• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Introduction
 Background on Burkina Faso
 General farming systems inform...
 Recent legal and political...
 Summary and conclusions
 Map of Burkina Faso
 Tables
 Bibliography






Group Title: Conference on Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research and Extenion, University of Florida, February 26 to March 1, 1986
Title: Burkina Faso : access and control of resources in the farming system : recent legal, political and socio-economic changes
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 Material Information
Title: Burkina Faso : access and control of resources in the farming system : recent legal, political and socio-economic changes
Series Title: Conference on Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research and Extenion, University of Florida, February 26 to March 1, 1986
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Diallo, Nell N.
Nagy, Joseph G.
Publisher: University of Florida
Publication Date: 1986
 Subjects
Subject: Africa   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Africa -- Burkina Faso
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Bibliographic ID: UF00081724
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Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: African Studies Collections in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Background on Burkina Faso
        Page 2
        Page 3
    General farming systems information
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Recent legal and political changes
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Map of Burkina Faso
        Page 16
    Tables
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Bibliography
        Page 25
        Page 26
Full Text














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Conference on

GENDER ISSUES IN FARMING SYSTEMS
RESEARCH AND EXTENSION










BURKINA FASO:


ACCESS AND CONTROL OF RESOURCES IN THE FARMING SYSTEM:
RECENT LEGAL, POLITICAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHANGES

Nell N. Diallo and Joseph G. Nagy

FSU/SAFGRAD is involved in Farming Systems research on the Mossi

Plateau in Burkina Faso.2 As in other sahel and sudanian countries of

Africa, low soil fertility, lack of soil water retention and availability

and labor shortages at the peak labor demand periods of planting and

weeding are major constraints to increased yield and production. FSU has

spent much of its research on technology evaluation'of soil fertility and

water retention techniques (Ohm et al., 1985a & b, Nagy et al., 1986b).

Technology evaluation involved assessing: technical feasibility, profita-

bility/risk, and the "fit" within the farming system (Sanders and Roth,

1985 and Nagy et al., 1985). More recently, technology evaluation at FSU

has attempted to include inter-household considerations. Specific intra-

household questions that are asked are as follows: 1) If there are new

tasks to be performed, was there a change in the division of labor (gender

or age group) such that a heavier burden is carried by one of these groups?,

2) If new resources are required, were some groups denied access to and

control over these resources which may have income distribution or change

in status implications? 3) What is the incentive structure, ie., do par-

ticipants in the use of the new technology receive a share in the returns

(Mckee, 1984 ).

!Administrative and Training Coordinator, and Economist, FSU/SAFGRAD,
Burkina Faso.
2The Purdue University Farming Systems Unit (FSU) is part of the Semi-Arid
Food Grain Research and Development project in Africa with the Coordi-
nation Office in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.


- I -










Within the farming system, access to and control of the factors of

production (land, labor, capital including new technologies and infor-

mation) most often means control of the output (revenues) and the uses to

which they are put. Apart from equity considerations, gender access to

and control over the factors of production have an important role to play

in technology intervention design and diffusion. This paper explores the

intra-household issues of the access and control of resources within the

farming systems of the Mossi Plateau. After a brief background on Burkina

and the farming systems of the Mossi Plateau, a description of the tra-

ditional access to and control of resources are given along with the legal

and political environment within which the farming systems ishoperating.

The most recent legal and political changes which have possible implica-

tions for changes in gender access to and control of resources are then'- .

discussed. ..

BACKGROUND ON BURKINA FASO1

Burkina is a land locked country in the center of West Africa

(Fig. 1).2 Ouagadougou is the capital. Burkina is situated in the zone

known as the semi-arid tropics and the climate is primarily sudanian with

the exception of the northeast which is sahalian. Long term average annual

rainfall ranges from 500 mm in the northeastern sahalian zone to 1400 mm in

the extreme southwest. Since the mid-sixties, annual rainfall has averaged

100 to 150 mm below the long term average. Deforestation and drought are

real concerns. The 1972-74 and 1984 droughts caused enormous hardships.

1This and the following two sections are taken largely from Nagy et al.,
1985 and Nagy et al., 1986a which give greater detail of the background
and farming systems of Burkina Faso.
2The country is located between 9020' and 1505' latitude north and 2020'
longitude east and 5030' longitude west of the prime maridian. The land
area of the country is 274,000 square kilometers of which an estimated
one-half is arable. Eighty-five percent of the land area is plain with
an altitude of between 200 to 350 meters above sea level.
2-










The population of Burkina is 6.5 million (mid-1983) and growing at

an annual rate of 2.7%. The adult literacy rate in burkina is 8.8% and at

present about 28% of the primary school-aged children receive a basic

education (skewed heavily toward the urban population). The infant morta-

lity rate is 144/1000 and the average life expectancy is 44 years.

(McNamara, 1985).

Burkina is comprized of about sixty ethnic groups. The Mossi, which

comprizes about one-half of the population are the dominant group in both

politics and the economic life of Burkina. The Peul (Fulani), who are

transhumance, comprize about 10% of the population. Other groups include

the Lobi Dagari (7%), Bobo (7%) and the Senoufo (5.5%). The majority

of the population (65%) follow traditional religions. About 30% follow

Islam and 5% are Christian. French is the official government language

and is taught in schools however, most of the people speak African lan-

guages in the country side.

Burkina is one of the poorest countries in the world with a per

capital GNP estimated at US S 180 (1983) and a per capital GDP growth rate

of -3.1% (1980-84). Eighty-five to 90% of the population.is engaged in

farming and livestock production. Agriculture contributes 41% to the

GDP. The country is one of Africa's least industrialized nations. Both

the Balance of Trade and the Balance of Payments have been in deficit

since 1975. The Balance of Payment is covered mostly byforeign aid as

well as by borrowing and worker remittances (25% of Burkina's work force,

mostly young unmarried men, work in neighboring countries).

Since independence from France in 1960, Burkina Faso has had to cope

with the problem of food security the ability to assure consumption of

a nutritionally adequate diet for all members of the country. Growth in
*- 3 -.
-3-









per capital food production for the period 1971 to 1979 was zero but between

1980 to 1984, the growth rate was -2.1%. Levels of food imports have in-

creased from US 3 11.3 million in 1970 to US 3 74.5 million in 1985

(McNamara, 1985). Although increases in food availability have kept pace

with population growth allowing per capital consumption to remain constant,.

aggregate caloric intake is 85% and lipid consumption only 50% of nutri-

tionally recommended levels. On average, protein consumption is adequate

(Haggblade, 1984).

GENERAL FARMING SYSTEMS INFORMATION

The soils of the Mossi Plateau are classified as alfisols and are

very low in fertility. The texture is predominantly sandy-clay with some

sandy-loam soils. After a rain the soil surface dries and forms a crust

which restricts water infiltration and aeriation and increases rainfall

runoff (Kowal and Kassam, 1978). In the dry season (Mid-October to Mid-

May) the soils harden making pre-plant cultivation difficult and almost

impossible by traditional methods until there is a major rain. Land quality

deteriorates as one moves up the toposequence. Rainfall is highly variable

and unpredictable and combined with the properties of the soil leads to

water retention and soil erosion problems.

A traditional household generally consists of a male head of the

household and his wife or wives and their young children. The size of the

household varies and may include the sons of the head and their wives and

children. Men, women and children are involved in agricultural activities.

Table 1 outlines the gender division of labor by activity between men and

women. Table 2 presents the demographic characteristics and resource

endowments of three FSU villages. Table .3 presents the labor hours worked

by gender on communal fields. .....


-4 -









In general, farmers' goals on the Mossi Plateau are subsistence

oriented with the most immediate goal being that of meeting their staple

food consumption needs (FSU/SAFGRAD, 1983). This generally means har-

vesting enough sorghum and millet in November to feed their families until

the beginning of the maize harvest in late August that provides food

during the "hungry period" the period- between ending stocks and the

new harvest. Once the subsistence goals have been met however, they do

have aspirations for increasing their welfare.

A labor calendar of activities performed on various crops is presen-

ted in Table 4. Field preparation for planting mainly takes the form of

clearing the land. Little pre-plant cultivation is done because of the

soil characteristics even when households have animal traction. All plant-

ing is done manually with a short handled hoe (Daba). Weeding is either

done manually or by a combination of manual and animal traction. Planting

begins with the first significant rains which comes between the beginning

of May and the end of June. The major staple crops grown are maize on the

fertile compound land, sorghum on the lower parts of the toposequence and

millet which is usually grown on the less fertile soils. Small quantities

of rice are also grown in the bottom lands. Cash crops include peanuts,

bambara nuts, and cowpeas. Other crops, include okra, peppers, and sesame

which are often planted as field borders near the compound. Most of the

sorghum and millet fields are intercropped to some extent with cowpeas.

Dry season activities include construction of buildings and fences, weaving

of mats, pottery work and other craft work and is the main season for

visiting, parties,marriages, and ceremonial duties.

Labor availability becomes a pressing constraint at planting and at the

first weeding periods. A limited labor market exists for agricultural


5 -









activities, particularly at planting and first weeding. Most farmers

use their own household labor and little labor is hired in or out.

Livestock are an integral part of the farming system. Most households

own cattle. Nearly half the Mossi and over a third of the Gourmantche

cattle owners send their cattle in transhumance the seasonal movement of

livestock between pasture zones. (Vengroff, 1980, p. 62). Livestock

(mostly donkeys) are used for traction and it is estimated that about

10% of the farms in Burkina use animal traction. Little supplemental

feeding is done thus the traction animals are very weak in the first part

of the agricultural (rainy) season. Each household has some small rumi-

nants (sheep and goats) and poultry.

A major problem that must be faced in Burkina is the effect of the

increasing man-land ratio on the farming systems of the Mossi Plateau.

The increasing man-land ratio is causing a change in the traditional far-

ming systems in many villages. Traditionally, farmers planted land for

five to seven years and then it is fallowed for up to 20 years to restore

the fertility. In some villages there is limited access to new land and

virtually all land within the boundaries of these villages have been cul-

tivated continuously over the past ten to twenty years. The shorter

fallow period in combination with the present farm management practice

of burning or the removing of all plant material for household and animal

feed exhausts the soil. The end result is that as more pressure is put on

the land for food production, soil deterioration will increase, resulting

in lower yields and lower food production.

TRADITIONAL ACCESS AND CONTROL OF RESOURCES AND OUTPUT

Although land is never privately owned, there are different degrees

of tenure security depending on where the rights to control the land come


6 -










from. A household's claim to land is through membership in one of the

clans of a village (McMillan, 1980). Several clans exist within a village

and each clan has claim to a portion of the land. The size and quality

of the land claim depends on the order of arrival of the clan in the

village (the largest and best to first-comers) and its relationship to the

chieftaincy. Within each household, land is passed from father (house-

hold head) to eldest son and the -household head is given an "Individual

right" to the control and distribution of the land to household members

with little interference from clan elders.

Another form of land tenure is a 'customary right" held by the clan

elders and the village chief. A major portion of the land cultivated in a

village is "borrowed land" form households that have sufficient land for

their own needs or from those having land through customary rights. This

form of tenure allows for adjustments in family size and composition over

time. Lenders of land usually receive token payments such as Kola nuts,

salt, or a tine of grain (18 to 20 kgs) each year. Borrowers have tempo-

rary cultivation rights but may not be given the right to gather straw, fire-

wood or fruits and leaves of trees from the land. Lenders guard the rights

to their land by not lending land for long periods, usually for less than

five years, and not lending the best land or land for subsistence crops.

Borrowers seem to be less willing to increase the productivity of the land

through fertilization, use of manure, or soil water or erosion practices

for fear of the lender reclaiming the land before the borrower gets full

payment back from his investment. The amount of land in each tenure cate-

gory may differ from village to village. The percentage of land in each

The discussion on land tenure and the rights to cultivation in the present
and forthcoming paragraphs originate from Nagy et al., 1986a and are based
largely on: McMillan, 1980; Hernderson et al., 1982; and Saunders, 1980.


-7-










tenure category for villages around Kaya are as follows; Individual 36.6%,

Customary 9.8% and Borrowed 53.8% (McMillan, 1980, p. 13).

Within the household, the household head has the right to subdivide

the inherited land. There is a distinction between collective or communal

fields of the household that provide the major subsistence crops (sorghum,

millet and maize) and private or personal fields which individuals culti-

vate for their own use (Table 5). Work on collective fields takes priority

over work on private fields especially in peak labor demand periods.

Various members of the household have private fields and their location

and size is decided by the head. Women do not inherit land but obtain the

right to the use of land through their husbands. The wives of the house-

hold generally grow one plot of sorghum or millet, and one of peanuts or

bambara nuts along with such crops as okra and small amounts of maize

(Table 6). Small amounts of produce are sold in the market (Table 7) and

the revenues kept for personal use, but during the dry season grain from

these plots must feed the women and children for at least one meal per day.

Unmarried teenage-children are also given small plots on which they grow

cash crops and keep the revenue. The private plots of women and teenagers

can change location from year to year. Men within the household (brothers,

sons or cousins of the head) who are married also obtain and cultivate

personal land for their own use. They also, like the Household head, can

give land to their wives and children to use as their private fields. They

are however still dependent on the communal fields for much of their food and

must work in them. Some subsistencecrop are grown on men's fields as are cash

crops such as peanuts, bambara nuts and cotton. The private fields of the

married males are usually the first step in forming their own household

and the location of the fields do not change as often as other private fields.

The best quality land is usually reserved for the communal fields and tend
.- 8 -
-8-









to have slightly higher yields because of the ability of the household head

to command labor at the optimum planting and weeding times.

Non-Muslim women are involved in the making of a sorghum beer called

dolo. Dolo is made from either red or white sorghum. Women make it for

home consumption (usually feasts) or for selling in the market. If made

for the family, the sorghum comes from the communal fields but if made for

the market, the sorghum is usually bought. The women have the right to

spend the proceeds from the dolo sales and will usually buy things for

the family or for herself such as cloth or jewelry. In some villages,

dolo making is regulated to permit everyone a turn to make and sell it.

Men and most women own small ruminants and poultry. Women either

buy them or receive them as gifts from their husbands. It is rare that

Mossi women own cattle (Henderson, in Vengroff, 1980, p. 115). Women can

sell their livestock (Table 8) but need the permission of the husband

(Henderson, in Vengroff, 1980, p. 117). Women consider small ruminants a

good investment and purchase clothing and condiments as well as millet in

times of food shortages. Little time is devoted to the care of small

ruminants or poultry by either men or women the children do most of the

herding work.

The extension system is responsible for the dissemination of household

and agricultural information, credit and new technologies and thus is an

important factorin the farming systems with respect to the access to and

control of resources and information. The extension system is adminis-

tered through the Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Development and the

country is divided into eleven Regional Development Organizations (ORD's).

There are 2922 employees in the extension system of which over 75% have

less than a high school education. Women make up 3% of the employees and
/ .
9 -










there are no women who have an education level beyond high school. To

receive the services of the ORD's, it is necessary to form into coope-

rative groups with many of the groups being either totally male or female.

There were 945 women's groups recognized by the ORD's in 1984. There

is a program of assistance to some women's groups whereby an animatrice

(special women extension personnel) is attached to the group to provide

leadership and education. However, their low level of education and train-

ing especially in accounting and administration inhibit the assistance

that they might give. Where cooperative groups include both men and women,

the men usually occupy the administrative and important positions.

Most formal credit is obtained through membership (usually by the

household head) in a village credit group. The membership must be approved

by the ORD and the group and a fee must be paid ranging from 500 to 2000

CFA (Ohm et al., 1985a). This form of credit is administered by the

regional ORD with financing usually provided by the Caisse Nationale de

Credit Agricole (CNCA). The interest rate is subsidized and set at 5.5%

There are no special credit programs for women. Because they lack colla-

teral and administrative and accounting skills as well as the knowledge of

how to apply for a loan, little credit is given to women by the CNCA or

by the regular Banks. Much of the credit that has been given to women has

come through special donor agency programs and only a small portion could

be termed agricultural. In the cotton growing area, SOFITEX the national

cotton para-statal is an important source of credit for agricultural

inputs such as fertilizer and pesticides. SOFITEX also markets the cotton.

The clients are-mostly male.

The informal market is very active and at times used to purchase farm

inputs but is mainly used for non-agricultural purposes such as food.

S10 ..
10 -










Annual interest rates in the informal market are high and range from 200

to 250% (Ohm et al., 1985a)..

RECENT LEGAL AND POLITICAL CHANGES AFFECTING WOMEN'S
STATUS AND ACCESS TO AND CONTROL OF RESOURCES

Women's rights has emerged as a national issue of the newt.government

in Burkina. In a Presidential address, the government states its position;

"To create a new women's mentality which will permit her to assume

the destiny of the country alongside that of men is the essential

work of the revolution."(Presidential speech, October 2, 1983).

The government has followed up by appointing women to head the

Ministries of Sport, Budget and Social Affairs (which was the only Ministry

previously headed by a woman) and appointed women to high level adminis-

trative positions. The following laws and regulations which deal with

changing the status of women indicates the intent of the government.

Marriage. Forced marriages have been declared illegal and directives have

been issued regarding polygamy.

Sex education Planned Parenthood. The Directorate of Health for Mothers

and Children was created within the Ministry of Health and organizes, coor-

dinates and supervises the family planning in Burkina. The level of acti-

vity in the area of sex education and planned parenthood has substantially

increased over the last two years and is a priority of the government.

Excision. Declared illegal and penalties imposed on practitioners. Public

health information has been disseminated to explain the dangers.

Child Support. Government declaration that a portion of civil servants

(fathers) income be deducted to guarantee child support. The procedure and

allotments are under study.
.../...


- 11 -








The government has been able to mobilize and carry out its laws and

regulations through the organizing of a political structure that extends

throughout the country. The organization is responsible for the collection

and dissemination of information and participates in the decision making

process within the local and national governments. Each village is

represented by an elected delegate. Within the organization, there exists

the Direction de la Mobilisation et de l'Organisation de la Femme (DMOF)

which has a female representative in every town, village and sector. Their

local planning and mobilization ability has been shown by "Vaccination

Commando", the recent UNICEF sponsored innoculation program where about

2.5 million children were innoculated for a variety of diseases within a

three week period. (UNICEF, 1985).

The government has also made new regulations in the area of land

tenure. A newly created ordinance contains the conditions for allocation,

occupation, and exploitation of land. The ordinance states that:

"Urban and rural lands (of Burkina) will be allocated to those who

have a real social need without regard to sex and marital status...,"

The role of the traditional chieftaincy and the traditional ways of admi-

nistering land use rights have been abolished and replaced by a system

where land is granted for use by "competent authorities" of the Ministry

of the Interior. (GOB, 1984 ).

The ordinance to date has been almost exclusively used in urban areas

to create access to building lots by urban dwellers. The ordinance is also

the corner stone of land resettlement programs where people from densely

populated areas on the Mossi Plateau migrate and cultivate new land.

However, the ordinance has as yet not touched the traditional land tenure

system. Changing the land tenure system which has been built on centuries

-.. 12
12 -








of custom and traditions without turning the system into chaos is a

difficult task. Yet without some intervention, it is unlikely that the

access to and control of land will change. A solution must be found

whereby access to and control of land is made available to all without

totally disrupting the system.

In the area of credit, an agreement has been made between the Union

Revolutionnaire de Banques (UREBA) and DMOF to provide possibilities for

women to receive loans for various projects including rural development.

UREBA requires that the projects be developed:, by women's groups and that

for the security of the loan, collective responsibility.isayregqz rementt.

Hovevr'e UREBA has': limited funds and. most requesatstfor^edi iXiFi jf l -'

prepared and'rejected-on- technicalrground.S. (GOB, 198)'..

The CNCA has started to look into credit programs for women and have

lent money to several women groups. In most cases the women refused to

assume collective responsibility for the loan but would have taken personal

responsibility had the Bank let them. In these cases, the CNCA was obliged

to request the men of the village to take responsibility. The CNCA has

recognized the problems of credit and plan to hold seminars in the rural

areas outlining the requirements and procedures for obtaining credit.

There have been several workshops organized by DMOF in which the

Banks have been in attendance and have outlined the problems that they

have in granting credit. The problems included poorly prepared requests,

lack of collateral (Land and the means of production), and poor adminis-

trative ability. The women at the workshops have asked that the Banks put

into place special structures so that credit is accessible to women. As yet,

a method has not been worked out to accommodate the requirements of both sides.

.- 13.
13 -








SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

The government of Burkina has addressed itself to women's issues and

has shown intent by passing several laws and regulations to change the

status of women and their access to and control of resources. Through its

planning and organization ability, it has shown that it can mobilize people

and resources. Yet the land tenure ordinance and the meetings to aquaint

the Banking system with women's credit problems is only a start in changing

the present access to and control of resources by women within the farming

system.

An immediate change in the present land tenure system so that all indi-

viduals wanting a free tittle to land seems unlikely. The government

ordinance however, does open the door for change. Women do have a certain

amount of access to and control over land in the present system and the new.

ordinance gives them the opportunity to gradually acquire more land and

exercise more control. This however does not solve the problem of acquiring

the other means of production equipmentn, seeds, etc.) for which collateral

is required for credit. Innovative methods need to be found so that the

Banking system can make loans to groups or individuals who do not at this

time have the necessary collateral (See Spring, 1985 for several approaches).

Ways should also be found to make loans to individuals alone who choose not

to be involved in cooperative credit groups.

With the government's ability to mobilize and through the DMOF organi-

zation, a system could be devised to better inform women about the new land

tenure ordinance and credit opportunities. Seminars on proposal writing,

accounting and administration need to be carried out. The individuals and

the role of the animatrice within the extension system also requires up-

grading.
14 -







To date, agricultural research has not fully exploited the possibi-

lities that exist with respect to women's agricultural activities. Most

research has been done on the major crops and little attention given to

women's specific crops and livestock. Since women's crops are required

to feed the family for part of year,, research is required to increase

their labor productivity.

To date women's programs have been carried out in an ad hoc manner in

Burkina. Little is known of the kinds of projects that have been funded

in the past and of their successes and failures. A first step would be to

compile information on past and on-going projectsa-which would provide a

guide for future development strategies. A second step would be to gather

the government Ministries involved along with interested International and

Donor agencies whereby under the direction of the Government of Burkina,

comprehensive plans are made in the area's of research, extension, and the

education of women.


- 15 -






















































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- 16 -









Table 1. Gender division of labor activities.

Predominantly Predominantly Performed by both
male female male and female

Prepare fields Fetch water Planting
Construct fences Fetch wood Replanting
Guard fields Meal preparation Weeding
Small stock work Domestic chores Apply fertilizer
Large stock work Commerce (dolo + Harvest
Weave straw food items) Poultry work
Construction Child care
Commerce Spin cotton
(large items)

Adapted from Delgado, 1979. Because the gender division of labor is
flexable, the criterion for classification of an activity as being
predominantly male or female is that at least three-quarters of all the
hours devoted to an activity come from the gender in question.


- 17 -












Table 2. Demographic characteristics and resource endowments
of farmers in FSU villages.1

Characteristic/endowment Bangass6 Diapangou Nedogo

Members per household2 9.07 9.50 10.67
(3.76) (5.34) ( 4.44)
Active workers per household3 5.77 7.27 5.27
(2.62) (3.54) ( 2.13)
Active male workers .2.13 2.10 2.03
Active female workers 2.24 2.63 2.80
Active child workers 1.40 2.53 .53
re~tares per household 2.15 6.93 7.14
S(..91) (3.41) (3.93)
lectares per person .263 .683 .682
.( 129) ( .252) ( .335)
Hectares per active worker .34 1.06 1.34
Total households 30 30 30
With donkey traction 4 10 13
With ox traction 20 4

Source: Lang et al., 1984, p. 51.
Standard deviations in parentheses
Active workers referes to workers who are available for household,
agricultural production, and herding work and does not include members
of the household working in the cities or other countries.


- 18 -










Table 3. Total labor hours per hectare for communal cereal fields, Burkina.1

Bangasse Diapangou Nedogo

hrs % hrs % hrs %

Men 115,8 29.3. 91.5 19.0 84.4. 28.2
Women2 219.6 55.6 236.5 49.2 174.3 58.3
Children 59.7 15.1 152.6 31.8 40.5 13.5

Source : Lang, 1985

Cereals include sorghum and millet.

2Active women workers/household as a percentage of total active workers/
household are 51.6, 41.9 and 46.2 percent for Bangasse, Diapangou and
Nedogo respectively.


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Table 4. Labor calendar of activities performed on various crops.

Number Time period Observations


May 3 -
June 6

June 7 -
June 13


June 14 -
June 20



June 21 -
June 27




June 18 -
July 4

July 5 -
July 11
July 12 -
July 18
July 19 -
August 1


August 2 -
August 22
August 23 -
September 12

Mid-September on
Mid-October -
mid-December


Planting of red sorghum, white sorghum
and millet takes place. Soil preparation
and planting of rice begins.
First weeding begins on red and white
sorghum fields. Soil preparation and
planting continues for rice and begins for
peanuts.
First weeding continues for red and white
sorghum and begins for millet. Soil
preparation and planting continues for
peanuts and rice while first seeding on
early planted rice fields begins.

First weeding continues on red sorghum,
white sorghum, millet, and rice. Soil
preparation and planting of later fields
of peanuts. Land preparation and planting
of first maize fields takes place.
First weeding of red. and white sorghum,
millet, and rice.. Last planting of peanuts
and maize.
First weeding continues on red sorghum,
white sorghum, millet, and rice fields.
Firstweeding continues on red sorghum,
white sorghum, millet, and rice fields.
Beginning of second weeding of red and
white sorghum and rice. First weeding of
peanuts and maize.
Second weeding of all major cereals and
first weeding of peanuts and maize.
Continued second and final weeding of all
cereals. First weeding is finished on
peanut fields. Maize harvest begins.
Maize harvest continues
Harvest lasting about six weeks within
this period. Crops are generally harvested
in the following order: peanuts, red sor-
ghum, white sorghum, millet.


Source: Adapted from Roth et al., 1984.


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Table 5. Village area cultivated by different family members.

Villages1

Damesma Bangasse Zorkoum
ha
Communal Fields 33 (50%) 41 (54%) 34 (81%)

Private Fields
Wives 10 (15%) 9 (12%) 7 (17%)
Unmarried children 2 (3%) 2 (3%) 1 (2%)
Married Male 20 (30%) 24 (31%) -
-Household Members
Elders 1 (2%. -

Total 66 76 42

Source: McMillan, 1980, Table 14.
The three villages are in the ayaArea of Burkina.
The three villages are in the Kaya.Area of Burkina.


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Table 6. Crop area devoted to women fields.

% of Household
Crop Hectares Percentage cultivated Area

Sorghum 0.192 0.16 2.7
Millet 0.334 0.28 4.7
Sorghum/millet 0.085 0.07 1.2
Maize 0.011. 0.01 0.15
Soybeans2 0.142 0.12 2.0
Peanuts 0.386 0.32 5.3
Cotton 0.007 0.005 0.1
Bambara nuts 0.014 -* 0.01 0.2
Rice 0.007 0.005 0.1
Okra 0.021 0.02 0.3

Total 1.199 100.0 16.75

Source; Henderson et al., 1982, Table 2. (From Swanson, 1979).
1Based on survey data from the Eada area of Burkina where the average
household cultivated hectares was 7.1.
2Soybean production larger than normal because of an unusual high soybean
price in the survey year.


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Table 7. Value of cereals

Bangasse


Male Head of
Household 142,900
Women 7,400
Other Males

TOTAL 150,300

Percent Marketed
by Women 4.9%

Percent of Active
Women Workers
who marketed
cereals 37.6%

Source: Lang, 1985.

1For period April 1, 1983
2S 3 1.00 = 381, 436 and


sold in five

Diapangou


1,262,900
541,900
62,325

1,867,125


29%


villages, Burkina Faso.

Dissankuy Nedogo

CFA2


661,750
60,150
133,550

855,450


7.1%




.14 3 4%


820,945
197,695
256,086

1,274,726


15.4%




53.2%


to February 29, 1984.

400 (est) in 1983, 1984, and 1985.respectively.


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Poedogo



954,390
104,910
140,660

1,199,960


8.7%




45.9%








Table 8. Value of small ruminants and
Burkina Faso.1


poultry sold in five villages,


Bangasse Diapangou Dissankuy Nedogo Poedogo

CFA2
Male Head of
Household 284,025 502,900 323,625 322,550 157,555
Women 149,500 37,975 15,150 29,325 74,630
Other Males 9,200 7,950 6,000 3,550 8,225

TOTAL 442,725 548,825 344,775 355,435 240,410

Percent Marketed
by Women 33.9% 6.9% 4.3% 8.1% 30.8%

Percent of Active
Women Workers
Marketing 37.6% 35.2% 43.4% 53.2% 45.9%


Source: Lang, 1985

1For period April 1, 1983 to


February 29, 1984.


2S 3 1.00 = 381, 436, and 400 (est) in 1983, 1984, and 1985 respectively.


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