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Group Title: Conference on Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research and Extenion, University of Florida, February 26 to March 1, 1986
Title: Gender roles on Upland crop production in three municipalities of Eastery Visayas Region, Philippines
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00081709/00001
 Material Information
Title: Gender roles on Upland crop production in three municipalities of Eastery Visayas Region, Philippines
Series Title: Conference on Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research and Extenion, University of Florida, February 26 to March 1, 1986
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Alcober, Dolores L.
Publisher: University of Florida
Publication Date: 1986
 Subjects
Subject: Farming   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Asia -- Philippines -- Pacific
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00081709
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Title page
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Bibliography
        Page 20
    Tables
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
Full Text














W IA -----, ---
--~~_ --6 1-------
'~ "- ___________ -
bA A ~-- -- __ __


P_ --fthiN


Conference on

GENDER ISSUES IN FARMING SYSTEMS
RESEARCH AND EXTENSION













A Paoer Presetied

at tia ConkeresAce oi







Gender issues ia Farmia Sysatms

Research and Zxtension





February 26-Marca 1, 1936

Unaieraicy of Florida

Gainvesville. Florida 32511







Ge3der Roles on' Uplaad Crop Produccion i. hrea

Auiicipalities of eastern Visayas

aegioa, Philippiaes


Dolores L. Alcober


'n3










GENDER ROLES ON UPLAND CROP PAODU TIOCrN I THREE
MUNICIPALITIES O ASfr<0i ii.Ak S
REGION, PfLLIPPINES

Dolores L. Alcober
Visayas State -Cllege of Agriculture
Baybay, Leyte, Philippines

GENERAL BACKGROUND OF ri CO'Jlf (3) (10)

The Republic of the Philippines is located close to 120 degrees east

longitude and between 4 to 21 degrees north latitude. It is about 1,000

kilometers from the southeast cost of the mainland of Asia lying on the

western margin of the Pacific Ocean. An archipelago co.nposed of 7,107 islands

and islets, the country has a total land area of about 120,000 square

kilometers. It has three geographic dimi-~so a namely; Luzon, Visayas, and

Mindanao.

The islands are rugged, with irregular coasts providii :. ieic)3i harbors

of all sizes. The land is mountainous with heavily forested mountain ranges

close to the coasts, leaving narrow coastal plaits. Between the mountains

however, are flat alluvial pl-ia., ;File large ri~ar ace few, there are many

short but swift streatss as well as number of lakes.

Located in the tropic zone, the climate is characterized by periodic

changes in wind directions. Its temperature varies between 75 to 85 degree-

Fahcieheaii (25 t 33 degrees Centigrade) duriag the year.

Agriculture is the most significant form of land use in the Philippines,

in terms of the amount of land utilized and the perCYcenj .:- .,' ai3ple

involved. As of 1970, about 51 percent of the econo.aically active oppalatioa

was engaged in agriculture.

EASTERN VISAYAS REGION (8) (9)

The Philippines is not only broken up geographically but is also divided

into 12 regions. The Eastern Visayas which lies in the central eastern part






2

of the country, comprised Region VIII It is situated between 100 to

12040' latitude and between, 124 to 126 longitude.

The region includes the two main islands of Samar and Leyte. These

islands differ markedly from each other. WhLle Leyte has vast plains

bisected by mountain ranges with peaks ranging from 700 to 100 feet above sea

level, Samar has no interior mountain ranges. Its interior is consist of a

broad upland mass with na'ecrous deep valleys 4it'i 1:,l.tii areas along the

coast.

The provinces that comprise the region are the following; Leyte,

Southern Leyte, Eastern Samar, Northern Samar and Saiar and the Sub-province

of Biliran. The total regional land area is 21,471 square kilometers which

is 7,2% ou the total land area of the country.

The region has abundant rainfall throughout the year with November,

December and January as the rainiest months. Typhoons through the region are

usually during the months of June through November.

The total population of the region as of 1980 is 2,799,534 which is

about 5% of the 'country's population. Waray-and Cebuano are the uain

languages spoken by the populations; a few speak Tagalog.

Eastern Visayas' economy is basically agii.clt.lhr, Ir., :ntL~ products

are copra, sugar, abaca, rice, corn rootcrops, and banana.

THE ST'UD AREAS

The study was conducted to (1) describe the general features of sweet

potato, corn and upland rice production L t'te region, (2) identify specific

Earmin-g operations and related activities performed antd decided by aItl1 A.-.

4omen and (3) detertaiiie the ceas'.it 4ly .aa-pr-i',r.t'.d :, 4 i l.ar farE

activity.

Three of the six municipalities covered by the Farming Systems

Development Project -Easteci Vi-ayAs (F3OP?-37) sare chosen as areas for the









study. These were Matalom and Villaba in Leyte and Gandara in the province

of Samar.

Sample respondents were selected in two stages. First, the population

was classified into three strata acc;,r;,io ti 'he kind of crop growl Tiheae

are sweet potato, corn and upland rice growers. Then, the cadndon selcitLoa

was s~;ployed to choose 90 household respondents per stratum.

The case study method was used to collect the information needed. The

research sttfF 'tdye'l ;.i ''it .~-- villages s to observe, participate and

monitor the activities of the members of the household respondents.

Dialogues and personal interviews both informal and formal using a pre.ar--1

chec-klist -ee~r as3:iii:t1l. Descriptive analysis was used to analyze and

present the information collactel,

cIatalom

Matalom is southernmost municipality on the west coast of the LeytC

ProviLce. Comprising 30 barangays, it covers an area of 11,080 hectares. It

has a narrow coastal strip with upland hills cihauigi. t.j rugged mountainous,

uncultivable lands as one-moves towacrh-1 tIhe ean ().

The municipality falls within Climate zone IV whose principal

distinguishing characteristic is no pronounce maximum rainy period and no dry

season. R Lt S.ll .o::ur throughout the year with an aveufc ,i- ft'tl

-t.c:mulation between 100 to 300 millimeters with Iighest rainfall in July,

October and November.

Matalom have mostly red clay Maasin soil with pH of 4.0 to 5.5. The

southwestern part has Faraon black claysoils with pH 5.0 to 8.7 (4).

Majority of the farms are located on moderately sloping areas while the

rest were either on steep slopes or flat lands. About half of the total land

area of Matalom is being used for agricultural purposes. Its common crops

grown are corn, coconut, rice and rootcrops. Farmers mostly utilize their









crops for home consumption, while a few market their produce t.o finance their

farm activity. The household is the major source of farm labor although a

few farmers sometimes hire laborers. Farm activity are usually done by

manual labor. Carabao is their main source of farm power(l).

Formal credit institution are not available in the m.nii-2a.i-i.y, rt.'

reaidents obtained credit from aoli-formal credit institutions such as private

money lenders, neighbors, friends, parents, middlemen and relatives (1).

Villaba

Villaba is located on the northwestern part of Leyte. It is composed of

35 barangays covering a total land area of 12,600 hectares. Appro_ 'iaataly

one half of Villaba'is mountainous and hilly. It has less plains compacad to

Matalom and Gandara. Being a hilly place, it sometimes experienced erosion

especially during continuous heavy rains (7).

The northern one-fourth of the municipality is on the very hilly to

steep, mutual, black surfaced, well-drained clay soil known as Lugo. The

southwestern half has a very hilly brown soil with reddish lbro-# sibsoil,

developed, from shale (6). FaraoL clay, Palompon clay and Hydrosol are also

found in the area (7).

Villaba experiences a more or less evenly distributed rainfall

throughout the year.. The heaviest, rainfall occur in January. During summer

months, rainfalldecreases from February to April and increase gradJU,.ll-y t,

t3 the end of the year (7).

People in the place rely heavily on agriculture as their sources of

income. Most farm households grow corn and coconut as their primary crops.

Other common crops grown are :ice _and rootcrops. Coconut production and Sother

tree crops pe -donil-tiS e the aosoIathe hal of thea Rialitie ~;t L,;it l ia the

northern half are extertnsve cattle grazing lands and. large ranch eiltaici;.


(5).








4 bulk of the total production of the food crops .r- uiseld mainly for

direct home consumption which- oaily iLdi-~:cte -iV. _aciec3 in the area are

subsistent. They seldom raised crops for commercial purpoe- J',:- d,-. t-r t i 3Lze

of their farmholdings, tenure status and pcodictiity > the lands.

Most upland farmers worked as hired laborers ii the lowland especially

during planting and harvesting season. There are also those involved La a

labor system known as "prendis". In this labor system, farmer weeds/plants

ina certain field without being paid in cash. they are only as.ir'- i:;

harvest the portion which th-y have wor'k,.i E.r and are given a share which is

a little higher than those who did not participate (7).

The common sources of credit in Villaba are non formal leading

institutions.

Gandara

Gandara municipality is located 120011 east longitude and 124023'

north latitude (10). It is_ 152 kilometers from the regional capital,

Tacloban City. The place is approximately 674 square kilometers in area and

comprise 84 barangays (11).

The municipality is mountainous. However, between rolling hills ace

vast expanses of valleys/lands sliced by navigable rivers and their branching

brooks and streams.

Gandara falls under Type II climate in which rainfall is more or less

evenly distributed throughout 'the year. ieavy rainfall occur in the months

of November. to January and relatively dry months are March, April and May

(6).

The predominant type of soil in Gaadara is the Cathalogan clayloam which

,is brown and strongly acid. Other types of soil found in the area are the

Faraon clay, Bigan loam, San Miguel clay loam and Hydrosol (4).







0
The municipality of Gandara is basically agricultural. Its economy is

approximately 90 percent dependent on farming. However, only 14.06 percent

of its total land area is cultivated to economic crops. Some 68.18 percent

of its land area are arable, already classified as alienable and disposal,

but are still uncultivated. The economic crops cultivated are rice, cora,

coconut, rootcrops, vegetables, peanut, banana and abaca (6).

Although most of the farmers work on the field themselves and prefer

family members to help them, it was also necessary for most of the nousenolds

to hire laborers during peak periods. Wives and school children only wror.

part-time on the farm. Hiring laborers was done either on a daily or a

contractual basis. t all the barangays, some exchange labor (tidlos) was

also practiced by farmers (11).

T'he Rural Bank of-Gandara, Inc. is the only credit estaolisnenet cnat

::.:caters agricultural andd commercial loans to farmers and merchants wicn a

maximum amount of fifteen, thousand pesos However, oftentimes serving

S-sources of credit among farmer are only those non formal' lending institutions

(6)....; :

ED -DIflOAL ATTAIMiEiNT OF THE RESPONDidTS

SLa general, the level of education of the respondents was found to oe

S relatively" low. Majority of the sweet potato growers reacned only tne

- elementary level: (Table 1 The average educational attainment of tne

S' husbaosda was; 4, wives 4, sons 5,_daughters. 5 and others, 4 years.

O :. a the othe-r heandj the- average educational attainment of corn growers

Swas grade four. There were also a 'considerable number of husbands (22Z) and

wives (15Z) wh- were illiterates. Almost the same trend can be observed

among farmers .engaged in rice production. Quite a number of husbands (24X)

*-and wives (16%) did not. have formal education, however, 2 percent of tne

..husbands and wives completed college.








SINVOLVEMENT AND DECISLONI MAKING IN SWEET
POTATO FARIlI. A.JCI CLES

Involvement of Male and Female Children and Helpers

A. great number of the male children and helpers were involved ia weeding

and planting. Majority of them belonged to the age brackets from 15-19 and

20-24 (Table 2).

Comparatively, there were more male children and helpers than female who

assisted on the different activities in sweet potato farming (Table 3), .'one

of the females was involved in land preparation but many were also

participating in weeding and planting.

Land Preparation

Bolo or- plow was used to prepare the areas to be planted with sweet

potato. Bolo was utilized especially by those who have limited areas to

cultivatete, without working animals,a aad no available primary tillage

equipment .-

Sr general this activity was done by the husbands (86X) (Table 4).

Others were assisted by their sons (43%) and htral 14h-cre.:3. Those with no

carabao were- usually assisted by their wives in order to finish the work 'j:

time. A fe :-'of: the wives mentioned that their assistance is really t.ed .I

because their children are not yet capable of helping in the farm. Besides

they cannot afford to hire laborers

Decisions reLated .to this task like the sequence of each opturati>i,

tiaiiog of operation in relation to rains,, equipment used in each operation

"and variation on method with seasonal condition were mostly made by the

Husbands.

Planting

Sweet potato was normally planted on ridges. Vine cuttings obtained

from previous season's crop were used as planting materials. There was a


. -*








great variation in the number of vines/cuttings planted from one, in pairs to

more than two cuttings per hill. Usually the farmer repi-de it-, ,lai.tedl 3-'

cuttings per hill.

Planting was reportedly done by the majority of the husbands (82%) and

male children (74%) (Table 4). However, wives, especially those who.e

children are already grown-ups, also helped because they felt bored and

guilty to stay idle at home while the other members of the family are busy in

the farm. Fifty nine percent of the daughters were also involved in

planting..

Decisions related to planting were mostly done by husbands, especially

on the. variety used (62%), time of planting in relation to rains (73Z) and

spread of ,planting dates (79%). Husbands also mostly decide on wheiathi ::o

iit eccop and replant the field immediately after harvesting the s;eet potato

tubers. -

: feeding -... .-

W. -eed competition at all stages of sweet potato growth is detrimental to

yie.ld,..hence hand.weeding with the use of bolo was done by farmers. iLone of

the respondents jtilized herbicides to control weeds.

Similar to planting, this activity also utilized family labor, the

husbands (584) being mostly involved. Seventy nine and seventy percent of

:the sons and wives,, respectively, helped i weedii~, i'.^wae. a "i-

paecentage of a the daughters (78%) was involved in weeding than in any other

i -sweet potato farming activity. To speed up the operation and free from work

at home were the reasons given by the housewives.

S. ..Decision making in weeding was mostly done by husbands alone.

Harvesting

Because sweet potato is highly perishable anid normally not stored,

staggered harvesting of the tubers was the usual practice of the farmers.





9


They only started harve-ti.4 the *:r.., iLI Its expected maturity had already

bee i reached. The common implement used was either a pointed zooden/iron

stick or a pointed bolo. Each hill are dug with -are during harvesting.

This was the reason of the husbands why the women are usually doing the

harvesting, Besides, this task was considered "light and easy" by the men.

Although the job of harvesting the crop wa4H costly y done by housewives

(90%), there were also husbands (36%) who helped in some occasions.

Children's (male and female) participation in this task was less. Aside from

housewives" involvement, decisions related to the work was also carried out

by them.

Transporting and Carrying the Product

S In some cases, transporting and carrying the harvest to the house or

-.market wasa doae by the husbands (67%). Some of the sons helped as well.

R-.ousewives' '.5.1Z) :involvement was also high because after harvesting they

" usually carry their harvested, crop to their homes. This was especially true

i;f the- sweet potato field was just near their homes. Decisions related to

this activity 'er miade e it..a c ay the husband or wife.

Marketing

: .Very.fe''o f the aweet, potato household re.spi,,,-l.). :i .,*'..: :'.

.- re~ ., ., ~"~ tenatimes,; buyers went to the producer's house to buy. A few

-:eportedly deliver their product to the town proper. Housewives being

Sincharge ,raoaey matter -were also mostly i.-i1race in marketing.

4:Processing '* '. -:

-- Therre r severaL 'way of processing sweet potato. However, the most

co~ioa practice i'the" region is by boiling. Housewives were most often the

inchaige of. processing and making decisions on matters related tl, i;:









CORA FAR4lA ACTIVilTlS

Involvement oi data aad Female GCaildren and gelpers

The male caiLdces and helpers were involved ia planting, narvescia-,

weeding, husking, transporting and carrying farm produce and land

preparation. dany of them were within the age brackets from 15-19 and 2J-24

ablee 6) On the other hand, female cnildran and aelpers involvement was

more on husking, harvesting and planting. Iney were mostly witcnaa cne age

range of 10-14 and 15-19 years old (fable 7).

Land Preparation

Corn was one of the major crops grown in the three selected

municipalities included in the study. To have a good stand of the crop,

farmers usually prepare the land thoroughly by plowing it for two to career

times with alternate harrowing. Plowing and harrowing were usually doan waea

the field was at the right moisture content (after enough rain). rhe Latter

was done again within two days before planting to level the soil.

the men were mostly involved in this tasa (husbands 7U and sons 514).

The few women (9Z) iavol\ved, were those with cora farms located in ally

areas and that land preparation requires more persona because ic is doae' oy

hand weeding with the use of bolo (Table 8).

Planting

Generally, this was done by sowing seeds on furrows. jionliag was

practiced in Gandara when the field is newly opened/cultivated. Some farmers

treated their seeds with petroleum shortly before planting. Family laoor was

mostly utilized in planting corn (fable 8). Oftentimes the wives were tne

ones sowing the seeds, while the husbands were preparing the furrows.

thinning

Thinning was not practiced by all farmer respondents because caay






11

claimed they sowed enough wnich was 3-5 seeds/nill. Owners believed its a

waste of time and planting materials. Of tnose adopciag cais practice, tne

husbands (46A) were mostly doing tae cask (Taole 8). Wives (234)

participation was only when they visited the field during their free time at

home. Aale (71) and female (71) children participated less. dusoaad alone

mostly made the decisions on the activities related to this tasi.

Weeding

The common farm implement used in weeding was bolo. Others employed

plowing not only to control weeds but also to hill up. this was usually dona

when the crop is one month old from planting. Usually, weeds were just left

to wither between furrows.

All household members especially the husband (911) were greatly involved

in weeding. To finish the work early, was the major reason given by most of

the wives, and the children (male, 741 and female, 674) wno assisted in cae

task. (Table 8 -.. The husband still dominated in mating decisions relative to

this activity.

darvestiag

Timeliness is the most important consideration in harvesting. Jora is

ready for harvesting when leaves and husis are dried and kernels are nearly

glazed.

The respondent harvested their corn by hand picking after whicn cne

stalks, were cut down. Some cut down the stalks without picicing first cne

ears. The cora stalks were either used as feeds for caraoaos or left to roc

in the field. .In cases where the area is to be planted with another crop

shortly after harvesting, stalks were either burned or thrown away.

Family labor was' also utilized in harvesting corn. iNoteworthy is the

dominant involvement of the male (80Z) and female (784) children. Aost wives






12

(70%) reasoned out that their assistance was needed in order to speed up tne

operation. Sometimes their rble was to manage tne harvesters wnile tneir

husbands were doing other work in the \farm. Lo get a snare was also anocner

reason mentioned. The husbands made the decisions on the different

activities related to harvesting.

dusking and Shelling

the corn -ears- were- usually husked after all nave been picKed from tne

stalks. For ease in doing it, some used a .pointed bamboo stick to open up

the husk. The husis were either thrown away :or burned in tne field. Jives

(78%) and children (male :67Z, female .85%) participated in the job Decause

this is easy to perform. About sixty three percent of the husbands also

assisted. (fable 8).

After husking, the harvest i, dried and lacer, shelled by a locally made

shedder or bolo. Some farmers separated the kernels\from the cob or ear by

hand. Most women were-involved in shelling because it is easy to do.

Furthermore wives who cannot leave the house because of their babies eare

able to help the task. Shelling is usually done in the evening. rnus, some

husbands were able to help. to speed up the operation, some farmer

respondents hired children,from' neighborhood and paid them in cash.

Decisions on the activities related to husking and shelling were made oy

either the husband or wife or both.

Storage.

Corn was stored as shelled, unshelled,'or unnusked. A common method of

storing unhusked corn was by hanging them up in rows near the iitcnen. Cne

husk served as a protection of the ear. This practice was usually done for

corn stored for-seed purposes in the next cropping.

Since storing corn was done in the house, housewives (91%) mostly was

the one doing it. Husbands a.ad children had only minimal involvement.








Except on the use of crop for local food which was mostly decided by the wife

alone, other decisions pertinent to storage was more or less made by botn

husband and wife.

Seed Segection

Selecting seeds to be stored for th' next cropping was done after all

the crops had been harvested.' After drying,\cora on cobs were spread on tne

floor. Selected cobs'were of good quality (cobs were shinny, free from pest

and with big kernelss. .Only husbands and fives were involved in seed

selection.. Sixty nine percent of the husband respondents reportedly did tne

.seed selection, but housewives' participation was als high because husoands

were oftentimes\.busy with other work in the farm.

Transporting and'.Carrying Farm Produce

S Tedious jobiI Like transporting harvested corn was usually done oy mea

(husband 69%, son. 57Z,: table 8). This-was done using carabao drawn sledge or
:by manually carrying the sacks filled with corn. To finish the worK early

was the reason
" activity was mostly done by husband alone.

Marketing

LIn general, farmers sdld their crops within the community. Perhaps tnis

i a s :an indication of the relatively low marketable surplus from the farm,

which makes it unprofitable for the farmers to sell their crops to buyers

outside their community who offer better price.

Farmer mostly utilized their harvested, corn for home consumption. They

only mark ted their produce when they are badly in need of money or if they

are already committed to local, assemblers because they are indebted before

harvest time.

us.bands (\7%) and wives (33%) were highly involved in marketing the

produce. Wives p rticipation.in selling can be attributed to the fact that
\








she is the family treasurer and is also incharge in buying the necessities

for the home. The role of the children was to carry the product to tne

buyer.

Except for the quantity to be sold, more husbands were making decisions

on matters related to marketing.

Processing

The local millers who are also local assemolers were operating at tne

farm level but in limited scale. Thus, most farmers were only using the

traditional corn grinder for milling. It was the responsibility of the women

p to process the product into corn grits because they are the ones who prepare

S food; for the family. Children also gave assistance in doing tne work, while

S': '. husbands only helped if they are already free from farm work.

'Processing also includesi making food/delicacies out of corn. Examples

are the boiled and roasted young corn, porridge, and corn pie. The husbands

: and wives were equally responsible in making decisions regarding processing.

I WOLVEAMEi? AAD DECISION dAKILG IN
S-r.C.-. ..-- F-ARMIIG ACTIVITIES

Involvement of Male and Female Children and Helpers

Involvement of male children and helpers in rice production was more on

:Irarvesting, weeding, threshing and planting. They were mostly within tne

ages from 15-19- years old (Table 10). -Also worth to note, was tne

: L;-i -r'tvement.of male- children below 10 years old. in some of the activities.

S xeet i processing, involvement of most female children and helpers

was a so n- the same activities as that of men. however, those who assisted

Sin. ee ing and harvesting were mostly within the age bracket of 20-24 years

old, *Whhle in- planting, thinning and threshing, 15-19 years old were mostly

involved (Table 10). There were few female children below 10 years old wno

also assisted in some activities undertaken in rice production.
, -= "









Land Preparation

Land preparation for upland rice was done either by plowing and

harrowing or through the use of bolo. An animal drawn wooden plow and comb

harrow were used in plowing and harrowing, respectively. Carabao was the

draft animal used. Farmers with no available tillage resources or whose farm

area is located in very steep hills used bolo in land preparation.

Except for some who hired laborers, the household members involved in

land preparation were the husbands (84Z) and some sons (42Z). In order to

finish the work early, a few wives (8%) assisted, especially in farms where

bolos were the only implement used (Table 12). Since the husbands were

mostly involved in land preparation, decision making pertinent to this

activity was also generally done by them.

Planting

Planting upland rice in sloping areas was done by diobling. In flat

areas seeds were sowed in furrows by hills. They planted this crop once a

Year which is usually in May-July.

The members of the family were involved in planting (Taole 12) Some-

farmers hired laborers through a system locally termed as "prendis".

"Prendis" means that the laborer is assured to harvest the portion of the

field which he had planted. Involvement of housewives in this task was high

because they wanted to speed up the operation, they had no more work at home

and the family cannot afford to hire laborers.

Decisions regarding the variety used, time of planting in relation to

rains and spread of planting dates were mostly made by the husband alone or

by both the husband and wife. Only few practiced intercropping and

replanting which oftentimes were decided by husbands alone.

Thinning

Thinning was less practiced by farmers. dusoand (31%) and wives (26%)








were reportedly involved in the activity.

Weeding

Handweeding which is very time consuming was the most common weed

control method employed by upland rice farmers. the farm implement used was

bolo. Due to financial constraints, herbicides was never utilized.

Majority of the farm household respondents participated in weeding

(Table 12). The "prendis" labor system was also practiced in this particular

activity. Quite a number 6f housewives (759) assisted in tnis tasK because

they want to finish the .work early.

Although a husband alohe decision pertinent to weeding was mostly

practiced by upland farmers, a considerable number of husoands and wives also

jointly decide on matters pertaining to tnis task.

Harvesting

Rice was. harvested by sickle, with about half of tne straw as stcoble.

Others cut the panicle from the straw with a sharp iaife. There were tnose

who prefer the -latter because the harvested rice is .free from weeds. rae

stubbles were left to rot in tne field after harvesting and later

incorporated in the soil during plowing.

The family was mostly utilized in harvesting in addition to people

working under the prendis system Sotedly, the housewives (80/) and

children (male 741, female 91%) were greatly involved. They usually assiaced

to speed up the operation and get more share. Furthermore, harvesting can oe

easily done by housewives and female children.

threshing was done by the people involved in harvesting. however, cnere
\
were few who hired laborers to perform the task. dives and children assisted

to finish the work early.

Timing of threshing was dominantly a husband alone decision while tne

rest of the decision making areas pertinent to harvesting and ttreaniag ras









made not only by husbands alone but also by the other members of the family

involved in the activity.

Storage

Generally, rice is the most preferred staple food by Filipinos. Some

farmer respondents mentioned that they even have to purchase rice to

supplement their own produce. There were instances however, tnac they were

forced to sell their rice for casn needs. Storing rice for seeds and future

use is done by cleaning and drying it well first, before it is placed in tne

sack.

Preparing the rice into some local recipes was mostly decided by the

wives, while the quantity of rice to be stored was both a husoand and wife

decision.

Seed Selection

Selecting seeds for planting was done by choosing and picking panicles

with good quality grains through visual inspection before harvesting tne resc

of the crop. In cases where only one upland rice variety was used, farmers

set aside some rice after it had been cleaned and dried. Seed treatment was

not practiced-by farmers. Although work involvement in seed selection was

dominated by the husbands (52%), 38% of the housewives also contributed in

doing the task because their husbands were doing other activities in tne

farm.

Transporting and Carrying Farm Produce

Upland rice farmers with-carabaos used carabao drawn sledge to transport

their product to their homes, especially if tne volume is too much to be

carried manually.

Family members were involved in transporting and carrying the product to

their houses. Dominantly involved in this activity were the husbands (801)

and children (male 42%, female 44Z). The women participated because tney







1d
wanted to give assistance to the other members of cne family and to fiaian

the work early. Decisions relative to this task was mostly done oy tne

husbands.

Harketiag

Serving mostly as buyers of farmers' product were local assemblers nao

are residing witnin tne barrio or in the town proper. .Aajority were able to

sell only by gantas.

A total of twenty four respondents were able to sell some of caeir

upland rice during the last harvest season. iost of tnose involved ia

selling were husbands (164) and wives (15Z). housewives were involved in

marketing because they claimed to be incharge in keeping the money and

purchasers of the necessities for the home. Decisions related to this

activity were made by whoever sold the product.

Processing

This activity involved milling/pounding and making food delicacies out

of rice. It was the usual practice of farmers with small quantity of produce

to pound their palay for consumptiTn. Oly -few Drought caeir rice to

commercial millers.

Pounding rice was dominantly performed by females (wives 85% and

daughters 75 ) because they are oftentimes left in the house and it is tneir

duty to prepare meals for the family. The same was also true in preparing

delicacies. La some instances, they were assisted by the men if tne latter

are already free from farm activities. Majority of the housewives and

daughters made decisions on matters related to tnia tasK ablee 13).

Implications
The findings pointed out that joint farming and decision-maicing were

carried out in the upland areas of the region. there were also particular

activities in whicn women were more involved and tneir decision carried more






19

weight ,than. the men's. Generally, women (housewives and daughters) tend to

concentra'c'in certain farm practices such as planting, weeding, harvesting,

and processing sweet potato'; planting, weeding, harvesting, husking, storing

and processing corn; and planting, weeding, harvesting, threshing and

processing upland rice. Often the men were incnarge of land clearing,

plowing and transporting the produce. Except in processing, decisions

relative to the production of the three crops was mostly made by the

husbands. However, the housewives, sons and daughters were always

supportive.

In as much that the women participate in decision making and in farm

production, it is essential that they should be involved at the different

stages of FSR/E. Because for instance, if the women are not involved in tne

diagnotic phase, the- production problems they face are seldom known; thus

research cannot develop the technology suited 'to their needs.

Apparently, the urgency, to increase overall production and the very

limited farm resources were the reasons for the-housewives and daughters high

level of involvement in farming. Majority of the. upland farmers cannot

afford to finance farm activities thus, most family members worK together in

the various agricultural tasks to operate their small farms. Therefore, the

rural youth should also be involved in technology development and its

transfer. .-These young people are the future, and if they learn more about

improved agricultural technology they can become a major force for long term

agricultural development including increase agricultural production and

-improved living conditions in the rural areas.

Lastly, the observed joint decision-making in agricultural activities of

the men, women and youth suggests that programs, projects or training in

agriculture should not involved men alone but should also include the women
and the youth.
and the youth.










3 L 3 L. L j 3 A P


I. A~ls_. 3jolorejs .. a. al.
19 aalaza -.ayta FaZD aV /iiGA. Fayays. Ve.

2. Alcjoer, Dolorea .
1a vi3 e Faruar -joprgraitor ai d 'irci3? ip 3 ;&i j'3dP z i /
ictrodrjcead iara Priccicea as Vitiaja aid jaro ai-iu
dP)?-_.. ,iS.A Saybay. .ca.,
3. ArdiLLaa. Joae S.
1973 4. ljr1 L jsCtOa ca rPnii ipi.iea .iisary Actiaia Je .da.uiia
Janiverity Pre,., Philippixaa.t

4. aiuac, A51.33a.
1932 Shoart.-era Parcicipsac, .Agraomy/iSoii. 3.jiearci a.Ui
9 xceasi ioa SDP 9V Report. Vii.s day ay, .aeye.

3. Office 3f aurta aid Agri.ultural DOaaLapaz i s ijAia/Pniitppiiej .
19$1 "Projecat Paper". i a rmi Si, 5 ystem D-i e ya/ paj.ti
PFoiacc-iasera Viaamas

6. Parrilla. Leonila 3.
1946 Socio-.acoaoaic Profile oi Jto _:i4o and 4acizaoaa-I
G-adara. a*sr FSDP-ai YiSCA. Aaybaf, "/ce.a

7. Prrilla, Leoaila S.
1936 -3ci*o soanoaic Profile oq agnroc, _iita.ia 69a
Dpp-3V, "ij$A dayosay. iayca.

3. Paacual,. *erelico P.
1936 Socio ecoioaic ProEile o t.ra a.eat reas i:a cae ia*rar
Visayae & reioas DOepaeit or Aa.ritciitral 6(s :4..
ViSG" Bayoay. Layte.

*. Project Stau
1985 PSOP U3 Annual taprct. ViSa" dayaay. i.eyfe.

LJ. Saidoval, Aacomia Cecila f.
19i6 Coasiarnicatio4 Zomspon*4ts and CLieatela ^qa siiqcatioa
1Pactiexatoia T1n lacoas -aai arai I4 CI .id Daparcauat of AgricuLciiral iduacaioi aad xu 3caraiza. 4 ij.4i
Saybay. Layce.

11. Soil and 1aid & asiojurcet Appraisal a3d ZraLnina Projec: Paniippi.as.
193d "Sociological StudJ for AgricuiLtiral die pe, Gfa4dara
dicipaLity i auraau. of Soila, .ti.ai;yj or .raSCuicurd.
Jaited Jations Developma:ic Pr. ra*ase, ?ood aid Agri:-ltLura
Orzanisacioas oi cvla Jaited A.ac1.J3:.1







table 1. ddacatiio.al attaL.-ment at houl3eold meaioersC iaolved ia 3jJert poLdao, corn and uplaaid rice produciioil.


Wv&E PJrATOO


Educational attaianent


6 D 0
4061 <32 IA=3


a W
.437 *487


t461d


I 0
1021 16


JPL A.L RWLC
S W 0 0
A4036 A.3-dd 3 -5,3 4-32 di8


P a R J E.4 '


P a a ri .A r


ilo formal scaooliin

Primary (1-4 years or
Grade 1 4)
Atte ndad
Jonplated

aiterinedLata (5-6 years
or Grade V VL)
Atte. aed
Completed

Secondary (7-10 years
or 19s-4Cit year)
Attended
Conplated

3otlegiaLe (11 15 year or
Ist-4th year)
Attended
Completed


22 15 7


31 20
40


1 1


8 19




1 3


22 15 6


6
1


24 16 4 3 12


37 17
17


5


5


8 8 15
7


2
2


4 3


1o 100 100 100 100 100 100 100


4 4 5 5 4 4 4 5 5 3


4 4 5 10 5


S* husband
4 wife
3 = Son
J Daagiter
0 relatives and fari helpers living with the family


total (.)


dea n


100. 100


100 100


100 10l


a W
A-37 4-C33


i I











fable 2. Aga of nale c.iildrei and oitar nouiehold
potato proddctioa.


members and tueir worc intoive ant in as4et


Farm Activities


Land Preparation

Planting

ideeding

harvesting

rranaporti.g &
Carrying Farm
Produce

Aarke i ng


Belo 10 IJ -14
I z


(.*31)



( 42)





(4-1a)

(aia4)


A
15--19


45

39

34

20



23

25


G
2J -24
-A

45

39

36

50


above 24 Total
I X

10 10O

11 100

11 100

100












faole 3. hA^ oLf emaale ciiLdrea- aad ocior o iouseaold mauaoecr aad ttheir wc i wivoleaint
L.i s'it pcaj p)c' prductiot.



Far- Activitimi daela. 1J0 1-L4 15-19 2J-24 aoova 24 Tocal
L t X h


Plalti i (.A-1) 3 21 41 21 100

Wsea i. ('z 25) 12 23 36 24 1.1)

iar sest3i (.3) 33 33 33 99

rra,~portia. &
Carryin.a
Farn
Produce (,4-5) 63 20 1i0

Mar K ti I ( l ) 100 100

Procesai a (.J6) 33 11 33 17 100)










table '. Lavolvemnit of aousenaold znambers i sweet potato production.


dujband Wife Son Daugncerj Others
Activitae .t-36 *,8d :4=61 ;132 4=-5



Land Preparacion 86 7 48 40

Planting 82 69 74 59 6

Weeding 84 70 79 78 30

darvestiag 37 90 16 9

transporting acid
Carrying of Farm
Products 67 51 30 9 4

Marketing 20 31 7 3

Processing 5 95 19










le ;. Ar31, .3 J- : L3. 1:Kaliit Li 3dzt p3LaL3 iarSaii aci.LviciLeS.


aad rf


iltrdaald, WLec, Jnliid
rea and t niica^e


La;:d Preparatioa; ( = 4)
a. Saiquenca or oparatio c
b. rijiii:+ ot eac.i operation to raiit
,. iquip.uetc ;ise ii eca ioperatioil
d. Vari.acia I-i o i cnti vw t i aso-ial condition

Plantia3 ('.J))>
a. Varacy(ina) .ied 1
b. Ost&SaLI a-d pacingn1 ,4
e. density a.il spaciaj of iaterplaited crop
d. Time or plaatina i. r4iacion t3 rains
e. 3?reaJ ot pl~tciag date
t, SeqJeBaC ot interplaakiag crop
g. Aetrnd of pla-tiag (i Lls, broadcast, etc.)
h. Practice oC rapLsntiat part or hole field.


Weeding (4=69)
a. huaber of weeding
b. T'riiia of: eas ii ral1tLoti to
c. qulse alt s.ivJ 0 waei.ig
d. Use ot) fils


pLating


darvascLta ( i9J)
a. rimai&g oZ unacasc ii relation zo maturity
b. Aethod jr tacsvetiig
c. Use ot laives ad c.ps for animals/iaaa
d. timing aad iec.ida of piciiig teavea and tops


93
93
91
92


62
59
24
73
73
27
47
21


75
78
15
.54


31
16
36
36


2
2
3
3



$
6
5
3
4
2. 1'




; 10 L- .
. ,* 9"^P



9. .


50
$1 4
30 .


4.


29.
30


.8
1


* 32
S.


13
12
14
S' 20


* 21
p3L
:1*.1


(dot practiced)


.43t
practiced
A


rot.


liJ
1JJ
tO0


: i 62

61





t .


E v
.
I **
'


19


t...
17



1.-:.


loo


. 100
100



too
S 100
100
100
100
103



103
100


tid ua ii


.. w


(-.


Storage
















iluJoa id


6. frrauipjrtii:t aad carryinA of faria produata (JaiO)
a. rfpc of traiiport ujed
b. of traaOE~L~poctOC


Au a o.a id
alad JILS


32
33


ruibani4iia. i;a3 a d- r
raJi alid aCaara


22
9


7. LHarieLi-a; ( 4-1J)


b. ay i or bizyez2.
C. Iivill ")z liilt3
d. frap3')rtlt4 aad carryiq4 farys products

e. Mathad at craiwport w.Sea selling
f. qusP~xtity to sale


8. ?roceaiai4 (*9J)

a. rfathod 02 processing
b. rypa/kiad-of process product
d. Squipmaethools used


32
31)


.30
33

4il




,2i


A 5J 18





F -

94' "1


~1. I 1






1 '




I1 .4


I .r 1. ~


Pracciced
A


i::.




).4




5,,.

'I


. .!
''

-i
i

i'
4i
i


'.

14
"
r
-
:
r
i
i' (
~


(' i


4,04 t i iluEkt ij II .


.


i.


'



'
i.

,

; I













fabl! 6. : o :nmaL c ii lrea ad 3 .1 )tite hOutni3i~Old
coti. prdJ.itl.o i.


Farm A=tivities


Below LJ
1%


lJ) -Lj,
1014


1s -19
X


above 24
h


lotal
.


Lauid Preparactila

Plaatin,

Thi ii rag

feeding

Harvest g

luski ng

Storage &
Oiaposal

Trai npjrtig. &
Jarryia.
Farm Prodjce

Hark eti n

Proca3siag


(.'4id)



( 445)



(*42)


(A=40)

(43)

(.+23)


-4i

35

20

33

3d

31


25



38

34

26


2 22

33

4 17


1JJ

10J

1o0

1j

10

100


LJO9

9 100


aambsa a id :-iir War. Li








aibla 7. *,.4 o aena.aLe niltdre i and other noajjeadiJ ,nii.abzr aaJd cmair waorK i.tvLa~JaSI
ia caor pcoductioa.


delow 10
aI


1J-14
z


A G
15-19
X


23-2A-
L


abova 24
t


local
4


Pla ;ti ng

fri nii al

Weediag

',arveaj ti n3

Hulkin3

Storage &
uispos.al

fra..partia-, &
uarryiLin
Farin ProJue

Iarkecing

proceisiig


( ^ld)

( t,2)

( .pl.d)

( 4.21)

(1-23?
( 1) ?


(iJ1)


(.4-8)

(0t-1)


23

1J3

24

21

15


10J



12 50

100

25 3d


Fara Activitiaes










aole d. Lwaolvemelc of ioasehold members ia corn fariin. activities.


Ausbaad Wie don Dau&nters Otiers
Activities .31 ,8 7 J61 1427 4*6
g 1X A


Land Preparation 7d 9 51 33

Plan in [t 8 78 75 63 33

rhi ninir 46 25 7 1

Weedial 91 79 74 61 17

iarvestin n72 67 80 78

:uskia and Shellin3 63 78 67 185 67

Storage 63 91 7 4

deed aelectio.i 69 64

rranjporting and
Carrying of farm
Products 69 15 57 26 17

iarketiiq3 37 33 5 5

Processing 64 71 38 30






fable 9. rai.; oi decisio;:imaiti.i ia ,.or s Ear.hil,.t activities.


;i'a oat Id


4Lte don ilJi a d1Il dusbaniJ, Wifa, Jaid-
ajl wLat rel aid chirsj


Staad Praefl)rtii (.4-,J)
a. 3seqj!-,2a of operation
b. riL--; of .ac1 apoeratilo to caixas
c. -'Ji.A 12 i ur.2! il eic:1 operation
d Variai.oii aiC oe whiti seaonil conditions

2. Pla tii-; ( *933)
a. J'ariety(ie ) used
b, Jesn.-ty aid spacing
c. JDe1?ity aad pacing or incerplainted crop
d. Cime o. ola.ing in relatio. tLo raiit
a. iprcad or plauitiii date
f. d-ujaeaa oft interplaaciing crop
g. dar.id of piantiag (hills, oroadaast, etc..)
h. leitiad1 of coreriaq seed
i. Pra-cics af replantint part or wadol field'


3. Thi rnii;! 4z48)
a. d.eat;J nr tiiiani 4
b. Tarrec d'nricy
c. Use 3a L il'inA.

4. Weediqt (J1'3J)
a. 4u-aer o wvaadiags ',
b. ricli.i of eaca it relation t- planting,
e. dq~ipmeznt sed i.I weeding .
d. Use of heroicides
e. UJe if aeadi '.

5. tarrestint (90) .:
a. iania 3 o"f 'arve.t il relation to maturity
b. .AaCt.dJ oi harvve3tiua
e. Us4 .1 leaarea and t-ps for a.tiaali/maa-
d. rTi-, I 9- mleiiciod o pi.cti.> laavaes and cops
e. di a OL .4talKi


5 2


66 10
55 .9
46 4
8 3. 9
di 8
51 4
47 7
41 9. .
58 ,.- 5 ,,.



60, 1





76 i: '
5 9 ."..'*:'::" :'.:-"..
(not practiced)
59 3 -


72 5
65
26
26
67


7
jo
10
1I
1
2


I
1* .


24
27
16
it
113
11


25 **. 11 .
'* -,.2 : ., .




19 8






, 1. 17 ,' -' :. : i -
19

10. 20.


.1
I.
I
1


20
2)
3
3
8


4


:J


33














ti
r -






63


ia t
eraacicad


10L

10J
1JJ

LOJ
100
133



103
130
lOj

100



S100


i10
100
100
100
1UO








Aui33ana iie sa Iai d ~ iadL .lu banJ, Jie, Jot d
and wie re-t and otimers


araas



6. Lruaki4i- aid Shalei.4 (1 MJO)
a. +'-t.13 31 .iU3Ki.gj
b li1 :i.i o 'u;iS .ag

d. e i- f c ) hu.it

7. Stora '.,e ( -)))
a. Mathl i f 1 toarii*
b. Ti.ni,.! ii storl.a
c. qua i t i st7 i.orad
Usia crop ia iLCal food


bte
t'ra.;c2jd tal
h


19
2i


1t33

11)3
kdi


8 .


d. 3eed Seleccion (d-*3)
a. ia at selection
b. 'riceria for selection
c. Seed cratmeant

). Tran.Jparciat a.id carrying of farna products (A 90)
a. fips of tra.i:p3rt used
b. iAl3. V31 iL transparc

13. Mar,teti.i (J=47)
a. datanod at aslliasi <
b. type or buyars
c. ILa'ni. of neLltin, .
d. rranaporcitj aid carrytfi fara prodacca
a. Method ai trsaspJrt when sellia
i. quaracity to sale

11. Processirv$ (.3)
a. letnoo' of processing
b. fyj/'.ti1 o. procaa. product
C. l isil l l/tJ3is us d


51
25




59


53
51
53

553
4,


42
42
42.


30
35

- 14








41







41
41


Ia
15
.8









11


17C


;us
; ;
a
:
.
B

r
i

i .
r.

:"


28


a?~7.'!


4'
9; .


LOU



1000


lO'J
100



10J

100


Coat~ lu'at to1I








raole 10. Age ot iAaie cniidren aid otirer liou3aald aoeeri3 a.id Ltnzir vor4 ii.olvaineat iL
uplaal rice productioai.


A G E
Far.n crtivitiae BsLor 10 10-1'4 -i-19 2J-t' aoove 2 foiLai
4' 4 i.

Land Preparation( i26) 40 40 15 10J

Pla ti ni (. 37) 6 10 45 24 3 100

Fi 1nii an ( 4 ) 60 4) 100

feeding ( 4*~3) i 22 45 2J 8 1U0

lIarv es ti ($.45) J 17 44 27 7 10J

rhreshiaA ( 51i) 5 24 43 22 6 10U

Storage &
Disposal (.1) 10 100

Seed Selectioa (A'1) 100 100

Eranap3rtin; &
Jarryi~a
Fara Pr.Joice ( 4226) 13 35 43 9 100

dar ke i ig ( 5) 20 43 40 100

Process3i ( $24) 29 33 29 4 100








fable 11. A:e of female children arid otnier household meabera
in uplaad rice production.


delow 1)
A


Farm Activities



Pla 1ting

Vhi nai nr

deed ing

darvestigci

rnreahi ng

Storage &
Disposal

Seed Selection

Tran1porting &
Carrying
Farm Produce

Processing


( 23)



(.+823)

(.=29)

(1d21)


(-1)

(.tlzt)


10- 14



35


A G
15 -19



42

50

42

40

43


2J-2g4



15

17

13

14

17


(i -14)

(J-24)


and taeir work iinvoveement


above 24
X


4

16

8

10

13




1JO



7

8


lotal
4


ii


1JO
100

100



100
10J


100


100

100








raOla 12. Ljotalvaa.natc o- ii-Juan.a)id m~sonar i1 upiald ri':. fac.r.ai ai;ci.Lci2.


dusba 1i W/ie 3on Dautjiceri Ocaera
Actrvicia3 1931 .(dd 1*61 .i3s .A061



La.i PreparaLtai d 2 13

Plan1Li 33 31 62 7!

rqL i qi 31 i6 3 10

leading 3o 75 74 66 23

darve t i a 8) 74 '1

nraesaLing 11 66 63 665

Storage 66 54 2 3

Seed Selection 52 Jd 2 3

rraa;.porting a id
Jacryiag of Farm
Products sJ 31 42 44

iarke i nga 16 15 d -

ProceaJsia 59 85 42 73









U!la band4J fite Son iu D oa 1
anad wife
A A X


dusbsaid, JLte. C.u11.
rea aed or:teur


Practiced fots
& A


1 Land Preparction (Ad-)J)
a. yaniic -E oprAoc.toai
b. Ci.ajL i{ t: eia *i ratio.i to rain
c. 5i.pe' ut jla in eac operaji.io: ,
d. VariLac. i ot nii i.l icih ea-oial caion~ tion

2. Pl.1tickI ( j 4A )
a. Vari:ty(iis) uaed
b. sa13nicty ail spaciL
c. iDeo ity aiid pacia; of.iaterplanced crop
d. i;ae F pLatincg in relatLon to raias
e. Spr.es .3t pLaaciaI date
f. Seluiaca of interplatict crops
g. Alcno0d oF planting (hills, broadcast~. ae.)
h. Maciol 3e civaring seed
i. Practice of replaatinS part or ihole field

3. Thiani J- (;1J2)
a. laetaiod ol t'ianini ,
b. rart.t: i-micy ,
c. UsI Df 'li-rinng

4. Weedil4 (t33)
a. -nbaer of wied.iiug
b. TiL.a i %. each ia relation to planting
c. i-quip-ie t used ia weeding
4: Usa oa 4eeal

5. i tarve ixii i ( 093)
a. :iam *,f narcvst in relation to acurity
b. 9inel itrvestial
C. Jae 3iL ,i;a i'


2

l
2


63
35
20
14
71
26
30

26


41
64
44


5t
66

42


61
43
51


LI
6
4

.1

6
7






.* 1
16




14
* 1.': 14 :
13
12


LJ.)
100


1 too


1 21
32
1 14
1 18
1 15

31

1 14
30





"LA


26

22
18


35
38











" 8
.27


21
28


too
IOo

100
lot

LJO

Lto)




100



lOi
100


* 4,




F.


aile 1J. Ar,!aA o deca. iJi .alt ia. i, ,jpla:id rlce farltiig acciiVtraes


'''
''








iancinjataioa


Ausbanrd it3e Sona


I A


iusbaal duaoaad, 4iie, Child-


and wife
x


ran and others
z


Practical Total
A A


6. Thread im, (424J)
a& Mstvid 3f thrashing
a. rinii of tlnreshinig
Toola u Jed
d dJs of caliks

7. Storage ( =9'))
a. Maeclad ot stori.n
b. ri.aia ia storiag
c. quaacity storad
d. Uae of crop in local food

3 aeed Salection (4*71)
a. rime of sealction
b. Criteria frr ieleccioa
c. Sead treatment


51
51
49


9. Transporting and carrying of farm products (3"90)
a. Type of transport uaed
b Netaod of transport


13 marketing (i4*2')
a. iatcliot of selling
b. Type of b,1yers
c. Tinmi -i of selling
d. rransportia ani carrying; fara products
e. i4ethod of transport whve selling
f. Quaitity to sale


11, Processiag (~o 4))
a. Method of procesain4
b. rypsi/xid of process product
c. Sqjipmeat/tools used


59


45
42
46
50
50
35


43
37
317
73



34



. .



42
42
42
33
33
3?


1








1 .
'

: i -
ii -' .'.'


47
54
44


19
19
42


2
3
3


8 3


14 1


12 20





*13 -4 "
13 4
12
13


5
6
12


Arais


133
'103)


koo




100
100
100
100


100
103
loor




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