between the Gender Analysis training they are currently
receiving in an academic setting versus what occurs at
development agencies operating in an international setting.


In order to help set the stage for discussing WID and GA
training in international agencies, review some definitions and
acronyms common in the international arena. Explain the
differences between bilateral and multilateral agencies, and
briefly mention the major international development agencies.
Review the concepts of gender, Gender Analysis, and
differentiate between WID versus GA. Emphasize that there
are all sorts of permutations of WID and GA. Mention that
the popularity of WID and GA training within international
agencies is a relatively new phenomenon, and that interest is
growing rapidly.


SOverhead 5.1


Overhead 52


5 min







Activity II: Two examples of international training. (30 min)


TIME ACTIVITY MATERIALS

15 min Small Lecture. For the first example, report on preparation Handout 5.1
for Gender Analysis training within the Food and Agriculture
Organization (FAO) of the United. Nations. Be sure to cover
the main points listed below. It is recommended that the
facilitator also review the FAO documents referenced in the
reading list for an improved understanding of the FAO
example.

FAO's preparation for GA training involved two major steps:
steps: (a) conducting a needs assessment, and (b) reviewing
pilot workshops.

The needs assessment was designed to examine what type of
training might best address the needs of FAO and the various
organizations with which FAO works. As part of the
assessment, a paper was commissioned to review how ten
other major international development institutions had
addressed GA and WID training. The paper identified six key
points for a successful training:

1. There must be an explicit mandate for the training from
the organization that is to receive the training. The higher the
management level from which the training is requested the
better. Support from upper management may improve
coordination and delivery of the training, encourage full
participation by those attending, and ensure better assimilation
of the information into the mainstream of the organization.
However, wide support at all levels of the organization is also
necessary.

2. Knowledge and skills assimilated during training in WID or
GA may easily be adapted to improve other aspects of
participants' work.

3. The training program should be managed by a core team
of trainers provided with good logistical support and adequate
preparation time. Training should also be evaluated on a
regular basis.

4. It is best to employ WID and GA experts as trainers and to
teach them how to become good trainers, rather than to
select professional trainers and instruct them on WID and GA







issues. Self-confidence is an important attribute of a good
trainer.

5. The case study method lends itself well to training in
international agencies, although the case study might need to
be region or country specific.

6. Training techniques and methodologies should be carefully
selected.

FAO sponsored three pilot workshops in an attempt to further
identify the type of training that would best meet the
organization's needs. FAO borrowed different features of
these pilot workshops and designed in-house workshops
attended by over 700 senior professionals. FAO personnel
were also trained at their regional offices, with training
materials tailored to the culture and language of the area.


15 min Short Lecture. Report on the second example, training for the
Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research
(CGIAR) headquartered at the World Bank. Be sure to
include the points outlined below, and again. It is
recommended that the facilitator review the CGIAR
document referenced in the reading list for improved
understanding of the CGIAR example.

CGIAR centers are located all over the world with each Handout 52
center focusing on a particular agronomic system or crop.
Therefore, center-specific training is necessary to take into
account the nature of the research and the cultural
environment of each center.

Per donor request, WID/GA training was initiated within
CGIAR centers as part of a dual effort to better address
gender issues in the development arena and to examine the
staffing of women in the centers. A four-person team was
organized to carry out a two-year study of these issues. Data
were collected through a center-wide survey and visits to
several centers.

Gender Analysis and/or WID activities varied greatly in
amount and kind between the centers. It was determined that
GA workshops could improve the research and extension
capabilities of all staff, even at centers where Gender Analysis
activities were already occurring.







The trainers ultimately targeted those research programs that
contained a user perspective component. They gained a good
deal of acceptance with this approach, and eventually were
able to train center scientists in Gender Analysis as well as
train others'in how to carry out GA workshops.


Activity III: Conceptual frameworks used in Gender Analysis. (8 min)


ACTIVITY


TIME

8 min


MATERIALS


Overhead 53



Overiead 5.4








Handout 53



Overhead 55


Short Lecture. There are many conceptual frameworks with
which to carry out GA/WID training. Two of the most
common approaches are the Gender Analysis Framework and
the Gender Planning Framework.

Briefly review the Gender Analysis Framework emphasizing
that it is a technique of looking at activities by gender and
age.

Review the Gender Planning Framework conceived by Moser,
stating that this model is usually applied in an urban setting.
State that in WID training, Moser makes distinctions between
practical and strategic needs, as well as the different policy
approaches taken when addressing Third World women.
According to Moser, women often prioritize their needs
wanting to address practical needs first as these needs are
often felt more urgently by women. Addressing strategic
needs implies changing the entire social system. Pass out
Handout 5.3 and review the five basic policy approaches used
in WID. Make the following points for each of the respective
approaches:

1. The welfare approach is still used most often by
international agencies, in part because it is nonchallenging to
the social structure. Women are seen as passive beneficiaries
of development.

2. The equity. apprci.": is usually not popular with
governments. It is crij;cized as being Western feminism, and
is sometimes consider:: d threatening to governments.

3. Anti-poverty is easy for all to accept as it uses a
sympathetic argument and meets women's practical needs.






4. Efficiency is the most popular with governments and
multilateral agencies. Women are seen entirely in terms of
delivery capacity and ability to extend the working day.

5. Empowerment as an issue has been introduced into the
policy arena primarily by Third World women. It is
sometimes viewed as anti-colonial, emphasizing Third World
women's self reliance. It tends to be unpopular with
governments.


Activity IV: Addressing different target groups. (8 min)


ACTIVITY


MATERIALS


Short Lecture. Show the overhead, "Target Groups", and
emphasize the main points: : Facilitators must know their
target group before attempting to deliver a message, and must
adjust their training accordingly. The first three groups differ
in the amount of monetary power they wield, level of
education, and personal and professional agendas. For
example, policy makers have power and are in charge of the
budget; they are also often male and more accustomed to
traditional educational methods. It is also important to
differentiate between international, national, and local target
groups. ."Tripartite training" refers to training at headquarters,
donor agencies, and/or host governments.


Brainstorming. Ask participants to turn to a partner and
brainstorm about the characteristics of one of the three first
groups, and the types of training frameworks and
methodologies that would be appropriate when targeting that
group. Give each group two minutes to perform the task, and
inform them that they will have approximately three minutes
to summarize their ideas for the larger audience.

Large Group Report. Jot down the results for each of the
three grou;,,. on a flipchart. Participant summaries will make
it clear that different methodological approaches are necessary
when .addressing varied target groups.


TIME

3 min














2 min


3 min


Overhead 56


Flipchart 2






Activity V: Video: FAO Gender Analysis workshops. (3 min)


ACTIVITY

If available,'show a video clip of some of the participant
responses to the FAO Gender Analysis workshops.


MATERIALS


Videotape


Activity VI: Wrap-up. (1 min)


ACTIVITY


MATERIALS


Briefly summarize the session.


TIME

3 min


TIME

1 min





BILATERAL: (two sides) nation to nation; in development
usually donor to recipient nation

MULTILATERAL: (many sides); usually many nations or
governments participate; in development an international
agency such as the World Bank, IMF, the United Nations
and any of its specialized agencies, i.e., FAO, UNDP;
UNFPA; IFAD; ILO; UNIFEM; INSTRAW; HABITAT;
WHO; UNSO; etc.

PVO/NGO: Private Voluntary Organization
Non-governmental Organization; may be international or
local, but is not connected to government; may be civic,
religious; focused on a topic or cause

CGIAR: Consultative Group for International Agricultural
Research

USAID: United States Agency for International
Development

CIDA: Canadian Agency for International Development

SIDA: Swedish Agency for International Development

ODA: (British) Overseas Development Agency

Norad; Finida; Danida


GTZ: German





GENDER: Refers to the social differences that are learned,
changeable over time, and have wide variations within and
between cultures. Gender is a socio-economic variable to
analyze roles, responsibilities, constraints and opportunities
of the people involved; it considers both women and men.


GENDER ANALYSIS: Is the systematic effort to
document and understand the roles of women and men
within a given context. Key issues include

(a) the division of labor for both productive and
reproductive activities

(b) the resources individuals can utilize to carry out
their activities and the benefits they derive from them, in
terms of both access and control

(c) the relationship of the above to the social,
economic and environmental factors that constrain
development


WID VERSUS GENDER ANALYSIS: Early efforts in
WID focused on highlighting the important roles of women
and in documenting women's inequitable position in society
and in the development process. Gender Analysis
considers the activities and responsibilities of both women
and men and the similar and/or different impacts that
policies, programs and project activities may have on each.





GENDER ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK--Overholt, Cloud,
Anderson, & Austin

Women's contribution to development not recognized, but
projects can be redesigned; purpose of the analysis is to
give visibility to women's contributions.

Activity Profile
production of goods and services
reproduction and maintenance of human resources

gender and age denomination
time allocations
activity locus/place
agricultural calendar

Access and Control Profile

Resources
Land, labor, equipment, capital, education/
training

Benefits
Outside income, assets ownership; in-kind goods;
education, political power/prestige







GENDER PLANNING FRAMEWORK--MOSER


PGN: PRACTICAL GENDER NEEDS: needs that are
formulated from the concrete conditions women experience
in their position in the sexual division of labor; they do not
generally entail a goal such as emancipation or gender
equality

SGN: STRATEGIC GENDER NEEDS: needs that are
formulated from the analysis of women's subordination in
relation to men, and which are identified as leading to an
alternative, more equal organization of society






POLICY APPROACHES


WELFARE: social welfare approach, bring women into
development as better mothers, i.e.,. reproductive roles,
nutrition, family planning stressed; women are passive
beneficiaries; popular with governments & NGOs as non-
threatening, meets PGN

EQUITY: original WID approach, bring women in as
active participants to gain equity (parity); reduce inequality
with men through top-down interventions; threatening and
not popular with governments; meets SGN

ANTI-POVERTY: toned down equity linked to
redistribution with growth and basic needs; assist poor
women to increase productivity, especially in small-scale
income generation; tendency to focus on productive roles in
isolated ways; popular with some NGOs; meets PGN

EFFICIENCY: current predominant WID approach;
women's economic participation associated with more
efficient and equitable development, especially in terms of
stabilization and adjustment; women viewed in the context
of the delivery of services; popular with governments and
multilateral agencies; meets PGN

EMPOWERMENT: view of Third World women and
grassroots organizations to empower women through
greater self-reliance; anti-colonial; some PVOs, but largely
unsupported by governments; meets PGN and SGN





TARGET GROUPS


-- Policy makers, supervisors, managers


-- Field people, researchers, extensionists, technical
assistance and project personnel


-- Local groups, local PVOs/NGOs, farmers, women's
groups, grassroots extensionists


INTERNATIONAL

NATIONAL

LOCAL


TRIPARTITE:
donor
executing agency/personnel
host government














The U.N. is made up of six main bodies:
a GENERALASSEMBLY (C.A.):TheAssemblyisthemain
deliberative body of the United Nations. Representatives of all
member governments meet each fall for approximately three
months and make recommendations on a wide range of inter-
national questions, approve the U.N. budget, and apportion
U.N. expenses. Each member has one vote. All other U.N.
bodies report to the G.A. annually. On the recommendation of
the Security Council, it elects the SecretaryGeneral, and admits
(and can expel) members; Most decisions are made by a simple
majority or consensus (agreement without a vote taken). Reso-
lutions on "important" questions, such as maintenance of
peace, require a two-thirds vote.
SECURITY COUNCIL (S.C): The U.N. Charter givesthe
Security Council the primary responsibility for maintaining
international peace and security. It has the power to direct U.N.
action against threats to the peace. The S.C. has 15 members.
Five are Permanent: the U.S., the USSR, the United Kingdom,
France, and China. The other ten are elected by the G.A. for
two-yearterms. Resolutions pass with nine "yes" votes.A "no"
vote bya permanent member is a "veto" and blocks the motion.
When the Charter was drafted, the veto provision was insisted
on by both the U.S. and the USSR and both have subsequently
used it.
U SECRETARIAT: Headed by the Secretary-General, the
Secretariat serves as staff to theother organs of the U.N. and ad-
ministers the projects and policies laid downby them. Its 13,500
men and women, from over 150 countries, work at U.N. Head-
quarters in New York and in offices in Geneva, Vienna, and
elsewhere. The Secretary-General is elected for a five-year re-
newable term.The post was first held by Trygve Lie of Norway
(1945S53), followed by Dag Hammarskj6ld of Sweden (1953-
61), U Thant of Burma (1961-71), Kurt Waldheim of Austria
(1972-81), and Javier PFrez de Cu6llar of Peru (1982 to the
present).
ECONOMICAND SOCIALCOUNCIL ECOSOCcoordi-
nates the economic and social work of the U.N. and its
specialized agencies and institutions. It also oversees five
regional economic commissions and six functional commis-
sions (Statistical Commission, Population Commission, and
the Commissions for Social Development, on Human Rights,
on the Status of Women, and on Narcotic Drugs). Its 54 mem-
bers are elected by 1he G.A. for three-year terms. ECOSOC
generallyholds two month-longsessions each year, onein New
York and one in Geneva.
a TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL (T.C.): Trust Territories are
former colonies that, after World War I, were placed under the
jurisdiction of the Trusteeship Council. The T.C. assigned them
to administering powers whose job was to prepare them for in-
dependence. Originally there were 11 Trust Territories, mostly


05.11.1988t 01:50









t Africa. All are now independent nations except Micronesia,
which is administered by the U.5. Today the T.C. is made up of
the U.S. and other permanent S.C. members. It meets once a
year to discuss the status of Micronesia and other "Non-Self-
Governing Territories."
a INTERNATIONALCOURTOF JUSTICE (ICJ):TheCourt
decides legal disputes between countries thatagreeto acceptits
jurisdiction. It also has issued advisory opinions at the request
of the General Assembly and Security Council. Its 15 judges,
elected by the G.A. and the S.C. for nine-year terms, are chosen
on the basis of their qualifications, not their nationality, though
the principal legal systems of the world must be represented.
The seat of the Court is at The Hague, Netherlands.


Much of the work of the U.N. system is done by the following
specialized agencies, which report to the Economic and Social
Council.Each is autonomous, with its own charter, budget,and
staff.
R FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION (FAO):
Helps governments improve the production, processing, mar-
eting, and distribution of food and agricultural products,
) promote rural development, and eliminate hunger. Its Global
Information and Early Warning System identifies countries
threatened by food shortages.
INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION
(ICAO): Objective is the safe and orderly growth of civil avia-
tion throughout the world. Sets international safety standards,
recommends practices governing the performance of air and
ground crews, formulates rules of the air.
INTERNATIONAL FUND FOR AGRICULTURAL
DEVELOPMENT (FAD):Seeks to endhungerand malnutrition
in developing countries by helping them to improve their food
production. Makes loans and grants to projects that promote
agriculture, livestock development, irrigation, training, credit,
and fisheries.
INTERNATIONALLABOURORGANISAT1ON (ILO):Es-
tablished 1919 under the League of Nations. Seeks to improve
working conditions, sets international labor standards, assists
member countries in such fields as vocational training, man-
power planning, occupational health and safety, and social se-
cunWtv.
a INTERNATIONALMARITIMEORGANIZATION(IMO):
Promotes coo ration among governments on technical mat-
t:es a :ect:n shipping. Sets standards formaritime safety, effi-
cient navigation, and the prevention and control of pollution
from shi;s.
3 INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (IMF): Seeks to


promote international monetary cooperation and faciltatthel -
expansion of trade. Provides financing to countries with beat- i
ance-of-payment difficultiesalong with technical assistanceto I
improve their economic management. i
13 INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS UNION i
(ITU): Founded 1865 as the International Telegraph Union. t-
Goal is improved and efficient use of telecommunications
facilities. Assigns radio frequencies and positions to geosta-
tionary satellites. Fosters the creation and improvement of tele-
communications networks in developing countries.
U.N. EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL
ORGANIZATION (UNESCO): Promotes collaboration among
nations in the fields of education, science, culture, and commu.
nications. Trains teachers and educational planners, organize rN
scientific explorations, preserves worksofart and monument,
and assists developing countries to improve their media. TB
U.S. withdrew from UNESCO in 1985, accusing its then Dire-
tor-General of waste and mismanagement.
a U.N. INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION v
(UNIDO): Promotes the industrialization of developing coln-
tries. Facilitates the transfer of technology to them, organis
training programs, and helps them to obtain external finac-
ing.
a UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION (UPU): Established 1?4.
Regulates international mail delivery, standardizes postal ras,
Provides training and expert advice to postal systems in de~l-
oping countries.
h WORLD BANK: Seeks to raise standards of living ine-
veloping countries by channeling financial resources to then.
This is done through three institutions:
*International Bank for Reconstruction and Devely-
ment (IBRD): Lends money and provides technical aszs-
tance for agriculture and rural development projects,
energy, ports, power facilities, roads, railways, and oater
needed infrastructure.
*International Development Association (IDA): Makes
loans on very easy terms to the poorest among the devel-
oping countries.
International Finance Corporation (IFO; Assists private
enterprise in developing countries.
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO): Goal is
"Health forAll by the Year 2000." Supports programs of health
and nutrition education, safe water, family planning, immuni-
zation against major diseaseA, and research.
a WORLD INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ORGANIZATION
S(WIPO): Ensures international cooperation for the protection
--of inven;oits, trademarks, copyrights, e
Z W:'RLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION
(WMO): :;tablished 1973. Promotesthei n:v-national exchange
of weath information. World Weather ,."-ch coordinates in-
-formanto, gained from land stations and space satellites and
makes possible extended weather forecasting for the entire
globe. A
3 GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE .

























(GATT); The principal international body concerned with the
reduction of trade barriers, the conciliation of trade disputes,
and international traderelations. GATTis considered a "multi-
lateral agreement"--not a "specialized agency" per se.
INTERNATIONALATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA):
Guides the development of peaceful uses of atomic energy,
establishes standards for nuclear safety fosterstheexchangeof
scientific and technical information on atomic energy. Not a
"specialized agency" perse, IAEA wasestablished "underthe
aegis of the U.N."


Over the years the General Assembly has created a number of
'special bodies to carry out its work. All are financed byvolun-
tary-contributions from governments and, sometimes, from
private citizens.
OFFICE OF THE U.N. DISASTER RELIEF COORDINA-
TOR (UNDRO): A clearinghouse for information on relief
needs in times of natural disasters, such as earthquakes, floods,
and hurricanes. Mobilizes and coordinates emergency assis-
tance from around the world.
a OFFICE OF THE U.N. HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR
REFUGEES (UNHCR): Extends international protection and
material assistance to refugees (except those in theMiddleEast,
who are aided by UNRV'' ) and neg fpates with governments
to resettle and repatriate them.
a U.N. CENTRE FOR iIUMAN SL' ELEMENTS (HABITAT):
Deals with the housing problems of t.,; urban and rural poor in
developing countries.
I U.N. CHILDREN'S FUND(UNICEF): Provides technical
and financial assistance to developing countries for programs
benefiting children. Helps them plan and extend services in


maternal and child health, applied nutrition, clean water and
sanitation, formal and non-formal education, and responsible
parenthood.
U U.N. CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT
(UNCTAD): Works to establish agreements on commodity
price stabilization and to codify principles of international
trade.
a U.N. DEVELOPMENT FUND FOR WOMEN (UNIFEM):
An autonomous agency associated with UNDP (see below)
that supports projects benefiting women in developing coun-
tries.


U.N. DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME- (UNDP): The
central funding, planning, and coordinating organization for
"technical assistance" and development in the U.N. system.
Provides grant assistance to build skills and develop resources
in such areas as agriculture, industry, health, education, eco-
nomic planning, transport, and communications.
l U.N. ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME (UNEP): Moni-
tors significant changes in the environment and works to de-
velop sound environmental practices worldwide.
[ U.N. POPULATION FUND (UNFPA): The largest inter-
nationally funded source of assistance to population programs
in developing countries. Aids governments to develop family
planning programs, gather and analyze population data.
a U.N. INSTITUTE FOR TRAINING AND RESEARCH
(UNITAR): Seeks to enhance the effectiveness of the U.N. via
training programs for government and U.N. officials and re-
search on a variety of international issues.
U.N. RELIEF AND WORKS AGENCY FOR PALESTINE
REFUGEES IN THE NEAR EAST (UNRWA): Provides educa-
tion, health, and welfare assistance to Arab refugees in Jordan,
Lebanon, Syria, the West Bank, and Gaza.
H U.N. UNIVERSITY (UNU): Japan-based autonomous
academic institution with a worldwide network of associated
institutions, research units, individual scholars, and fellows.
Does not grant degrees.
U.N. INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH AND TRAINING
INSTITUTE (INSTRAW): Carries outresearch training, and in-
formation activities to promote women as key agents of devel-
opment.
WORLD FOOD COUNCIL (WFC): A 36-nation body
that meets annually at the ministerial level to review major
issues affecting the world food situation.
i WORLD FOOD PROGRAMME (WFP): Jointly spon-
sored by the U.N. and FAO, supplies both emergency food
relief and food aid to support development projects.


,' E IC ,






CGIAR Centers


CIAT -- Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Call, Colombia. Founded 1967.
Focus on crop improvement and improving agriculture in the lowland tropics of Latin
America. Research covers rice, beans, cassava, forages, and pastures.

CIMMYT -- Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo, Mexico. Founded
1964. Focus on crop improvement. Research covers maize, wheat, barley, and triticale.

CIP -- Centro Internacional de la Papa, Lima, Peru. Founded 1971. Focus on potato
and sweet potato improvement. Research covers potato, sweet potato.

IBPGR -- International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, Rome, Italy. Founded 1974.
Focus on conserving gene pools of current and potential crops and forages. Research
covers plant genetic resources.

ICARDA -- International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Aleppo,
Syria. Founded 1976. Focus on improving farming systems for North Africa and WEst
Asia. Research covers wheat, barley, chickpea, lentils, pasture legumes, and small
ruminants.

ICRAF -- International Centre for Research in Agroforestry, Nairobi, Kenya. Founded
1977. Focus on initiating and supporting research on integrating trees in land-use
systems in developing countries.

ICRISAT -- International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Andhra
Pradesh, India. Founded 1972. Focus on crop improvement; cropping systems.
Research covers sorghum, millet, chickpea, pigeonpea, and groundnut.

SIFPRI -- International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, D.C. Founded 1975.
Focus on identifying and analyzing policies for meeting food needs of the developing
countries, particularly the poorer groups within those countries. Research covers ways to
achieve sustainable food production and land use, improve food consumption and
income levels of the poor, enhance the links between agriculture and other sectors of the
economy, and improve trade and macro economic conditions.

IIMI -- International Irrigation Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka. Founded
1984. Focus on improving and sustaining the performance of irrigation systems through
i'etter management.

ilTA -- International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria. Founded 1967.
Focus on crop improvement and land management in humid and'sub-humid tropics;
farming systems. Research covers maize, cassava, cowpea, plantain, soybean, rice, and
yam.






ILCA -- International Livestock Center for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Founded
1974. Focus on farming systems to identify livestock production and marketing
constraints in Sub-Saharan Africa. Research covers ruminants, livestock, and forages.

ILRAD -- International.Laboratory for Research on Animal Diseases, Nairobi, Kenya.
Founded 1974. Focus on control of major livestock diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Research covers theileriosis (East Coast fever) and trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness).

INIBAP -- International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain,
Montferrier-sur-Lez, France. Founded 1984. Focus on bananas and plantains.

IRRI -- International Rice Research Institute, Manila, the Philippines. Founded 1960.
Focus on global rice improvement.

ISNAR -- International Service for National Agricultural Research, The Hague, The
Netherlands. Founded 1979. Focus on strengthening and developing national
agricultural research systems.

WARDA -- West Africa Rice Development Association, Bouake, Cote d'Ivoire. Founded
1971. Focus on rice improvement in West Africa. Research covers rice in mangrove
swamps, inland swamps, upland conditions, and irrigated conditions.




World _alop.ncnt, Vol. 17, No.11,pp.1799-1825, 1989.
Printed in Great Britian

GENDER PLANNING IN THE THIRD WORLD:
MEETIhJG PRACTICAL AND STRATEGIC GENDER NEEDS

Table 2. Different policy approaches to Third World women


Caroline O.N. ser
London School of Economics and
I Political Science


<--.. "Women in Development" (WID) --*


Issues Welfare


Origins Earliest approa
residual mod
social welfare ur
colonial adminis
modernization
accelerated gro\
economic dcvcle
model.


Period
most
popuh:

Purpose


1950-70: but st
used.


Equity

ch: Original WID approach:
cl of failure of
ider modernization
tration development policy
n/ influence of Boserup
wth and First World feminists
opment on Percy Amendment
S-declaration of UN
Decade for Women.


,c .
ill widely 1975-85: attempts to
adopt it during and since
Women's Decade.


To bring women into
development as better
mothers: this is seen as
their most important
role in development.


Needs of To meet PGN in
women reproductive role,
met and relating particularly
roles to food aid, malnutrition
recognized and family planning.



Comment Women seen as passive
beneficiaries of
development with focus
on reproductive role.
Nonchallenging therefore
still widely popular
especially with
government and
traditional NGOs.


To gain equity for women
in the development
process: women seen as
active participants in
development.


To meet SGNt in terms
of triple role-directly
through state top-down
intervention, giving
political and economic
autonomy by reducing :.
inequality with men.

In identifying subordinate
position of women in ;. :
terms of relationship to
men, challenging,
criticized as Western
feminism, considered .
threatening and not
popular with government.


Anti-poverty

Second WID approach:
- toned down equity
because of criticism
- linked to Redistribution
with Growth and Basic
Needs.




1970s onward: still limited
popularity. -


To ensure poor women
increase their productivity:
women's poverty seen
as problem of
underdevelopment not
of subordination

To meet PGN* in productive
role, to earn an income,
particularly in small-scale
income generating projects.




Poor women isolated as
separate category with. ':::
tendency only to recognize
productive role; reluctance
of government to give limited
aid to women means :
popularity still at small-scale
NGO level.


Efficiency

3rd and now predominant WID
approach:
- deterioration in world
economy
- policies of economic
stabilization and adjustment
rely on women's economic
contribution to development.


Empowerment

Most recent approach:
- arose out of failure of equity
approach
-Third World Women's
feminist writing and grassroot
organizations.


Post 1980s: now most popular 1975 onward: accelerated during
approach. 1980s, stilllimited popularity.


To ensure development is more
efficient and more effective:
women's economic participation
seen as associated with equity.



To meet PGN* in context of
declining social services by
relying on all three roles of
women and elasticity of
women's time.



Women seen entirely in terms
of delivery capacity and ability
to extend working day. Most
popular approach both with
governments and multilateral
agencies. -


To empower women through
greater self-reliance: women's
subordination seen not only as
problem of men but also of
colonial and neocolonial
oppression.

To reach SGNt in terms of triple
role indirectly through
bottom-up mobilization around
PGN* as means to confront
oppression.



Potentially challenging with
emphasis on Third World and
women's self-reliance. Largely
unsupported by governments
and agencies. Avoidance of
Western feminism criticism, -
means slow significant growth of
underfinanced voluntary
organizations.


'GN P'ractical gcnidcr needs.
1S(;N Strategic gender needs.







Gender Analysis and Training Techniques Seminar Series
Session 5: Drs. Anita Spring and Sandra Russo

READING LIST



Feldstein, H. et al., The Gender Variable in Agricultural Research. Women in
Development Unit, International Development Research Center, Ottawa, Canada.

Howard-Borjas, P. et al., (1990). Gender Analysis Workshops for Professional Staff- FAO's
Mid-Term Review of Lessons Learned. Working Paper Series No. 7. FAO, Rome.

Moser, C. (1989). Gender Planning in the Third World: Meeting Practical and Strategic
Gender Needs, World Development, Vol. 17, No. 11 pp 1799-1825.

Poats, S. (1990). Gender Issues in the CGIAR System: Lessons and Strategies from
Within, CGIAR, The Hague.

Poats, S. and S. Russo, (1990). Training in Women and Development/Gender Analysis in
Russo, S. 1990 Agricultural Development. A Review of Experiences and Lessons
Learned. FAO. Working Papers Series No. 5.

Russo, S. et.al., (1989). Gender Issues in Agriculture and Natural Resource Management.
WID/PPC/USAID/WDC.


wiad:reading.lst







WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT TRAINING IN INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES
Drs. Anita Spring and Sandra Russo
Session 5, Evaluation

Please complete the form and return it via campus mail by folding in half so the
address on back is showing.

Circle the number that best describes your answer to the following statements.

Very Little Somewhat Much Very Much
1 2 3 4



1. My understanding of the
difference between: training 1 2 3 4
women, training men and women,
Women in Development (WID) training
and Gender Analysis (GA) training
increased.

2. My understanding of the 1 2 3 4
current thrust of GA training
in the international development
agencies increased.

3. My understanding of two conceptual 1 2 3 4
frameworks applied in GA training
increased.

4. My understanding of different 1 2 3 4
characteristics of target groups
needing GA training increased.

5. What did you like most about this session?


6. What could be improved?


7. Please rate the instructors on the following items:

Poor Not too Satisfactory Good Excellcnt
Dr. Spring: Good
Content 1 2 3 5
Presentation 1 2 3 4 5

Dr. Russo:
Content 1 2 3 4 5
Presentation 1 2 3 4 5


8. Additional comments:




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