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Group Title: Conference on Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research and Extenion, University of Florida, February 26 to March 1, 1986
Title: Gender roles in Haryana, India, farm households
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 Material Information
Title: Gender roles in Haryana, India, farm households
Series Title: Conference on Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research and Extenion, University of Florida, February 26 to March 1, 1986
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Balakrishnan, Revathi
Stafford, Kathryn
Publisher: University of Florida
Publication Date: 1986
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Subject: University of Florida.   ( lcsh )
Farming   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Asia -- India
North America -- United States of America -- Florida
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Bibliographic ID: UF00081743
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida

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Full Text

















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Conference on
GENDER ISSUES IN FARMING SYSTEMS
RESEARCH AND EXTENSION























Gender Issues in Farming Systems: Research and Extension
Gainesville, Florida
26-28 February 1986


"Gender Roles in Haryana, India, Farm Households"

Dr. Revathi Balakrishnan and Dr. Kathryn Stafford

Gender Issues in International Agricultural Extension

28 February 1986

8:30 12 Noon


Paper:

Authors:

Session:

Date:

Time:





-1-


GENDER ROLES BY ACTIVITY SPHERES, FARM HOUSEHOLDS
HARYANA, INDIA


Revathi Balakrishnan and Kathryn Stafford
University of Wisconsin The Ohio State University
Stevens Point Columbus


T e study attempts to analyze the activity spheres of a
sample Haryana farm families. The main objective is to delineate
the pattern of participation by females in comparison with males
in the household, in a rural sample drawn from three
agro-climatic zones of Haryana.

"Women's work" means activities done by women or females
from which men or males are excluded. Women's work cannot be
properly understood without studying the other side of the sexual
division of labor, men's work, nor indeed, without studying the
sexual division of labor itself (Matthaei, 1982: 5). The spheres
of activity for the males and females. the division of labor in
the rural farm household provide an understanding of rural
families in India.

Boserup (1970) perceived that the content of male and female
social activities varies from one society to another; she noted
the impact that different agricultural methods characteristic. of
different geographical areas have upon the determination of
gender specific activities and spheres. Papanek (1977: 17)
states,

for studying women's work it is more
realistic to develop systems of analysis
that accommodate the interplay between types
of work which occur in different arenas and
are differently rewarded. An interactionist
approach would by definition, stress the
reciprocal relationship between the work of
men and women, usually within the context of
household or family; such an approach to
women's and men's work is particularly
important for development planning because
social transformations aimed for almost
always involve shifts in the reciprocal
relationships between men and women with
respect to work and its rewards.

According to Cloud (1985:21, 31),

agricultural production is intrinsically a
collaborative endeavor, with the agricultural
household as the most common unit of
production and consumption; identification of
gender division of responsibility for labor,




-2-


management, and disposal of all types of
household's production is crucial to project
analysis because the segmentation of control
and responsibilities has practical effects.

Doulding (1978) identified rural women as the periphery in a
society, who possess capabilities and technical resource
reservoirs that industrialized nations and urban third world
centers know little about. Bagchi (1981) found,that in ;iadhya
Pradesh in all three crop regions (rice, wheat and cotton) while
handling of the plough is altogether a man's role, the woman
works alongside the male in most of the leveling, fencing and
binding operations, there is much higher demand for women's labor
in the above operations in rice regions as compared to cotton and
wheat regions. The sowing operations in cotton regions is
handled in primarily by women alone. In wheat growing regions,
it is predominantly a joint operation. The traditional
transplanting of rice has always been done by women in India.

Sharma (1980:130) in her case study analysis of women's work
in northern India, records that,

women were prepared to spend great deal of
time and patience on milch animals,
administering to their needs when they are
calved or when they are sick. Most had
detailed technical knowledge of breeding and
what conditions make for the best milk yield
or strongest calves. If the net value of
milch animal yields Rs. 239 (U.S. $270 at Sl
= Rs.12) per location, then the value of
women's work in this area is considerable and
hardly be called a'side activity' in
families whose total monthly income is only
few hundred rupees.

Gopinath and Kalro (1985:296) based on a study conducted in
Gujarat state found that,

an examination of the economic activities and
work patterns of women in the selected
villages showed that they are typically
involved in agriculture, domestic and
community related activities. Among their
agricultural duties, transplanting (for
paddy), weeding, harvesting and threshing are
predominant. In Khoda women also work as
paid laborers in cotton. Although not
reflected in the field crop data, women in
the households with cattle (cows and
buffaloes) invest considerable time in caring
for cattle and in dairy production.





-3-


Decision spheres, for female and male vary between cultures,
an urban-rural residence of the families. Gore (1968) argued,
tha mong couples with Western education shared decision making-
will be most likely to occur. According to K'olenda, in the
Indian families, women's power will be more if a dowry is not
paid, if there is no village exogamy or if there is considerable
distance between the residences of the husband and wife's family
(1967:204-205). Conklin documented that rural or urban residence
has the highest correlations with power differences in Dharwar.
Low power scores are associated with rural, uneducated women.
Yet in lower income rural families women enjoy greater power than
in higher income households, a factor which becomes increasingly
clear when education is controlled (1981: 23). In India, women
have no voice in budgetary matters, particularly in the rural
areas, where the dependency ratio is higher than in urban areas.
There are, however exceptions (Minturn, 1976). In Andra Pradesh
a higher proportion of women participate in decisions regarding
family expenditure than among Tamil Women (Leonard and Leonard
1981).



ACTIVITY SPHERES: CONCEPTUAL BASE

Gender activity spheres in the farm households in this study
are classified by the locus of activity. Locus of activity is
defined as the spatial location of the activity. Based on the
loci the activities are grouped as public sphere activities,
private sphere activities and semi public or extended private
sphere activities. Public sphere activities occur in a spatial
location external to the house; private sphere activities occur
in a spatial location internal in the house and the semi public
or the extended private sphere activities are those for which
contact outside the house is necessary but are traditionally
women's activities. The spatial distinction among women's
activities is defined and modified by the prevailing social norms
and cropping system of the local agricultural society. These
social norms and cropping system can develop a division of labor
classified as predominantly male spheres of activity,
predominantly female spheres of activity and shared spheres of
activity (Figure 1). The conceptual idea is a modified framework
of dichotomy of activity spheres of male and female activities
developed by Rosaldo (1974).




-4-


Conceptual Base: Spheres of Activities
Based on Locus of Activity and Gender Roles


Locus Gender-Division Activities Sectors
Spatial or Roles


Public Male or Husband Task Agriculture
Performance

Semi-public Female or Wife Decision Cattle
or Extended Making Management
Private

Private Shared or Household
Husband-Wife Maintenance
Nurturance



Figure 1



In an urbanized factory system paid work location is
distinctly separated from the household nonpaid work location
(Matthaei, 1982). But in rural farm households where both
production and consumption of resources occur, female spheres of
activity overlap with male spheres of activity. Social norms of
the society may bestow certain responsibilities on females which
are in the public sphere but considered to be inferior manual
tasks. The spatial distinction of activity spheres is modified by
the traditional social norms of the division of labor.

METHOD

Haryana, a northwestern state of India, is divided into
three agro-climatic zones. A multistage sampling procedure was
used for the selection of sample from the three agro-climatic
zones, namely hot and arid, hot and semi-arid and hot and humid.
From a list of administrative districts falling under each of the
zones, three districts were selected. For each district a list
was prepared of villages which were located within a radius of 20
to 25 kilometers from the Krishi Gyan Kendra (University
Agricultural Extension Centers in the district). From these list
of villages 2 villages were selected at random for each district
representing the agro-climatic zone ( Total of 6 villages). The
classification of state's agro-climatic zones was done in
consultation with Meteorology Department of the College of
Agriculture, Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar.

A list of households with available information on the land
owning status of the families were prepared. For each of the




-5-


specified land owning status categories, 10 households were
selected at random. In one village the desired number of
households for all the categories was not available. The total
number of household in the sample was 290. Table 1 shows the
sample distribution by the land owning status category.

Insert Table 1
(Distribution of Sample Households by the Landowning Status:
Three Agro-Climatic Zones)

Data Collection

Data were collected using structured interview schedules,
administered by three female field investigators under the
supervision of a faculty member. All three investigators had the
ability to speak the local language and -nglish, which
facilitated questioning and translating the responses.
Interviews were conducted primarily with the male spouses and
wherever necessary female spouses were interviewed separately.
Field checking of the interviewers and continual checks for the
completion and accuracy of the data were done.

Data Analysis

To verify gender role patterns in Haryana farm households,
we ran a t test on differences in activity participation levels
using a range instead of a standard deviation (Snedecor and
Cochran:121). In this test, the t statistic is the ratio of the
mean difference to the range across differences. Analyses were
run by activity sphere and by activity sphere within districts.
Within agricultural public sphere activities, analyses were
run by season, by crop activity and by crop within each district.


SAMPLE PROFILE

Selected socio-demographic characteristics of the sample are
presented in Table 2.

(Insert Table 2)

Socio-demographic Profile of the Sample:
Three Agro-climatic Zones


The female respondents in the sample were mostly 25 years or
older and illiterate. They represented both nuclear and joint
family structure. A large proportion of the sample was from high
caste. Family size varied from 6 to 13 members per family.
There were very few childless women in the sample.
















DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE HOUSEHOLDS BY AGRO-CLIMATIC ZONES,
ADMINISTRATIVE DISTRICTS,VILLAGES AND LAND OWNING STATUS


Land owning status
of the households


Hot and arid zone


Hot and semi-arid zone


Hot and humid zone


Hissar district (1) Jind district (2) Ambala district (3)


I Balasamand
______ (1)


Landless laborer
(no land owned)


Marginal farmer
(below 2.5 acres)

Small farmer
( greater than
2.5 to 5 acres)

Medium farmer
(greater than
5 to 10 acres)

Large farmer
(greater than
10 acres)


-.--.---- --------I-


Total number


Ladwa
(2)


Kharak Ramji
(3)


4. --


Khungakari
(4)


Mohra
(5)


-- I


-4- 4 --


of sample households = 290


-------------- -a----- -


Table.1.


Mangali
(6)









Table 2
Socio-Demographic Profile of the Sample:
Three Agro Climatic Zones

Sample Hot & Dry Hot & SemiDry Hot & Humid
Characteristics Hissar Jind Ambala
N = 100 N = 100 N = 90

I.Age of Female Respondents
a. 15 to 25 yrs. 11 26 12
b. > 25 to 35 yrs. 26 15 33
c. > 35 to 45 yrs. 33 30 24
d. above 45 yrs. 30 29 21

II.Education of Female Respondents
a. Illiterate 100 98 84
b. Primary 2 4
c. Middle School 1
d. Matriculation 1

III. Type of Family
a. Nuclear 46 38 40
b. Joint 54 62 50

V. Caste of the Family
a. High Caste:
Jat, Rajput,
Bishnoi, Brahmin
Bania 64 63 63
b. Backward Caste:
Doom, Dhobi, Nai,
Hedi, Gujar,
Jhimar, Lohar,
Teli, Saini,
Chamby, Maniar,
Khumar, Swami,
Khati 21 20 19
c. Scheduled Caste:
Mochi, Harijan,
Chamar, Dhanak,
Valmiki 15 17 8

V. Family Size:
a. 2 to 6 persons 45 48 39
b. 7 to 13 persons 45 47 38
c. more than 13
persons 10 5 13

VI. Number of Children:
a. No children 8 3 3
b. up to 5 children 68 68 69
c. 6 to 10 children 22 23 16
d. more than 10
children 2 1 2









DISTRICT PROFILE

The three districts representing the agro-climatic zones of
the Haryana state have different crop cultivation pattern in the
two main cropping seasons namely, Rabi (winter) and Kharif
(summer). The winter crop in Hissar is mainly wheat. Main
winter crops for Jind and Ambala are wheat and sugar cane. Main
summer crop for Hissar is Bajra (millet). Main summer crop for
Jind and Ambala is rice. While Hissar and Jind are
predominantly agricultural districts, Ambala v: an industrialized
area.

Community Resource Profile: Sample Villages in Three
Agro-Climatic Zones.

In the sample villages representing the three agro-climatic zones
the community resources available for the households varied. The
community resource profile of the villages in the three districts
in three zones is presented in Table 3.

(Insert Table 3)

Community Resource Profile: Sample Villages In
Three Climatic Zones

The villages in the districts Hissar and Ambala
have more community facilities compared to villages in Jind.
The physical location of the villages in relation to roads
connecting them to other parts of the state may explain the
disparity in the community resource profile. The two villages in
Hissar district (Balasamand and Ladwa) are in the main road
linking them to Hissar city (administrative capital of the
district). In the district Ambala, one of the villages (Mohra)
is on the main road linking it to Ambala city (administrative
capital the district) and the village Mangalai is two kilometers
away from the main road. In contrast the two villages in Jind
district (Kharak Ramji and Khungakothi) are villages in the
interior of the district with no important roads linking them to
major cities in the district. Such variation in the community
resource structure in these villages may indicate development
bias of villages in the main spatial communication network
receiving the facilities; or villages nearer major cities are
aware of the benefits of development and thus demand
facilities from the administrators.


ACTIVITY PROFILE: DISTRICTS IN THREE AGRO-CLIMATIC ZONES

Data from the 1970 census report collected and compiled by
the Government of India Census Bureau for the State of Haryana
were used to identify the activities of the females and males in
the state. The census data document the labor force
participation of female and male by various occupational sectors.











Table. 3


COMMUNITY RESOURCE PROFILE OF THE THREE DIFFERENT VILLAGES :


THREE CLIMATIC ZONES


Agro-Climatic Zones

Districts


Villages


Hot and Arid

Hissar


Balasamand Ladva


KharakRamji


Hot and Semiarid

Jind


KhungaKochi Mohra


CCOMU ITY RESOURCES

I.Medical Facilities

a.Primary Health
Center
b.Government
Hoesital

c. Private Medical
Practioner
d. Veterinary
Hospital

2. Drinking
Water
Facilities
a. Wells alone
b. Wells and taps
c. andpumps
3.Education
Facilities
a. Priary School
b. Middle School

c. High School

d. College


Available

Available


Availabel

Available


No

Available


NO

No


No No
Available Available
No No


Available-2
No

Available-2

No


4. Transportation
Facilities
a. Bus services Available
to the village
b. Railway Station No

5.Coaunity
Support Services
a.Anganvadi/Balvadi 3 Anganvadi
Rural Child Care
Center
b. Mahila Mandals
Rural Comen's Available
Club
c.Co-operative
Societies Available
d.Sanks Available
e. Post Office Available
f. Telephone Available
g. Police station Available
h. Fire Station No
L.Public play ground No
J.Recreation facilities No
k.Sikh ceaple No
1.Hindu temple Available


POPULATION


6257


No
Available-1

Available-2

No


Available
to the village
No



1 Balvadi




Available


Available
Available
Available
No
No
No
No
No
No
Available


4221


Available

No


No

Available





Available
No
No


Available-1
No

Avalable-1

No





41I from
the village
No



No


No
No
Available


No

No


No

Available





Available
No
No


Available-1
No

Available-I

No


Available

Available


No

Available





No
No
Available


Available-1
No

Available-1

No


0'o

No





No
So
Available


Available-I
No

Available-1

No


Once a day Available Zm
to the village to the Village the village
No No No



No No No


No
NO
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Available


Available
Available
Available
Available
Available
No
No
No
No
Available


No
So
So
No
So
No
No
No

Available


2299


17 Km 15 Km 17m K


Hot and Eumid

Ambala


Manglai


DISTANCE FROM
THE EXTENSION
CENTER


25 Km


is KM





-7-


The comparison by state, occupational categories, district and
gender is presented in Table 4.

Table 4


Acitivity Profile : Districts in Three Ag
(Census Data)


ro-Climatic Zones


Activity Hot & Dry Hot & Semi Dry Hot & Humid
Hissar Jind Ambala
M F M F M F


Cultivators 206939 21843 140070 21583 116303 854
12.82% 1.35% 8.68% 1.33% 7.2% .05%

Agricultural
Laborer 70415 10530 40680 5105 65069 1890
11.96% 1.79% 6.91% .86% 11.06% .32%

Household
industry,
manufacture, 11212 906 6701 361 15083 1078
processing, 17.44% 1.41% 10.43% .56% 23.47% 4.63%
servicing &
repairs


Percentage based on the total Haryana Participation rate
from the Haryana Government 1970 Census data



The census data indicate in the three districts
Ambala had the highest participation of male and female in the
industrial sector. Male participation rate measured by percentage
represented in the three sectors were relatively higher than for
the female. Ambala had the least percentage of female
cultivators and agricultural laborers relative to the other two
districts. Within the three districts the participation of women in
the agricultural sector is higher in predominantly agricultural
districts .(Hissar and Jind ) in comparison to the industrial
district (Ambala).


ACTIVITY PROFILE OF THE FEMALE RESPONDENTS

In contrast to the official data which classify activities
of male and female in distinct occupational sectors, micro data
elicited from the female respondents may reveal multiple activity
pattern. Responses of the female respondents for the inquiry on
their occupation are presented in Table 5.




-8-


Table 5


Activity of Profile of the Female Respondents: Districts
In Three Climatic Zones
(survey data)

Description Hot and dry Hot and semi dry Hot and Humid
Hissar Jind Ambala
N=1=10N=100 N=90

Housekeeping 19 22 54

Housekeeping
& cattle care 15 10 28

Housekeeping
Agriculture & 62 54 8
cattle care

Housekeeping 2 3 0
Agriculture

Housekeeping,
Agriculture &
Cattle care 2 11 0
for wages


As the data indicate most female respondents in the sample
combined housekeeping activities with agricultural and dairy
activities (42.75 percent). The district variation in the
multiple activity pattern indicates, a large percentage of women
from Hissar and Jind districts were involved in agricultural and
dairy activities in comparison with the Ambala sample.
Relatively large percentage of women from Ambala statedt-ey do
only housekeeping activities. Ambala District's industrial
growth may partly explain the low participation of women in
agricultural and dairy activities. Verywomen indicated wage work
participation (4.48 percent).


ACTIVITY SPHERES BY GENDER AND LOCUS OF ACTIVITY

The data collected from the female respondents on the
various activities performed by them in their households are
conceptually classified as public sphere, private sphere and
semi-public or extended private spheres (Figure 1). The
performance of the activities in the household are studied in the
three spheres for gender specialization.




-9-


Agricultural Activities Performed By Season and Gender:
Public Sphere

The crop pattern in the three climatic zones varied
in two main cropping seasons, namely Rabi (winter) and Kharif
(summer). The crops represent seasonal dimension which
influences agricultural tasks performed by male and female spouse
in the Haryana farm households. The agricultural tasks for each
crop ,re classified as planting, inclusive of sowing seeds and
transplanting seedlings; care, inclusive of irrigation, weeding,
applying manure or fertilizer and dusting insecticide;
harvesting, inclusive of cutting and picking the final crop. The
agricultural tasks performed by the male and female spouses for
major crops in two seasons are presented in Table 6.

(Insert Table 6)


Table 7
T Statistics for Tests of Gender Differences in
Participation Levels in Public Sphere Activities


Sample Classification Hissar Jind Ambala
t Sig. t Sig. t Sig.


Within Public Sphere .35 .01 .36 .01 .43 .01
Districts Agriculture .44 .01 .41 .01 .66 .01

Within Winter .456 .05 .372 .10 .879 .01
Season Summer .582 .05 .412 .01 .892 .01

Within Planting .646 .08 1.017 .01 1.034 .02
Crop Care 1.02 .02 .33 .10 .768 .05
Activity Harvesting 1.09 .02 .48 .10 .826 .05

Within Wheat .889 .05 .641 ns 4.638 .01
Crop Sugar Cane -- -- .351 ns 4.333 .01
Pulse .711 ns -- -- --
Rice -- -- .667 ns 3.19 .01
Millet .917 .05 1.009 .10 -- --
Cotton .954 .05 .540 ns 3.400 .01

-----------------------------------
For critical values of t, see Table A7 in Snedecor, G. W.
and Cochran, W. G. Statistical Methods. (Ames, Iowa: Iowa
State University Press) 1967, pp. 554-555.


Gender differences existed in the public sphere
activities-in selling milk and agricultural activities.









Agricultural Tasks Performed


Table 6
by Gender for Seasonal Crops: threee
(Public Sphere)


Climatic Zones


Season Major Crop


Agricultural
Activities


pilot & Dry: Ilissar
Husband Wife
N=100 N=100


Hot & Semi-Dry: Jind
Husband Wife
N=100 N=100


Iot and
Husband
N=90


lHumid: Anibala
Wife
N=90


1.Wheat



2.Sugar
cane


3.Pulse
(Bengal
gram)


1.Rice


2. Millet
(Hajra)


3.Cotton a.
) .
c.


Planting
Care
liarvest

Planting
Care
Harvest

Planting
Care
Harvest

Planting
Care
Harvest

Planting
Care
Harvest

Planting
Care
Harvest


Ilred Farm Hand
45 30
49 33


Kabi/
Winter


Khlarif/
Summer


-- ---




-10-


Household Activities Performed By Gender: Private Sphere

The activities performed within the spatial context of the
house for the family are the private sphere activities.These
activities are physical tasks to maintain the family and the
nurturent emotional support to help the family. The gender
specialized performance of the activities in the farm households
are presented in Table 8.

Table 8


Household Activities Performed By Gender: Private Sphere


Activities



Maintenance:
Cooking
Cleaning
Cook to Sell
Clean to sell
Wash Vessel
Wash clothes


Hot & Dry
Hissar
N=100


Hot & SemiDry
Jind
N=100


Hot & Humid
Ambala
N=90
II W


Nuturance:
Child Care
Sick Child
Care
Sick Adult
Care
Counsel
Relatives
Contact
Festival
Relatives
Contact
All Occasions
Contact Outsiders
for Household
Ceremonies


2 35

1 33


4 15


3 17


1 18


D mean 20.69 19.61 19.46
W range 64 72 44
tw = .32 tw = .272 tw = .442

Critical Values = .256


-- -- --




-11-


The gender specified task performance in the private
spheres, as data indicate'A significant difference between male
and female spouses in each district. As in most third world
societies women specialize in the household activities within
the private spatial locus of their home.

Activities .'ith External Contact: Semi Public Sphere

Semi public sphere activities or extended private sphere
activitiesare those which require external contact not
necessarilyAperformed in spatial locus other than home. Further,
semi publ&Fisphere activities may be household or farm
activiti'esAthough requirltcontact with outside world, are by
traditional societal norms specified to be female
activities. Semi public sphere activities performed by male and
female spouses in the Haryana farm households are presented in
Table 9.

Table 9


Semi-Public Sphere Activities: By Gender and Sector

Activities Hot & Dry Hot & Semi Dry Hot & Humid
Hissar Jind Ambala
N=100 N=100 N=90
H W H W !H
Draft Cattle
Care 3 17 4 13 14 3
Milk Cattle
Care 2 18 4 17 13 3
Use Tools
Minor 6 0 17 0 20 0
Use Fodder
Cutter 17 2 11 2 24 1
Purchase
Food 69 3 79 2 65 3
Purchase
Clothing 57 5 75 2 60 4
Meals to
Field 1 46 0 51 11 22
Collect
Water 0 36 1 35 4 16
Collect
Fuel 0 33 1 27 12 10
Collect
Cow dung 0 37 0 42 0 26

D mean 4.2 -.1 -13.5
U range 111 128 88
tw=.0378 tw=.0008 tw=.15


Critical Value = .073










There is significant difference between genders in the
performance of activities grouped under semi-public sphere
activities.

RESULTS

The range-based t statistics revealed differences in gender
role patterns in Haryana farm households (Table 7). Gender
differences existed in public and private sphere activities, but
not in semipublic sphere activities. More husbands participated
in public sphere activities; more females participated in
private sphere activities. Within the semi-public sphere, more
wives participated in six of the ten activities within two
districts and three activities in one district.

Within the public sphere, the only activity in which more
wives than husbands participated was selling milk. More husbands
than wives participated in all crop related activities. Within
crop related public activities, gender differences were
pervasive. Within each district, gender differences existed by
season and by crop activity. Gender differences also existed by
crop within each district, although not as pervasively as by
season or crop activity. In Hissar district, gender differences
existed for wheat, millet, and cotton. In Jind district, gender
differences existed for millet. In Ambala district, gender
differences existed for all major crops grown -- wheat, sugar
cane, rice, millet, and cotton. Judging by both the number of
statistically significant t's and the significance levels, Ambala
district had the most distinctly different gender roles within
the public sphere.

Within the private sphere, more husbands than wives
participated in counseling others and maintaining non-nuclear
family contact with relatives and outsiders,activities involving
non nuclear family contact. More wives participated in the
other, more secluded, activities. Whereas in the public sphere
wives participated extensively, although not as frequently as
husbands; in the private sphere husbands participated little, if
at all, in nine of the thirteen activities.

Within the semi-public sphere, more husbands than wives
participated in machinery maintenance and purchase of food and
clothing. More wives participated in the other activities. The
exceptionuas Ambala district, in which more husbands also
participated in cattle rearing and getting fuel. When these
results are viewed together with the previous results, Ambala
emerges as the district with the most traditional gender role
differences. In Ambala, more husbands than wives participate in
activities with any public element. Wives in Ambala are more
secluded than wives in the other districts. Ambala is the most
industrialized of the three districts and one of the sample
villages was on the main road. Our results appear to support the




-13-


thesis that development with its attendant social transformations
"almost always involves shifts in the reciprocal relationships
between men and women with respect to work...."(Papanek, 1977:17)

IMPLICATION FOR RESEARCH AND EXTENSION

In the two predominantly agricultural districts gender roles
of farm households were less distinct than those in
industrialized Ambala. Nevertheless, in all three districts,
women participated in public sphere activities and private sphere
activities extensively while men had nil participation in the
private sphere. Further research is needed to identify gender
specified work skills in public sphere,semi-public sphere and
private sphere activities.Such documentation of skills will
provide information for developing relevant extension programs
for the farm households of Haryana.





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-14-


Gopinath, C. and Kalro, A.H.
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