GENDER ISSUES IN FARMING SYSTEMS
RESEARCH AND EXTENSION
ACCESS AND CONTROL OF RESOURCES IN THE FARMING SYSTEM:
RECENT LEGAL, POLITICAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC-CHANGES Nell N. Diallo and Joseph G. Nagy1
FSU/SAFGRAD is involved in Farming Systems research on the Mossi
Plateau in Burkina Faso. As in other sahel and sudanian countries of Africa, low soil fertility, lack of soil water retention and availability and labor shortages at the peak labor demand periods of planting and weeding are major constraints to increased yield and production. FSU has
spent much of its research on technology evaluation"of soil fertility and water retention techniques (Ohm et al., 1985a & b, Nagy et al., 1986b). Technology evaluation involved assessing: technical feasibility, profitability/risk, and the "fit" within the farming system (Sanders and Roth, 1985 and Nagy et al., 1985). More recently, technology evaluation at FSU has attempted to include inter-household considerations. Specific intrahousehold questions that are asked are as follows: 1) If there are new tasks to be performed, was there a change in the division of labor (gender or age group) such that a heavier burden is carried by one of these groups?, 2) If new resources are required, were some groups denied access to and control over these resources which may have income distribution or change in status implications? 3) What is the incentive structure, ie., do participants in the use of the new technology receive a share in the returns (Mckee, 1984 ).
..Administrative and Training Coordinator, and Economist, FSU/SAFGRAD, Burkina Faso.
2The Purdue University Farming Systems Unit (FSU) is part of the Semi-Arid Food Grain Research and Development project in Africa with the Coordination Office in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.
Within the farming system, access to and control of the factors of production (land, labor, capital including new technologies and information) most often means control of the output (revenues) and the uses to which they are put. Apart from equity considerations, gender access to and control over the factors of production have an important role to play in technology intervention design and diffusion. This paper explores the Intra-household issues of the access and control of resources within the farming systems of the Mossi Plateau. After a brief background on Burkina and the farming systems of the Mossi Plateau, a description of the traditional access to and control of resources are given along with the legal and political environment within which the farming systems isoperating. The most recent legal and political changes which have possible implications for changes in gender access to and control of resources are then-, discussed,
BACKGROUND ON BURKINA FASO1
Burkina is a land locked country in the center of West Africa
(Fig. 1).2 Ouagadougou is the capital. Burkina is situated in the zone known as the semi-arid tropics and the climate is primarily sudanian with the exception of the northeast which is sahalian. Long term average annual rainfall ranges from 500 mm in the northeastern sahalian zone to 1400 mm in the extreme southwest. Since the mid-sixties, annual rainfall has averaged 100 to 150 mm below the long term average. Deforestation and drought are real concerns. The 1972-74 and 1984 droughts caused enormous hardships. 1This and the following two sections are taken largely from Nagy et al., 1985 and Nagy et al., 1986a which give greater detail of the background and farming systems of Burkina Faso.
2The country is located between 90201 and 15051 latitude north and 2020, longitude east and 5030' longitude west of the prime maridian. The land area of the country is 274,000 square kilometers of which an estimated one-half is arable. Eighty-five percent of the land area is plain with an altitude of between 200 to 350 meters above sea level.
The population of Burkina is 6.5 million (mid-1983) and growing at
an annual rate of 2.7%. The adult literacy rate in burkina is 8.8% and at present about 28% of the primary school-aged children receive a basic education (skewed heavily toward the urban population). The infant mortality rate is 144/1000 and the average life expectancy is 44 years. (McNamara, 1985).
Burkina is comprized of about sixty ethnic groups. The Mossi, which comprizes about one-half of the population are the dominant group in both politics and the economic life of Burkina. The Peul (Fulani), who are transhumance, comprize about 10% of the population. Other groups include the Lobi Dagari (7), Bobo (7%) and the Senoufo (5.5%). The majority of the population (65%) follow traditional religions. About 30% follow Islam and 5% are Christian. French is the official government language and is taught in schools however, most of the people speak African languages in the country side.
Burkina is one of the poorest countries in the world with a per
capita GNP estimated at US S 180 (1983) and a per capita GDP growth rate of -3.1% (1980-84). Eighty-five to 90% of the population.is engaged in farming and livestock production. Agriculture contributes 41% to the GDP. The country is one of Africa's least industrialized nations. Both the Balance of Trade and the Balance of Payments have been in deficit since 1975. The Balance of Payment is covered mostly by foreign aid as well as by borrowing and worker remittances (25% of Burkina's work force, mostly young unmarried men, work in neighboring countries).
Since independence from France in 1960, Burkina Faso has had to cope with the problem of food security the ability to assure consumption of a nutritionally adequate diet for all members of the country. Growth in
per capita food production for the period 1971 to 1979 was zero but between 1980 to 1984, the growth rate was -2.1%. Levels of food imports have increased from US 3 11.3 million in 1970 to US 3 74.5 million in 1985 (McNamara, 1985). Although increases in food availability have kept pace
with population growth allowing per capita consumption to remain constant,. aggregate caloric intake is 85% and lipid consumption only 50% of nutritionally recommended levels. On average, protein consumption is adequate (Haggblade, 1984).
GENERAL FARMING SYSTEMS INFORMATION
The soils of the Mossi Plateau are classified as alfisols and are
very low in fertility. The texture is predominantly sandy-clay with some sandy-loam soils. After a rain the soil surface dries and forms a crust which restricts water infiltration and aeriation and increases rainfall runoff (Kowal and Kassam, 1978). In the dry season (Mid-October to MidMay) the soils harden making pre-plant cultivation difficult and almost impossible by traditional methods until there is a major rain. Land quality deteriorates as one moves up the toposequence. Rainfall is highly variable and unpredictable and combined with the properties of the soil leads to water retention and soil erosion problems.
A traditional household generally consists of a male head of the
household and his wife or wives and their young children. The size of the household varies and may include the sons of the head and their wives and children. Men, women and children are involved in agricultural activities. Table 1 outlines the gender division of labor by activity between men and women. Table 2 presents the demographic characteristics and resource endowments of three FSU villages. Table 3 presents the labor hours worked by gender on communal fields. .../...
In general, farmers' goals on the Mossi Plateau are subsistence
oriented with the most immediate goal being that of meeting their staple food consumption needs (FSU/SAFGRAD, 1983). This generally means harvesting enough sorghum and millet in November to feed their families until the beginning of the maize harvest in late August that provides food during the "hungry period" the period, between ending stocks and the new harvest. Once the subsistence goals have been met however, they do
have aspirations for increasing their welfare.
A labor calendar of activities performed on various crops is presented in Table 4. Field preparation for planting mainly takes the form of clearing the land. Little pre-plant cultivation is done because of the soil characteristics even when households have animal traction. All planting is done manually with a short handled hoe (Daba). Weeding is either done manually or by a combination of manual and animal traction. Planting begins with the first significant rains which comes between the beginning
of May and the end of June. The major staple crops grown are maize on the fertile compound land, sorghum on the lower parts of the toposequence and millet which is usually grown on the less fertile soils. Small quantities
of rice are also grown in the bottom lands. Cash crops include peanuts, bambara nuts, and cowpeas. Other crops, include okra, peppers, and sesame which are often planted as field borders near the compound. Most of the sorghum and millet fields are intercropped to some extent with cowpeas. Dry season activities include construction of buildings and fences, weaving of mats, pottery work and other craft work and is the main season for visiting, parties, marriages and ceremonial duties.
Labor availability becomes a pressing constraint at planting and at the first weeding periods. A limited labor market exists for agricultural
activities, particularly at planting and first weeding. Most farmers use their own household labor and little labor is hired in or out.
Livestock are an integral part of the farming system. Most households own cattle. Nearly half the Mossi and over a third of the Gourmantche
cattle owners send their cattle in transhumance the seasonal movement of livestock between pasture zones. (Vengrof C, 1980, p. 62). Livestock (mostly donkeys) are used for traction and it is estimated that about 10% of the farms in Burkina use animal traction. Little supplemental
feeding is done thus the traction animals are very weak in the first part of the agricultural (rainy) season. Each household has some small ruminants (sheep and goats) and poultry.
A major problem that must be faced in Burkina is the effect of the increasing man-land ratio on the farming systems of the Mossi Plateau. The increasing man-land ratio is causing a change in the traditional farming systems in many villages. Traditionally, farmers planted land for five to seven years and then it is fallowed for up to 20 years to restore the fertility. In some villages there is limited access to new land and virtually all land within the boundaries of these villages have been cultivated continuously over the past ten to twenty years. The shorter fallow period in combination with the present farm management practice of burning or the removing of all plant material for household and animal feed exhausts the soil. The end result is that as more pressure is put on the land for food production, soil deterioration will increase, resulting in lower yields and lower food production.
TRADITIONAL ACCESS AND CONTROL OF RESOURCES AND OUTPUT
Although land is never privately owned, there are different degrees of tenure security depending on where the rights to control the land come
from. A household's claim to land is through membership in one of the clans of a village (McMillan, 1980). Several clans exist within a village and each clan has claim to a portion of the land. The size and quality of the land claim depends on the order of arrival of the clan in the village (the largest and best to first-comers) and its relationship to the chieftaincy. Within each household, land is passed from father (household head) to eldest son and the --.household head is given an "Individual right" to the control and distribution of the land to household members with little interference from clan elders.
Another form of land tenure is a 'customary right" held by the clan elders and the village chief. A major portion of the land cultivated in a village is "borrowed land" form households that have sufficient land for their own needs or from those having land through customary rights. This form of tenure allows for adjustments in family size and composition over time. Lenders of land usually receive token payments such as Kola nuts, salt, or a tine of grain (18 to 20 kgs) each year. Borrowers have temporary cultivation rights but may not be given the right to gather straw, firewood or fruits and leaves of trees from the land. Lenders guard the rights to their land by not lending land for long periods, usually for less than five years, and not lending the best land or land for subsistence crops. Borrowers seem to be less willing to increase the productivity of the land through fertilization, use of manure, or soil water or erosion practices for fear of the lender reclaiming the land before the borrower gets full payment back from his investment. The amount of land in each tenure category may differ from village to village. The percentage of land in each
1 The discussion on land tenure and the rights to cultivation in the present
and forthcoming paragraphs originate from Nagy et al., 1986a and are based largely on: McMillan, 1980; Hernderson et al., 1982; and Saunders, 1980.
tenure category for villages around Kaya are as follows; Individual 36.6%, Customary 9.816 and Borrowed 53.8% (McMillan, 1980, p. 13).
Within the household, the household head has the right to subdivide the inherited land. There is a distinction between collective or communal fields of the household that provide the major subsistence crops (sorghum, millet and maize) and private or personal fields which individuals cultivate for their own use (Table 5). Work on collective fields takes priority over work on private fields especially in peak labor demand periods. Various members of the household have private fields and their location and size is decided by the head. Women do not inherit land but obtain the right to the use of land through their husbands. The wives of the household generally grow one plot of sorghum or millet, and one of peanuts or bambara nuts along with such crops as okra and small amounts of maize (Table 6). Small amounts of produce are sold in th; market (Table 7) and the revenues kept for personal use, but during the dry season grain from these plots must feed the women and children for at least one meal per day. Unmarried teenage-children are also given small plots on which they grow cash crops and keep the revenue. The private plots of women and teenagers can change location from year to year. Men within the household (brothers, sons or cousins of the head) who are married also obtain and cultivate personal land for their own use. They also, like the Household head, can give land to their wives and children to use as their private fields. They are however still dependent on the communal fields for much of their food and
must work in them. Some subsistence crop are grown on men Is fields as are cash crops such as peanuts, bambara nuts and cotton. The private fields of the married males are usually the first step in forming their own household and the location of the fields do not change as often as other private fields. The best quality land is usually reserved for the communal fields and tend
to have slightly higher yields because of the ability of the household head to command labor at the optimum planting and weeding times.
Non-Muslim women are involved in the making of a sorghum beer called dolo. Dolo is made from either red or white sorghum. Women make it for home consumption (usually feasts) or for selling in the market. If made for the family, the sorghum comes from the communal fields but if made for the market, the sorghum is usually bought. The women have the right to spend the proceeds from the dolo sales and will usually buy things for the family or for herself such as cloth or jewelry. In some villages, dolo making is regulated to permit everyone a turn to make and sell it.
Men and most women own small ruminants and poultry. Women either buy them or receive them as gifts from their husbands.* It is rare that Mossi women own cattle (Henderson, in Vengroff, 1980, p. 115). Women can sell their livestock (Table 8) but need the permission of the husband (Henderson, in Vengroff, 1980, p. 117). Women consider small ruminants a good investment and purchase clothing and condiments as well as millet in times of food shortages. Little time is devoted to the care of small ruminants or poultry by either men or women the children do most of the herding work.
The extension system is responsible for the dissemination of household and agricultural information, credit and new technologies and thus is an
important factor in the farming systems with respect to the access to and control of resources and information. The extension system is administered through the Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Development and the country is divided into eleven Regional Development Organizations (ORD's). There are 2922 employees in the extension system of which over 75% have less than a high school education. Women make up 3%a of the employees and
there are no women who have an education level beyond high school. To receive the services of the ORD's, it is necessary to form into cooperative groups with many of the groups being either totally male or female. There were 945 women's groups recognized by the ORD's in 1984. There is a program of assistance to some women's groups whereby an animatrice (special women extension personnel) is attached to the group to provide
leadership and education. However, their low level of education and training especially in accounting and administration inhibit the assistance that they might give. Where cooperative groups include both men and women, the men usually occupy the administrative and important positions.
Most formal credit is obtained through membership (usually by the
household head) in a village credit group. The membership must be approved by the ORD and the group and a fee must be paid ranging from 500 to 2000 CFA (Ohm et al., 1985a). This form of credit is administered by the regional ORD with financing usually provided by the Caisse Nationale de Credit Agricole (CNCA). The interest rate is subsidized and set at 5.5% There are no special credit programs for women. Because they lack collateral and administrative and accounting skills as well as the knowledge of how to apply for a loan, little credit is given to women by the CNCA or by the regular Banks. Much of the credit that has been given to women has come through special donor agency programs and only a small portion could be termed agricultural. In the cotton growing area, SOFITEX the national cotton para-statal is an important source of credit for agricultural inputs such as fertilizer and pesticides. SOFITEX also markets the cotton. The clients are-mostly male.
The informal market is very active and at times used to purchase farm inputs but is mainly used for non-agricultural purposes such as food.
Annual interest rates in the informal market are high and range from 200 to 250% (Ohm et al., 1985a)..
RECENT LEGAL AND POLITICAL CHANGES AFFECTING WOMEN'S
STATUS AND ACCESS TO AND CONTROL OF RESOURCES
Women's rights has emerged as a national issue of the newtgovernment in Burkina. In a Presidential address, the government states its position;
"To create a new women's mentality which will permit her to assume the destiny of the country alongside that of men is the essential
work of the revolution."(Presidential speach, October 2, 1983).
The government has followed up by appointing women to head the
Ministries of Sport, Budget and Social Affairs (which was the only Ministry previously headed by a woman) and appointed women to high level administrative positions. The following laws and regulations which deal with changing the status of women indicates the intent of the government. Marriage. Forced marriages have been declared illegal and directives have been issued regarding polygamy.
Sex education Planned Parenthood. The Directorate of Health for Mothers and Children was created within the Ministry of Health and organizes, coordinates and supervises the family planning in Burkina. The level of activity in the area of sex education and planned parenthood has substantially increased over the last two years and is a priority of the government. Excision. Declared illegal and penalities imposed on practitioners. Public health information has been disseminated to explain the dangers. Child Support. Government declaration that a portion of civil servants (fathers) income be deducted to guarantee child support. The procedure and allotments are under study.
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The government has been able to mobilize and carry out its laws and regulations through the organizing of a political structure that extends throughout the country. The orgnization is responsible for the collection and dissemination of information and participates in the decision making process within the local and national governments. Each village is represented by an elected delegate. Within the organization, there exists the Direction de la Mobilisation et de l'Organisation de la Femme (DMOF) which has a female representative in every town, village and sector. Their local planning and mobilization ability has been shown by "Vaccination Commando", the recent UNICEF sponsored innoculation program where about
2.5 million children were innoculated for a variety of diseases within a three week period. (UNICEF, 1985).
The government has also made new regulations in the area of land
tenure. A newly created ordinance contains the conditions for allocation, occupation, and exploitation of land. The ordinance states that:
"Urban and rural lands (of Burkina) will be allocated to those who
have a real social need without regard to sex and marital status...," The role off the traditional chieftaincy and the traditional ways of administering land use rights have been abolished and replaced by a system where land is granted for use by "competent authorities" of the Ministry of the Interior. (GOB, 1984 ).
The ordinance to date has been almost exclusively used in urban areas to create access to building lots by urban dwellers. The ordinance is also the corner stone of land resettlement programs where people from densely populated areas on the Mossi Plateau migrate and cultivate new land. However, the ordinance has as yet not touched the traditional land tenure system. Changing the land tenure system which has been built on centuries
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of custom and traditions without turning the system into chaos is a difficult task. Yet without some intervention, it is unlikely that the access to and control of land will change. A solution must be found whereby access to and control of land is made available to all without totally disrupting the system.
In the area of credit, an agreement has been made between the Union Revolutionnaire de Banques (UREBA) and DMOF to provide possibilities for women to receive loans for various projects including rural development. UREBA requires that the projects be developed., by women's groups and that for the security of the loan, collective responsibility. isi..reg rment'al Iviea0riUREBA has limited. fundstand,. most -reqtiestsohf edi#i*t.: preasped and rejected-on- technical-grounds. (GOB, 198)..
The CNCA has started to look into credit programs for women and have lent money to several womens groups. In most cases the women refused to assume collective responsibility for the loan but would have taken personal
responsibility had the Bank let them. In .these cases, the CNCA was obliged to request the men of the village to take responsibility. The CNCA has recognized the problems of credit and plan to hold seminars in the rural areas outlining the requirements and proceedures for obtaining credit.
There have been several workshops organized by DMOF in which the Banks have been in attendance and have outlined the problems that they
have in granting credit. The problems included poorly prepared requests, lack of collateral (Land and the means of production), and poor administrative ability. The women at the workshops have asked that the Banks put
into place special structures so that credit is accessable to women. As yet, a method has not been worked out to accommodate the requirements of both sides.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
The government of Burkina has addressed itself to women's issues and has shown intent by passing several laws and regulations to change the status of women and their access to and control of resources. Through its planning and organization ability, it has shown that it can mobilize people
and resources. Yet the land tenure ordinance and the meetings to aquaint the Banking system with women's credit problems is only a start in changing the present access to and control of resources by women within the farming system.
An immediate change in the present land tenure system so that all individuals wanting a free tittle to land seems unlikely. The government ordinance however, does open the door for change. Women do have a certain amount of access to and control over land in the present system and the new, ordinance gives them the opportunity to gradually aquire more land and exercise more control. This however does not solve the problem of aquiring
the other means of production (equipement, seeds, etc.) for which collateral is required for credit. Innovative methods need to be found so that the Banking system can make loans to groups or individuals who do not at this time have the necessary collateral (See Spring, 1985 for several approaches). Ways should also be found to make loans to individuals alone who choose not to be involved in cooperative credit groups.
With the government's ability to mobilize and through the DMOF organization, a system could be devised to better inform women about the new land tenure ordinance and credit opportunities. Seminars on proposal writing, accounting and administration need to be carried out. The individuals and the role of the animatrice within the extension system also requires upgrading. ....
To date, agricultural research has not fully exploited the possibilities that exist with respect to women's agricultural activities. Most research has been done on the major crops and little attention given to women's specific crops and livestock. Since women's crops are required to feed the family for part of year,. research is required to increase their labor productivity.
To date women's programs have been carried out in an ad hoc manner in Burkina. Little is known of the kinds of projects that have been funded in the past and of their successes and failures. A first step would be to
-compile information on past and on-going project which would provide a guide for future development strategies. A second step would be to gather the government Ministries involved along with interested International and Donor agencies whereby under the direction of the Government of Burkina, comprehensive plans are made in the area's of research, extension, and the education of women.
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MALI 0. ovaledipsom
0-0 1 IlLmlomsm
/Bobo olool"80 BENIN
PrInelpal cities .*.FSU Survey Villames. to
Figure 1: Map of Burkina Faso
Table L. Gender division of labor activities.
Predominantly Predominantly Performed by both
male female male and female
Prepare fields Fetch water Planting
Construct fences Fetch wood Replanting
Guard fields Meal preparation Weeding
Small stock work Domestic chores Apply fertilizer
Large stock work Commerce (dolo + Harvest
Weave straw food items) Poultry work
Construction Child care
Commerce Spin cotton
Adapted from Delgado, 1979. Because the gender division of labor is flexable, the criterion for classification of an activity as being predcwinantly male or female is that at least three-quarters of all the hours devoted to an activity come from the gender in question.
Table 2. Demographic characteristics and resource endowments of farmers in FSU villages.1
Characteristic/endowment Bangass6 Diapangou Nedogo
Members per household2 9.07 9.50 10.67
(3.76) (5.34) ( 4.44)
Active workers per household3 5.77 7.27 5.27
(2.62) (3.54) ( 2.13)
Active male workers 2.13 2.10 2.03
Active female workers 2.24 2.63 2.80
Active child workers 1.40 2.53 .53
...etares per household 2.15 6.93 7.14
(..91) (3.41) (3.93)
letrsper person .263 .683 .682
.129) (.252) (.335)
Hectares per active worker .34 1.06 1.34
Total households 30 30 30
With donkey traction 4 10 13
With ox traction 20 4
1Source: Lang et al., 1984, p. 51. 2Standard deviations in parentheses 3Active workers referes to workers who are available for household,
agricultural production, and herding work and does not include members
of the household working in the cities or other countries.
Table 3. Total labor hours per hectare for communal cereal fields, Burkina.1 Bangasse Diapangou Nedogo
hrs % hrs % hrs %
Men 115,8 29.3. 91.5 19.0 84.4. 28.2
Women2 219.6 55.6 236.5 49.2 174.3 58.3
Children 59.7 15.1 152.6 31.8 40.5 13.5
Source : Lang, 1985
1Cereals include sorghum and millet. 2Active women workers/household as a percentage of total active workers/ household are 51.6, 41.9 and 46.2 percent for Bangasse, Diapangou and Nedogo respectively.
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Table 4. Labor calendar of activities performed on various crops.
Number Time period Observations
1 May 3 Planting of red sorghum, white sorghum
June 6 and millet takes place. Soil preparation
and planting of rice begins.
2 June 7 First weeding begins on red and white
June 13 sorghum fields. Soil preparation and
planting continues for rice and begins for peanuts.
3 June 14 First weeding continues for red and white
June 20 sorghum and begins for millet. Soil
preparation and planting continues for peanuts and rice while first seeding on early planted rice fields begins.
4 June 21
June 27 First weeding continues on red sorghum,
white sorghum, millet, and rice. Soil preparation and planting of later fields of peanuts. Land preparation and planting of first maize fields takes place.
5 June 18 First weeding of red. and white 'sorghum,
July 4 millet, and rice.. Last planting of peanuts
6 July 5 First weeding continues on red sorghum,
July 11 white sorghum, millet, and rice fields.
7 July 12 Firstweeding continues on red sorghum,
July 18 white sorghum, millet, and rice fields.
8 July 19 Beginning of second weeding of red and
August 1 white sorghum and rice. First weeding of
peanuts and maize.
9 August 2 Second weeding of all major cereals and
August 22 first weeding of peanuts and maize.
10 August 23 Continued second and final weeding of all
September 12 cereals. First weeding is finished on
peanut fields. Maize harvest begins. 11 Mid-September on Maize harvest continues
12 Mid-October Harvest lasting about six weeks within
mid-December this period. Crops are generally harvested
in the following order: peanuts, red sorghum, white sorghum, millet.
Source: Adapted from Roth et al., 1984.
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Table 5. Village area cultivated by different family members.
Damesma Bangasse Zorkoum
Communal Fields 33 (50%) 41 (54%) 34 (81%)
Wives 10 (15%) 9 (12%) 7 (17%)
Unmarried children 2 (3%) 2 (3%) 1 (2%)
Married Male 20 (30%) 24 (31%)
Elders 1 (2%4.
Total 66 76 42
Source: McMillan, 1980, Table 14.
The three villages are in the Kaya Area of Burkina.
Table 6. Crop area devoted to womens fields.
% of Household
Crop Hectares Percentage cultivated Area1
Sorghum 0.192 0.16 2.7
Millet 0.334 0.28 4.7
Sorghum/millet 0.085 0.07 1.2
Maize 0.011. 0.01 0.15
Soybeans2 0.142 0.12 2.0
Peanuts 0.386 0.32 5.3
Cotton 0.007 0.005 0.1
Bambara nuts 0.014 0.01 0.2
Rice 0.007 0.005 0.1
Okra 0.021 0.02 0.3
Total 1.199 100.0 16.75
Source; Henderson et al., 1982, Table 2. (From Swanson, 1979). 1Based on survey data from the Fada area of Burkina where the average household cultivated hectares was 7.1. 2Soybean production larger than normal because of an unusual high soybean price in the survey year.
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Table 7. Value of cereals sold in five villages, Burkina Faso.1
Bangasse Diapangou Dissankuy Nedogo Poedogo
Male Head of
Household 142,900 1,262,900 661,750 820,945 954,390
Women 7,400 541,900 60,150 197,695 104,910
Other Males 62,325 133,550 256,086 140,660
TOTAL 150,300 1,867,125 855,450 1,274,726 1,199,960
by Women 4.9% 29% 7.1% 15.4% 8.7%
Percent of Active
cereals 37.6% .31A 3 % 53.2% 45.9%
Source: Lang, 1985.
1For period April 1, 1983 to February 29, 1984. 2US 3 1.00 = 381, 436 and 400 (est) in 1983, 1984, and 1985.respectively.
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Table 8. Value of small ruminants and poultry sold in five villages, Burkina Faso.1
Bangasse Diapangou Dissankuy Nedogo Poedogo
Male Head of
Household 284,025 502,900 323,625 322,550 157,555
Women 149,500 37,975 15,150 29,325 74,630
Other Males 9,200 7,950 6,000 3,550 8,225
TOTAL 442,725 548,825 344,775 355,435 240,410
by Women 33.9% 6.9% 4.3% 8.1% 30.8%
Percent of Active
Marketing 37.6% 35.2% 43.4% 53.2% 45.9%
Source: Lang, 1985
1For period April 1, 1983 to February 29, 1984. 2US 3 1.00 = 381, 436, and 400 (est) in 1983, 1984, and 1985 respectively.
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Caisse Nationale de Credit Agricole. 1984. Rapport d'activit6, exercice, 1982/83. B.P. 1644, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.
Delgado, C.L. 1979. Livestock versis foodgrain production in southeast Upper Volta: a resource allocation analysis. CRED, University of
Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
FSU/SAFGRAD. 1983. FSU/SAFGRAD 1982 Annual Report. International Programs in Agriculture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana.
Government of Burkina Faso. 1985. Rapport du seminaire de formation pour
la promotion de l'activit4 des femmes dans le domaine de la commercialisation et du credit. Ministre de l'Agriculture et de l'Elevage.
Government of Burkina Faso. 1984. Ordonnance no 84-050-CNR-PRES Portant
r6organisation agraire et fonci6re au Burkina Faso. Sidwaya, August
Haggblade, Steve. 1984. An overview of food security in Burkina Faso
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