Title: Collecting primary socio-economic data in Africa
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00081530/00001
 Material Information
Title: Collecting primary socio-economic data in Africa
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Spencer, Dunstan S. C.
Publisher: Dept. of Agricultural Economics, Njala University College ;
Publication Date: 1974
Copyright Date: 1974
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00081530
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 190862792

Table of Contents
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Full Text


Dunstan S. C. Spencer**


The amount of secondary socio-economic data available in
developing countries for planning and other purposes has been
S totally inadequate in the past. In an effort to close the data
gap In Africa researchers have conducted a number of socio-
economic surveys in the past 'two decades aimed at collecting
primary data. This writer has taken part in three such surveys
of the rural economy of Sierra Leone in the last eight years.

The first was a study of the marketing system'for staple
food. crops in Sierra Leone conducted in 1966 1967. Traders,.
:were interviewed, markets and processing plants studied using
one shot questionnaires, while price data was, collected .three
times a week from a selected market (6). In 1971/72 a major
study of the economics of rice production in Sierra Leone was.
carried out. Five systems of rice production were studied in
detail (8). Currently the author is directing a major integra-
ted study of rural employment in Sierra Leone, The research
programme is divided into six sections, (a) a study of farm
production, aimed at collecting input-output data especially of
labour utilization, (b) a rural consumption study the aim of which
is to collect data that would allow income elasticities to be
estimated, (c) a study of small scale non-farm rural industries,
(d) an agricultural marketing and processing study, and (e) a
..study of rural-urban migration as a link between the rural and
urban labour markets.

All the above studies were national in scope and were based
on primary data collection. They were organized and conducted
through the agricultural college of the-University of Sierra Leon.
The.1966/67 marketing study was, and the rural employment study.
.is financed mainly from international sources with the University
providing some support. The 1971/72 rice production study was
financed mainly by the Sierra Leone Government.

Paper prepared for the ADQ/CIMMYT/Ford Foundation Seminar/
Workshop on Field Collection of Socio-Economic Data in
Developing Countries, Beirut, Lebanon, December 1974.

** Lecturer in Agricultural Economics, Njala Univcrsity College-
University of Sierra Leone.

Organizing the Study

There are many linkages and interactions between sectors
of an economy. Byerlee and Eicher (2) have recently provided
a framework for analysiP of-the employment problem in which the
national labour market is sub-divided into four interacting sub-
"sectors. Apart from inter-sectoral linkages:'there are many intra-
sectopal linkages of interest. For example, .within the agricul-
tural production sector in Sierra Leone an analysis of the linka-,
Sges especially in the labour market, between annual crop product-
"l ion especially rice production, and perrenial crcp production
'is of importance in policy analysis. This was-clearly brought
. "'out inthe aforementioned rice production study, a majcr .limita-
tion of which was the authors inability to examine the trade-
offs between-rice and export crop. production (9).

The rural employment research project is. designed to collect
primary data that would allow detailed examination of the intru
'and intersectoral linkages in both the factor and "product markets,
'In order to do this efficiently an integrated study is being
conducted. with five agricultural economist and a rural sociologis'
a- ach responsible for one of the six sections mentioned earlier..
The .six studies are running concurrently using: he" same sample
of enumeration areas and rural households for all data collected
at 'the farm level. Using the same sample of rural households
for farm production and the other studies has advantages of
economies. This also givesaccurate estimates: of rural ncomes-
*etc. which have not been possible in migration and consumption
studi-es up to now.

Many other economies such'as the sharing of vehicles,
enumerators, office accommodation and supervisory time (one
researcher on trek supervises all sections of the project going
on in a.particular area) lead to a reduction in research cos3tn
To ensure the success of such an integrated study our experience
in Sierra' Leone has shown the nbed for central control of all
aspects of the project by one project director. There: is also-
the need for adequate lead up..time to.allow proper planning of
all phases of field work. We had a lead off. time of about 6 months
Sin Sierra Leone. Nine to twelve months would have -been more
desirable, .

Choosing The Samnle

Statistics texts and other materials on sampling procedures
give all the rules for obtaining a representative and adequate

sample size. In practice, especially under African conditions
it is rarely possible to follow the text book procedures with-
out heavy expenditure of time and finance. The biggest problem
is often encountered in taking a decision on the correct sample
size. It is almost certain that no prior knowledge of the variance
of many of the items to be measured will exist at this state of
the arts in Africa. The size of the population being surveyed is
in many cases also not known with any degree of accuracy,

In-Sierra Leone we have not thought it expedient to devote
;much time to calculating the 'correct sample size". Our sample
sizes have been determined by the availability of funds and the
-data collection strategy we have chosen. In the rice production
study 0,1 percent of rice farming households were surveyed while
about 0.2 percent of thefarm households are being surveyed in
the farm production section of the rural employment research project

Although it has not been possible to pre-determine the "correct
sample size" efforts were made in both the rice and rural employ-
ment studies to select a representative sample. Areas 4s well as
farmers were selected using a stratified area sampling technique.
or, the farm production study the country was first of all divided
.. into resource regions (type of farming areas) using available
secondary data (5). Each resource region was then subdivided into
the enumeration areas used by the Central Statistics Office for
the 1963 population census (3). Each enumeration area is about
10.miles square and contains about 200 farm families, located in
one to ten villages. The occupational.distribution and the.1963
population of each enumeration;area being available, all areas
falling into or containing urban areas, (defined as localities
with more than 2000 people and more than 50 percent of the labgur
force engaged in non-farm activities) were rejected. Three enumera
tion areas were then selected at random to represent each resource
region. The next stage of the sampling procedure was the prepara-
tion of a list of households in each selected area, thus providing
;a frame for selecting the primary units of study. In this excercisi
enumerators visited all households in all villages in selected area
_, recording the name and. scx of each household head and the crops
-.grown or non-farm occupation of the household. From these lists
a stratified sample of twenty farm households and four non-farm
..households (excluding traders) were selected at random. The number
of sample units selected in e.ch enumeration area (24) was' limitcc1
by a previous decision to station one enumerctor in each selected
area, and the fact that, as is discussed later, one enumerator
could only handle about 24 respondents using the data collection


strategy selected. Since the resources regions varied in size
the percentage of rural households sampledin each resource
varied from about 9 to 31 percent.

In preparing a primary sampling frame for the survey of small
scale industries in urban localities all selected localities were
visited by a team of enumerators who:-walked- ddwnv every. street
identifying and visiting every small scale '.establishment to find
out the business organization, type of small -scale industry,
number of people employed etc. From this list-a stratified random
S' ''sample of the types of establishments and the technologies repre-
sented were selected. (The number selected being once more deter-
':" mined by a previous decision to station one enumerator in small
and two enumerators in large 0ocalit.ies).

A modification of the above procedure is used 'in selecting
market traders for price data collection. Every fifth trader of
a particular commodity.in a particular market is selected for

1A' : We have found it necessary to do a listing before selecting
'*sample.. units because this allows for stratification of the sample.
.- No adequate alternative.,sampling frame exists in Sierra Leone,.
Chiefdom tax lists have been used by some .researchers..in.other
: parts of Africa. In Sierra Leone we have found them unsuitable
since they do not conatin information on .occupations of households
.; and contain many inacduraces In an attempt to use them in a
.p'ilbt study of farmers credit operations in Sierra Leone by a
.colleague, it was discovered that many farmers and some.villages did
,:not even appear on the tax lists, and selected'farmers could not
be located.

In choosing a sample we have found it useful to select an
adequate number of replacement units which could be used if it is
impossible to work with any of the original.sample units. The main
reason for replacement in the.farm level study is the movement or
death of sample farmers. A minor reason was.the expressed wish of
a.selected respondent not to.participate in the study. Our exper-
ience has shown.that. such respondents usually cause a lot of
non-response during the study if forced into the sample, so we
prefer to drop them at the start'. 'We have provided our enurerators
with a 25 percent replacement sample but none have had to make that
many replacements, .. '

b *


For the small-scale industry study there were a few cases
.where it was necessary to make more than 25 percent replacements.
SThis was because of the additional problem of itinerant operators
especially tailors and carpenters who moved their place of business
., during the three month interval between the listing exercise and
S the start of the details study.

Choosing The Data Collection Strategy

One of the decisions.that bas-to be made at an early stage
in any primary data gatheing exercise is the strategy to be used
:i.e case farm studies, use of farm account bo6ks, single
or multiple visits etc.(8).

In the staple crops marketing study direct observations were
made and one-contact interviews conducted, .With these techniques
it was only possible to describe the structure of the marketing
system with very little. input-output data being collected. It is
*our belief in Sierra Leone that the single visit technique cannot be
adequately used to collect the flow-type information useful for
,: detailed quantitative analysis of socio-economic systems, unless the
system being investigated is very simple, with r~c&ular operations
or respondents are literate and have records to which they refer (8),
The single visit technique is useful for simple wide ranging surveys
such as these conducted by the Central Statistics Office.

The rice production and rural employment studies have therefore,
used the multiple visit or cost-route technique. The following
factors have led to, and determined the particular use of the
:.technique in Sierra Leone. .

(1) The illiteracy of respondents

The vast majority of respondents we have studied in Sierra
Leone are illiterate and keep no records. This means they have
to rely on their memory to recall required information.

(2) The complexity of the -information needed

In order to allow detailed analysis especially of seasonal
Variations in farming and non-farm processes, detailed informa-
tion on daily family and hired labour inputs, capital and
other inputs and output .are required.

(3)' Availability and wide use of the Ioslcm Prayer Time
Moslems pray five times a day. The prayer time is detcrm -
ned by the position of the sun. Even in non-moslem household' '
have fund thflt respondents s know the mrnsal]: n prayerr --m,..

.. 6. .. . |

prayer time therefore provides a method of estimating the
,labour input in hours in traditional farming communities (7).
S But to us'e it effectively an enumerator needs to find out
when an operation started land was completed in relation to
the prayer time. This is not possible if the single visit
technique is used.. '

(4) Length of memory recall

The.. length of the memory recall for the details we need
is of. course limited.' In the rice production study where
labour use was recorded in man-days respondents were interview,;i-

Before the start. of the rural-employment research project
Sin which labour input was to be measured in man-hours an attempt
was made to test the length,of memory recall of daily labour input,
cash expenditures and produce harvested. A small group of farmers
were interviewed daily thereby obtaining information for one to
'-seven days data recall. .Analysis of variance single factor repeat-
'ed measures (4), showed that there was no significant difference in
the reported sample means between the data for one and seven day
: recall in the case of two. variables ("ties of rice harvested" and
S.."man-hours family labour used per day") but there was a significant
difference for "value of food and drink purchased". A major fJow
in the above experiment was that it did not correct for the learning
process associated with repeatedly asking the same respondents the
same questions about work on a particular day. A rotating panel
is needed to take care .-f the learning problem. Non-the-less
the experiment showed that even with the learning, process, a tra-
ditional farmer cannot be relied on to recall the details of some
variables for a period as long as one week.

Based on the above, albeit inconclusive, evidence we decided
to interview farmers twice weekly in the rural employment study..

(5) Short duration activities

Some activities e.g"hand pounding of rice for family
consumption, are performed.regularly and take only a short
time (usually less than an hour). For such activities estima-
tion of labour input using the moslcm prayer time may lead
to major inaccuracies when aggregated. Sample time-and-moticii
studies are therefore planned for such activities.
.' j..



Choosing The ;-Instrument

:.:. : In most of our surveys :in Sierra Leone we have usedc short,
detailed, structured questionnaires. These questionnaires contain-
ed some open ended questions and were not pre-coded. This type
of questionnaire has been used for the following reasons.

(1) The illiteracy of respondents and the lack of records has
precluded the use of the.mail questionnaire. The mail question-
'. naire' has a further disadvantage in that returns tend to be
quite low even when used to.solicit information from literate
.. respondents. In a'recent attempt in Sierra Leone-by.a foreign
consulting form only 29 out of 216 questionnaires .mailed out
were returned (0). .. '

S (2) Long questionnaires cause interviewer and i'espondent fatig-
leading to non-response. We have generally tried to. limit our
interview time to a maximum of thirty minutes, preferring to
conduct several short interviews over a period of time, rather
than one long interview. There are various ways of staggering
questionnaires for information that does not vary too much. Fc-
example' in the consumption study we interview a subsample of the
rural households one Ifeek of every month; i.e, a different sub-
-* ... :sample is interviewed e 'eh week. This reduces interviewer and
.respondent fatigue. 'This approach is of course only possible
-':;.:" : when the multiple visit technique is used. The advantage of
using short questionnaires was brought-home to us early in the
rice production study. We attempted to collect data on the
'credit.and savings operations of rice farmers using a structure-:
but very long questionnaire requiring about two hours..to complete
.'Only two out of our nine enumerators were able to.complete thcli
assignments! The.questionnaire was later broken down into four
shorter questionnaires which were successfully administered on
four separate occasions. i

(3) For proper design of a pre-coded questionnaires one must
have a thorough knowledge of the system being investigated.
S- Such prior knowledge was not available to us in Sierra Leone,
: urtherione our experience has shown that the quality of
enumerators we.use (Form IV school leavers) tend to make an
unacceptable number of mistakes in using codes.' Such mistakes
would be difficult to spot when using.pre-coded questionnaires,
;. In any event a pre-coded input-output questionnaire- would
have been very long ', .

(4) The need to collect quantitative information has restricted
our use of completely Xistructured questionnaires with many
open ended questionsA Usually we have included a catch all
question (Other-specify) at the end of a given list of possible

Even where we are using a maximum of four days recall, there
is still some doubt in our minds about the accuracy and reliabili-
ty of data collected from custom processing.units, especially rice
mills; which may handle a large quantity of produce on any one day
but in small units. Operators may genuinely have difficulty recall-
ing the number of customers they have, the qua'nti.ty of rice milled,
or the recovery rate (which depends on variety as well as method of
preparation). In an attempt to get these illiterate operators to
::keep some records one of my colleagues designed a pictoral data
"'-sheet (Appendix A) .which we are asking respondents .to use in keeping
a record of each transaction.

Some Guidelines for Ensuring That Useful Data
S. Are collected

In'deciding on the data collection strategy-and in; choosing
the instruments one has tackled problemsrepresentcd by the tip
of an iceberg as far as--primary data collection-in Africa is concer-
hned The major problems in my opinion are. those concerned with
ensuring that meaningful and usable'data ar .collected. Three
major elements are essential for success (1) good enumerators, (2)
good rapport between researchers and enumerators on the. one hand
and local functionnaries and respondents on the other hand, and
(3) adequate supervision of enumerators.

(1) Enumerators.: :
In a research programme which uses the multiple visit tech-
nique and a large representative sample, enumerators are the inter-
mediaries between the respondents who have the information sought
and the researcher who is-seeking the information. :This vital link
needs to function effectively at all times. Our experience-in
Sierra Leone has shown that the following element-5adre 16eded to
ensure the smooth operation of the link. :.. .,

(a) Enumerators must have an adequate educational background -
at least four years, prefcralby five years'of secondary education.
(b) Enumerators must be hard working and have the correct attitude
for work in rural areas, including interest in and an ability to
befriend rural people. Although we have had one or two notable
exceptions, we generally find that enumerators who have had all
of their education in urban areas find it extremely difficult to


Slive'in rural areas and establish the necessary rapport with
farmers. .

(c).. Enumerators must speak the language of the respondents.
Enumerators using interpreters further 'compound the supervision
..and data gathering problems. But we have found it inadvisable
to, use "sons of the soil"... So long as they speak the same language
enumerators seem to have little difficulty in being accepted by
r- .'-the host community. Getting rid of inefficient 'sons of the Soil"
may mean abandoning an'area in which several months of data may
already have been collected. -

"(d) Enumerators must be fully conversant with the. purpose and
scope of the study. They must also have a thorough knowledge of
the survey instruments. Our enumerators are.:trained intensively
for about ten days during which they have field.practice in complet-
ing the questionnaires. Only those who successfully complete
the training course and pass the exams are employed..

.(e) Enumerators must be encouraged to stay in thd job. For our
type. of study, in which respondents are visited regularly it has
proved advantageous to keep an enumerator 'in one area for the
S duration of the project. Enumerators are paid an attractive salary,
proportionn (15-35 percent) of which is withhold monthly as a
'"''surety against the successful completion of their assignments.

(f) Enumerators should have a reasonable workload with detailed
and clear instruction's about how various tasks should be executed.
We have found it essential to provide enumerators'with a reference
': manual in which the survey methods and instruments are explained
in detail. The manual should also contain a daily calendar of
:- .. activities to be performed or questionnaires to be completed.

(2) Establishing Rapport

SThe need for adequate rapport between respondcht and enumera-
S tor is self evident. With all the talk of land reform even in
Africa, one of the biggest fears of rural people is that their
lands will be appropriated or they will be taxed by government.
:. We have therefore found it necessary to have our enumerators em-
phasise that areas and respondents were selected by chance and
that the anonymity of respondents will be maintained.

Apart from the obvious need for respondent enumerator
rapport there is an equal need for that' can be called researcher-
local functionnaries rapport.. This 'i's sometimes neglected by
researchers, to the detriment of their programmes.. Before an
enumerator is sent to an area we have found it necessary to phyoi-

. 10o

cally contact District Officers, Paramouht'and Other Chiefs as
well as other local and central government functionAaries, to
explain the nature and scope of the planned-survey and-.to solicit
Their help and support This activity not -only lays the founda-
tion for the enumerator whom, we.have later.introduced personally
-' 'to'the chief and people of the area, but also establishes a direct
line of communication between the-local government functionnaries
'" and the researcher independent of the enumerator. Such a-line
'of communication is essential when inefficient enumerators who
have established good rapport with respondents need to be replaced.
.In such a situation one needs only to introduce the new enumerator
to the chief and elders ("I.brought you Mr. Earlier, Now I bring
Mr. Y to replace him"). Without such a direct line of communication
we are.convinced.that it would have been impossible to continue
work in a few of our enumeration areas whose original enumerators
we had cause to replace. In one case the enumerator absconded
from the area having committed a criminal offence. With the full
Support of the Paramount Chief, who was not resident in the, sample
area but had earlier given us&his blessing, we were able to
*introduce another enumerator into the area and continue the survey
S despite the initial opposition of the local town chief.

; ...,In order to establish rapport with the community we have also
found it necessary to include the local village or section chief
.in the sample of respondents. His forms are left out at the time
-' of analysis if he was not'in-the original sample. In traditional
- *'. societies respondents would not cooperate with enumerators unless
their chief is involved also.

S Wehave not found it necessary to give may form of financial
reward to cooperating farmers. Instead of lack of cooperation
our problem-has usually been in explaining to non-sampled.farmers
why they were not being interviewed since it was usually regarded
as prestigious to be selected for interview. But we are keeping
Sah open mind on the matter for a while. In the'marketing component
of the rural employment project,, where more money conscious respon-
-* dents (traders) are being interviewed and their products weighed
-* we may need to give some- incentives e.g a small cash payment.
.This was done in Frectown during the price, collection exercise of
the staple food crops marketing -study but may have been unnecessary.

. . '. .
'(3) -Supervision .. .... :

Field supervision of enume~ators is essential especially in
the early stages of iicld work. Enumerators should be checked

frequently but at irregular' intervals. However well trained
enumerators are, they make mistakes in the early stages of field
work. We lost about two months of data in some areas in the
farm level study because it was impossible to supervise enumera-
tors closely:in the early stages because of personnel shortage
and logistic problems.
'I '
We have found the ideal type of supervisor 'to be a person
with a bachelor degree although we have effectively used people
.with sub-degree, diploma training. For effective control of field
work researchers themselves should take active part in field
supervision especially in the early stages. This keeps the resear-
cher in touch with field problems, especially those due to faulty
questionnaire design. Our field supervisors are stationed and
operate out of project headquarters for the same reason. Such an
. arrangement may of course not be possible where the project covers
a very large geographical area. Njala is a maximum of 200'miles
from our farthest sample area.

While in an enumeration area supervisors sometimes conduct
a few spot interviews as a check on what the enumerator has re-
.: corded. To make this possible we have used literate drivers and
hired supervisors who speak local languages.

(4) Miscellaneous Points. .

In traditional farming systems wheie intercropping is general]
practiced, -problems are usually encountered with output estima-
tion. For export craps which are produced almost exclusively for
sale e.g coffee and cocoa, farmers are able to give fairly accurate
information on their output since this is also their sales. For
food crops, especially subsistence crops we have f.-und it difficult
to use "indirect year and estimates" (7). This is because farmers
harvest their crops piecemeal, consume part, use part as gifts
and sell part. There appears to be a tendency for farmers to
under-report gifts and produce consumed at home, and there are
problems of double counting of produce put into and taken out of
'temporary storage. aie have found that the most reliable means
of estimating output for such annual crops is to use the "yield
plot method" despite its disadvantages (7).

Another constant source of difficulty in field surveys, to
which we have not yet found a complete answer, is the problcn
raised by the fact thatour principal respondent is the household
head while the unit of analysis is the household. During the
temporary absence of the household hand we have sometimes haO


difficulties getting.information on household activities. The
solution to this problem appears to be the establishment of g'od
rapport between the.enumerator and all household members so that
when the head. of the household is away or even-while present. the
other members of the household can be interviewed or .alternatively
the information can be passed on to the head in his return so that
he is fully informed and is able to pass on the information to.the
enumerator who must always make the necessary call-backs. Most
of our enumerators have established the necessary rapport.

Handling and Storing Data

As mentioned earlier we have not used pre-coded questionnaires,
Oneb of our major activities has therefore been the coding of field
questionnaires ready for computer analysis. One advantage of
having supervisors work out of project headquarters is that some-
one has gone out to each enumeration area or locality at least
once, often twice a month. 'On such occasions all completed ques-
tionnaires are transported to the"project base-and blank question-
naires supplied. In the office the questionnaires are sorted out
aid-coded. This coding as field work is in progress allows errors
&nd inconsistencies to be spotted and corrected before the end of
field work.

The coding scheme we have adopted uniquely identifies each
card. This means that the data can be organized and grouped for
analysis in any way desired e.g by resource region, by household,
by day of work etc.

Detailed analysis of the data in the rural employment research
will be carried out in the year after the completion of field work
S starting in July 1975. A possible source of difficulty in organi-
sing and carrying through major research projects in countries
such as Sierra Lcinet is the lack of computer facilities. Detailed
analysis of the data collected in the rice production and rural
employment studies would be.extremely difficult, if.not impossible
without access to a computer. With no computer, available in Sierr.
Leone the data has had to be analysedin the Unites States.- Even
where the hardware is available in Africa,. the lack pf well develop
ed software is a further bottleneck. There is the neel to have
well developed regional computer facilities; which could serve the
data analysis needs of the smaller developing countries such as
Sierra Leone.

.. *. *<

..... . .....


The actual details of. any.system used. ih primary data collect-
.'.. i-on will depend on the objectives of the research project and the
particular situation in the country of study. In Sierra Leone
our data gathering activities have aimed mainly at providing
S-':,' information.that would enable us to describe the rural economy,
investigate the linkages with and between the rural and other
sectors and allow the construction of models for policy analysis.

Because of the lack of available secondary data on the rural
economy,._particularly- detailed input-outiput and other flow-type
information, the illiteracy of farmers, and the non-availability
of farm records, we have used the multiple.visit or cost route
technique. We believe we have been 'able to operationalize the
technique sufficiently to give. meanirful and usable data of the
type ahd quality rarely found in Africa today.

We hope that our experiences and, suggestions highlighted in
this paper will help future workers minimize their mistakes and.
'avoid some of the common pitfalls which can be expected in the
use of the multiple visit technique, in our opinion the best way
.of collecting detailed input-output and 'Other flow-type informa-
tion in Africa today. .

14 .


1. Agrar-Und Hydrotechnik GMBH, Rice Milling and Iiarketing Stuy.v-
Sierra Leone: Report to thu Government of Sierra
Leone, Essen, Germany, 1973.

2. Byerlee, D.R. and Eichcr, C.K., "Rural Employment, Migration and
Economic Development;'Theoritical Issues and Imperial
Evidence From Africa". African Rural Employment Paper
No. 1, Michigan State University, September 1972.

3, Government of Sierra Leone, 1963 Population Census of Sierra
SLeone Central Statistics Officei Freetowm,. 1967

4. Li, CC., Introduction to Experimental Statistics, McGraw-Hill,

5., Mitra, A.K. "Land Use and Resource Utilization in Sier:-a Leone"
Unpublished Report, UNEDP(SF)/FAQ,. Project IDAS.
Freetown, 1968.

6. Mutti, R.J., Atere-Roberts, D.N., Spencer, D.S.C., Marketitn of
Staple Food Crpos in. Sierr Leone. University of
Illinois and Njala University College, Sierra Leone,

7. Norman, D.W."Methodology and Problems of Farm Management Inves.
tiga{ions: Experiences From Northern Nigeria". Afri-
can Rural Employment Paper No. 8 Michigan State
University, 1973.

8. Spencer, D.S.C., Micro-Level "Farm Management and Production
'Econoniic Research Among Traditional African Farmers:
Lessons From Sierra Leone" African- Rural Employment
Paper No. 3, Michigan State University, 1972.

9. The Efficient Use of Resources in the Production
of Rice in Sierra Leone: A Linear Programming Study"
Unpublished Thesis, University of Illinois, 1973.

- "4I.

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