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Group Title: Conference on Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research and Extenion, University of Florida, February 26 to March 1, 1986
Title: Integrating intra-household dynamics into farming systems projects
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Title: Integrating intra-household dynamics into farming systems projects
Series Title: Conference on Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research and Extenion, University of Florida, February 26 to March 1, 1986
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Language: English
Creator: Norem, Rosalie Huisinga
Publisher: University of Florida
Publication Date: 1986
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Subject: Farming   ( lcsh )
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Main
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        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
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        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Reference
        Page 16
    Tables
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    FSR project survey
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
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Full Text











_ I A -/ .....t..the.z-iversx : -:---od .

Conference on
GENDER ISSUES IN FARMING SYSTEMS
RESEARCH AND EXTENSION













INTEGRATING INTRA-HOUSEHOLD DYNAMICS
INTO FARMING SYSTEMS PROJECTS

Rosalie Huisinga Norem*

A paper prepared for the Gender Issues in Farming Systems
Research and Extension Conference. February 26-March 1. 1986.
University of Florida. Gainesville. Florida.

Introduction

This paper is an initial report of a study designed to

survey farming systems projects which include an intra-household

focus in data collection, design and/or implementation. Farmina

systems models (Shaner. 1984) have recognized the importance of

the household as a component of the farming system, but until

recently, little has been done to systematically "open the black

box" of the household component in those systems models.

Projects responding to the survey being reported here are among

those attempting to gain a more systematic undestanding of the

inter- and intra-household factors influencing farming systems.

The primary purpose of the present survey is to assess the

types of information collected and used by projects, the methods

used for obtaining the information and some insight into how and

why the intra-household information is helpful. In addition.

projects are asked to identify types of information they wish

they did have, but which is not available, and the constraints

affecting various phases of their pro.ect.


*Department of Family Environment. Iowa State University. Ames.
Iowa 50011











Rationale

This study evolved from on-goina work to relate household

concerns to farming systems work. When the Farming Systems

Support Pro.ect was first initiated, a family task force was

organized to focus on the integration of household and family

concerns into the farming systems perspective. One of the

recommendations of this group was to develop case studies and

training materials which would promote such integration.
In a position paper on "Intra-household Dynamics in Farming

Systems Research: The Basis of Whole Farm Monitoring of Farming

Systems Research and Extension." Cornelia Butler-Flora set the

staRe for an intra-household dynamics and farming systems case

studies pro.iect which was subsequently funded and implemented.

The survey being reported in this paper will hopefully provide

supplementary information to the case studies being developed.

Concurrent with the effort to develop materials for training

about and sensitization to intra-household factors and their

importance in farming systems work, as well as other development

efforts, there is a need to become more knowledgeable about the

kinds of data currently being collected by existing pro.iects in

attempts to focus on intra-household factors, and the methods

being used to collect the data. As we seek to recognize the

nnmplnxity of household dynamics, it is necessary to also

recognize the practical necessity of finding ways to obtain and

analyze information within reasonable time and other resource

limits. Questions about how much information, about which

aspects of the household should be obtained from whom have yet to













be answered (Norem. 1983).

This is not to suggest that one "right" way of focusing on

household dynamics and farming systems can be identified. Rather

it is to suagest that by examining what is being done. and how

effective researchers and practitioners involved find current

efforts, Perhaps some Ruidelines can be identified which will be

helpful in future planning. This paper is an attempt to begin

such a systematic assessment.

It may be helpful to think in terms of differences about

which units related to the household are important for which

purposes. Overall, the unit of interest in intra-household

dynamics is the household. The unit of data collection can be

one or more household members, other informants and other

existing information. The unit of analysis can be an

individual, the household or subsystems thereof, work group. or

the farminR system among other possibilities. Desianina

parsimonious data collection and analysis procedures requires an

understanding of how these units relate in various situations.

For example, it may be possible to obtain good data on the

unit of interest from only one person if what is required is

basic demographic information such as age. gender and education

of household members. The household is also the unit of

analysis in this example. Information about the tasks

performed in the household as a unit of interest is more likely

to require data collection from more than one person, or

extensive observation or record keeping in order to permit the












collection of enough information to focus on the household as a

unit of analysis. As we develop a clearer picture of the state

of the art as it now exists. it is hoped a clearer set of

guidelines will evolve. The initial survey summary presented in

this paper is a first step.


Des in of the study

The Farming Systems Support Pro.iect and Population Council

Intra-household Dynamics and Farming Systems Case Studies pro.iect

was initiated with support from USAID and the Ford Foundation in

late 1984. In February of 1985. a request for expressions of

interest was sent to projects and individuals on a variety of

international mailing lists. Over 75 expressions of interest

were received in response to the request. These expressions of

interest were used to develop initial lists of types of data and

data collection methods being used in pro.iects. These lists were

in turn used in con.iunction with the case studies pro.iect

conceptual framework to draft a survey questionnaire. The

questionnaire was reviewed by the case studies pro.iect advisory

committee and revised accordinM~ using suggestions of the

committee.

The questionnaire (see Appendix A) was mailed to all

pro.iects who had responded to the original request for

expressions of interest in the case study pro.iect, since those

pro.iects self-selected themselves in terms of interest in intra-

household concerns. A few other pro.iects were also included in











the survey. Because of the short period of time since the

questionnaires were mailed, the summary being reported in this

paper only includes 17 projects. More responses are being

received and will be included in a later revision of .the paper.

All questionnaires received are included in the summary,

regardless of type of project. Most are farming systems

oriented, with one project beinA specifically focused on women in

farming systems. Seven pro.iects from Asia. 6 from Africa, two

from the Middle East and two from Latin America are included.

The titles and identifying information about the projects are

presented in Table 1.

(insert Table 1 about here)

Each project has a different specific target group. but all

Projects have target arouPs of farms with multiple crop systems.

Fourteen projects report farms in their pro.iet also have

livestock, most for multiple use, including cash income, food,

traction, wealth and prestige. The average land holdings for

farmers in the projects ranted from .89 hectares to 30 hectares,

with an overall mean of 9.74 hectares.

Results
Types of intra-household data

Each pro.eot was asked to indicate whether or not they have

data about five general categories: (1) demographic information.

(2) household member's participation in activies. (3) household

member's access to production resources, (4) household member's













participation in decision-making and (5) income and expenditure
data. benefits from farm production, food consumption and

nutrition. Each of these categories include several specific

kinds of data. Table 2 Presents the information for each type of

data. indicating the number of projects which collected each type.

(insert Table 2 about here)

Table 3 summarizes the ways each type of information was used or

is being used by the projects which responded to the survey.

(insert Table 3 about here)

Demographic information.

The most frequently used methods for obtaining demographic

information are pre-existing national surveys, formal project

surveys, participant observation and sondeos. This information

is summarized in Table 4 for all types of data. In addition to
(nS-ert tPble 4
the most commonly used methods, other methods are used by from 2-

4 pro.iects in the survey. Demographic information is also

available through pre-existina anthropological studies and local

village records for some pro.iects. Other pro.iects. collected

information through farmer records, community informants, time

allocation studies, team members personal knowledge and in-depth

case studies.

Nine projects collected demographic data before the pro.iect

began. 5 during the diagnosis stage and 7 parallel with on-farm

testing. Ten projects collect demographic data on an on-going











basis.


All pro.iects report collection of demographic data involving

household structure, membership and size. Most also have

information about education and ethnic identity. Migration

patterns and variation in household structure over the life cycle

are included by 7 and 6 projects respectively. When the patterns

of utilization of demographic information are examined, it is

apparent that demographics are important in the early planning

stages of pro.ects. Respondents were asked to identify the most

helpful information for each type and to give an explanation of

how or why the information is helpful to their pro.iect. They

were also asked to indicate any information in each type of

information that they did not have but wish they did. These

open-ended questions provide more detail related to intra-

household concerns than the tabulated results shown in the

tables.

The specific demographic information identified as most

helpful to a pro.iect varies according to pro.iect as one would

expect. However, some generalizations can be made. Gender and

age structure of the household is mentioned by several

respondents, sometimes sinrlely and sometimes in conjunction with
other information such as labor and income. The information is

useful in identifying target groups and designing trials which

consider labor bottlenecks and total household activity patterns.

Household structure is also reported as an important









consideration in designing extension efforts. Ethnic information

is second most frequently mentioned as the most helpful

demographic information, because farming practices and values

about female participation vary according to ethnicity.

The two kinds of demographic information least often

available, migration patterns and variation in household

structure over the life cycle are also the most frequently named

in response to the question ."Are there demographic data you do

not have that you wish you had collected?".

Household member's participation in activities

Formal surveys, participant observation and community

informants are the most frequently used methods to obtain

information about the participation of household members in

various activities. (see table 4). As with demographic

information, there is considerable variety in the ways pro.iects

obtain this information. All of the methods listed above for

demographic information are used by at least one pro.iect to

obtain activity data, with the addition of group meetings as a

source of information about household member's activities.

Three pro.iects collected activity data before the project

began. 5 during initial diagnosis, and 6 parallel with on-farm

trials. Nine pro.iects collect activity data on an on-going

basis.


Specific questions were asked about type of activity data

collected and method of dissagregation. Ten projects collected












task assignment data, disaggregated by gender and age. Seven

pro.iects disaagregate by position in the household as well. Four

pro.iects have information about time allocation.

Eleven projects report collecting some information about the

participation of household member's in various activities. Most

frequently (N=11) collected information is about activities

related to production of cash crops, with subsistence crops and

livestock production information available for 10 out of 17

pro.iects. Other activities within the household receive less
attention as indicated in table 2. Table 3 indicates that

activity data are used less often by projects than demographic

data. Assessing time and labor constraints is the most frequent

use of activity data.

Respondents report household member's activity information

most helpful for decisions about designing research and

targeting interventions especially in terms of labor constraints.

They wish their pro.iects had more detailed information about non-
production activities and several respondents express a desire
for activity data which cover a period of time up to a year. The

complexity of activity, data is pointed out and difficulties with

processing such data are mentioned.

Household member's access to production resources

This study breaks production resources into sub-categories

of land, labor, capital, innovations and credit. The projects

represented use a variety of methods to obtain resource












information: the most frequent are pre-existing national surveys.

pro.ect-conducted formal surveys, participant observation and

team members personal knowledge.

Six projects collected access to resources data before the

project began. 7 during initial diagnosis and 7 parallel with on-

farm trials. Five project collect these data on a on-goina

basis.

As indicated in table 2. this category of information about

households is available for most projects. Fourteen of the 17

pro.iects have some resource information. However, examination

of table 3 suggests that the use of this information is somewhat

more limited than for demographic data in terms of actual number

of pro.ects. Resource information is used by more projects for

a variety of purposes than activity data. but more projects

report use of activity data overall.


The answers to questions about the most useful resource data

and why and how it is useful indicate land resource information

is perceived as most helpful for more projects than other kinds

of resource data. but the responses also indicate the usefulness

of resource access data is very project specific. Access to

resources data is likely to be helpful in research design and

selection of field trial locations. There is a pattern among

responses about the kind of resource information respondents

would like to have had but which was not "available. More

information is wanted about monetary income, including gifts and












remittances is mentioned in several contexts, including credit.

opportunity costs for innovations and access to captial.


Household member's participation in decision-makina

Twelve projects in the survey have some data about

decision-making within households. These data are collected most

frequently through formal surveys, team member's personal

knowledge and participant observation. Other methods are used,

but in a pro.iect specific manner. Only two projects report

having decision-making data to use in initial project design.

One pro.iect collected decision-making data during the initial

diagnosis, and four parallel with on-farm trials. Six pro.iects

collect decision-making data on an on-goina basis.


Table 2 indicates that the projects which have decision-

making data have information about most of the categories

identified, land use. labor use. technology use, cropping and

cultivation practices and use of Production outputs. Table 3

suggests that projects are not using decision-making data

extensively. Seven pro.iects use decision-makina data to assess

time and labor constraints, and this is the most frequent use

reported.

Responses to open-ended questions about the usefulness of

decision-making data are general, in terms of a better

understanding of household dynamics permitting more knowledgeable

identification of target groups. Seven respondents indicate

their projects could use more detailed decision-making data which













would allow them to know more about the effect of decision

patterns.

Income and expenditure, benefits, food consumption and nutrition

Six projects have information about this category of data.

Formal surveys and participant observation are the most common

methods of obtaining the information. There are some differences

among the sub-categories, however. Participant observation is

most likely to be the source of information about food

consumption and nutrition information, and is not as likely to be

a source of production benefits data but formal surveys are used

by several pro.iects for all three sub-categories.

Only one pro.iect had data from this category before the
pro.iect began. Three projects collected the data during the

w initial diagnosis, 4 parallel with on-farm testing and 8 collect

the information on an on-goina basis.

Table 2 tells us that 10 projects have information in at

least one of the three sub-categories represented in this

section. Income and expenditure data are least frequently

available as a sub-category. Table 3 shows a fairly equal

distribution of the use of specific kinds of available data in

this category over the various phases of the pro.iects, especially

in the design and implementation of field trials.

Since there are 3 sub-categories in this section, the

answers to questions about which information is most helpful and












why and how. are somewhat complex, but they also point out the

need to integrate information about overall production and

consumption patterns in the household. For example, respondents

mentioned the importance of looking at off-farm income, cash

income from food crops and understanding the reliance on the

local markets both for food and income as well as the need to

assess the opportunity costs of innovations based on total inputs

and total income generating possibilities.


The response to the question about information which the

project did not have but wish they had was primarily better

income data. monitored over time. by household member. Several

respondents mention the difficulty in obtaining reliable income

data. but indicate they believe it is important to find better

ways of obtaining such information.


Other information

Respondents were asked to identify any other kinds of intra-

household data they have which were not included in the previous

5 sections. There are few responses to this section. Table 3

indicates how the data are used and the footnote points out the

kinds of information included. These are religious information,

inheritance data and information gathered from both husband and

wife together.


Most effective methodologies

Respondents were asked to select the study or activity of

their pro.iect which was most effective in collecting information












about intra- inter-household variables relevant to farm

production and which were most useful in determining project

decisions concerning research priorities, cooperating farmers.

technology acceptance, etc. Nine respondents name the formal

survey as most helpful. This is usually done at the beginning of

the project. Eight respondents identify participant observation

as the most useful activity for obtaining household information.

This tends to be on-going. Three respondents name the sondeo as

most useful. The sondeo took place anywhere from the beginning

to the third year of the project. Ten respondents report the

head of household as the primary informant, whether male or

female. Six projects tried to include at least one other adult

household member. Three relied on whoever was at home with a

preference for the head of household. One case study involved

all members of the household.

Constraints to projects

Respondents were asked to identify constraints which

effected the study design. sample selection, conduct of the

study, data analysis or applications of the data to their project

or activity. These responses are summarized in table 5. Ten

Projects report physical. logistical or resource constraints on

sample selection for their pro.ects. According to the detailed

information provided in open-ended questions about how these

factors are constraining, the most common constraint is

transportation, either in terms of availability of transportation

means or because of difficulties related to terrain.











In order of decending frequency, other constraints which are

mentioned are funds, language, personnel, a political situation.

and ethnic group considerations. In many instances the

constraints are named in conjunction with one another, such as

ethnic concerns and language difficulties.


Summary

Since the survey results presented in this paper are

preliminary, any summary must be considered tentative. However.

some points can be made at this stage. First, there is a wide

variation in the kind of data being collected about households,

with a common focus on the household as a unit of interest.

The data are most often collected from heads of households, so

for some kinds of data there may be difficulty in using the

household as a unit of analysis. For example, decision-making

data try to describe a dynamic intra-household process but

process data involving several household members probably require

complex data collections procedures. It is important to examine

alternatives in context of which information is important for

which stage of a project and how it may be obtained as

efficiently as possible. One respondent pointed out the

difficulty in designing more standardized methods of data

collection and analysis because of the unique aspects 'of any

given project, but also emphasized that anything that can be done

to move in this direction will save significant resources and

hopefully eliminate the need for each future project to make the

same mistakes.












REFERENCES


Feldstein.
1985


Flora. Cornelia
1984


Hilary
"FSSP/Population Council Case Study Project.
Intra-household Dynamics and Farming Systems
Research and Extension." Case study format.


Butler
"Intra-household Dynamics in Farming Systems Research:
The Basis of Whole Farm Monitoring of Farming Systems
Research and Extension." A Position Paper.
Department of Sociology. Kansas State University.
Manhattan, KS.


Norem. Rosalie Huisinga
1983 "The Integration of a Family Systems Perspective
into Farming Systems Pro.iects." Conference
proceedings. Family Systems and Farming Systems
Conference. Virginia Tech. Blaoksburg.
Virginia.

Shaner. W. W.. P. F. Philipp and W. R. Schmehl
1982 Farming Systems Research and Development:
Guidelines for Developing Countries. Boulder.
Colorado: Westview Press, Inc.











Table 1. Proieote responding to survey

Region/ Project Title Source Contractor and Unit
Country of Funds in Charae

Asia


TROPSOILS
Soil Management CRSP


Farming Systems
Development Proiect
Eastern Visayas
now-Farm & Resource
Management Institute


USAID University of Hawaii
with Univ. of North
Carolina & Cfnter
for Soils Research


SAID


Ministry of Agricul-
ture and Food and
the Virginia State
University


Agricultural Research
& Production Pro.ect
Farming Systems Research
& Development Division


USAID Winrock, Int'l.
Ministry of
Agriculture, Dept.
of Agriculture


Women in Farming
Systems


Role of Farm
Women in Decision
Making Related to
Farm Business


Balinsasayao
Aaroforestry
Project


Philippines Farming Systems
Development Project
Eastern Visayas
Snow-Farm & Resource
Mgt. Institute


Bangladesh
Agri.
Research
Council

Haryana
Agri.
University

Ford
Foundation


SAID


Bangladesh Agricul-
cultural Uiversity


Haryana Agricultural
University


Silliman University
Research Center

Cornell University
Ministry of
Agriculture & Food
& the Visayas State
College of
Agriculture


Indonesia



Philippines


Banaladesh


India


Philippines


Nepal











Table 1. continued.

Region/ Project Title Source Contractor and Unit
Country of Funds in Charge

Africa


Burkina Faso


Burkina Faso


Fulbe Aaropastoral
Production in Southern
Burkina Faso-for USAID
Aa. Sector Grant

Income & Agricultural
Investment in a Bobo
Village


SAID


NSF.
Wenner-Gren
Foundation,
Univ. of
Illinois


Frederick Sowers
University of
California.
Berkeley


University of
Illinois


Adaptive Crop
Research & Extension
Project (ACRE)


SAID &
Gov't.
of Sierra
Leone


REDECASH/BIRD BIRD &
Minimum Tillage REDECASH
Techniques for Cowpea
Production

Agricultural USAID
TechnoloAR Improvement
SProject


Kenya Dryland Farming
Research &
Development


Kenya
Gov't.
FAO/UNDP


Southern Ill.
Univ., Louisiana
State Univ.
Ministry of
Agriculture &
Natural Resources

Bureau of Integrat-
ed Rural Development
(BIRD)

Midwest Int'l
Agricultural
Consortium (MIAC)
Kansas State Univ.

Ministry of Agri.
National Dryland
Farmina Research
Station


Sierra
Leone


Ghana


Botswana












Table 1, continued


Region/
Country


Pro.ieot Title


Source Contractor and Unit
of Funds in Charge


Middle East


Irrigation Inno-
vation and Family
Farming Strategies
in Israel


City Univ.
of New York.
Faculty Research
Grant


Syrian Households: ICARDA &
Women's Labor & NEAWARDS
Impact of Technologies


Andrea Rassam


Latin America


Livestock Production
Systems in Central
State of Veracruz


Universidad
Nacional
Autonomo de
Mexico
(UNAM)


Honduras Agricultral USAID
Research Project


Centro de Inves-
tigacion Ensenanza
en Granaderia
Tropical (CIEEGT)
Facultad de Medicina
& Zootechnia UNAM

Consortium for
International
Development,
New Mexico State
University


Israel


Syria


n. a.


Mexico


Honduras











Table 2. Types of intra-household data collected by projects
responding to survey

No. of projects
Type of Information (N=17) with information

Demographic information
a. household structure, membership & size /
b. education 15
c. ethnic identity 15
d. migration patterns 7
e. variation in h. h. structure over the life cycle 6

Household member's participation in activities
a. cash crops by crop 11
b. subsistence crops by crop 10
c. livestock production 10
d. other primary income generating activities 7
e. ma.ior tasks of household reproduction 9

Household member's access to production resources:
Land
a. in general 11
b. by tenure category 9
c. by production potential (e.a. irrigated.
non-irritated) 6

Labor
d. family 11
e. hired 13
f. exchange 10

Capital
a. seeds 12
h. tools 13
i. equipment 14
.i. animals 13

Innovations or improved production inputs
k. information (extension contacts, training. etc.) 12
1. technology inputs requiring cash or credit 8

Credit
m. informal 11
n. formal 10
o. other 1












Table 2, continued.

No. of projects
Type of Information (N=17) with information


Household member's participation in decision-making
a. land use
b. use of family labor
c. use of hired labor
d. use of exchange labor
e. use of technology inputs
f. use of credit
9. dropping choices
h. cultivation practices
i. uses of harvested crop & residue
.i. marketing


Income and
a. each
b. each


related to:
11
12
10
8
13
11
12
12
12
11


expenditure data:
household member's sources of income
household member's expenditures


Benefits from farm production:
a. use of end products from crop production
b. desirable characteristics of each crop or
crop product
c. each household member's access to or control
of end products


Food
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.


consumption and nutrition information:
diet survey
nutritional adequacy analysis
food preparation practices
food preferences
on-farm household food production











Table 3: Use of types of intra-household data by projects
responding to survey

No. of projects reporting use of information
by type of information*: N=17

Use of information Type 1 2 3 4 5 6*


initial project design
selection of a target group
identification of
recommendation domains
choice of research topic
designing trials
selection of participating
farmers for field trials
evaluation of field trials
redesign of trials
technology recommendations
extension efforts
pro.iect evaluation design
assessing time and labor
constraints
assessing opportunity costs
for innovation


12 10


6 7 1 1

4 2 2 -


*Type l=demographic information. Type 2=household member's
participation in activities. Type 3=household member's access to
production resources. Type 4=household member's participation in
decision-makinga. Type 5=income and expenditure data. benefits
from farm production, food consumption and nutrition. Type
6=other.

**Other kinds of information collected include religious
affiliation, inheritance data and information gathered from
husband and wife together.












Table 4. Most frequently used methods of data collection by type
of data


Data collection method


demographic information



household member's participation
in activities


household member's access to
production to production
resources

household member's participation
in decision-making



income and expenditure data.
benefits from farm
production, food consumption
and nutrition


national surveys
formal surveys
participant observation
sondeo

formal survey
participation observation
community informants

national surveys
formal surveys
participant observation

formal survey
team member's personal
knowledge
participant observation

formal surveys
participant observation


Table 5. Constraints influencing projects

Type of constraint

physical, cultural.
logistical. social.
Phase of project resource political

study design N5= 8 N*= 5
sample selection 10 3
conduct of study/activity 6 6
data analysis 6 1
application of data to project/
activity 2

*number of projects reporting constraint, total N-17


Type of data


- - - - - - - - - - - - - -













APPENDIX A

INTRA-HOUSEHOLD DYNAMICS IN FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH
FSR Project Survey

I. General Information

Project Title



Country__________________________ Region

Funded by

Contractor

Contractor's address

Government agency or University in charge____________



Name of persons) completing form

Position in project

Please define your target group in specific terms other than
small, resource poor, subsistence, rainfed, etc. (i.e. what is
really meant by small or resource poor in your area?)______



Are one or more of the following included in the target group?

Please check all that apply

a. households capable of producing most of what the family eats
yes_--_ no..
b. producers oriented toward the market yes____ no..
c. households who rely on remittances from wage labor to finance
farm/household yes____ no__
d. households who rely on hired labor to do work on the farm
yes __- no.
e. female-headed households yes____ no
f. inter-household work groups yes___. no

What is the average farm size for your target group?_____

What are the main crops produced?__


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is livestock a factor in the farming systems for your target
group? yes____ no..

If yes, how? check all that apply cash income____ food__
traction____ wealth____ other (please specify)_______

Local professional staff involved in project (including
administration). Note number.

BS ; MS___ .. PhD __; Non-degree ___; Men____ Women___

Number in plant science___ ; animal science ___; economics____;
other social science_ ; extension

Define the study region in geographic terms: (i. e. location,
size, distance between farthest experimental farm sites in kms.
and between sites and headquarters)__________
Numbers of field site locations (not individual farmer plots)

What factors influence the choice of field site locations?
Strong Moderate Nil
Political
Production potential
Equity
Type of crops grown
Type of environment
Proximity to research station
Other (describe)


II. Following is a list of types of information which may be part
of intra or inter household information collected by FSR
projects. These have been divided into six categories, based on
a review of submissions of interest to the Intra-Household and
Farmings Systems Case Studies Project. For each category, we are
interested in whether your project has the information; if so,
how the data were collected and how you have used or plan to use
the data for your project.

Please respond in four ways to describe your project.
i. Check all types of information your project has
available about household variables.

2. For those types of information your project has
available, indicate the data collection method used to obtain the
information.

3. Check all uses your project made or plans to make of
each of the categories of data you have available.

4. Provide some more detailed information about the
most effective and most useful study(ies) and/or activity(ies) of
your project related to intra-/inter- household concerns.












(Please go on to the next page)


If there is a category of data which does not apply to your
project, simply skip over that whole series of questions. For
instance, if your project has no household activity data, go on
to the section about access to production resources.

Types of information Project has information

i. demographic information
a. household structure, membership and size yes____ no___
b. education yes____ no ..
c. ethnic identity yes____ no__
d. migration patterns yes____ no___
e. variation in h.h. structure over
family life cycle yes ._ no ..



If you marked a "yes" for any of the above information
categories, we are interested in how you obtained the
information. For each category you marked "yes" please put that
letter in front of the appropriate data collection methods)
listed below. For instance if you had information about
household structure from existing national surveys and from a
formal survey your project completed, you would put an "a" in
front of those two methods listed below. List as many as you
marked above.


1. Pre-existing secondary information
la. national surveys
I--------------b. anthropological studies
-------------c. other specify)______


2. Project conducted studies and activities
--------------- 2a. participant observation
--------------- 2b. rapid rural appraisal (sondeo)
2c. formal survey
2d. farmer records
2e. community informants
2f. time allocation studies
-------------- 2g. team members personal knowledge
--------------2h. group meetings
--------------- 2i. in-depth case studies
--------------- 2j. other specify)


(Please go on to the next page)















Did you use demographic data including household information for
any of the following? Please check all that apply.

initial project design yes ___. no _
selection of a target group yes ___ no __
identification of recommendation domains yes..__ no____
choice of research topic yes -.- no
designing trials yes____ no____
selection of participating farmers for
field trials yes ___ no
evaluation of field trials yes____ no__
redesign of trials yes..._ no__
technology recommendations yes ... no
extension efforts yes ... no_
project evaluation design yes ... no
assessing time and labor constraints yes____ no__
assessing opportunity costs for innovation yes .._ no
other (please specify)

Are there specific parts of the demographic information you have
available which are most helpful to your project? yes___ no____

If yes, which are they?



How are these data helpful to your project?



When were the demographic data on households collected during the
project? (check all that apply)

before project began, i.e. during project design
yes _.. no.
during initial diagnosis stage yes____ no._
on-going yes____ no____ be specific about frequency

parallel with on-farm testing yes___ no .
other (please specify)


Are there demographic data which you do not have that you wish
you had collected? yes____ no..

If so, which data do you wish your project had collected?





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Now, please respond in the same manner to questions about the
second category, household member's activities.

Types of information Project has information

2, each household member's participation in activities related to:
a. cash crops by crop yes ___ no
b. subsistence crops by crop yes ___ no
c. livestock production yes__. no....
d. other primary income generating activities yes__ no .
e. major tasks of household reproduction yes___ no .
f. other (please specify)________________


If you marked a "yes" for any of the above information
categories, we are interested in how you obtained the
information. For each category you marked "yes" please put that
letter in front of the appropriate data collection methods)
listed below. List as many as you marked above.


1. Pre-existing secondary information
la. national surveys
lb. anthropological studies
I--------------- c. other specify)__ ____


2. Project conducted studies and activities
--2a. participant observation
2b. rapid rural appraisal (sondeo)
2c. formal survey
2d. farmer records
__ 2e. community informants
2f. time allocation studies
--------------- 2g. team members personal knowledge
2h. group meetings
2i. in-depth case studies
-------------- 2j. other specify)_______


2B. What kind of activity information have you collected?
-task assignment disaggregated by gender __age .._position
in the household__ other (please-specify)_________
-time allocation of individual household members
yes ___ no

(if not available for all household members, please indicate who
is included )


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Did you use household activity data for any of
Please check all that apply.

initial project design
selection of a target group
choice of research topic
designing trials
identification of recommendation domains
selection of participating farmers for
field trials
evaluation of field trials
redesign of trials
technology recommendations
extension efforts
project evaluation design
assessing time and labor constraints
assessing opportunity costs for innovation
other (please specify)-------


the following?



yes____ no___
yes____ no___
yes____ no___
yes --- no
yes no ....

yes _-- no___
yes___ no..
yes --_ no ...
yes____ no___
yes_-- no-
yes_- no___
yes____ no_
yes___ no_


Are there specific parts of the household activity data you have
available which are most helpful to your project? yes__ no____

If yes, which are they?_________________

------------------------ ----------------------------------------

-----------------------------------------------------------------


How are these data helpful to your project?


--------------------------------U-------------------

-----------------------------------------------------

When were the household activity data collected during the
project? (check all that apply)
before project began, i.e. during project design
yes.... no
during initial diagnosis stage yes____ no
on-going yes____ no__ be specific about frequency
---------------------------------------------
parallel with on-farm testing yes__ no
other (please specify)
--- -------- ------------------------


Are there household activity data
wish you had collected? yes____
If so, which data do you wish


which you do not have that you
no
your project had collected?


(Please go on to the next page)


-'---- '--------------------------------------------












The third category is about access to production resources.

Types of information Project has information
-----------------------------------------------------------------
3. each household member's access to production resources:
-land:
a. in general yes____ no
b. by tenure category yes _- nou__
c. by production potential (e.g. irrigated,
non-irrigated) yes___ no
--labor:
d. family yes no_ .
e. hired yes no ---
f. exchange yes no --
-capital:
g. seeds yes no ...
h. tools yes no ..
i. equipment yes .. no
j. animals yes_ no__
k. others (specify)_......._.._........_-----------
-innovations or improved production inputs
1. information (extension contacts, training, etc)yes .. no
m. technology inputs requiring cash or credit yes.... no .
-credit:
n. informal yes .. no ..
o. formal yes____ no
p. other (please specify) ...............

(if not available for all household members, please indicate who
is included )

If you marked a "yes" for any of the above information
categories, w are interested in how you obtained the
information. For each category you marked "yes" please put that
letter in front of the appropriate data collection methods)
listed below. List as many as you marked above.

1. Pre-existing secondary information
la. national surveys
I- b. anthropological studies
I--c. other specify)_____ _

2. Project conducted studies and activities
2a. participant observation
2b. rapid rural appraisal (sondeo)
--------------- 2c. formal survey
2d. farmer records
--------------- 2e. community informants
2f. time allocation studies
--------------- 2g. team members personal knowledge
2h. group meetings
2i. in-depth case studies
2j. other specify)_______

(Please go on to the next page)












In cases where household members did not own or control resources
did you collect information on the conditions of their access to
resources?.? yos____ no____ If yes, how did you gain this
information?

Did yto use access to resources data including household
ini. .. ....... ..: .. .y *, ..ie following? Please check all that
apply.

initial project design yes____ no
selection of a target group yes____ no__
choice of research topic yes ... no
designing trials yes .__ no_
identification of recommendation domains yes ... no
selection of participating farmers for
field trials yes .__ no
evaluation of field trials yes____ no__
redesign of trials yes no_
technology recommendations yes --- no
extension efforts yes --- no
project evaluation design yes____ no
assessing time and labor constraints yes___ no_
assessing opportunity costs for innovation yes____ no _
other (please specify)

Are there specific parts of the access to resources data you have
available which are most helpful to your project? yes___ no___

If yes, which are they?





How are these data helpful to your project?





When were the access to resources data collected during the
project? (check all that apply)
before project began, i.e. during project design
yes____ no _
during initial diagnosis stage yes____ no..
on-going yes____ no__ be specific about frequency

parallel with on-farm testing yes____ no ..
other (please specify)


Are there access to resources data which you do not have that you
wish you had collected? yes___. no..

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If so, which data do you wish your project had col ecteea:



The fourth category is about decision making.
---------- -------------~-----'---------'--"----------
Types of information Project has information

4. household member's participation in decision making related to:
a. land use yes ___ no
b. use of family labor yes ___ no
c. use of hired labor yes__ no ..
d. use of exchange labor yes___ no .
e. use of technology inputs yes_ no ..
f. use of credit yes____ no
g. cropping choices yes no ..
h. cultivation practices yes___ no .
i. uses of harvested crop & residues yes __ no .
j. marketing yes___ no
k. other (please specify)

(if not available for all household members, please indicate who
is included )___

If you marked a "yes" for any of the above information
categories, we are interested in how you obtained the
information. For each category you marked "yes" please put that
letter in front of the appropriate data collection methods)
listed below. List as many as you marked above.


1. Pre-existing secondary information
la. national surveys
l--------------- b. anthropological studies
Ic. other specify)______


2. Project conducted studies and activities
2a. participant observation
2b. rapid rural appraisal (sondeo)
2c. formal survey
2d. farmer records
-----------2e. community informants
2f. time allocation studies
--------------- 2g. team members personal knowledge
--------------- 2h. group meetings
-----------2i. in-depth case studies
------ ------2j. other specify)_______



(Please go on to the next page)












Did you.u use household decision-making data for any of the
following? Please check all that apply.

initial project design yes____ no___.
selection of a target group yes __ no___
.,... rei research topic yes____ no__
designing trials yes .... no_
identification of recon. .........-.. ... ......... yoes no_
selection of participating farmers for
field trials yes____ no
evaluation of field trials yes ... no
redesign of trials yes____ no ..
technology recommendations yes ._ no___
extension efforts yes .._ no__
project evaluation design yes .__ no__
assessing time and labor constraints yes____ no__
assessing opportunity costs for innovation yes____ no__
other (please specify)

Are there specific parts of the decision-making data you have
available which are most helpful to your project? yes___ no____

If yes, which are they?__





How are these data helpful to your project?





When were the decision-making data collected during the project?
(check all that apply)
before project began, i.e. during project design
yes.__ no
during initial diagnosis stage yes____ no
on-going yes__ no____ be specific about frequency

parallel with on-farm testing yes___ no
other (please specify)



Are there decision-making data which you do not have that you
wish you had collected? yes____ no__

If so, which data do you wish your project had collected?



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Category 5 is about income and expenditure data, benefits from
farm production, food consumption and nutrition.

Types of information Project has information

5A. income and expenditure data:
al. each household member's sources of income yes____ no ..
a2. each household member's expenditures yes __ no__

5B. benefits from farm production
bl. use of end products from crop production yes____ no
b2. desirable characteristics of each crop or
crop product yes no ...
b3. each household member's access to or control
of end products

5C. food consumption and nutrition information:
cl. diet survey yes____ no ..
c2. nutritional adequacy analysis yes ___ no .
c3. food preparation practices yes____ no .
c4. food preferences yes ___ no .
c5. on-farm household food production yes ___ no .
c6. other (please specify)________________


If you marked a "yes" for any of the above information
categories, we are interested in how you obtained the
information. For each category you marked "yes" please put that
letter in. front of the appropriate data collection methods)
listed below. List as many as you marked above.


1. Pre-existing secondary information
--------------la. national surveys
I-------------- b. anthropological studies
I------------ c. other specify)_______


-.. project conoucteo studies and activities
2a. participant observation
2------------ -2b. rapid rural appraisal (sondeo)
2c. formal survey
2d. farmer records
2e. community informants
2f. time allocation studies
--------------- 2g. team members personal knowledge
__ 2h. group meetings
2i. in-depth case studies
-------------- 2j. other specify)_______


(Please go on to the next page)









Did you use income and expenditure data, benefits from farm
production, and or food consumption and nutrition data for any
of the following? Please check all that apply.

i rni 1 al project design yes n_ no
selection of a target group yes____ no_
identification of recommendation domains yes no
choice of research topic yes____ no
designing trials yes____ no
selection of participating farmers for
field trials yes____ no
evaluation of field trials yes____ no__
redesign of trials yes____ no__
technology recommendations yes.. no
extension efforts yes____ no
project evaluation design yes____ no__
assessing time and labor constraints yes ___ no__
assessing opportunity costs for innovation yes ___ no__
other (please specify)

Are there specific parts of the income and expenditure data,
benefits from farm production, and or food consumption and
nutrition information you have available which were most helpful
to your project? yes___ no

If yes, which are they?





How are these data helpful to your project?





When were the above data collected during the project?
(check all that apply)
before project began, i.e. during project design
yes____ no__
during initial diagnosis stage yes____ no___
on-going yes ___ no____ be specific about frequency

parallel with on-farm testing yes____ no .
other (please specify)

Are there data from the above category which you do not have that
you wish you had collected? yes____ no

If so, which data do you wish your project had collected?



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Finally, if there are types of household data which have not been
included above and which your project collected, please indicate
what those are in the space provided below and tell us how you
obtained the information.
-----~--------------------------------------------------------
Types of information Project has information
------------------------------------------------------------------
.6. other types of information related to the household:
d o------------------------------------------------------------------
data collection method___




data collection method_____--------------------------------
-------------------- ----------------------------------------
data collection method__


Did you use data identified under number 6
following? Please check all that apply.

initial project design
selection of a target group
identification of recommendation domains
choice of research topic
designing trials
selection of participating farmers for
field trials
evaluation of field trials
redesign of trials
technology.recommendations
extension efforts
project evaluation design
assessing time and labor constraints
assessing opportunity costs for innovation
other (please specify)


Are there specific parts of the information
number 6 you have available which are most
project? yes___ no____


for any of the


yes___
yes --
yes__
yes ___
yes-

yes____
yes ...
yes --
yes _.
yes .__
yes____
yes ___-
yes____


no
no
no
no
no_

no_
no
no
no
no
no
no
no


identified under
helpful to your


If yes, which are they?


How are these data helpful to your project?-------------------------------------



----------------------------------------------------

--------------------------------------------"-------


- ----------------------------"'--------


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When were the above data colle-cted during the project? (i
all that apply)
hefrore project began, i.e. during project design
yes____ no__
during initial diagnosis stage yes ___ no__.
on-going yes___ no____ be specific about frequency


check


parallel with on-farm testing yes____ no___
other (please specify)


Are there other data which you do not have that you wish you had
collected? yes____ no____

If so, which data do you wish your project had collected?



Now please select the study(ies) or activity(ies) of your project
which were most effective in collecting information in intra-
inter- household variables relevant to farm production and which
were mgaf ys1efy in determining project decisions concerning
research priorities, cooperating farmers, technology acceptance,
etc. For thing tiy 2C g ativit please answer the questions
asked below and add any additional information which would be
helpful to others engaged in this kind of research. If you have
more than one study or activity which was particularly helpful,
please fill out a sheet for each one.

This study/activity was:
most effective in collecting IHH information yes____ no_
most useful in project decision making, design, etc.
yes____ no_
both yes____ no..


Characterize the kind of study or activity:
survey, participant observation, etc.)


(sondeo, formal


At what point in the project was this study/activity undertaken?

How long did it last?

How frequently were farmers/households/groups surveyed/observed/
etc (once during the study, once a week, once a month, etc)?

Sample size
Percent of total population being studied-____

Sample selection criteria (please describe in detail)

Who designed the study?


(Please go on to the next page)











Who carried out the study? Please designate numbers carrying ouk.
the study? the number of men and women? their degrees, training,
occupations or discipline speciality if applicable (e.g.
extensi on agents, secondary school students, loca ll y hi red
enumerators, etc.)?


What data were collected? Please describe as specifically as
possible and if you like enclose a sample questionnaire, record
sheet, etc.



From whom were data collected? (Head of household? whoever was
at home? more than one member of the household? etc.)


Who collated and analyzed the data? How long did it take after
the end of the data collection period?


How was the information gained from this study or activity used
in the farming systems project?


Did physical, logistical, or resource constraints affect:
-study/activity design yes___ no____
-sample selection yes___ no___
-conduct of study/activity yes__ no___
-analysis of data yes..__ no____
-application of analysis to project activities yes____ no
Please describe as specifically as possible.


Did cultural/social/political circumstances affect:
-study/activity design yes____ no____
-sample selection yes_... no...
-conduct of study/activity yes____ no____
-analysis of data yes____ no..
-application of analysis to project activities
Please describe as specifically as possible.


Were any special measures taken- to overcome
constraints listed above? If so, please describe.


yes____ no____


any of


the


Please add any additional comments concerning the means by which
the study or activity was undertaken or its usefulness to the
project.


Instructions for returning the questionnaire are on the following
page. Thank you for your time and help.




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