Front Cover
 The crop-livestock project
 The process of integration
 Role of women in the farming...
 Gender differences in access to...

Group Title: Conference on Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research and Extenion, University of Florida, February 26 to March 1, 1986
Title: Women in a crop-livestock Farming Systems Project in Sta. Barbara, Pangasinan, Philippines
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00081684/00001
 Material Information
Title: Women in a crop-livestock Farming Systems Project in Sta. Barbara, Pangasinan, Philippines
Series Title: Conference on Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research and Extenion, University of Florida, February 26 to March 1, 1986
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Paris, Thelma R.
Publisher: University of Florida
Publication Date: 1986
Subject: Farming   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
University of Florida.   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Philippines
North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00081684
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
        Page 1
    The crop-livestock project
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    The process of integration
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Role of women in the farming systems
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Gender differences in access to productive resources
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
Full Text

at the Un3iversrt 6Fi6'F ida --
Conference on


Thelma R. Paris**


In April 1984, a project design workshop on women in rice farming

systems was held at the International Rice Research Institute to

organize a collaborative and coordinated effort to undertake

research/action research in five general program areas of

technology development; extension; impact of new technologies;

complementary studies (such as dynamics of agricultural household

behavior; functioning of rural labor markets; policy environment which

affects farm and household decisions, etc.) and sensitization. The

ultimate aim of this collaborative work which will be developed under

the overall umbrella of the Asian Rice Farming Systems Network (ARFSN)

is to institutionalize women's concerns within the agricultural research

and extension systems dealing with rice farming systems.

This action-research project in Sta. Barbara, Pangasinan is one of

the ARFSN sites which intends to improve the existing farming systems

through an integration of suitable crop and animal production

technologies. Specifically, this project is developing ways of

increasing utilization of crop-by products and residues as animal feeds

through crop-livestock research (Roxas et.al., 1984).

*Paper prepared for the Conference on Gender Issues in Farming
Systems Research and Extension, University of Florida, Gainesville,
Florida, USA, 26 Feb-March 1, 1986.

**Senior research assistant, Agricultural Economics Department,
IRRI. The author acknowledges Dr. Gelia T. Castillo, IRRI Visiting
Scientist for her valuable comments and suggestions; and Dr. Leslie A.
Laufer, former Rockefeller Fellow, who helped initiate this paper.

In line with these objectives, mechanisms will be developed by

which women's considerations will be considered at the various stages of

the technology development process specifically in the design,

dissemination and extension. Women's concerns will be integrated within

the farming systems with the following basic elements (Cloud, 1985;

Castillo, 1985) such as:

o analysis of women' productive activities within the farming

systems, i.e., including their roles in the household and in management

of agricultural production;

o identification of the factors influencing women's productivity

in farming systems such as access to productive resources (information,

technology, land, labor, capital, markets) and access to and control

over the benefits of production;

o identification of existing, emerging and possible technology

options conducive to the expansion of women' productive capacity as

well as human development potential; and

o application of this understanding throughout the farming systems

research process.

This paper provides an example as to how we are trying to integrate

women's considerations in this on-going farming systems project.


The crop-livestock project in Sta. Barbara, Pangasinan started in

1984 as a collaborative project between the Institute of Animal Science,

University of the Philippines in Los Banos, the Ministry of Agriculture

and Food, the Rice Farming Systems Department and the Department of

Agricultural Economics of the International Rice Research Institute.

This project uses the farming systems approach which conducts the

research in three main stages, viewing the farm as a complete system;

identifying the local farming system and its constraints; selecting

existing technologies and techniques in overcoming these constraints and

making a preliminary selection, testing and adapting these technologies

under the conditions in which men and women farmers have to work.

Sta. Barbara was chosen by a team of scientists based on its

nearness to major livestock auction markets, potential for crop and

livestock improvement and nearness to government support agencies and

experiment stations. Two villages represent distinct production systems

and socioeconomic environments. Malanay is an irrigated area where two

HYV rice crops are grown while Carusucan is a purely rainfed area where

generally only one crop of rice is grown. Malanay can be considered as

more prosperous than Carusucan because of the availability of irrigation

from National Irrigation Administration, availability of electricity and

proximity to markets and trading centers.

Crop and Livestock Technologies

1. Cropping systems component

Improvements in the cropping systems component were done through

component testing (variety, fertilizer trials, etc.) and cropping

patterns were designed based on the historical rainfall distribution and

farmers' existing practices (Fig.l, Tables la and lb) (This section

draws heavily from Godilano, 1986).

Rainfed site. In the rainfed area of Carusucan, generally only one

rice crop per year is grown. However, farmers in this research site

plant two rice varieties depending upon the type of soils. For


instance, farmers would usually plant early maturing high yielding

varieties (IR36, IR58) in the light well drained but drought prone soils

and tall, maturing high yielding varieties (IR42, IR48) and local

varieties in heavy, flood prone soils. Although there is no clear cut

demarcation between the land categories, the farmers are smart enough to

avoid crop damage or losses by identifying cultivar types to be planted

in their plots.

After cropping pattern trials and component technologies were

further tested and refined, the agronomist recommended that legumes can

be grown before and after rice as long as the farmers follow the right

cut-off dates. The cut-off dates are in the middle part of May and

November. With the addition of legumes in the pattern, residues can be

an important feed for the cattle, maintaining the feed availability

throughout the year especially during the months of February and March.

Legumes can also provide food (proteins) and income for the family.

Farmer's previous practices in mungbean production were: (1) use

of hired tractors at a rate of P400/ha for land preparation; (2) use of

low yielding (only 0.3 t/ha) varieties; and (3) unscheduled and frequent

sprayings (4x) even 10 days before harvesting. This may be harmful to

both human beings and livestock. As an improvement in the cultural

practices, the agronomist recommended that furrowings be done by

carabao, high yielding varieties of mungbeans be used, drilling in

furrows, no fertilizer, no weed control and only 3 insecticide

applications (2, 12, 35 days after emergence) be done.

Irrigated site. Although no cropping pattern was tested in the

irrigated site, component technology trials such as variety, fertilizer

rates, ratooning potential of the 2nd rice crop and fitting an upland

crops in between the two rice crops were verified. Except for the

fertilizer rates and variety trials, the rest of the trials failed

because of the uncertainty in the water release by National Irrigation

Administration during the first crop. This eventually flooded the

mungbean crop at flowering stage, and the potential of the main rice

crop to ratoon was hindered because of the lodging caused by floods.

The following component in the cultural management of the two rice

system will be widely tested in farmers' fields.

Test factors Improved practice Farmers practice

1. Variety IR60 IR42, IR36

2. Fertilizer (kg/ha) 60 kg wet season 80-100 kg in
(3 bags Urea) both season
80 kg N dry season (4-5 bags)
(4 bags Urea)

The recommended fertilizer application is: one-half of the

recommended nitrogen as basal and the remaining amount to be applied 5-7

days before panicle initiation.

Those two components (variety and fertilizer) can contribute to a

higher grain and fodder yield and can be much more economical than what

the farmers are presently using. Further component technology trials on

forage grasses are being done to improve fodder yields to augment the

supply for ruminants in this area.

2. Livestock component

In this component, animal nutrition, health and breeding

interventions were designed because generally the animals in the area

are undernourished due to the low nutritive value of the fodder being

fed to them. For both areas, feeding the cattle with a minimum of 2 kg

of leucaena leaves (leguminous tree) per day was initially recommended

to improve the protein quality of the fodder given to the animals.

Proper nutrition of these cattle fatteners would increase farmer's

income. Unfortunately, an unknown "jumping lice" destroyed the leucaena

all over the country thus affecting this particular intervention.

Irrigated site. Component technology trials are now being done to

try forage grasses and protein rich indigenous fodder, the feeding value

of which is not known to the farmers. The breeding scheme of carabaos

through artificial insemination of Murrah breed is now being introduced

at the same time stressing the importance of maintaining healthy animals

through proper nutrition.

Rainfed site. In this area, feeding of leguminous residues to

supplement rice straw for cattle fatteners has been initiated. Since

only one rice crop is predominantly grown in this area, there is more

seasonality in the availability of feeds for the animals. Rice straw

is preserved after the harvesting season to last for the whole year.

The use of legume residues as feeds during the dry season can even out

the seasonality in availability of feeds in this area.


1. "Breaking into" the farming systems research group

Since the project has been going on for two years, breaking into

the established research group was done gradually. We (the women in

rice farming systems or WIRFS) attended as observers in one of their

workshops in the project site. In this meeting where representatives of

the collaborating agencies were present, we began to understand the

overall objectives of the project, the various components, the existing

crop and livestock practices, constraints, the complexity in designing

the technologies for both crop and livestock, and the on-going

activities. Despite the so-called multidisciplinary approach involving

the animal nutritionist, livestock specialist, agronomist, economist,

crop protection specialist, animal breeder and veterinarian from the

different agencies, no social scientist was formally included in the

team. An economist represented the socioeconomic component of the team

but his tasks were concentrated on analyzing the economic viability of

the crop and livestock technologies. The need for a social scientist

was realized when the recommended livestock intervention (minimum of 2

kg leucaena daily feeding for cattle fatteners) was not being adopted by

the livestock cooperators even before the epidemic occurred. A social

scientist then conducted case studies on livestock farmer cooperators

and non-cooperators to find out the reasons behind adoption and

non-adoption of the recommended livestock feeding intervention. Since

feeding leucaena to cattle is new to the farmers, certain problems were

encountered such as: Most farmers did not know that the leaves can be

dried in the sun and mixed with rice straw and other grasses;

gathering of the leaves is a "bother" to the farmers' routine; the

frequency of cutting the stems for higher herbage yields and the proper

way of feeding leucaena to animals was only explained to the farmers and

not to the women who feed and gather forage for the animals; and other

misconceptions such as the abortive effects of leucaena and so forth

(Juliano et.al., 1985). The activities (meetings, field trips)

concerning the livestock technology involved only men. Because of this,

the research team realized the importance of studying the "human

element" and considering the "clientele" of the proposed intervention,

,thus the social scientist is now formally included in the team.

2. Collecting information about the household and the
women in particular

The next step was collecting information about the household and

about women's roles in farm activities in the area. We were able to get

the socioeconomic profiles for both research sites but there were no

studies or information on the participation of women in agriculture.

Population profile (ages 15-44 were disaggregated by sex), nutrition

status of children, acceptors of family planning methods were provided

to us by the Municipal Health Office. During the initial stage of this

project, a benchmark survey was done. Information about the household,

landholdings, cropping patterns, livestock inventory, crop residue

utilization, livestock feeding practices and constraints in crop and

livestock production were obtained. However, there was a lack of

information on the specific tasks and responsibilities of different

different household members, access to factors of production and

consumption patterns of the household. Thus we conducted a diagnostic

survey last November 1985 on the selected farmer cooperators as well as

and non-cooperators of the project. We asked information concerning

participation in specific crop and livestock activities by gender;

off-farm and non-farm activities; access to information, land, credit,

agricultural household technology, inventory and ownership of assets,

animal and poultry inventory. We asked additional questions about

consumption. It is the women's responsibility to secure and prepare

food (with the goals of nutrition and health in mind) and other

responsibilities probably influence their decision about cropping

pattern (mix of crops, varieties) animals to raise.

3. Exploring potential technologies for women

After conducting the diagnostic survey, we stayed in the site for 3

days, talked with key informants, with women, and observed on-going

activities in the village. During that visit we were lucky to witness

the processing of glutinous rice which takes place only once a year.

Glutinous rice is grown and harvested two weeks earlier than the other

rice varieties to take advantage of the high price in November 1 (All

Saints Day) which is a special holiday. During this time the demand for

glutinous rice is high as it is used as a main ingredient in rice

delicacies. This is also a major traditional income generating but

labor-intensive activity of women in this rainfed site. The women take

turns in continuously stirring glutinous rice in a special way. This

task is carried out the whole day. After this, the glutinous rice is

pounded by men, women and children with the use of a heavy pestle to

loosen the husk. The children are paid per can. Because glutinous rice


preparation consumes so much fuel, cattle dung is used in this area

mainly for this purpose. This "discovery" made the team think of

developing technologies which are important to women such as:

high-yielding, shorter maturing glutinous rice variety; low, light

machinery which can reduce drudgery and cooking time; fuel-saving

devices all of which may enable women to earn more. Since the data

about cropping patterns were presented in an aggregate form in the

initial benchmark survey, the importance of glutinous rice as a source

of income for women and the household in general did not become

immediately evident until after inquiries on women's activities were


4. Becoming part of the team

Another crop-livestock workshop in the site was held on January 3,

1986 to assess accomplishments, discuss problems and present the future

plans of the project. This time we were no longer mere observers but

part of the team. In this workshop the importance of incorporating

women's concerns in the project was underscored. Specifically, we

showed that women take active roles in crop and livestock activities and

that the major sources of income of women come from these activities

therefore they simply cannot be simply ignored in the technology design,

dissemination and extension process. The following points were

emphasized in the dialogues by the whole team.

a) Some productive activities which are being modified by new

technology interventions are the responsibilities of women. The

introduction of mungbeans after rice means additional income and

additional labor in harvesting and threshing for women and children

therefore discussions about this proposed crop should include such


considerations. Improved cultural practices, pest management as well as

the use of mungbean residues as fodder for animals could be demonstrated

not only to men but also to women.

b) It is important to understand who will have an additional

incentive to participate in the proposed intervention. Since it is the

women's responsibility to harvest, thresh and market mungbeans, the

increase in productivity may provide her incentives to readily adopt the

technology. Because she has to be aware of the market prices, marketing

strategies (the right time to sell and not to sell, to sell directly to

the market or to the middlemen) and learn how to compute cost and

returns her market and financial orientations will have to be developed.

On the other hand, women may be expected to cooperate with innovations

in swine raising, i.e., growing root crops or home grown feeds to

substitute for commercial feeds because swine is women's responsibility.

She decides how to spend the income she derives from selling swine.

Recent research documents that in societies where women participate in

the market economy in some way, where women have direct access to cash,

their power is greater in intra-household decision-making and the status

of women is higher in the community (Cloud, 1985).

c) Research resources would not only be concentrated on men's

activities but on women's as well. For example, large animal (men's

responsibility) vs. small animals (women's responsibility) or rice

(man's crop) vs. legumes, vegetables (women's crops). In both research

sites, livestock interventions have always been focused on ruminants,

rather than on swine. Also there are few on-farm researches conducted

on vegetable and rootcrop production in this area. In fact there has


been no training classes on swine and vegetable production from which

women may benefit.

d) Proposed crop technologies would also need to consider the

importance of the crop in the diet. Here the consumption patterns and

preferences will have be taken into account.

e) The value of tailoring component research to meet farmers'

needs was very much recognized and as a matter of fact was being done

even then. There was also a consensus that since an understanding of

technology is crucial to adoption, it would indeed be ideal if the

senior researcher themselves could explain their research results to the

potential users- men and women farmers.

5. Incorporating women's concerns

Based on the interactions among the crop, livestock and social

scientists in the project, several developments came out:

a) To enhance farmer participation on crop and livestock

activities a class was held in January 18, 1986 wherein a female

livestock nutritionist explained the importance of the nutritive value

of different crop residues and fodder such as maize stover, banana

leaves and stems, sweet potato tops, cowpea, mungbean residues,

sugarcane tops, and other wild plants some of which farmers were unsure

about their particular feeding value. She clarified misconceptions

about the abortive effects on pregnant cows of cassava leaves and other

leguminous fodder. She also gave lessons on preservation of rice straw,

legume residues and explained the proper way of mixing feeds for the

animals. She discussed the different sources of available homegrown

feed that can be given to swine and how to produce earthworms as feed


for chickens. Unlike the usual practice of inviting only men to attend

meetings, this time their wives were also invited. The female

attendance in the rainfed site was very encouraging. Twelve women out

of twenty-six people attended. In fact they were the ones who came

earlier. Some brought their children with them. In the irrigated site,

only 8 women attended out of 24 people who came. Some of the reasons

for non-attendance were: nobody will be left in the house to cook and

take care of their children; attending meetings concerning livestock is

unconventional (for men only).

b) Recognizing the importance of women in the dissemination of

technology, the details of the technology were also explained to them.

In the breeding intervention, detecting estrus as well as maintaining

the health of the animals is crucial for the success of the

intervention. In a class conducted by the animal breeder, women were

also invited. Teaching women during the design stage on how to detect

estrus, how to monitor estrus cycles and detect animal illnesses may

facilitate the adoption of breeding animals through artificial

insemination. When the women who attended the class were interviewed,

apparently they do not know anything about detecting estrus in large

animals but they do for swine. Misconceptions about getting smaller

offspring through artificial insemination were clarified. In the

proposed addition of legumes before and after rice, the women can remind

their husbands regarding the planting cut off dates, and proper time to

spray. Since they are the ones harvesting and threshing mungbeans, they

can also preserve the mungbean hay by drying them in the sun and storing

them in a dry area.


c) Recognizing the importance of glutinous rice as an important

source of income of women in the rainfed site, the farmers under the

guidance of the agronomist will test high yielding and early-maturing

rice variety (IR65), and compare yield potential, with the local

glutinous variety currently in use. Later on, its cooking quality and

other characteristics essential to the nature of the special rice

delicacy will be tested. IR65 matures in 114.9 days with a potential

grain yield of 5 t/ha. While local glutinous rice matures between 130

to 140 days with a grain yield of 3 t/ha. Root crops such as sweet

potato will be tried next year.

The potential for developing a light machine for processing

glutinous rice will be explored in October when actual processing takes

place. An agricultural engineer from the International Rice Research

Institute or from the Regional Network for Agricultural Machinery will

be invited to see if some light low cost machinery can be designed for

the purpose.

An animal husbandry man will be invited to look into local sources

of suitable feeds for swine raising which is women's responsibility and

source of income.

d) Recognizing the importance of communicating laboratory results

to the farmers, the scientists (animal nutritionist and animal breeder)

themselves volunteered as "extension agents" in the dissemination of

technology. For instance the female animal nutritionist who conducted

farmers' classes was also the same person who conducted research in the

laboratory establishing the feeding value of crop residues for cattle

and carabao. For someone who was used to working on problems of large

commercial livestock growers and teaching in the classroom using


technical lingo, reaching the farmers and imparting her technical

knowledge in layman's language for the first time was a great feat but a

rewarding job for her.

These classes involving men as well as women will start the series

of classes which will provide an understanding about the technology;

maintain interaction between the scientists and the farmers, and provide

feedback for a dynamic technology development process.


In both villages, there are gender differences in farm production

activities. Women specialize in swine, mungbeans, cowpea, vegetables

while men specialize in rice, cattle, and carabao. However, despite the

specialization, they complement each other.

1. Crop production activities

There is gender division of labor in rice production. Pulling of

seedlings is mostly done by women while land preparation, transplanting,

weeding, fertilization, spraying, harvesting, threshing and hauling are

mostly done by men. Social custom was mentioned as one of the reasons

why women who are originally from these areas, do not transplant as

practiced in the nearby provinces. In both sites women are more

involved in making labor arrangements than in buying of farm inputs. In

the irrigated area, women are mostly responsible for selling products

and by-products. Also, in this area, a labor arrangement exists wherein

transplanters are not immediately paid after the service has been

rendered but they have the right to harvest and thresh. Since the

transplanters are mostly men, therefore very few women can participate

as hired labor in harvesting. In the rainfed site, exchange or


reciprocal labor arrangement in land preparation, pulling of seedlings,

transplanting and harvesting is being practiced. The difference in

hired labor arrangements can be explained by the presence of more

landless workers who harvest in the irrigated area during the second

cropping season. Ih the rainfed site only 2% of the households are

landless so that exchange labor can be practiced by those who have farms

(Table 2).

For those who grow mungbeans, cowpea and vegetables, women

participate mostly in harvesting, threshing, and marketing decisions on

selling price, marketing outlets and when to sell (Tables 3-5).

2. Livestock activities

Men are generally responsible for large animals (cattle and animal)

although women and children help in activities such as feeding,

gathering of forage, cleaning the shelter, cleaning the animal, taking

the animals to the fields, collecting and disposing wastes. Putting up

the shelter and buying and selling of large animals are mainly done by

men (Tables 6 & 7).

Swine and poultry is considered as women's responsibility. Their

care and maintenance, buying rice bran and taking rice for milling, and

selling swine and poultry are mainly done by women. Generally men do

not interfere in the care and maintenance of swine. Decisions about

price and marketing, how income from swine sales will be spent belong

mainly to women (Tables 8 & 9). Decisions regarding what type of

milling process the palay will go through is usually done by women.

Processing rough rice through fine milling "cono" is preferred by women

because the rice bran obtained from this process is for swine. The rice

bran obtained from rough milling process "kiskisan" is for cattle. In


times of scarcity of rice bran supply (non-harvest season) decisions

have to be made whether rice bran will be for swine or for cattle

3. Income generation activities

In rice production activities, women earn their income by working

as hired labor in pulling of seedlings. A woman can pull seedlings at

about 120-150 bundles a day at the rate of P0.25 per bundle. There is

no standard wage rate for pulling seedlings per day but income earned

depends greatly on the skill and speed in pulling seedlings. Women are

generally preferred over men to pull seedlings because they do the job

better and faster. Instead of bending down the waist, the women in

these sites, squat on the wet soil to accomplish this job.

Women earn additional income by selling vegetables (tomatoes,

squash) and legumes harvested from small plots or from the upper rice


In the rainfed site, women are involved in processing and selling

glutinous rice "diket" in October. Out of 1 can of unprocessed

glutinous rice costing P30 per can, 3 cans of processed glutinous

rice can be obtained. This can be sold at P20-25 per can. If sold

during the peak demand season which is on Nov. 1, prices can go as high

as much as P28 per can. Fuel costs about P20 per can.

Since there are no other available income generating activities for

women in the sites such as handicrafts, etc., few women are involved in

earning activities such as selling fish, snails, selling pigs, and

tending small variety stores.

For men, transplanting and harvesting in other farms as well as

fishing, carpentry/construction work are the major secondary sources of

1US 19
US$1 = P19


income. Large animals are sold to meet large expenses like

hospitalization; to finance a family member going abroad, to replace

another animal, etc. while selling of small animals is done to meet

immediate expenses such as schooling and daily household needs (Table



1. Access to education, training, organization and credit

Majority of the farmers and their wives in the sample households

have about 6 years of schooling. For household members above 15 years

old, more men than women have reached high school. In the rainfed site

More men than women (5 and 2%) have had no schooling. There is only one

elementary school in both sites and the irrigated site is more

accessible to the high school located in the municipality.

Training classes tend to be gender specific, for example, Farmer's

Class, Azolla Training, Crop-Livestock were mostly attended by men while

Nutrition classes, Food preservation, were mostly attended by women.

There were no training programs on vegetable gardening, swine and

poultry raising and other income generating activities which would

provide additional knowledge and skills on these activities in which

they are involved (Table 11).

Women participate in church and village health organizations. The

formal organizations for men are Samahang Nayon, Farmers Association,

Agrarian Reform Beneficiaries Association (Table 12). These

organizations give the farmers access to credit, inputs, technology and

markets for rice production. For instance, a new presidential decree

was recently issued authorizing the National Food Authority (NFA) to


grant farmers cooperatives priority in selling their produce to

government at higher prices than the market price and NFA also gives

credit for inputs at lower interest rates than the private banks. Women

do not have access to formal credit since they are not formally

organized and do not have collateral such as land titles. In the study

site, share tenancy and leasehold are the predominant land tenure

arrangements (Table 13) and women are not involved in these

transactions. Women have more access to informal credit particularly

for food consumption purposes. They are responsible for borrowing to

meet emergencies and food shortages.

2. Access to household technology

Women's access to improved household technology enhances their

productivity. In the irrigated site, labor-reducing technologies are

more available to women such as sewing machines, refrigerator and

electric iron made possible by the availability of electricity. Water

from pumps are near their households so water is not a major problem.

There is a greater tendency for the sample households in the rainfed

area to use firewood for fuel but because of the increasing scarcity of

bamboos and wood in the area, the households resort to cow dung. In the

irrigated site some households use rice hull for fuel with the use of

specially made rice hull stoves. In a typical household one sack of

rice hull is used per day (Table li).


In this paper, we showed how women's concerns are being integrated

in a crop-livestock farming systems project in Sta. Barbara, Pangasinan.


By providing the scientists with timely and useful information about

women's roles and management responsibilities in household and farm

production, along with their access to and control of factors of

production and income generating activities, women's concerns can be

readily integrated in the various stages of technology development

particularly in the design, dissemination and extension.

In this particular farming systems project, several developments

have taken place such as:

a) .the interaction and complementarity of the disciplines

(agronomist, animal nutritionist, livestock specialist, animal breeder,

crop protection specialist, economist, social scientist) in solving men

and women farmers' problems;

b) addressing and disseminating technologies not only to men but

as well as to women who are also potential users and beneficiaries of

these technologies;

c) incorporation of consumption considerations of crops and

crop-by-products to human and animals, respectively;

d) flexibility of the scientists in tailoring component research

to meet small farmers' needs and in serving as "extension agents"


e) considering designing' specific technologies for women to

increase their productivity.

With these developments, the important conceptual contribution

of Farming systems research to recognize the centrality of the household

and women's perspective in particular, is now being slowly

operationalized in this crop-livestock farming systems project in Sta.

Barbara, Pangasinan.


Literature Cited

Castillo, Gelia.
1985. Women in Rice Farming Systems Research Program Proposal.
Prepared in the International Rice Research Institute, Los
Banos, Philippines.

Cloud, Kathleen.
1985. Women's Productivity in Agricultural Systems:
Considerations for Project Design, Pages 17-56 in Gender
Roles edited by Overholt, C., et.al. Kumarian Press,
Connecticut, USA.

Godilano, Steve.
1986. Year II Results of Cropping Pattern and Component Technology
Testing and Plans for Year III, Crop-Livestock Research
Site, Sta. Barbara, Pangasinan, Philippines. 1986-87. Rice
Farming Systems Department. International Rice Research
Institute, Los Banos, Philippines.

International Rice Research Institute.
1985. Women in Rice Farming, Proceedings of a Conference on Women
in Rice Farming Systems, September, 1983.

International Rice Research Institute.
1985. Report of the Project Design Workshop on Women in Rice
Farming Systems, April 10-13, 1985.

Juliano, P. and L. Tolentino.
1985. The Leucaena Story in Sta. Barbara, Pangasinan: A.Case
Study. University of the Philippines at Los Banos,

Laufer, Leslie.
1985. Methodological Issues: Women in Farming Systems Research.
Paper presented at the Farming Systems Research
Socioeconomic Workshop. International Rice Research
Institute, Los Banos, Philippines.

Laufer, Leslie and T. R. Paris.
1985. A Methodology for Integrating Women's Considerations into
Farming Systems Research: A Project in Sta. Barbara,
Philippines. Paper presented at the Farming Systems
Research Socioeconomic Workshop. International Rice
Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines.

McKee, Catherine.
1984. Methodological Challenges in Analyzing the Household in
Farming Systems Research: Intrahousehold Resource
Allocation, in Proceedings of Kansas State University.
1983 Farming Systems Research Symposium, Animals in the
Farming System, ed. by Flora, C.B..


Paris, Thelma and L. Unnevehr.
1985. Human Nutrition in Relation to Agricultural Production: A
Project in the Philippines. Paper presented at the Farming
Systems Research Socio-Economic Workshop, International Rice
Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines.

Roxas, Domingo and R. Olaer.
1984. On-farm Crop-livestock Systems Research in Sta. Barbara,
Pangasinan. Report of the Crop Livestock Systems Research
Monitoring Tour. Philippines and Thailand, International
Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines, 10-18 Dec.

Monthly rainfall (mm)

Existing pattern



300 1-


Mar Apr


/ Rainfed
i Irrigated

May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb

Weekly rainfall
180 = W










Fig. 1. Average monthly and weekly rainfall distribution
(34 years), crop-livestock research sites,
Pangasinan, Philippines.


1oo0 -.

'-''' '-'-'''''''

Table la.

Percentage area planted to different cropping patterns,
Malanay (irrigated), Sta. Barbara, Pangasinan, CY 1984-85.

No. of No. of Total % of Total
Cropping Pattern Farmers Plots Area Area Planted

IR42 TPR IR36 18 39 25.69 51.19
HYV's-Fallow 14 32 9.38 18.71
IR42-TPR IR42 8 11 2.80 5.58
HYV's -Squash 8 17 3.32 6.61
HWV's-WSR MlVs 7 16 2.21 4.41
HYV's-Mung 5 11 1.86 3.71
IR42 TPR IR54 1 2 1.00 1.99
IR36 TPR IR36 1 1 .30 .60
HYV's TPR HYV's (IR62) 1 4 1.34 2.67
Fallow-EMng 1 1 .20 .40
Mung-Fallow 3 .44 .88
HYV's Diket 3 .43 .87
IR42-TPR 60 3 1.19 2.38
Cooperator 18
SCooperator 8 26 134 50.16 100.00
Non Cooperator 8

Table lb. Percentage area planted to different cropping patterns in
Carusucan (rainfed), Sta. Barbara, Pangasinan, CY 1984-85

No. of No. of Total % of Total
Cropping Pattern Faners Plots Area Area
Planted Planted
IR42 Fallow 21 31 12.81 39.79
IR48 Fallow 14 16 6.06 18.82
IR36 Fallow 9 12 2.56 7.96
Diket Fallow 11 13 2.87 8.92
Traditional-Fallow 3 5 1.61 5.01
Other HYV's Fallow 4 4 0.69 2.17
IR42 Mung 7 7 1.93 6.01
IR36 Mung 7 7 1.03 3.20
Diket Mung/Cowpea 5 10 .41 1.29
Other HYV's Mung 3 3 .30 .93
IR48 Mmng 2 3 .65 2.02
IR48 Cowpea 2 3 .95 2.95
IR42 Cowpea 1 1 .30 .93
27 115 32.17 100.00
Cooperator 18
Non cooperator 9


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Table 5. Percentage of sample households which used different sources
of labor in specific activity for squash production, Malanay,
Sta. Barbara, Pangasinan.

Family (n=6)
Activity M F

Land preparation 67

Planting 67

Broadcasting 17

Weeding 17

Fertilization 50 17

Spraying 17

Harvesting 33 17

Buying seeds 17 17

Buying fertilizers and chemicals 17 17

Selling products and by-products 33 50

.-.---.--.---- ...-,-.; --...-- -c-_ Ci -_L L---- -..r-.- -.- -~.-. ~ I:~_L_

Table 6. Percentage of sample households which used different sources
of labor in specific activities for carabao production, Sta.
Barbara, Pangasinan, CY 1984-85.


Putting up shelter

Preparing feeds



Cleaning animal

Waste disposal

Gathering forage

Buying animal

Buying feeds

Taking animal to market

MALANAY (n-18)

83 6

89 17 22

94 28 11

89 17 6

83 22 17

61 22 17

83 17 6


11 6




88 6 24

76 18 59

88 24 59

76 24 29

53 12 41

82 12 47

41 12



Table 7. Percentage of sample households which used different sources
of labor in specific activities for cattle production, Sta.
Barbara, Pangasinan, CY 1984-85.


Putting up shelter

Preparing feeds



Cleaning animal

Waste disposal

Gathering forage

Buying animal

Buying feeds

Taking animal to market

MALANAY (n=13)



44 6

78 22 28

72 39 39

83 28 44

89 17 28

56 11 28

61 22 50

33 6



Table 8. Percentage of sample households which used different sources
of labor in specific activities for swine production, Sta.
Barbara, Pangasinan, CY 1984-85.


Putting up shelter

Preparing feeds



Cleaning animal

Waste disposal

Gathering indigenous feeds

Buying animal

Buying feeds

Taking animal to market

MALANAY (n=18)

47 7 7

7 7 7


27 7 6

27 20 7

20 87 20

Table 9. Percentage of sample households which used different sources
of labor in specific activities for poultry production,
Sta. Barbara, Pangasinan, CY 1984-85.


Putting up shelter

Preparing feeds



Waste disposal

Buying chickens

Buying feeds


MALANAY (n=18)


7 7


20 93


13 7

5 5

10 10

Table 10. Type of off and non-farm work
Sta. Barbara, Pangasinan.

done by sample household



Transplanting rice

Harvesting rice

Household member




Pulling of rice seedlings 'Women


Selling vegetables

Coconut candy making

Selling glutinous rice












all months









Table 11. Distribution of sample household members by training class
attended by villages, Sta. Barbara, Pangasinan.


Farmer's class

IRRI-Crop Livestock

Azolla class

Nutrition/Mother's Class

Food preservation


Farmer Spouse

6 (23) -



1 (4)

- 3 (12)

Farmer Spouse

7(26) -


1 (4)

- 4 (15)

- 2 (7)

27 27

Table 12. Distribution of sample household members by membership in
organization by villages.


Samahang Nayon

Farmer's Association

Agrarian Reform
Beneficiary Asso

Village Health Unit

Ilocandia club

Federation of Free Farmers

Church organization

Farmer Spouse

7 (27)

11 (42)

3 (12)

Farmer Spouse

15 (56)

10 (37)

6 (22)

3 (12)

3 (11)

1 (4)

1 (4)




Note: Figures in parenthesis are percent of total households who


Percentage of cropland under different
Barbara, Pangsinan, 1984-85.

tenure status, Sta.

N=26 N=27
Tenure Status Malanay Carusucan
(irrigated) (rainfed)

Ownership 1 3

Share-tenancy 39 71

Leasehold 60 26

a The most common arrangement between the landlord and the
tenant is 50:50. The landlord provides the inputs which will be
paid after harvest.

bThe farmer pays a fixed amount of output per year to the
landowner as payment for land rent.

Table 13.

--:'~ .'-i. ;-;-~.;~.I...- ,.;__....,;r~.-.., --~L-i --. ~--I~--I-:_ --_----_^~i-2- -i:--- r s-- --r_-. ~_.-.r.-_ __: -.~.

Table 14. Access to household technolgoy of sample households, Sta.
Barbara, Pangasinan.


% of households with electricity

% of households with pumpwells

Average distance to water source (meters)

% of households with kerosene stoves






















with gas range

using firewood

using coconut husks

using rice hull

using saw dust

using cow dung

with sewing machines

with television

with refrigerator

with wall clocks

using radios

with electric iron

with toilets


Minimum Data Set

1. Location

a. Country Philippines

b. Province Pangasinan

c. Villages Malanay Cirrigated)

Carusucan (rainfed)
d. Municipality Sta. Barbara
2. Environment

a. Latitude 16 Deg 03 Min North

b. Elevation 2m

c. Temperature (4C)

1. Specific trial period

Legumes (April)


Rice (July)







d. Precipitation

1. Pattern Pre-monsoon April May

Wet season May Sept.

Post monsoon Oct Nov

Dry season Nov Feb

2. Specific during trial period

April 87 mm

July 434 mm

Nov 65 mm











e) Evapotranspiration

April 7.6

July 4.9

Nov. 4.3

Jan. 4.3

f) Humidity (%)

April 70

July 83

Nov. 77

Jan. 73

(mean) nmm

g) Soil (rainfed area)

Analysis Light .soils Heavy soils

1. pH 6.20 6.70

2. Organic carbon (%) 0.86 1.27

3. Total nitrogen (%) 0.06 .. 0.10

4. Potassium (K, m.eq/100 g) 0.11 0.26

5. Available phosphorous
(Olsen, ppm) 5.70 7.40

6. Available zinc (ppm) 0.69 0.25

7. Cation exchange
capacity (m.eq/100 g) 11.30 25.80

8. Particle size (%)

a) clay 13.00 33.00

b) silt 65.00 61.00

c) sand 22.00 6.00


Harvesting date (rice)

Farmer's practice

Improved practice


Oct., April

Oct., April

Planting date Clegumes)

Farmer's practice

Improved practice

Harvesting date (legumes)

Farmer's practice

Improved practice

d) Experimental designs


Varietal trials (Early

IR60 (IP)
IR36 (FP)
IR62 (FP)

Varietal trials (Medium)

IR42 (IP)
IR42 (FP)
Diket (FP)
IR48 (FP)





e) Treatments (fertilizer kg N/ha)

Early maturing rice

Medium maturing rice

January planting

July planting


April, Nov.


June, Feb.

no. of farms involved



80, 60, 40, (control)
50, 40, 30, 20 (control

100, 80, 60 (check)
40, 20

100, 80, 60 (check)
40, 20




Irrigated Rainfed

3. Socio-economic

a. Size distribution of farms

Ave. farm size (has) 1.92 1.19

Ave. no. of plots per farm 5.5 4.3

Ave. plot area (has) 0.35 0.29

Size for cropping pattern trials (m ) 1,000 1,000

b. Land Tenure

% distribution of area

Owned 3 1
Share-tenant 71 39
Leasehold 26 60

c. Ethnic group/dialect Pangasinense Pangasinense
Ilocano Ilocano

d. Access to input and output markets highly accessible moderately accessible

e. Access to credit accessible accessible

4. Nature of cropping system

a. Percentage of operator's share sold
out (rice)

IR42 55 19

IR36 27 20

Glutinous rice 21 93

b. Labor utilization (rioel
(% of total manhours)

1) Female 14 16
Male 86 84

2) Hired 42 17
Family 53 65
Exchange 5 18

c. Energy requirements carabao carabao

d. Cash requirements

1) Prices (J/bag) 50 kg/bag


14-14-14 (Complete)

21-0-0 (Ammosul)

16-20-0 (Ammophos)

2) Price of products

Palay (W/kg)

(November) after harvest

(August) pre-harvest

Glutinous rice (O/kg)

265 285

244 265

135 165

240 260


3 3.50

4 4.50

? 8 11

5. Trial details

a. Rice variety

Farmer's practice

Improved practice

b. Fertilizer (kg/ha)

Farmer's practice

Improved practice

IR36, IR42


80-100 kg in
both season
(4-5 bags)

60 kg N wet
season (3 bags

80 kg N dry
season (4 bags

IR36, IR42



40 kg N

c. Planting date (rice)

Farmer's practice

Improved practice

July, Jan.

July, Jan.




? 8 11



Irrigated Rainfed

h. Farmer's involvement management with management with
supervision from supervision from
technician technician

Researcher's involvement

Rice provision of planting materials

Legumes provision of planting materials

6. Factors to relate the trial back to the farming system

a) Problem trying to solve

o the existing farmer's practice (rice-fallow)
in the rainfed area can be improved with improved
cultivars, management and an addition of non-rice
crops (legumes) in the pattern,

o the existing farmer's practice (rice-rice) in the
irrigated area can be improved with improved
cultivars and management

b) policy implications

These improvements will increase the productivity of the
farmers and increase their incomes. However, government
support (in terms of credit and marketing should be continued
and strengthened to provide incentives to farmers to produce more.

c) Farmer's assessment of the intervention in terms of the problem
trying to solve

The farmers are very cooperative and they understood
the interventions being introduced however, the scientists
should always recommend technologies which are within
farmer's available resources.

7. Important circumstances

The proposed crop intervention are integrated with livestock
interventions, i.e. increasing utilization of crop by products and
residues as animal feeds. Farmers who participate in this
research are both crop and livestock cooperators.

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