Front Cover
 Title Page
 The institutional environment
 The need for interdisciplinary...
 List of tables, figures and...

Group Title: Conference on Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research and Extenion, University of Florida, February 26 to March 1, 1986
Title: Viability and method -- the possibilities for farming systems research in Bihar, India
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00081690/00001
 Material Information
Title: Viability and method -- the possibilities for farming systems research in Bihar, India
Series Title: Conference on Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research and Extenion, University of Florida, February 26 to March 1, 1986
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Grosvenor-Alsop, Ruth
Publisher: University of Florida
Publication Date: 1986
Subject: University of Florida.   ( lcsh )
Farming   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Asia -- India -- Bihar
North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00081690
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    The institutional environment
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    The need for interdisciplinary work
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    List of tables, figures and appendices
        Page 18
Full Text

_at the Ur:vers fFloridfa
Conference on



Ruth Grosvenor-Alsop

ape.r prepared -or the Conference on Gender Issues in Farming Systems

Research / Extension, 26th Feb 1st Marc' 1986, Gainesvi!le, Florida,


1. Introduction

-a.rming Systems Research and Extension (FSR/E) involves three ma..ij o

sets. of d s mion makers; (i) Pianners and oc .:- Makers, i, resear-cher s

and Research Insti tutes, and i i i Programme Benef i ar-is. Recent

experience of work ing with a team of biophys i cal scientists in :'or.t-

Bihar, India, on a programme claiming an FSR/E approach, has made

apparent the problematic nature of the linkages between the first and

second, and the second and third groups. These have implications for both

planning and effective implementation of FSR/E. (Figure 1)

This section outlines how this paper uses these linkages as a vehicle

to examine two areas of importance that come from observing the state of,

a programme that was planned with little consideration of the

institutional research environment and, initially, researched with little

consideration of the production environment.

Section 2 discusses the background to the research programme from

which the ideas and information examined are drawn.

In relation to the first linkage, section 3 of this paper considers

the viability of FSR/E in the institutional setting of North Bihar.

Planners cannot separate their proposals from the bureaucratic

ci-cumrstances in which they are to be carried out. Failures cannot be

blamed upon "implementation problems" (Biggs 1984) if, at the very

outset, the institutional situation of the researchers is such that plans

stand no chance o4 effective application. The position of the Bihari

research group is discussed with reference to the bureaucracy of

agricultural research in India, the mandate of the institution and the

personal available. Alternative suggestions for feasible implementation

of FSR/E in North Bihar are put forward.

In section 4 a five stage research model is used to outline, through

use of primary data, how and where a social science input is important

and can help to bridge the communication gap observed between the

2 -

tecrnnical researchers- .and the c.a : am ng co mmrunr ty:'. F'i gcume 3)

-he question of gencer" in FSP/E :s treat ea v*.r-: much as pa.rt oa te

researr strategy, not .as an entity ;n tse- he case is not made -or

the inc lusio o f g nde- an .al is in tecnnor; og :ca' 5-sec -a:. out e ,-"

under : i ng assume ti on is tha..t sexual di eren t iat n :s an i; mporta.:

component for a programme of this Kind. All primary data revered to has

been disaggregated by sex and age.

2. Background

The Eastern states of India have approximately 40% of the country's

land suitable for growing rice. North Bihar, with.rice yields averaging ,

only 840kg/ha, compared to the State average of 903kg/ha which in

itself is an extremely low figure
respects. The culture is extremely hierachical and male oriented and one

in which the majority of women have little control over their lives. The

incidence of poverty, however measured, is high; agricultural yields are

low and stagnat:ng (Table 2); very little modern technology is available

that ;s suital e for the majority of the rained conditions found in the

area (Ghilcyal 4194 ; coruption is rife at all evuels; political

conditions are volatile; both u-ar.b and rural areas are violent; and the

mode of proauct;on is such that it has often been described as

semi-feucal (Prasad 1985). SR/E, with its emphasis on developing

technologies appropriate to not only the physical, but also the current

social and economic environments of the producers, would seem to offer

one way of overcoming at least some of the problems.

Information referred to in this paper is drawn from working with a

group of biophysical scientists from an agricultural research institute

in the Bihar State capital of Patna. The study took place in a single

village located one hours drive north of the Ganges and Patna. The

biophysical scientists have identified the chaurs (large dished

depressonrs in the terrain, subject to flooding and aterl ogg ing dur-ing

the wet season and receding water levels throughout the remainder of te-

'ear. Appendix 1 : S:te Description: as p ysical envi ronment in

a-.rticuilar need of better yield ng rice technogi es.(See Appencix 2

:Out' 1 e of Techn-ical Research

3. The Institutional Environment.

In India agricultural research is organized through 21 agricultural

uiuer.sites 35 Indian Council of Agricultural Research CICAR)

Institutes and National Bureaus, and more than 50 All India Coordinated

Research Projects.

In Bihar the institution funded by an agency for this research is a

field station of the State Agricultural University. As autonomous State

level institutions the universities are responsible for teaching,

research and extension education.

The Research institute in Patna has a mandate restricting research to

a certain number and type of crop. There is no position salaried for an

economist or extensionist within the institute. Although the Regional

Director of the Institute can apply to his immediate superior for

perm ss:onr to research crc!s outside the mandate, it was apparent that

before the social sc tist .joined the team alternative crops had not

been identified as subjects for research and hence no pressure had been

exerted for change. When enquiries were made about the possibilities of

introducing wider disciplinary analysis and skills, it transpired that

-the Agricultural University could supply an agricultural economist to the

Institute, but only on a part time and advisory level. Extension advice

and assistance would also only be available on a similar arrangement. An

added problem is that the Research Institute is spatially distant from

the Agricultural University and is not an attractive place for people to

visit or work in. Research therefore continues along very technical

dic i nary ines, w.th no consi derat ion being given to the economics ,-a

t e tec h n:2:c, e st bei g :nvestigate d and no ackno: I edgement of arny,

-. so.:rs. i:_ 1 i ty ifor- interacti on i th, or dissem:;iat ion of i r orrm tio: to,

v tiivtor s. There are three womenn on the staff of the organisation.

Unfortunateiy'the cultural norms, expectations and h story o *ferma-e

-.vo' emen t in work, that involves facing rather uncomfortable physical.

and soc ia conditions, are such that these women are not participating -

the programme.

This FSR/E programme, demanding genuine interdisciplinary, c-oss

sexual and poverty focused research, represents a radical departure from

the traditional approach to research in India, which is one that could de

called both linear and disc:l inary and that is reflected, as such, in

institutional and bureaucratic structures. The ICAR coordinated

Lab-to-Land programme, directed at technology dissemination to small and

marginal cultivators and being directly linked to the Ministry of Rural

Reconstruction, is one that presumes an interdisciplinary approach.

However, observation of the Patna Institute's part of this programme

indicates that similar problems are occurring in this as in the FSR/E

o.:oject. The *est.orn of whether or not it is feasible for a single

institut'on working under these conditions to carry out effective FSR/E

work, should be considered by the planners of programmes. From the

oreceoing brief discussion it apparently is not likely in Bihar, where

on l one institution has b.en- fu-nded to carry out WorK that s not viable

i terms of either their mandate or manpower, that an effective FSR/E

orogramme can be implemented .

Under these conditions there appear to be three solutions to the

problem. The first is to bring in from ou-tside the area a specially

assembled team, who already have FSR/E experience, to work with the

institution concerned; the second is to find local groups/ institutions

who are willing to work together, have the local knowledge needed, and

- 5 -

!- hav e c:aoabie and committed manpower; and the th rd i to put together

a c)o'c:t of oc. -=:ersonn e J.unde r an :x terna coordinator. This. ,u'

:r iv- partial or *u .1 time secondment --om t:e r ;iar-ent I st uti-.o-.

Tne f.rst senar-io is re.. ect?1 a unr teab-.a It i wo d e ex tr e' -

expensive to imp ement, external personer would be very ur iike' to have

enough local knowledge at the outset, and it would not strengthen locai

capabilities. The second could be considered for North Bihar as two

insti tutions local to Patna appear to be able to offer useu i npuuts to

the programme. One has the social science manpower capable of providing

social and economic analysis, and the other has experience in training

and extension. This suggestion is problematic for three reasons. The

first is the likelihood of resources being wasted in an inter team debate

on models and processes of development. The second concerns the

hierachical nature of the institutions and the constraints that this

imposes on the adoption of new ideas or approaches. The third problem is

the laci of female researchers available in both numbers and positions

.wnaere they would be able- to influence the programme. Women are active as

:ooducer-, -eprocucers and consumers in the agricultural system in Siha-.

Because of social norms male researchers have little access to these

females, which means that wJithout :. -xed sex team information on .

large group of possible beneficiaries is not going to be available.

It is the third proposal, that of assembling a research team oy

seconding personal from the disciplinary segregated local institutes to

work together as an interdisciplinary group, that would seem to presents

the most realistic solution to the problems found in trying to implement

a FSR/E programme in Bihar. This strategy would offer a way of avoiding

loyalties of both a personal and institutional nature and would give

researchers of both sexes the opportunity to think outside of their

normal constraints. It also means that the team could be physically

located in the area in which they are working, avoiding a number of

6 -

hazards that are present when one group plays nost.
what is therefore recommended is a three part research effort

Involving a local agricultural research institute a group of local,

so.:aa scientists, and an external coordinator. The team headauar tears

wou d be located in the research area itself, with full use ceing -.ae o-

facilities of the various institutions involved such as the ag icu' tura.

research station during the on station component involved in plant

breeding. It is recognized that the three alternatives put forward

reflect a social science bias, and one that comes from a person who is

not as familiar with the mechanics of the Indian research system as the

scientists located in Patna. Discussion with local institutions of costs,.

benefits and possible alternatives is-therefore very valuable.

This brief discussion has centred on the experiences of working with

one group to illustrate the importance of considering the institutional

environment when planning FSR/E. Planning an FSR/E programme in any

situation outside of Bihar will mean considering a different set of

Institutional conditions and reviewing alternative possible solutions.

4. The Need for Interdisciplinary Work

Inherent in FSR/E is the need for an interdiscipl inary tear. One o-

the first problems in Eihar was to establish the definition of the term

'interdisciplinary', to differentiate it from 'multidisciplinary', and to

reach agreement on the implicit indication of interaction between the

disciplines. The second was to show why it is important to include social

scientists in a team of this type. To illustrate this a five stage

research model is used as the framework for discussion as it builds upon

a problem solving approach to research which is familiar to all

biophysical scientists. The sequence suggested is one of, i Diagnosis, ii

Design, iii Experimentation /Testing /Assessment, iv Adaptation /Testing

/Assessment, and, v Recommendation /Dissemination /Assessment. (See

Appendix 3>

he five a= .aes present a n 'ideal resear : r e o;: e e. c s : ra-y

-esear=h p.ogrammes in rEhar the social scie nce component was not

S! -ated un after varietal trials nad been put out, represent ing a.

r:me iate departure from this 'idea.' It rare to fin e an e esearcn

orogramme that does not have an established background of ideas, pol; .:!?

anc experiments. The recognition of this does not deny the usefui:-,ess

a mode1 a.s a reference Doint. Particularly in the case in question, ,.,-ere

.SR/,E waas a new concept, it can give an overview o0 research str-aeci-y .r-

a framework to refer to. The stages include an element of flexi!l ity

that means throughout the programme directions and priorities can be

changed according to new findings. What is being proposed here is niot a

set of procedures. It is a research framework through which a team shou-,

develop their own modus operandi.

Par-ticipation in the programme in North Bihar has been in the early

stages of this sequence. Trials have only been out on a farmer's field

for two years. It is encouraging to note that the iterative nature of the

programme is being demonstrated as discussions are now commencing about

tre nature of tne original; assumptions and the way that research is being

carried out. thoughg, in terms of the five stages, this means even after

two yea-s the i:, c e team is still at the diagnosis and design stages, it

does marK a fundamental change in the approach to research. Diagnosis,

through self evaluation of the research teams efforts, is, it is hopec.

going to remain a part of the programme as it moves into the other

stages. The fi.e stage sequence is used to outline where social science

information is, ana has been, useful to a team involved in FSR/E, using

the experiences and information coming out of the contact with technical

researchers and villagers in North Bihar.

Di aQnosis

A social science input is useful on two counts. Firstly in

sensiti action, of both villagers and the research team.

Second y, social science experience and method can be drawn upon to he p

in tarqet'r* :a: priority areas where action is also :kely to be

effec ive, and 'b) the bene iciary group or recommendation domain.

in the village of Belkunda, the site chosen for this research,

initial contact with villagers often involved answering more questions

than were asked. This proved invaluable as a means of establishing a

basis of understanding and rapport with participants. From information

that was elicited during this period agricultural labour emerged as a

major issue. Many of the villagers appeared completely dependent on

agricultural produce or agricultural labour as a means of livelihood

(Table 3). There also appeared to be 'lumpy' agricultural employment

opportunities, labour constraints at peak times and task differentiation

by caste and sex. In order to draw a sample a survey of agricultural

labour involvement of all households was carried out. Apart frbm

agricultural labour being an apparently important issue for technology-

development, it was also felt to be a reasonable proxy for the relative

resource wealth or households (Table 4).

The survey, consisting of a very simple questionnaire, also gathered

simple information relating to ownership of livestock and ranked sources

of household income according to importance. Results were as follows;

1. 12.8% of households were net hirers in of agricultural labour

2. 35.9% of households were net users of family labour

3. 30.8% of households were net hirers out of agricultural labour

4. 9.0% of households used no labour in cultivation but owned

land or livestock

5. 11.5% of households had no connection with agriculture at all.

As this FSR/E programme has an explicit commitment to working with the

resource poor cultivator, it was decided that the beneficiaries of the

FSR/E programme would be in categories 2 & 3. Group 5 households did not

need to be involved in the programme. Groups 1 & 4 were both involved in

further social science investigation out they were considered outside oc

t; b io-ph.sical team members immediate area of interest. The ratoona: e

for social and economic analysis continuing with Group 1, was that

changes in techno;og: for this group could well affect their use of n-rec

labour; and with Group 4, that (a) as landowners they were important :n

understanding tenurial systems and terms which affected producers conrt-c

over their products; and (b) as livestock owners they were part of the

agricultural system as suppliers of manure, suppliers of animal power and

consumers of fodder crops.

Apart from carrying out basic survey work that could have helped in

the initial identification of beneficiaries, information is available now

relating to task differentiation within the system. This is an important

factor in targeting and focusing the research work, particularly as some

male members of the research team had stated that women were never

involved in agricultural work. There was also no recognition of the time

women spent in agriculturally related or supportive roles. Data collected

demonstrates that activities were deliniated according to caste, economic

class, and sex (Tab!e 5).

In terms of sensitisation much time was spent with the villagers

explaining why we were there. There was a marked resentment against the

research team when the first forays were made into the village, which to

a great extent was due to incomprehension of their activities and

unfulfilled promises. Villagers have, since explanations were

forthcoming, subsequently been most helpful. As a female researcher it

was possible to gain access to all village women.

One spin off of the interaction was the selection of particularly

cooperative respondents as Key Informants for the technical research

team. Another could have been the initiation of a discussion about rice

as a technological research priority. If the objective of the programme

10 -

was to increase monetary. income (which at the beginirrg of the social

science involvement the technical research team identified as an

objective), then rice would not hae emerged as a primary -ssue even i-

richer households no rice is ever sold. However it is the major staple ir

the diets of the villagers and, in an area where caloric deficiences are

recorded for a large proportion of the population, it must receive due

attention but as a possible means to improving consumption levels rather

than as a means of generating cash income. Yields of rice are very low in

this area, and there is no modern technology available, but it is

possible that the constraints may not be those of low yielding varieties

alone. Labour has emerged as one of the major problems during planting,

weeding and harvesting (Table 6).

Des ion

The social scientist can help in two ways during this design phase.

One relates to constraints and the other to consequences. The former is

considered at two levels, (a) that of the producers (resource

access/control, time, markets, culture, expectations etc), and (b) that

of the research team (institutional, political, bureaucratic, resources).

An example of an area identified because of the social science

concern with labour helps to illustrate how and why team interaction is

valuable for this process. During exploratory investigations in Belkunda

it was discovered that women in lower income houses spent on average four

hours per day collecting fodder (Tab'e 7). It was noted that no form of

tree fodder was used. The possible results of introducing tree fodder

crops are twofold: (i) it could cut down the time involved in fodder

collection, thereby decreasing work burdens or releasing collectors for

alternative work, or (ii) it could increase the potential for livestock

production and products. In the design discussions such ideas can be

talked about. If this research area is technically feasible then it could

be included in the experimental design. If it is not, according to team


*lembe-s th spprc Dr iate knorw edge,/ t then ime or money wou d rot be

n vested in tn eessar:. reseda c .

The s.c.l sci-e p-r i E- '.e ., .5 ,-. -.c-a_. e1 S C

o"pendix. 3. However the programme, as it stands, in Patna is ore tn.at

currently involves little On Farm Research (OFR). There are varietal ar.

mixed cropping trials out but this year they have been conducted rather

as disciplinary separate enterprises and without interaction with

resource poor cultivators.

Research has included both these on-farm trials and on-station

experimentation. In OFR the primary function of the social science input

has been in the selection of key informants on the basis of relative

resource endowment and cooperation. In relation to the team work in the

field attempts have been made to discuss techniques of field research

acceptable to informants and to initiate some intra-team dialogue

relating to results and activities. Knowledge of anthropological metncc

is valuable in FS /E design. iJays of obtaining the most accurate

-iformation with Tminirmal respondant interference are particularly useful-

S::ec if: da- .: has been cc ected on "ime Allocation, Labour Use,

Income a.nd Intra Household Decision Making in relation to a numbe c-~

areas. More generalised information regarding household membership and

relations within households, food preferences, education, land types, and

crops grown is building up a background of the-production, reproduction

and consumption environment.

In their concern with 'people' and contexts', social scientists can

assist in keeping research action ir 1 ine with research objectives, and

help to ensure that villagers' values are assigned to variables. In the

research situation in Bihar no member of the biophysical team had

questioned the resource position of the farmer on whose land they had

trials. When the fact that he was the largest landowner in the village


was Queried the team responded in a way that indicated this was an asset

to their work.

Di.cuss=ion of this stage 1 ustrates clearly one o4 the :roob emrs

trying to supe-im ose an FSR/E on an establisned: research situation. -"e

-i or.hiys a l s i s i t: i sts in this case, have made certain assumpti ons

relating to stages 1 & 2. The first was that low yielding varieties were

the only problem that was the responsibility of the team, and second'r ,

research design and methodology was of the traditional format. During th:-

past year, information thrown up by social science investigation has

meant that one or two members of the research team are beginning to

question both their problem identification and their methodology.

Adaptation, Testing and Assessment

The programme in Bihar has not reached this stage. In terms of

general benefits the social science input is seen as useful to an FSR."/E

team in the type of information gathered and in the knowledge of

specialised field techniques.


At this stage it is hoped that the social scientists, although no

ong-3 e n -..o : e.? -c-n&' data s-- ec.tion or observation of team dcyramr,;

w.ou!' continue to oiay a role in field level work, alongside the

extension workers and, probably to a lesser extent, the biophysical tea..

members. They could use their experience of method to both help keep the

programme on target and maintain relations with cultivators to ensure

they are participants not passive recipients of information. Patterns of

adoption would be observed, explanations sought for non adoption and

appropriate action suggested. Interaction with biophysical scientists

would both help in the understanding of technical constraints, problems

and solutions and ensure that any new or changing aspects in the system

could be dealt with.

Where possible existing extension networks should be utilised at this

sta' ge. ULnfortujnatel in ihar the extension serve ice is very weak. No* one

farme r i r ter',ewed had e>er spoken to an extension wo or-.. In .a r eor

submitted to t're 'orld Bank by the ihar M inistr. of Agritcl ture (Ocrtobe

i8 i'- t was stated th.a: 57-' of farmers had no know!e cge of ext ensoon

worserS. In the same report they estimated that 33% of extension worKers

were not doing their job at all and a further 22% doing it 'half

heartedly'. -

The informal information networks are undeniably effective in this

area. A recent innovation in cash cropping illustrates this. In the last

few years tomatoes have been increasingly grown as a cash crop, uti is;ln

land previously left fallow or used for sugar cane and melons. Farmers

report that since the bridge across the Ganges gave easier access to the

markets in Patna the knowledge that this was an extremely profitable crop

has spread by word of mouth. However, assuming that information will

naturally 'trickle through' can lead to the research team avoiding the

responsibility of ensuring that possible beneficiaries are receiving the

results of the research.

At this stage of dissemination data available on who does what, when

and who is involved in making decisions regarding activitiesi'expend!ture

should ensure that information is passed on to, and discussed with, the

appropriate people. For example in our earlier cited case involving

fodder crops, in stratification groups 2 & 3 women were found to spend a

large part of the day collecting animal feed. In 64 %. of the cases in

households where Janera (fodder crop) was grown as a field crop both men

and women discussed and decided on how much of this crop should be grown.

Therefore any information regarding new technologies or practices should=

be passed on to both men and women. Although purdah restrictions are not

strictly enforced for women of lower caste .groups (who tend to constitute

group 2 & 3), there is still a real shyness and reticence by women to

f"C- 1- -
~.sa". -" .' c -*..,r. e mTe- -in s".' h *ca' ses women vyj.-. ." "'.." wor,.rs S-OU o ..'i:; r .- '-, a Ce

5. in Summation

Essentially this oaper has attempted to make use of recent fielc

experience as a member of, what at the beginning of the paper wa.-s te-mec.

the second group of decision makers ie Researchers and Research

Institutions. From this vantage point it was observed that the poor

quality of the linkages between this group and (a) the programme

planners, and, (b) the intended beneficiaries of the programme led, to

problems in the implementation of FSR/E. Two issues emerging from this

have been discussed in the context of the organisation of research in

Bihar. The first concerned some of the surrounding institutional

conditions and the second was related to social science interaction W:.;

a technical team.

In the fi st p.?t Vo the aper 't was suggested that planners and

Policy makers must pay attention to the institutional environment in the

context of whicn a prog-ramme :5 prpoosed. In the case of Northi'Bih.. t:he

strencths and constraints of different group within the geographic,

area should be t ons;Cered, as it did not seem to be possible for one

istitu tion to provide the necessary interdisciplinary manpower.

Therefore, because of this and certain other features of institutional

life, it was suggested that an interdisciplinary research team could be

assembled from a number of local institutes under an external

coordinator. Emphasis is placed on using.local manpower-both as an

exercise in developing local capability and as a means to exploiting an

existing resource of indigenous knowledge.

Secondly, the social science input into a team was examined with

reference to a five stage framework. The key issues with'which the social

scientist is concerned in this FSR/E programme"are, (i) Time and Labour

15 -
alloc~ation, (i i Decis ion Mak I nga and (i ii Inccme and Incentives. These

;al: ave implications for both research orientation and extensi on. -Time

ar:c L_.coujr .a locat ion surveys -sho who ~does- what and w.ren. Deci s'on

:.akirng !in or-matio; n identr 'es .s -smakes a.-: := consu:-lte about r -ezourc. -

use. Income data helps identify. beneficiaries and assses where increases

in income can have maximum r impact. The collection of intra and inter

household in ormat on forms a vi:al part of investigators: as it pr-o ide

the locus for these three focWa points, giving an understanding of the

values (and hence incentives) in terms of which the cultivator

rational ises.

The data used from the village study in Bihar indicates that sexual

differentiation within the production system exists. There is also an

apparent inverse relationship between the economic status of the

household and the intra household status of women (as measured by the!-

participation in decision making. Table 8). Whether such concerns should

be of primary interest in an FSR/E programme is debatable. Given the

resource position of a large proportion of the households in the village

st.dise Bihar it is perhaps more important as a research objective to

attempt to supply adequate -ut-tional intake for whole families.

Decisions made a.out the creative priority a topics is dependent on -a

number of factors including tne resources available to the research

group. Strategies should-c-ertainly be employed which ensure that

increasing real income does not mean the withdrawal of lower income

household women from their relatively strong positions with regard to

command and control of resources and their own lives. There should also

be a consideration of ways to enhance the status of women in the choice

of technological alternatives. Concern with sexual differentiation within

FSR/E is important but should not assume proportions that will cause it

to obscure other issues.


Acnar.ry a M & -enett ( i~ ) Women anc, the Su =sistence Sector
Economic Par-i :cat *o anc Decision Maxino in Necal
'A or,- G5a nk Sta44 iior. k5ir, P ac -ge6 Numb-er --526

Agaruwa S (a193') "Rural women and the high yielding vari-et-. -'; e
tecnnolgy ;n India"
Paper presented at the Women in Rice Farming Systems Cohference
(WRFS) IRRI, 26 30 Sept 1983, Philippines

Ashby J (1984) "Participation of small farmers in technology assessment t
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1 map Incia, Binar, location of cnaur area

2 3 groups of decision makers

3 matrix 5 stages FSR/E input by social scientist


1 changes in rice production in Bihar in comp to other states

2 agricultural yield over time

3 ranked household income sources

4 correlate househoic strata and income

5 tasks divided according to sex (sex sequential and sex


labour employed over nine months by activity (i) hired

(ii)M amily

7 time spent on fodder collection by household women of

different strata


1 Site description

2 Outline of technical research -

3 Five Stage Research Sequence Definition of stage activities.

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