THI. S UME HAS BEEN
BY THE UNIVERSITY OF
ALEX. S. LAING & e0..
DISPENSING AND FAMILY CHEMISTS
AERATED WATER MANUFACTURERS,
Cb Enlisb Pbarmacy
Shi1jA Medicine Chests Replenished.
Special Quotations for Estate Hospitals.
The Highest-Class Dispensing.
Qualified English Assistants.
Chemicals and Drugs Pure and
Cream and Black Carbolic Soap
unequalled for use in tropical
climates; our own make.
Superior Aerated Waters, made
with Filtered Water, are the
best in the Island.
A large fresh and varied Stock of
Drugs, Chemicals, Druggists'
Sundries, Patent Medicines
and Proprietary Articles
always on hand.
Price List on application.
THE ROYAL MAIL
STEAM PACKET COMPANY
(Under Contract for His Majesty's Mails).
TOURS FOR HEALTH OR FOR PLEASURE.
SPECIAL TOURS TO THE
in the Winter, visiting all the beautiful Islands included in the Mail
itinerary, from 0 a day.
AGREEABLE LOCAL TOURS CAN BE MADE IN THE
BEAUTIFUL ISLANDS OF TRINIDAD, JAMAICA,
AND OTHER WEST INDIA ISLANDS.
"- '.. .
WEST INDIES and PACIFIC SERVICES.-Barbados, Trinidad, Jamaica, West
India Islands, Demerara, Paramaribo, La Guayra, Colon, Savanilla, Cartagena, Limon,
Central America and South Pacific Ports, San Francisco, British Columbia, Japan and China.
The Company's Steamers leave SOUTHAMPTON with His Majestys Mails on every
SPAIN, PORTUGAL, BRAZIL and RIVER PLATE SERVICES.-Cherbourg,
Vigo, Lisbon, Madeira, Teneriffe. St. Vincent (Cape Verde), Pernambuco, Bahia, Rio de
Janeiro, Santos, Montevideo, and Buenos Ayres.
The Company's Steamers leave SOUTHAMPTON with His Majesty's Mails on every
For further particulars of Passages, Tours, Freight, &c., apply to the Ofices of the Company.-
LOJIDON, 18, Moorgate Street, E.C.: 29, Coclspur Street, S.W.
TRINIDAD, BARBADOS, JAMAICA, COLON, BUENOS AYRES,
SOUTHAMPTON, MANCHESTER AND LIVERPOOL,
ALEX. S. LAING & 6e .,
DISPENSING AND FAMILY CHEMISTS
AERATED WATER MANUFACTURERS,
Cb English Pbarmacp
ShijA' Medicine Chests Replenished.
Special Quotations for Estate Hospitals.
The Highest-Class Dispensing.
Qualified English Assistants.
Chemicals and Drugs Pure and
Cream and Black Carbolic Soap
unequalled for use in tropical
climates; our own make.
Superior Aerated Waters, made
with Filtered Water, are the
best in the Island.
A large fresh and varied Stock of
Drugs, Chemicals, Druggists'
Sundries, Patent Medicines
and Proprietary Articles
always on hand.
Price List on application.
We are Fashionable Drapers
Men's Complete Outfitters
PORT-OF-SPAIN & PRINCES TOWN,
-> TRINIDAD. *-
We are always First TO SHOW the Latest.
We receive fte jYewest Styl/e
every Royal jYfail Stearner.
English, American & Austrian
Boots & Shoes.
Millinery and Tailoring.
WILSON, SON & CO.,
TRINIDAD, B. W. I.
Wholesale and Retail,
in all Departments..
A large and varied Selection of
LADIES' FANCY GOODS
Always on hand.
GENTS' OUTFITTING AND TRAVELLING
ENGLISH, CONTINENTAL, AND
MARINE SQUARE, PORT-OF-SPAIN.
CRONEY 0 CO.,
Michael P. Maillard,
Draper 6 General Outfitter,
BOOTS and SHOES,
and SPORTING GOODS.
is the ONLY Dry Goods Store on the
Island doing an entire CASH BUSINESS.
The ONLY Store The Reason being
whose superb WE BUY ONLY FOR
are so universally WE SELL ONLY
appreciated. FOR CASH.
Value notwmer like 1aillard's.
MIOHAEL P. MAILLARD,
in American and
and Lumber ;
Nova Scotia Fish.
Western Union. A.B.C. Code
and private Codes.
a& Ulj TRINIDAD .
, Shipping gejznts.
SHIPPERS OF SUGAR, COCOA,
Agents for .
Thom & Cameron, Ltd.,
Geo. Younger & Son, Brewers,
Norwich Union Fire Insurance;
Hiram Walker& Sons, Limited,
Walkerville, Ontario ;
Barbados Mutual Life Assur-
Etc., Etc., Etc.
EDGAR TRIPP & CO.,
Commission and Shipping Merchants, Consulate of Sweden
and Norway, Commercial Agency for the Government of
Canada for Trinidad and Tobago.
All descriptions of Com- Exporters of Trinidad
mission Business for Asphalt and Manjak,
Produce or Manufac- C
tures, import or export Cocoa, Coconuts and
promptly attended to. other Produce.
Special Attention to Chartering of Vessels.
temam Coal always in Stoek.
-+. AGENCIES. -.s
Commercial Union Assurance Co., Ltd., London (Fire, Marine, and Accident).
Dunville & Co., Royal Distilleries, Belfast and Glasgow.
Lochrin Iron Works, Wm. Bain & Co., Coatbridge, Scotland.
Pulsometer Engineering Co., Ltd., Reading, England.
The Trinidad Match Manufacturing Company.
,, Soap ,, ,
Brewery Company, Ltd.
Marabella Manjak Company, Ltd.
Cable Address: TRIPP," PORT-OF-SPAIN.
-1. CODES. -4e
NOTE.-For directions to Captains of Vessels proceeding to Trinidad, see
Special Code Words:-
WATKIN'S-Zucconal. Zucconanno. Zueconando.
SCOTT'S-Behoof. Bendlet. Besom. Betel. Bery.
BANKERS: Armstrong & Co., London; Colonial Bank, and Union Bank of
LONDON AGENTS: Musgrave & Co., 7, Great St. Helen's.
NEW YORK AGENTS: G. F. Lough & Co., 118, Produce Exchange Building.
MONTREAL: Robert Crookes & Co., Stock Exchange Building.
The East End Foundry,
South Quay, Port-of-Spain
(8 Minutes' walk from Railway Station).
ENGINEERS AND CONTRACTORS,
BRASS AND IRON FOUNDERS,
Boilermakers, Blacksmiths, Coppersmiths,
SUGAR ESTATE MACHINERY AND MARINE WORK
ATTENDED TO WITH THE GREATEST CARE.
Agents for Marcus Mason & Co., New York. All information and
Estimates for COCOA MACHINERY supplied and same ordered
PUNCTUALITY AND SATISFACTION GUARANTEED.
Cable Address-" REYEM," Trinidad. A.B.C. Code, 4th and 5th Edition.
Telegrams-" REYEM," Port-of-Spain.
Telephone -COMMERCIAL, Port-of-Spain, No. 191.
CABLE ADDRESS: Use A.B.C. Code, 4th Edition.
Grell "-Trinldad. Lieber's Standard Code.
Ellis Grell & Co.,
Shipping 8 Commission
'1 g nts.
BEST CTOAM ALWAYS
AMERICAN STEAM CO L ON HAND.
The Scottish Union and National Insurance Co. Fire Risks on
every description of property at Tariff Rates.
'The National Board of Marine Underwriters of New York.
Royal Italian Mail Steamers.
MANAGERS,-The Trinidad Ice & Cold Storage Co., Ltd.
THE TRINIDAD FOUNDRY.
All kinds of Iron and Brass Castings and Machinery Repairs,
especially Marine Work.
Produce bought and sold on Commission.
Telephone, No. 132.
Codes used: Lieber's,"
"A.B.C." 5th Edition,
"A z,"' and Premier
WATSON, BOYD & CO.,
Cocoa and General Commission Merchants.
AGENTS for the
"NORTON" LINE OF STEAMERS
(BUCKNALL NEPHEWS, LONDON).
Sailings from River Plate to Gulf Ports and
Coconuts, Nutmegs and
Other West Indian
Messrs. FRAME & CO., 21, Mincing Lane, London, E.C.
Cable Address, "Framezzo," London.
Messrs. FRAME & CO., 132, Front Street, New York.
Cable Address, "Advance," New York.
PORT OF S PAIN,
TRINIDAD, B. WS. I.
TAYLOR & GILLIES,
Architects and Builders,
Licensed Sanitary Constructors,
General Commission Agents.
Sole Agents for:
Emdeca Metal Decoration Co., Ltd.
A. I. Root Co., Manufacturers of Beekeepers' Supplies.
.fwardea First pri3e for Cabiret-makiiqg, Triqidad
agriculturall Show, 1901.
Estimates and Plans for all classes of Buildings, Additions.
Repairs and Sewerage Work supplied with despatch at
-l Variety of Native Woods kept in etock.
Richmond Street and London Street,
"Direct" Line of Steam Packets.
LONDON AND GLASGOW
West India Islands & Demerara.
S-" .' ,'- '
S.S. "SALYBIA*" IN THE GULF OF PARIA.
PRENTICE, SERVICE & HENDERSON,
175, West George Street,
SCRUTTON, SONS & CO.,
9, Gracechurch Street,
Superintendent in West Indies,
CAPTAIN HENRY L FOX.
Koninklijke West-lndische Maildienst
(Royal Dutch West-Indian Mail Service).
REGULAR FORTNIGHTLY MAIL SERVICE BETWEEN
AMSTERDAM, SURINAM, & NEW YORK.
PLAN OF THE ROUTE-
OUTWARD.- AMSTERDAM, SURINAM, DEMERARA, TRINIDAD,
VENEZUELA, CURACAO, HAYTI, AND NEW YORK.
HOMEWARD.-NEW YORK, HAYTI, CURACAO, VENEZUELA,
TRINIDAD, DEMERARA, SURINAM, HAVRE, AND
W 5 a
'a 'a u '
PRINS WILLEM IV.
The Steamers leave Trinidad every alternate WEDNESDAY for Demerara,
Surinam, Havre, and Amsterdam; and every alternate MONDAY for Venezuela,
Curaqao, Hayti, and New York.
Representative in the West Indies--H. BRUGMAN, Trinidad.
SURINAM: F. G. HANKEN.
DEMERARA: THE NEW COLONIAL
TRINIDAD: THE NEW COLONIAL
CARUPANO: J. ORSINI Y HIJOS.
CUMANA: J. G. NUNEZ ROMBERG.
GUANTA: S. DOMINICI Y HIJOS.
LA GUAYRA: J. C. SCHOLTZ.
PUERTO CABELLO: BAASCH & ROMER.
CURACAO: HELLMUND & CO.
JACMEL (Hayti): J. B. VITAL.
AUX-CAYES (Hayti): JOH. JACOBSEN.
PORT-AU-PRINCE (Hayti): 0. BIEBER
f HOLLAND-AMERICA LINE, 39, Broadway.
NEW YORK GENERAL AGENCY AND PASSENGER OFFICE, 39, Broadway.
SFUNCH, EDYE & CO., Maritime Building, 8--o, Bridge Street,
S Freight Agents.
Koninklijke West-Indische Maildienst, de Ruyterkade 125, Amsterdam.
Telegraphic Address: VWESTMArIL," AMSTERSDAAI.
A. G. de SILVA
BRUSHES, COMBS, and
Depot for 5c. BILIOUS PILLS, and Mother
Payne's TETTER CURE.
& CO., Proprietors.
Etc., Etc., Etc.
A. G. de SILVA & CO.
F. A. SKeete & Co.,
South Quay, port-of-ppain,
LUMBER, BUILDERS' MATERIALS, and
SHIP CHANDLERY of every description.
Proprietors of the LA BASSE SAW-IILL."
Cable Address: "SKEETE," TRINIDAD.
Cable Address: MACKIR. Codes. A. B.C., 4th Edition; A.1.
MACKENZIE & KIRTON,
and stfafes 'Ageqfs.
REPRESENTING THE FOLLOWING FIRMS -
Messrs. SWIFT & CO., Chicago.
Messrs. LIBBY, McNEILL & LIBBY,
Messrs. THE L. FOSTER BREWING CO.,
Messrs. THE COLUMBUS CARRIAGE
& HARNESS CO., Columbus, Ohio.
Messrs. MACLAY & CO., Ltd., Alloa.
Messrs. PEEK. FREAN & CO., London.
Messrs. MACDONALD & MUIR, Leith.
Ngents for the Condon assurance Corporation.
1, ABEROROMBIE STREET,
W. C. Ross & Co.,
Electric NIGHT BELL at Gate.
Queen Street .
69, Cr. Queen and Frederick Sts.
The Most Reliable Drugs and
Genuine Fresh Arrivals Physicians'
Patent Medicines. Fortnightly. Prescriptions
TO ILET Requisites, at all hours, Night
Perfumery, Surgical and Day, only by
Instruments, Drug- Competent Licensed
gists' Sundries. Druggists, under the
Confectionery of the Proprietor,
Always in Stock, ARTHUR JAS. TAITT,
Wholesale and Retail. REMEDIES. Chemist and Druggist.
72, MARINE SQUARE.
Jewellers, Importers and Repairers of Watches,
Clocks and Jewellery,
ENGRAVERS AND DIAMOND MOUNTERS.
If you have not traded with us-why not try? You will find us always
willing to oblige you.
We invite you to inspect our stock of
FASHIONABLE JEWELS AND TRINKETS.
Hall-marked Sterling Silver Goods and Plated Ware.
Small lots of the latest designs and patterns of JEWELLERY received by every mail.
L ). BERNSTEIN,
GENERAL COMMISSION MERCHANT,
AGENT FORQ --
Messrs. GETZ BROS. & CO.,
EXPORTER OF COCOA AND PRODUCE.
Compra Cacao y toda clase de frutos de Venezuela a
los mas altos precious de la plaza. Recibe
consignaciones, despacha los buques, etc., etc.
CABLE ADDRESS: CODES USED:
PORT-OF-SPAIN. A.B.C. 5th EDITION.
Royal Isurance (Copaqy
FIRE AND LIFE.
CAPITAL ... ... ... ... ... 2,000,000
Accumulated and Invested Funds over .. ... 12,000,000
Income, Net Premium ... ... ... ... 2,860,812
Buildings and movable property insured against Loss by
Fire at current rates.
Facilities given for effecting Insurance.
Losses promptly and liberally settled.
The Fire Business done by the Royal is larger than that
of any other Company in the world-a fact the significance
of which will be at once apparent.
41 0 ID
Insurances effected, Policies issued and claims settled
here without delay of reference to the Head Office.
The Premium Rates for the West Indies have lately been
revised, and will be found to compare favourably with
those of other good Companies.
The last Bonus addition declared amounted to 7 10
G. BRUCE AUSTIN,
Agent, 6, Chacon Street, Port-of-Spain (opposite
Sub-Agent, Fire Branch, San Fernando.
SODA WATER PLANT
ALL SIZES SUPPLIED.
The illustration below represents our No. 2 Alert Soda Water Plant,
which will produce 180 dozen of high-class waters per day.
Cost of Plant as shown, 38.
Our Write for
Machinery our new
ais in Illustrated
ESSENCES. ESSENCES. ESSENCES.
BOTTLES. BOTTLES. BOTTLES.
BOXES. BOXES. BOXES.
Every requisite for the Mineral Water,
Wine, Spirit and Beer Trades supplied.
Bratby & Hinchliffe, Ltd.,
West Indian Agent-
15, Holmes Street,
PETERSON'S Ordinary PIPE with
PARATN NEW pWN rPA TENOT NOEW fD
BEST PATENT PIPE. BEST FINISHED PIPE.
Has also special advantages over all other Pipes.
The shortest Pipe smokes cool and pleasant, because
the smoke passes over the tongue and does not
irritate any part of the smoker's mouth.
Mouthpiece as shown in Pat. O. B. Army pushes as shown in 102 A B., which are Hall-marked Silver mounted. The Ordinary Pipe, with Patent New Lip,
is made only in two qualities, which are Silver-mounted, the second quality bearing the figure "a" under the Patent Stamp.
In Meerschaum, Briar, and Clay, with Amber, Amberoid, Vulcanite, or Horn Mouthpieces.
KAPP 6 PETERSON LD., DUBLIN.
London Address: 7, Hill's Place, Oxford Circus, W.
A Thoroughly Reliable Waterproof Cartridge.
42 Grains Eley Smokeless Powder,
Greaseproof Wad, Thick Felt Wad and Card over Powder,
I oz. of Shot and Card Wad over Shot.
THE BEST CHEAP SMOKELESS SPORTING CARTRIDGE.
RIFLE RND REVOLVER ARRIRIDGES OF EVERY DESCRIPTION.:
FELT & CARD GUN WADS. NICKEL-COATED BULLETS.
NITROCLENE and RIFLEINE for Gun-cleaning, after Nitro.
Of all Gunmakers and Dealers. Wholesale only.
GOPE BROS. & GO., LTD.,
LIVERPOOL & LONDON,
Manufacturers of the Celebrated
BOND OF UNION
In --lb. Air-tight Tins.
Also of the Cigarette Tobaccos-" ROSE
BUD" and "STARS & STRIPES" Brands,
and the Pipe Tobaccos-"PRAIRIE
FLOWER" SMOKING MIXTURE, and
"OCEAN SPRAY" NAVY CUT.
TO BE OBTAINED FROM ALL TOBACCO DEALERS IN THE
WEST INDIES AND BRITISH GUIANA.
West Indian Representative-
ARNOTT, LAMBIE & CO.,
SUGAR AND COCOA ESTATE SUPPLIES.
Harness and Saddlery, Coach and Carriage Builders' Materials,
WHOLESALE DRUGGISTS' SUNDRIESMEN.
Largest stocks of Drugs and Fine Chemicals in the West
Indies. Proprietaries and Official Preparations always on hand
for immediate delivery.
Free use of Dark Room to Amateurs and Visitors
TELEPHONES, ELECTRIC BELLS, LAMPS, &c.
Old Colonial Bank Building,
74. Marine Square,
FREDERICK JOHN SCOTT & SON,
THE COMMERCIAL SALE ROOMS,
No. i, St. Vincent Street,
General Commissioq, Jqsuraqce acd Shippiqg .geqts,
ard government j.uctioneers.
PENINSULAR AND ORIENTAL STEAM NAVIGATION CO.
THE PACIFIC MAIL STEAMSHIP CO.
THE MARINE INSURANCE CO., LTD.
THE ATLAS ASSURANCE CO. (F1RE) LTD,
THE TRINIDAD COCOA AND COFFEE CO., LTD.
CHARLES HEIDSIECK'S CHAMPAGNE,
By Royal Warrant to H.M. King Edward VII.
Consulates: Spain and Italy.
(able Address: "SCOTT," AB.C, 4th Edition; Lieber's, Telephone: 94.
Trinidad Electric Co.,
LIGHTING, POWER, TRAMWAYS,
Buildings of all Descriptions Wired
for Lights, Bells, Annunciators,
&c., &c. TEMPORARY LIGHT-
ING OF BUILDINGS AND
A complete & Up-to-Date Stock
ALWAYS ON HAND.
W Inspection Invited. -Wo
20cts. A Unit 20cts.
Power Supplied and Motors Installed
S for all purposes. ,|.
The most perfect system in the
Cars furnished for Special Occasions,
Regular Fares in Port-of-
Cash Fare-6 Cents.
6 Tickets for One Shilling.
The Port-of-Spain Electric Cars form
the Best and Cheapest Advertising
Medium in Town
FOR ADVERTISING RATES
On CARS or POSTS, and all other
Apply to the Office of the Coy.,
S from 10 to 11 a.m.
ENERAL ENilNEERIN(i. AllKinds of Steam,
GENERAL ENGINEERING. l, Electrical or
Mechanical Engineering Work Contracted for.
FRED. WARREN TEELE,
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO,
IAS a wide CIRCULATION and an unequalled Advertising
connection in Trinidad and Tobago, the West Indies and
Venezuela, and is supported by the
Professional, . agricultural, and
. . . Con nlercial, 1 Working Classes . .
In Politics it is INDEPENDENT, and it is therefore a
great favourite with all sections of the Population.
Daily Issue is ))
The Largest Circulation of any Paper in the West Indies.
SINCE IT WAS .
28th JANUARY, 1898,
Has raised and distributed several Relief Funds, aggregating
2,700, for the aid of Sufferers by Hurricanes, the War,
Volcanic Eruptions, and Mournful Monday, . ..
A circumstance which is evidence of the influence it exercises
in its wide sphere of operations. .....
PRICE -. ONE PENNY.
Proprietor and Editor R R MOLE.
27, CHACON STREET, PORT-OF-SPAIN, TRINIDAD, B.W.I.
66, MARINE SQUARE (Next Door to the Ice House),
Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, B.W.I.
ALEXANDER DECLE, Junior,
IMPORTER OF HIGH-CLASS GOODS. SOLD AT VERY LOW PRICES.
ENGLISH, FRENCH, AND AMERICAN FINE JEWELLERY.
SOLID GOLD AND SILVER, DIAMOND AND PRECIOUS STONES.
CLOCKS, WATCHES, MUSICAL BOXES, OPTICAL GOODS.
SOLID SILVER AND PLATED WARES, &c.
A Fine and Complete Assortment always on Hand.
GOLD PLATED, ROLLED AND GOLD FILLED WATCHES AND JEWELLERY.
Watches, Clocks, and Jewellery repaired by Competent Workmen
at Reasonable Prices.
ALL WORK GUARANTEED TO GIVE SATISFACTION.
W- CUSTOMERS' EYES TESTED FREE OF CHARGE! -u
Only Best Lenses Kept and Mountings in Gold, Nickel, Alumnico, Gold Filled-
at Prices to suit all.
CHRONOMETERS RATED AND REPAIRED.
67, MARINE SQUARE,
PORT OF SPAIN.
The Manchester Assurance Co.
FUNDS 0 SECURITY = 22,600,000.
GEORGE SPIERS, Agent.
Lascelles, De Mercado & Co.
general Oommission .Mereb6ants,
Port-of-Spain, .0 0 Trinidad.
LASCELLES, DE MERCADO & CO.
A. S. LASCELLES & CO.
Maritime Building, Battery Park,
New York, U.S.A.
E. A. DE PASS & CO.,
Dixon House, Fenchurch Street,
HENRI NESTLE CONDENSED MILK,
THE H. J. HEINZ CO.,
MACONOCHIE BROS., LTD.,
ROBERT CROOKS 8 CO.,
IMPORTANT TO TOURISTS.
THERE are many lovely spots to be visited in the
Land of the Humming Bird" which will afford a
pleasant and abiding memory in days to come, and
which it would be a sin to neglect to see. Some folks
(ladies especially) are shy of running about in the sun,
for fear it will give them Freckles and Tan; but this
can be easily avoided by using POMADE RACHEL,
which effectually removes all Freckles, Tan, or Stains
on the Skin of the Face or Hands. Ask for it in the
Drug Shops, or if you are passing the CREOLE
PHARMACY in Frederick Street (opposite Brunswick
Square) step in and get a Box. Price only ONE
SHILLING. Prescriptions accurately dispensed. Toilet
Articles of every kind kept constantly in stock.
INNISS & SON
(Corner of Frederick and Prince Streets).
BOYS' AND GENTS' READY-MADES AND
ili DEPT. An extensive stock of MATERIALS
TaIllorig i WORSTEDS, TWEEDS, SERIES and
Ra -n s for JUVENILES, YOUTHS, and
ReaUdy-laes MEN. NOTED for EXCELLENCE
STRAWS and FELTS in great variety.
Hats, Caps, TWEED and SILK CAPS.
SHIRTS, UNDERWEAR, BOOTS & SHOES,
COLLARS, SOCKS, NECKWEAR, etc.
Best Makes of Cycles. = Machines on hire.
JOHN HOADLEY, KING AND CHACON STS.
D. Moralejo & (o.,
Import, export and General
Marine Square, )ort-of-gpl aiq,
Dealers in and Exporters of COCOA, COPRAH,
COFFEE, SUGAR, BALATA GUM, CEDAR, TONCA
BEANS, and all kinds of TRINIDAD and Venezuelan
Importers of American Foodstuffs and Supplies,
English, French, German and Spanish Provisions, Wines
Sole Agents in Trinidad for P. Mackenzie & Co.'s
Whiskies, Rein & Co.'s Wines (MAlaga).
Correspondence aq6 CoqsigqMneqts solicited.
FIRM IN VENEZUELA.
D. Moralejo Co. El Callao.
Schoener & Co.,
COMMISSION, AND LUMBER
Hides, W Cedar,
AND OTHER PRODUCE.
Schoener & Co.,
U6e climate delicate:
96e air most sweet:
fertile t6e soil.
MUIR, MARSHALL AND COMPANY
64, MARINE SQUARE, PORT-OF-SPAIN,
The Bonanza. o
SMITH BROS. & CO.,
Importers and Exporters.
THE LANCASHIRE FIRE & LIFE INSURANCE CO.
BUTTERICK PATTERNS & PUBLICATIONS.
-c- Departments. -D-
FANCY & STAPLE DRY GOODS.
IRONMONGERY & SHIP CHANDLERY.
BOOTS, SHOES, & ATHLETIC GOODS.
HATS & READY-MADE CLOTHING.
FURNITURE & BEDSTEADS.
Colonial and Veqezuelaq Produce
BOUGHT AND SHIPPED.
Smith Bros. & Co.
PANORAMIC VIEW OF PORT-OF-SPAIN.
Go, little booke; Fate send thee good passage,
And specially let this be thy prayere,
Unto them all that thee will read or hear
Where thou art wrong, after their help to call,
Thee to correct in any part, or all.
CUSTOM, which has been defined as the plague of the wise
and the idol of the otherwise, has decreed that a preface to
any work of this nature should contain a certain amount of
self-depreciation; but this is a practice which, with regard to
" The Book of Trinidad," we propose to honour in the breach rather
than in the observance. The reason why is not far to seek. There
can be no need of apology for any earnest and well-meant attempt,
however far short it may fall of its intention, to bring the manifold
charms and natural advantages and the future prospects of this rich
and beautiful colony before the wider world outside its pale.
Not only is "The Book of Trinidad" an honest attempt to
advertise the Colony, but it has been fortunate enough to secure
the help of many writers who are fully qualified to speak with a
certain authority on the subjects of which they treat; for, with one
exception, they are all either natives of the Colony or people from
over the seas who have made their homes in the Island. To these
our grateful thanks are due, and to none are they more readily
tendered than to the members of the Board of Management of the
Victoria Institute, to whom we are indebted, as well as to the
respective authors, for permission to publish three excellent articles:
"The Industrial Resources of Trinidad," by Professor Carmody;
"Venezuelan Trade with Trinidad," by the Hon. R. H. McCarthy;
and "Forest Resources of Trinidad," by Mr. C. F. Rogers.
We have no fear for the future of "The Book of Trinidad."
There are many difficulties incidental to a first publication of a
work of this kind, and we do not pretend that we have overcome
all. But, on the other hand, the volume, such as it is, comes to
meet an undoubted want. That it will be useful we have no manner
of doubt, and, in future editions, we hope to so improve and enlarge
it that it will become indubitably the standard popular work on
Trinidad and Tobago.
The High-Class Store of the West Indies is
THE CALEDONIAN HOUSE.
EVERY TOURIST, EVERY TRAVELLER, EVERY VISITOR TO
IP0 OR T 0 F S PA L I I
Should patronise This Business
Firm; it being widely known that
only The Best and Freshest
Goods can be had there.
TRAVELLING GOODS of every description are stocked; and a Lady can get a greater
variety in Muslins, Silks, Underclothing, and all other suitable Materials for the
Tropics, than can be had in Europe or America.
W~st Indian Curios, Views, post-Cards,
souvenirs in Jewellerg, zte.
The great advantageous feature
is the careful and courteous
attention to Every Customer of
Goodwill & Wilsoq, Linited.
I. THE TWIN PEARLS OF THE ANTILLES 9
II. THE INDUSTRIAL RESOURCES OF TRINIDAD. 17
III. IN A MANJAK MINE 32
IV. "THOSE BLEST ISLES," OR LOVE IN IDLENESS 35
V. A DAY'S SPORT ON THE CARONI 39
VI. THE FOREST RESOURCES OF TRINIDAD 52
VII. THE BOCAS AT DAYLIGHT 65
VIII. A DAY AT THE'USINE ST. MADELEINE 71
IX. VENEZUELAN TRADE WITH TRINIDAD 77
X. THE MISTS OF THE PAST 84
XI. THE COCOA INDUSTRY OF TRINIDAD 98
XII. FOLK LORE AND POPULAR SUPERSTITION III
XIII. PITCH LAKE, TRINIDAD 125
XIV. TOBAGO: THE ISLAND OF CRUSOE 130
I. GENERAL DESCRIPTION 140
2. LIST OF BOOKS DEALING WITH TRINIDAD OR TOBAGO 142
3. GOVERNMENT OF TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO. 143
4. CONSULAR BODY IN TRINIDAD. 144
5. PRINCIPAL CHURCHES, PORT-OF-SPAIN 145
6. EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES . 145
7. MILITARY. 1 * 147
8. CLUBS 47
9. PARKS AND OPEN SPACES 148
10. NEWSPAPERS 148
11. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION 149
12. AGRICULTURE AND COMMERCE. 149
13. STEAMSHIP AGENCIES 150
14. WHAT TO DO FOR A WEEK ., ~ 152
15. SUBSIDIARY TRIPS 154
. N I f
MIAP O ID
MAPOFTR ID -- .-
MAP OF TRINIDAD.
The Twin Pearls of the
BY T. B. JACKSON.
And the rainbow forms and lies on the land
Over these islands free;
And the rainbow lives in the curve of the sand,
Hither, come hither and see;
And the rainbow hangs on the poising wave,
And sweet is the colour of cove and cave,
And sweet shall your welcome be.
I N the shallow lagoons and pools
of Trinidad there is to be
found a fish that cannot be
taken in any of the fresh
waters of the other West India
Islands. Completely clad in a
beautiful suit of scale armour, this
fish is called the cascadura, and its
firm, delicious flavour is beloved of
Around the cascadura a legend,
proverb, or superstition-call it
which you will-has sprung up,
and it is one many Creoles firmly
believe in. Over the walnuts and
the wine they will tell you that
the visitor to the island who has
once eaten of a dish of cascadura
will either never leave the colony,
or, if he does, will return to die
within its borders.
And there is something after all
A LEAFY WAY. -not in the legend of the cascadura,
bA LEAF WA. but in the experience which doubt-
less prompted and brought it into
being. Over and over again the oldest inhabitant has been able to
point to instances of people who came from afar to visit Trinidad,
and, caught by her rare beauty, her idyllic life, or her opportunities
of material advancement--perhaps by all three-have remained to
The Book of Trinidad
die, or are still settlers
here, happy and con-
tented with their lot in
"this blest isle." For
cascadura read "the fas-
Scination of Trinidad," and
Sthe legend is then a true
tale easily explained, even
down to those who for a
short time break away
from her glamour, but
r return to end their days
here- as many do.
Wherein lies this
charm of Trinidad? In
c its hills, clothed with ver-
dure, tricked out by the
n presence of ever-flashing
sunlight into languorous,
filmy forms of rich grey-
green? In its highwoods,
a where the tropical vege-
tation is so luxuriant and
the animal life so varied
that the first beggars de-
scription and the second
passes the understanding
of all but a naturalist ?
In its broad-stretching
PINE-APPLE. plains covered with the
feathery tassels of the
cane-brake, which the light breeze of the tropic day tosses gently to
and fro-as in other lands it stirs the rippling waves of a summer sea,
or (better simile still) the broad acres of golden grain intermingled
with crimson poppies-in the bright summer days that are all too rare
in England ? In its rich vegas, where flashes the scarlet immortelle,
covering the cool groves of cocoa, wherein the bean that means so
much to man's comfort and content shimmers in every shade-from
pale-green through the various phases of yellow to bronze-red-
among its covering of luscious leaves ? In its rivers rippling down
from the hills to the sea through cool grottoes and shady plantations
and forest-woods-bringing freshness and sweetness to the country
and the cooling water-richest benison in the tropics--for the use
of man ? In its billows that lap ceaselessly on its shore-rolling
majestically into its island caves and caverns and washing its yellow
sands whereon the graceful cocoa-nut palm raises its undiminished
head ? Or does its wonderful charm lie in the bright moonlight
The Twin Pearls of the Antilles
nights, when the scent of numberless flowers steals softly over the
senses like a zephyr over the mountain tarn; when as far as the
eyes can reach the gardens and savannahs scintillate with myriads of
fireflies-brighter than all the gems of Golconda; when the cicada
calls his mate in amorous serenade, and the goatsucker preys among
the cicindela and beetles, uttering meanwhile its long, low, sweet
note-poor-me-one, poor-me-one ?
Yes, its charm lies in all these; equally perhaps in the calm,
restful life that can be led among a people who are sociable to the
last degree, whose courtesy is never-failing, and who are always
more ready to give the helping hand than the discouraging word
or unfriendly action to the stranger within their gates.
We have glanced a little at her scenery; we have touched
momentarily on her people; now let us proceed to consider also
some other reasons why Trinidad is becoming yearly more and
more popular with the visitor from colder climes.
If it be true that the proper study of mankind is man, it is also
no less true that in few parts of the world can mankind be better
studied than in Trinidad-for on its hospitable shores are to be
found represented nearly all the nationalities of the world. Here
East meets West, for, thanks to a beneficial system of immigration,
there is a large, industrious, and rapidly increasing Indian population.
Here also such diverse people as the hardy Scotsman and the almond-
eyed Celestial match their wits against each other in the pursuits of
commerce. Ceded by the right of conquest from the Spaniard to the
Englishman-when the former cheerfully accepted the latter's rule-
partly settled by French and Corsicans, and amicably invaded by
Portuguese, Americans-from both north and south of the Isthmus-
Germans and Italians, who seek its shores on business bent, and
remain in the colony which affords them so many opportunities;
attracting many visitors and some permanent settlers from other
races, while still keeping its own native population of white, coloured
and black Creoles, Trinidad may fairly claim to be considered a
cosmopolitan colony. Yet her loyalty is undoubted, and no colony of
her size and with her small population contributed more to the fund
for relieving our soldiers at the front in the South African War,
while she is ever ready to help of her bounty fellow-colonists in
distress-as liberal contributions to the sufferers in the great fire
at Ottawa, and to the neighboring islands in the West Indies which
suffered so greatly by the terrible hurricanes, testify.
Admittedly, there are other West Indian islands quite as beautiful
and much more largely advertised, but some of them have a notoriety
they never desired-witness Martinique and St. Vincent with their
terrible eruptions, Barbados and Jamaica with their terrific hurricanes;
but happy Trinidad, immune from these terrors, can offer-even to
the most nerve-shattered invalid-a permanent or a temporary home
free from the frantic convulsions of the elements.
The Book of Trinidad
We have seen that Trinidad is an earthly paradise; that she is
peopled with kindly, hospitable, courteous folk, who are glad to
welcome visitors; that Nature ever smiles and forgets to frown on
her shores. But what is all this if the island is not healthy? you
will perhaps ask. The answer is, Trinidad is a healthy place-a
very healthy place if one keeps away from its few swamps and
morasses, lives a temperate life combined with a fair amount of
exercise, and conforms as much as possible to local conditions in
matters of clothing, food, and living generally. Instances of excessive
longevity are extremely common, and all the resources of medical
science which are usually to be found in European places of similar
extent are easily obtainable. Though the climate is warm and humid,
the air in many places is cool and bracing, especially among the
northern and central ranges. The present Governor, Sir Alfred
Moloney, is credited with an intention to establish a sanatorium at
Mount Tutuche, which is 3,100 ft. high and overlooks a magnificent
panorama, comprising the most beautiful scenery in the'island. As
experience on the adjoining continent has shown that a temperate
climate is found there at from 1,9oo to 2,000 ft., it is a matter for
surprise that a hill-station on the Indian plan has not been established
at Tutuche before now, to which city residents could retire in the
hotter months of the year. The idea is very warmly supported by
M. Marry, a distinguished Parisian doctor now practising in Port-of-
On the eastern and northern coasts are lovely seaside places
fanned by the cool Atlantic breezes, but until the railway extension
is finally completed these remain difficult to get at. When the
colony's railway scheme is finished, doubtless some of these will
spring into importance as local health resorts-Mayaro, for instance, -
which has a beautiful beach.
The island has two seasons-the dry and the rainy. The former
begins in January and ends in May, and the latter occupies the
remainder of the year. The dry season is very attractive, the heat
being tempered by constant breezes; and Trinidad is at its best in
the late winter and early spring, which are such trying times for
many Europeans. The temperature of the island ranges between
70' in the morning and 880 in the middle of the day, and from 660
in the cool December nights to 93 in the hottest months, while the
mean temperature is 760 and the rainfall about 70 in.
There is some wild sport. The rivers, the high woods, the sea,
and the unenclosed savannahs all afford a little. Of fresh-water fish
the cascadura has been spoken of, but there are also the guabin and
yarro. On the Caroni and one or two of the larger streams alligator
shooting and wild-fowling can be enjoyed from a boat. In the Gulf
of Paria and round the coasts of the island excellent sea fishing is
obtainable-including tarpon, here known as grande Ycaille. The
grouper, the king fish and the pargue are among others worthy of
14 The Book of Trinidad
note. The high woods are the haunt of lappe, agouti, armadilla,
quenk and deer, which are all delicate eating and worthy of the
trouble and expense of hunting. On the savannahs and rivers, or
in the high woods, there are wild turkey, wild duck, quail, rainier,
and many other birds which provide epicurean dishes. With the
exception of the sea fishing, however, this sport is difficult of access,
and to get at it the visitor needs local help.
The ordinary out-door sports of Europe and America are prac-
tically all engaged in. Cricket is the principal game played, and, at
the present moment, Trinidad has the best team in the West Indies.
Association football is played regularly, and Rugby occasionally.
Polo has recently sprung into great popularity, and is played at
Port-of-Spain and several country centres. If the Prime Minister
ever comes to Trinidad he will be able to get his game of golf on
at least two links-Port-of-Spain and San Fernando-and baseball
is played with considerable enthusiasm by the American section
of the community. Tennis is, and always has been, popular, and
croquet and other lawn games are springing into popular favour.
Half a dozen race meetings and several gymkhanas are held during
Roughly speaking, the cost of living in Trinidad is considerably
higher than in the United Kingdom, and quite as high as in America.
The hotel accommodation in Port-of-Spain is now very good, but in
the country districts a visitor is to a great extent dependent on the
hospitality of the local residents-which is always readily given.
Although her proximity to Venezuela and consequent tranship-
ment trade affords the Colony an opportunity of doing a good deal of
commercial business not directly derived from the land, Trinidad is
essentially an agricultural country. Its chief agricultural products
are sugar and cocoa, but in conjunction with the British Cotton
Growers' Association the Government are making efforts to establish
a cotton industry, and the Symington Fruit Syndicate is exporting
large quantities of fruit-chiefly bananas-to the English market.
The island offers considerable advantages to a young European
or American with a certain amount of capital and some knowledge
of agriculture. Life on a cocoa estate is very attractive, and-
properly managed-such a plantation pays handsomely. There is
plenty of unalienated Crown land which can be obtained cheaply
and formed into estates in a few years, and the soil of Trinidad is
so rich that "tickled with a hoe it laughs with a harvest."
It is not at all improbable that in the near future the mineral
wealth of Trinidad will become fully exploited and known. Asphalt,
manjak and petroleum have been dealt with elsewhere in this work,
but there are large coal fields in the districts of Sangre Grande,
Manzanilla, Turure, Upper and Lower Caroni, Chaguanas, Cara-
pichaima, Couva, Savonetta, Ponte-A-Pierre, and parts of Naparima.
QUEEN'S PARK CRICKET GROUND AND PAVILION.
16 The Book of Trinidad
It is suspected, moreover, that a good deal of the mineral wealth of
Trinidad has never been brought to light; and Mr. E. H. Cunningham
Craig, an English geologist, is busily engaged-under the regis of the
Government of the colony-in looking into this important question.
What has been said of Trinidad in these pages applies, in the
main, also to Tobago, which is separated from the former island by a
channel nearly nineteen miles broad. Communication between these
" twin pearls of the Antilles" is, however, regularly kept up by
means of a steamship service, under the direction of the Royal Mail
Steam Packet Co. This also serves the coastal ports of Trinidad,
and forms a pleasant means of seeing these places and Tobago. It
is also hoped that before long telegraphic communication will be
opened up between Tobago and the larger island.
The population of Tobago, however, is less cosmopolitan than
that of Trinidad; her climate is cooler, and she is believed to be one
of the best health resorts in the Caribbees. Next to Barbados,
Tobago is more to windward than any of the other West India
Islands. It is in latitude I11 9' north and longitude 60 43' west.'
Several English and Scotch capitalists have recently settled in
Tobago, and are turning their attention with much success to mixed
farming, provision, rubber and cocoa growing.
If the island of Trinidad is lovely, how can one describe the
charms of Tobago A central chain of mountains runs throughout
the length of the island, and its spurs enclose the loveliest valleys
that the mind of man can conceive. Imagine, if you can, one of
these valleys which opens out to the sea-on an early morning when
the sun is dispelling the filmy haze from off the mountains at its
back In the foreground the bluest of seas rushes thunderously on
to the yellowest of sands, and there breaks into dancing, sparkling
spraylike foam that leaves the beach firm and hard as the waves
go out. Lifting from the valley before the morning sun, the dis-
appearing mist exposes to view all the magnificent foliage of the
tropics on the grandest scale. Through the middle of the valley a
mountain torrent tumbles eagerly into the sea, and, on either side, the
spurs of the hills are crowned with noble forest trees in which the
squirrels gaily sport. Down to the river the fallow deer come
timorously to drink a fresh morning draught; throughout the valley
bushes gleam with flowers of countless hues, the humming-bird flits
from bough to bough, and now and again one hears the cocrico
calling his mate. Above, the emerald sky; below, the yellow sands;
all round, Nature-tropical Nature-in her most lavish mood; and-
shutting in the valley to the sea-the everlasting hills.
The Industrial Resources
BY PROFESSOR P. CARMODY, F.I.C., F.C.S.
Be stirring as the time."--KING JOHN.
IN 1895, after a residence of
five years in the colony,
I recorded a few impres-
sions on the above sub-
ject in a paper read at a
meeting of the Victoria Insti-
tute; and at the end of a
further period of eight years
a comparison of the former
and present positions of our
main industries cannot fail to
be instructive and useful. This
comparison can be more con-
veniently made by retaining
the previous subdivision of
the subject under the heads
The values of our prin-
LABOURERS IN THE CANE FIELD. cipal agricultural exports then
and now are:-
Sugar and sugar products 65o,ooo 427,000
Cacao 500,000 907,000
Cocoanuts 35,000 17,000
The change that has taken place in the relative positions of sugar
and cacao during this short but anxious period of eight years is most
striking. In 1895 the market price of sugar had fallen to 48 Ios.
and the sugar industry was in danger of extinction. Prices were
18 The Book of Trinidad
then believed to have reached low-water mark; but in 1902 they fell
below 6. The causes are well known, and now that it is clearly
seen that the effect of the bounties leads towards the gradual
extinction of this industry, steps have been taken to equalise as
far as possible the competition between cane and beet sugars in the
British markets. On the other hand, although the price of cacao
has fluctuated considerably, the markets have not been controlled by
any system of national interference with the natural course of trade,
and the consequence has been that the extraordinary productiveness
of our soil has placed cacao in the prominent position as regards
value which sugar formerly occupied.
SUGAR.-No better illustration of the injurious effect of bounties
could be given than the following figures taken from the report of the
Collector of Customs, showing the values of sugar (alone) exported
during the past twenty-five years:-
1876-1880 Annual average values 00oo,ooo
1881-1885 ,, 750,000
1886-1890 ,, , 700,000
1891-1895 ,, 650,000
1896-1900 ,, ,, 620,000
It is not difficult to see what might have been the position of the
sugar industry in this colony in the critical year just ended if the
timely and rapid development of cane-farming had not come to its
aid. In 1895 cane-farming was of so little importance that it was
merely referred to in my paper; now it has assumed proportions
which will be best appreciated from a study of the following
Year. Estate Canes. Farmers' Canes.
1899 426,000 tons o6,000oo tons.
1900 364,000 ,, o6,ooo ,,
1901 434,000 ,, 170,000 ,,
1902 338,000 85,000 ,,
It will be seen that one-third of the total crop of 1902 was grown
by cane-farmers, and this proportion is not likely to diminish in future
years. Under conditions more favourable than the present, it might
even be considerably augmented. In my former paper I pointed out
the advantages which follow from the Central Factory system of
specialising both the cultivation and the manufacture. Cane-farming
has contributed to this result in a manner and to an extent not
then anticipated. But cane-farming, as at present practised, cannot
receive unqualified approval. That it has materially assisted the
sugar industry of this colony in a crisis of unusual severity will
readily be admitted; but it cannot become a permanent part of the
sugar industry unless it is worked on sounder agricultural principles.
A PEASANT'S HOME.
The Book of Trinidad
The introduction of the present system of agricultural education into
the primary schools may effect this.
This educational system was first proposed by me in 1890, as a
member of a Committee on Agricultural Education, and though it was
immediately approved by that Committee it was not adopted by the
Government until ten years later. Favoured by the hearty co-opera-
tion of the teachers, its success in this colony is certain. It cannot
fail to make education more interesting both to teachers and students,
or to convey to the children of the working classes a fair knowledge
of the principles of agriculture, which they in turn cannot avoid
putting into practice in after life. It cannot fail to lead to a higher
system of agricultural education, for the employer of labour must at
least know as much of the principles of agriculture as his employees.
And since agricultural science has become one of the subjects in the
Cambridge Local Examinations, the teaching of a higher course of
agriculture in the colleges need no longer be delayed. When this
The Industrial Resources of Trinidad 21
is accomplished we may hope to see cane-farming established on a
better and wider basis.
In connection with cane cultivation the tillage operations are
generally the same as they were eight years ago. This is not to
be wondered at when we take into consideration the low price of
sugar during this long period of adversity. But the abolition of the
bounties and consequent better prospects for sugar have fortunately
led to the reintroduction of the steam plough by one firm owning
very large estates, and if this experiment should prove successful
we may hope to see other estates following this example. In a
tropical climate forking and hoeing are more than usually fatiguing
forms of manual labour; ploughing with oxen for the same reason
was almost impracticable, and consequently such tillage operations
were confined to the lowest minimum. On large estates the only
practicable instrument is the steam plough, and without it planters
cannot hope to obtain the full yield which our soils are capable ot
CAcAo.-Fortunately for this colony, the cacao industry presents
a remarkable contrast to sugar. The value of the exports has risen
enormously in eight years:
The market position of Trinidad cacao continues highly satis-
factory, and planters are endeavouring not only to retain that position,
but to improve it. The use of artificial drying is extending slowly
but steadily, and, when its superiority to sun-drying both as regards
quality and cost is clearly proved, further progress may be expected.
Not much progress has been made in the study of the fermentation
of cacao. Good results are now produced by purely empirical
methods; but the principles underlying these methods are not known.
They should form the subject ofaan early investigation.
Cacao planters should not forget that they will have to face
increasing competition in the near future. Foreign Governments
have recently sent official reporters to the colony to study the growth
and preparation of cacao, and as a probable result the area of
cultivation will increase, and the competition for quality and prices
will be more keenly felt in the world's markets.
The manuring of cacao trees has received some attention. Lime
in various forms has been tried with beneficial results. But beyond
this very little has been done with artificial manures. No recorded
experiments have been made to ascertain the advantages of replacing
the three hundred tons of phosphates annually removed by the bean.
A unique contribution to our knowledge of the utility of the shade tree,
almost universally used on Trinidad cacao estates, has resulted from
an analysis of the flowers which were found to return to the soil as
22 The Book of Trinidad
much nitrogen as is removed by the bean. This may prove of some
value. It already supplies a good reason for retaining the immortelle
tree in preference to other shade trees that have been suggested.
CocoANUTS.-The number of these exported has varied very little
from Io millions, but owing to a serious decline in prices the value
has diminished from
35,000 in 1895 to
17,ooo in 1902-3.
New uses have been found for this already useful nut, but as
yet growers have not benefited by these discoveries. Better results
may soon be expected. Cocoanut butter, which has been a chemical
curiosity for some time, has now become an article of commerce, and
if it succeeds in obtaining that popularity it is said to deserve the
future of the industry is bright. A large quantity of the oil is
expressed locally, and a new
factory has been started.
The meal left after the oil
is expressed is used as a
Over i million pounds
Sc 7,0oo, are now exported,
and chiefly to the United
Cocoanut oil is now
exported to the extent of
COFFEE.-At one time
this appeared to be a
promising minor industry.
Owing to the fall in price,
no efforts are now made
to extend it.
RICE.--In 1895 very
little rice was grown
locally. Within the last
few years the cultivation has
extended rapidly. The
growth is so profitable to
cultivators, and so well
suited to our soil and climate,
that within a few years the
colony will probably pro-
COFFEE. duce the greater part of the
The Industrial Resources of Trinidad
rice it consumes. A factory for cleaning it has been established,
and has to a great extent replaced the primitive methods previously
RUBBER.-Serious attempts at rubber cultivation have been made
here and in Tobago. Strong hopes of establishing a profitable
industry are entertained by those who have begun the cultivation;
but some years must yet elapse before any definite opinion can
ToBAcco. -This is grown to a limited extent, and only for home
consumption. Very good cigar leaf can be grown, and the soil in
A COCOANUT ESTATE, MAYARO.
some districts is specially suited to this highly priced product. The
efforts made by the Government to encourage this cultivation have
produced no satisfactory results.
MAIZE.-Large quantities are grown locally, the soil and climate
being well suited to its production.
VEGETABLES.-About 17,o0o are annually spent in the purchase
of vegetables which might easily be grown in the colony.
PINE-APPLES.-It is a matter of surprise and regret that pine-
apples are not grown on a larger scale. So suitable is the soil that
in some places pine-apples grow wild, and yet nothing has been done
to extend the cultivation. 1 publish the following estimate given me
24 The Book of Trinidad
by a planter of experience, and I hope that it will receive the attention
of our capitalists :-
Estimate to Cultivate 25 Acres of Land in Pine-apples and Value oi
To clear and prepare lands at $15 $ 375 00
To 5,000 plants to the'acre, 125,000 at 25 cents per 1oo. 312 50
To planting same at $5 per acre . 125 00
2 weedings at $12 each per acre . 600 oo
6 men for reaping 12 days at 40 cents . 28 80
2 men for carting same at 40 cents .9 60
50,000 feet W.P. boards at $30 for crates 1,500 00
Sawing same into laths at $5 per 1,000 250 00
Making 3,500 crates at 6 cents . oo
200 lb. nails for same at $3 50 per 100 . 7 00
Carting crates to bay, 2 carts 12 days at 40 cents 9 60
Freight to port at 3 cents each . 105 00
Building for management and storage . ooo 0
Barrack for labourers 200 oo
2 mules and carts 350 00
Management. 600 oo
Miscellaneous expenditure 240 00
TOTAL EXPENDITURE 5,922 50
125,000 fruits at 9 cents each . $11,250 00
NET PROFIT 5,327 50
$11,250 00 $11,250 00
FRUIT.-Immense quantities of fruit have for many years been
allowed to rot simply for want of a market. The efforts that have
recently been made by an English syndicate, under the sympathetic
direction of Mr. Symington, have changed all this in the short space
of a few months, and during the latter part of 1903 regular ship-
ments were made to English markets and sold at prices that promise
to be remunerative. The initial difficulties were great, but, for the
most part, have been surmounted already. The fruit growers have
been instructed in the best methods of handling the fruits, and when
cold storage has been provided in the carrying steamers there will
be a rapid development of the fruit industry. In anticipation of
this, further large areas are being planted with the best kinds of
bananas, and within twelve months these will be ready for shipment.
Oranges of superior quality have always been a staple product.
Large shipments of these and of bananas have been made by the
ASPHALT continues to be our most valuable mineral. The value
of the exports has increased from
112,00ooo in 1895 to
i6S3,ooo in 1902-3.
The Industrial Resources of Trinidad
The industry has suffered to some extent from long and costly
litigation, but a special Commission of Inquiry has recently made
recommendations which it is hoped will prevent such litigation in
GLANCE PITCH in 1895 appeared to have a promising future. The
mine is now no longer worked.
VISTABELLA CoAL.-Under this name a variety of pitch similar
to manjak in chemical composition, but presenting slight differences
in its physical properties, has been known locally for many years.
It is a brittle and nearly pure bitumen, found almost on the surface
of the ground and in seams like coal. It is now regularly exported.
MINERAL OIL.-For many years the oil deposits of the colony
have attracted attention, but until recently explorations have been
The Book of Trinidad
confined to the surface. Now, three or four borings of considerable
depth have been made, and the project attempted on a commercial
basis. Oil of first-rate quality has been found, and, as might have
been expected, containing a much larger proportion of naphtha than
the oils found exposed on the surface. A recent report by the
Government Geologist confirms the expectation of large deposits of
COAL.-For many years coal has been known to occur rather
widely distributed in Trinidad. In the geological survey made by
Wall and Sawkins in 1856, a good deal of attention was given to
coal, and the results of the analysis of many samples will be found
in their report. No samples of coal of first-rate quality have yet
been found, and no seams of any extent. So far as my experience
goes, our coal deposits are principally of two classes: one lignitic
the other bituminous. The calorific value of the first class is low,
of the second class high.
The progress of new manufactures in the colony is slow. This
is mainly due to the exclusion of applied science, or any form of
technical instruction, from the educational system of the Colony.
The older manufactures are confined to the production of sugar, rum,
and Angostura Bitters. The curing of cacao can hardly be claimed
to be a manufacturing process, although if better understood it might
be a most important aid in the production of that excellent flavour
which is characteristic of Trinidad cacao. Among recent manufac-
tures are soap, matches, beer, ice, biscuits, cigars and cigarettes; but
the consumption of these is almost exclusively local, and therefore
SUGAR, MOLASSES, AND RUM.-So far as the manufacture of
sugar is concerned, I am convinced that the future efforts of the
manufacturer should be towards the production of sugar of the
highest grades of quality. So long as refining sugars are produced,
the price of cane sugar will always be regulated by the price of beet
sugar. But a good cane sugar, such as can now be produced in
every factory in this colony, needs no refining. Our best sugars,
polarising 98, are already highly refined, and those polarising 95
contain none of the objectionable impurities always found in beet
sugars of the same standard.
A great deal of molasses is produced as a bye-product of the
manufacture of sugar, and although some is used as cattle food and
some is converted into rum, there is usually a surplus, which is
sometimes unsaleable at a profit. It was at one time exported
largely, but the exports have fallen off very considerably since the
The Industrial Resources of Trinidad 27
Martiniquan distilleries ceased purchasing, and the exports are now
less than 500,000 gallons annually, and 12,000 in value. The
high cost of packages and freight is the chief barrier to profitable
exportation. The local consumption of molasses as a cattle food
is not large, and the world's consumption of rum has considerably
diminished. A suitable outlet for the surplus stock of molasses is
very much required. The introduction of a successful alcohol motor
would be a boon to the owners of molasses.
The consumption of rum in the colony is limited to 300,000
gallons or thereabouts. One gallon per head of the population
appears to be the normal consumption. This is sold in the colony
at a price which is fairly remunerative to the distiller. At present
prices, rum from molasses should be able to compete successfully
with potato spirit; but here again the cost of freight and package
handicaps the local distiller.
BITTERS. -The well-known Angostura Bitters are made here, and
besides the local consumption, which is large, are exported to the
value of about 38,ooo annually.
BEER.-Since 1895 a praiseworthy effort has been made to
produce locally a beer that would compete with the article imported
annually to the extent of 250,000 gallons on an average. A well-
equipped brewery was started and placed in charge of an English
brewer. It received a fair share of support from the Government,
and at one time appeared to be very successful.
SoAP.-Three and a half million pounds of soap continue to be
imported every year, and, although we possess a soap factory and
an abundance of cocoanut oil and other fats, we have made no
reduction in the imports.
MATCHES.-This industry supplies a part of the local consumption,
but matches are imported in considerable quantities, although taxed
with a comparatively high import duty.
BAMBOO FIBRE.--It has long been known that the bamboo
readily yields a fibre well suited for paper-making. Many years
ago an experiment was made with Trinidad bamboos by the well-
known publishing firm of Messrs. Routledge & Co. The writer has
in his possession a copy of the Paper Makers' Journal of date
August 15th, 1879, printed on bamboo paper made at the Ford
Works, Sunderland, in August 1879, by Mr. Thomas Routledge;
and, although the paper is now nearly thirty years old, it is in
excellent condition. Some further attempts were made at that time
to continue the manufacture of bamboo paper, but for some reason
the project fell through. Recently another attempt has been made,
The Book of Trinidad
and the results are said to be so satisfactory that a permanent factory
is about to be established.
BIscuITs.-The industry has only recently been started, but
already the decline in imports is very considerable.
ToBAcco.-The position of tobacco remains practically the same
as in 1895, with the exception of cigars and cigarettes, the impor-
station of which has increased
Cigars and cigarettes .
considerably. The following are the
550,000 lb. 590,000 lb.
50,000 ,, 56,00 ,,
8,000 20,000 ,,
Tobacco continues to be grown locally, but the curing of it does not
appear to be a conspicuously successful process.
LEBU BATTLE, GOVERNMENT rARM.
30 The Book of Trinidad
ICE AND AERATED WATERs.-The ice used in the colony is now
produced locally. There are two factories, which have recently
amalgamated, and since these were established ice has been retailed
usually at I cent per lb. The addition of cold storage chambers was
made a few years ago, and has proved a great boon in connection
with the importation of meat and other perishable goods. So suc-
cessful has this been that another and larger chamber has just been
erected by the Trinidad Shipping and Trading Company, and regular
supplies of fresh meat and other delicacies from America will in
future be conveyed in the Company's steamers.
MEAT AND MILK.-I have frequently called attention to the almost
entire dependence of this colony on Venezuela for its meat supply,
and to the inferior quality of the beef. During the recent revolution
this supply was very irregular, and beef was at times exceedingly
scarce. The establishment of a Government farm at Tobago, a
few years ago, is expected to remedy this unsatisfactory state of the
Condensed milk continues to be imported in increasing quantities,
and its value in 1902-3 amounted to 23,000.
FIBREs.-Very little progress has to be recorded in connection
with fibrous materials, which grow here in such abundance only to
ripen and rot; and, were it not for the attempts that are now being
made to prepare paper pulp from bamboos, there would be none to
record. A previous unsuccessful attempt was made many years ago.
It is not improbable that other fibrous substances will receive attention
if bamboo fibre can be profitably made by the new process.
BOAT-BUILDING.-The remarkable increase in boat-building is said
to be due to some extent to temporary causes, such as the seizure
of many trading sloops by the Venezuelan Government during the
recent blockade, and to an order for a fleet of boats for the Margarita
pearl fishery. But previous to this there was a noticeable increase.
The La Basse is now crowded with boats in various stages of con-
struction, and, with an improved reputation for good design and
workmanship, Trinidad might hope to become the boat-building centre
for the West Indies.
BRICK-MAKING.-This has recently been reintroduced with much
promise of permanent success. The clays of the colony are well
suited for this purpose. There is a large and regular demand, and
the present maker understands the processes connected with brick-
making and rough pottery.
General Remarks on Agriculture.
Notwithstanding the falling-off in sugar, the period has been one
of marked agricultural progress among the labouring class. Cane-
The Industrial Resources of Trinidad 31
farming has given it an opportunity of working on better terms with
the estate owners, and of ascertaining the real disposition of the
owner towards labour. The feeling that the estate owner was always
antagonistic to the labourer has disappeared among the cane-farmers,
for have they not seen that the estate owner has paid them a fair
price for their canes, and has advanced them money, or given them
the free use of the land? And 8,500 satisfied cane-farmers in a
small community must have a beneficial influence on the whole
labouring body, the majority of which is favourably disposed to work
honestly and well.
In addition to the stimulus given by cane-farming, other influences
have assisted. The attention given to agricultural education, the
extension of roads and railways, the special reduced railway rates
for agricultural produce, the Royal Commission of Inquiry and
subsequent establishment of the Imperial Department of Agri-
culture, have contributed to make agriculture more attractive and
An important omission in the cycle of agricultural industry still
exists-viz. the feeding of cattle for the production of meat and
manure. Pen manure has a particular value for soils deficient in
organic matter, such as our soil.
Poultry and eggs are also of importance. The former are in
sufficient quantity for home consumption; but the latter are not, and
in consequence large numbers of eggs are imported from America.
The local demand is steady, and should be supplied locally.
The acreage under cultivation for the principal crops, according to
the last report of the Government Statist for 1902-3, is as follows:-
Sugar 58,651 acres.
Cacao 181,868 ,,
Rice. 12,234 ,
Coffee 4,728 ,
Rubber, oranges, limes 1,742
Ground provisions 28,029 ,
CoTTON.-Trinidad, like other West Indian colonies, has, on the
suggestion of the British Cotton Manufacturers' Association, conveyed
through the Imperial Department of Agriculture, revived the ancient
cotton industry. This industry is well suited to small cultivators,
as very little capital is required. The growing of cotton is well
understood by the natives, and the Government have provided the
necessary ginning machines, the price of which was beyond the
reach of these poor people. Five or six varieties of cotton have
been grown during the last season, and there can be no doubt of
the extension of this cultivation if prices are remunerative. But the
revival of an old industry is equally in need of sympathetic en-
couragement as the starting of a new one, and it would be well for
those who are directly interested in having an adequate supply in the
markets not to overlook this point.
In a manjak mine.
BY F. DODSWORTH.
There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio .. "--HAMLET.
W HEN I had looked
on the dreary
swamp of the great
known as the Pitch Lake,
when I had ceased to be
astonished at this extra-
ordinary phenomenon of
the earth, when I had seen
the transhipment of the
asphalt to the far-off States,
when I had seen American
industry conquering its
difficulties of place and of
climate, I allowed the sub-
ject to fade out of my mind
for the moment.
But before the impres-
sion had vanished I heard
of Manjak, and, like the im-
portunate person in Our
Mutual Friend," I wanted
to know what Manjak was
and why it was called so.
To the second question so
far I have received no
answer, but in the answer
to the first question I found
matter at once interesting
and bizarre, quaint and
curious, and, lest in the
multitude of adjectives
MANGO. there should lack not weari-
ness, I will condense my
impressions and.say-unique. Manjak, then, is asphalt or rather of
the asphalt species, but of a very much more refined order, and
it may be described as "asphalt in excelsis since it excels pitch
In a Manjak Mine
by Ioo per cent., and therefore consequently in price, quality, and
in the nature of the uses to which it is-and can be-put. The
world's supply, as far as we know at the present time, is ex-
tremely limited, and geologists are disagreeing amicably as to how
it came to exist at all; but when minor disagreements have been
eliminated the majority of expert opinion places it as a product of
the Tertiary period, when the earth, rising out of the water, began
to assume her present shape. But although Manjak excels pitch to
a point which precludes the possibility of rivalry, it is by no means
so easy to obtain. Up to the present it has never been found in
large quantities. The islands of Barbados and Trinidad are its
principal homes, although small deposits have been found in Cuba,
Sicily, and other places; but the deposits of Barbados are trifling,
when compared with the seams which are found in the Naparima
district of Trinidad.
For seams they are. Manjak is of a retiring nature, hiding itself
in the entrails of the earth, concealing itself behind layers of soft
moist clay; causing weary negroes to work right heartily at 2s. 6d.
a day, and rendering the boring of shafts an absolute necessity. But
the difference in price between Manjak and asphalt is, as I have said
before, too great to render competition possible. In vain does the
asphalt lie on the surface of the earth, content simply to be shovelled
up and sent down to the sea in buckets. The market price-that
arbiter of men and things, that final court of appeal upon which
all questions of value turn, beloved of the sterling and the good,
but a relentless exposer of the shoddy and the imperfect-has
decided in favour of Manjak; and all the expense of boring and of
digging, all the weary days spent by weary men penned up in
narrow drifts not more than five feet high and certainly not
more than five feet broad, working in a temperature with which no
ordinary thermometer could cope, with no sound but the thud of the
pick on the soft clay or the sharper tap when the steel meets the
harder but more brittle Manjak, with no light save that of a flickering
hand-lamp, amid air composed to a large extent of carbonic acid gas,
cannot place anything on the wrong side of the book. For if the
expense is three or four times as great as the expense of working
ordinary asphalt, the profits are in proportion, and thus the balance
is struck. A Manjak mine, especially as run on existing lines, is not
an obtrusive object as far as the landscape is concerned.
Out of a mass of scrub, with a patch of sugar-cane here and
there and a few stunted bananas growing as they will, unculti-
vated by the hand of man, stands what appears to be a shed, some
machinery, and a low chimney. Shaded by the roof of the shed is
a black man, lethargic of aspect, scant of clothing, and apparently
interested but little either in the general world or in any special
occupation. In his right hand he holds the handle to a steam hoist
from which a wire rope disappears into the earth. But things are
34 The Book of Trinidad
seldom what they appear, and this man, insignificant as he looks,
holds in his own hand the power of life and death, and, for aught I
know, the keys of heaven and hell. For, far down in the earth at
the end of the cable is a bucket, and in the bucket are two men clad
in overalls, grotesque as to their hats, besmeared with clay below,
with boots squeaking with water, slowly ascending out of the
Egyptian darkness. And should our friend, in a spirit of harmless
levity or from personal motives, let go of his winch, two men would
fall rapidly some 180 feet, stop suddenly, and find their interests
in another world.
Down below, in the heart of the mine where the Manjak rests, as
in the case of the majority of mines, there is very little to be seen,
owing to the fact that it is very dark. By the faint glimmer
of a lamp the walls, boarded up with strong timber lest the
soft mass of matter should fall in and discourage the workers by
sudden death, can be seen, and the contrast between the dull
clay and the semi-metallic black green of the Manjak itself is
very striking; after that the methods used are the ordinary methods
which are used in all small mines. The Manjak is picked out,
conveyed along the galleries placed in a bucket; the negro at the
winch kindly obliges, and for the first time for many thousand years
the Manjak sees the light of day. Down to the sea in trucks; from
the trucks to the lighters, from the lighters to the ships, and in the
ships across the seas to England, Germany, and America, which
at present are the best markets. But, as its usefulness becomes
known, new uses will be found for it by the brains and hands of
cunning artificers, and it has already a reputation second to none as
the finest kind of material for electrical insulation, and it is making
rapid progress as a varnish and as enamel, and as a substitute in
many cases for india-rubber.
At the beginning of this article I said that Manjak was unique,
and I claim in this case that I have proved my point. Unique in
its constituents; unique, owing to the fact that although deposits,
or rather seams of it, exist all over the world, Trinidad and Utah
are the only places where it exists in. sufficient value to constitute it
a commercial asset; unique, since it puzzles the brains of wise and
learned men who are unable to account for its existence or describe
the circumstances of its birth; and unique, since it commands a price
of 6 per ton, which, while yielding a handsome profit, can afford
to forget that bugbear of industries, over-production.
"Those Blest Isles,"
Love in Idleness.
BY F. DODSWORTH.
The wind breathed soft as lover's sigh,
And, oft renewed, seemed oft to die,
Wiih breathless pause between.
Oh, who with speech of war and woes
Would wish to break the soft refose
;Of such enchanting scene ?--SCOTT.
SSOUND of rippling, lapping
waters in your ears; a slight
swaying, swinging crunch as
the wash grinds the pebbles
one against the other at the edge of
the beach; a perfect sky; a dim misty
haziness far off on the horizon; a sea
of glass mingled with fire when touched
at a certain angle by the rays of the
sun; with here and there a great sea
bird rising and sinking, flying high in
the air or sweeping low upon the
surface of the waters in perfect rhythm.
As you lie, half floating, half
swimming, wholly dozing on the
bosom of the all-pitying sea, the hum
of the great world, the constant nmiserere
which the whole creation is eternally
raising, the sound of business and of
MARINE SQUARE. strife, the shrieks of lust and of hate,
the insistent bugle-call of duty, the
lamenting of those that fail, the glad joy of those that succeed,-
all these subdued, filtered, refined and rendered the essence of
harmony, are to be found in the voices of the waves. The voice
of the world, like the soothing drone of a gigantic bee, losing its
insistence, adds one more precious stone to our mosaic of perfect
Yet, since it is an eternal law of Nature that she yields up her
best only to the importunate, and to the man who, clutching at
36 The Book of Trinidad
the hem of her garment, refuses to let her go, we had done our
part before the peace of the islands, the joys of perfect rest, the
intoxicating pleasure contained in the certainty of complete isolation
had been given to us.
Very early in the morning we had creaked our way down the
protesting stairs, walked in the semi-darkness through the streets
deserted save for some wandering dog, and so to the wharf, to the
boat and to the steamer, just as the first faintness of the rising dawn
cut out the mast of the tiny sailing ship from the sea, drew the
mountain beyond the cloud into line, and indicated, faintly, the.
mangrove swamps which fringe the shore.
Soon the voyage began. We steamed down the gulf in a half
light. In a few moments the hulls and spars of ships loomed
suddenly out of the darkness, only to become invisible again as we
passed on our way. With silent, inexorable swiftness the dawn
broke. The sky in the east, ever changing, ever beautiful, paled,
reddened, changed colour while we watched and slowly, so to speak,
pushed the town of Port-of-Spain before us. First the tiny chapel
on the hill, then a steeple or a tower, and afterwards the even line
of the buildings on the wharf, backed by the masses of the town
itself, guarded by green-blue hills and covered with the morning mist
as with a mantle.
As we glided into the north, with the blackness of the morning
almost behind us, the five islands arose slowly out of the sea.
Shapeless at first, they gradually took form, until they lay separate,
"Those Blest Isles," or Love in Idleness 37
distinct, each with its individual character, each with its message,
each with its special work to do. The gaunt, bleak convict station
of Carrera, a warning of consequences due to sin; the quarantine
station; the coolie depot, joining East and West in the field of
labour; and the other islands: first harbingers with the message of
peace which was to be the key-note of our day.
With but a brief stop we steamed through these five havens
and skirted the shore of the mainland. Here roofs of houses
stood out among the garish green of the cocoanut and the dark
foliage of the hills, until, swinging round, we see the object of
our search-the islands. The islands, the sanatorium of Trinidad,
beloved by the weary, friends of the fishermen, joy of beach-
In the far distance the heights of Venezuela peer over the lower
hills of Chacachacare, and nearer again are the islands of Huevos,
Monos, and, closest of all, Gasparee.
Once again varying greens and houses peering out, with some-
times a jetty or a bathing-house, and always the eternal cocoanut
standing motionless like a standard in a dead calm.
Choose which you will. They offer the same attractions, the life
in each is the same, and the .result of that life is or should be precisely
similar. These are places of peace, gardens of sleep, negative
heavens, where action is impossible, and even strenuous conversa-
tion the act of guileless fools.
Then dress as you will, or, if it please you, within very narrow
limits, do not dress at all; enjoy the advantages of a picnic without
the petty worries which al fresco meals generally bring with them.
Go in the early morning out into the great sea, and catch if you can
ONE OF THE FIVE.
38 The Book of Trinidad
the red fish, grouper, baracouta, couvalli, or moon fish. Come back,
bathe in the clear water, eat, sleep, bathe again, and be content.
And if, swinging idly in a hammock in the cool of the evening, under
the shade of an almond tree, listening to the soft caressing voice of
the sea and the mingled hum of the forest life around you, you
cannot sympathise with the beach-combers of the South Seas, you are
not fit to have good things given to you, and you will be better
employed selling shell-fish in an East End street, or eking out some
other commonplace existence.
But we, we chosen few, we band of brothers, in whom a love of
ease, an adoration of beauty has been implanted by merciful Provi-
dence, who work but to gain materials for the life of ease, and who
smile with pitying look upon the hustling acquirers of unnecessary
wealth, know how to appreciate a gem of this kind.
These are, indeed, Calypso's Isles, where we will lie and dream of
those we have known and met and loved, and with our minds steeped
in the present joys of the recollection of the past and our bodies
soothed in the warm waters of the ever-sounding sea, we will let the
world go on its way, and neither heaven nor earth nor hell beneath
shall take from us our new-found peace.
A PLACE OF REST.
J9 Day's Sport on tbe Caponi.
BY R. R. MOLE, C.M.Z.S.
Is it for our wild wood creatures
You prepare a treat so subtle ?-VON SCHEFFEL.
LOVELY tropical morning,
just before the close of the
dry season, the last quarter
of the moon fading away
in the south-west, while over the
verdure-clad hills of Laventille---
beautiful even after months of
scorching heat-and the Church of
our Lady of the Mount, which
crowns one of the highest peaks of
the range, the bright rosy tints of
dawn herald the approach of day's
great luminary, giving a peculiarly
enchanting aspect to the tree-tops,
now slightly swaying on the hill-
crest under the morning breeze.
Beneath, where the shadows of
night still linger as if reluctant to
depart, slowly roll masses of dense
mist, as if searching for hiding in
the hollows of the hill-sides, but
soon to be dissipated by the rapidly
rising sun. Away to the westward
the ships are lying on the usually
placid waters of the Gulf, now
SOURSAP. slightly ruffled by the rising breeze.
Yards and rigging are silhouetted
against the sky. A slight column of distant smoke on the horizon
announces either the approach or departure of a steamer. To the
south lie a number of sloops, aboard of which few signs of life are
visible at this early hour.
Beyond, on the left, the almost interminable line of green man-
groves, over which at a great distance can be described an estate's
tall chimney pouring out volumes of inky smoke. Farther still the
heights of Montserrat begin to peer through the mist. More southerly,
San Fernando Hill, like a dark cloud, appears to lightly rest upon
40 The Book of Trinidad
the waters; to the south again, dark dots indicate the coast-line to
Iccacos Point. How wonderfully clear the atmosphere appears as
we look southward! Such is the scene presented to us as we stand
on the St. Vincent Street jetty, superintending the packing of our
provisions and other impedimenta on board a pair-oared boat. The
clocks are just chiming six as we settle ourselves down in the stern-
sheets, and directly afterwards we are being propelled as fast as two
pairs of strong arms can pull towards the mouth of the Caroni. The
time occupied in covering the distance, which cannot be more than
three miles, is busily employed in getting cartridges ready and
arranging a cunningly devised wire snare on the end of an eighteen-
The estuary of the Caroni is almost imperceptible to the stranger,
owing to the many bends in the river, and the long stretch of
mangrove swamp through which it meanders, presenting an appa-
rently almost unbroken coast-line for many miles. It is, however,
sufficiently well marked out to the boatmen who take shooting
parties thither, and to the mangrove woodsman, whose search for
daily bread induces him to pass half his days in the swamps cutting
firewood and making the charcoal indispensable to Trinidad kitchens.
These people steer by the marks afforded by the mud-stranded logs
and tree-trunks, the bare and weather-beaten branches of which
afford comfortable resting-places to gull and pelican when gorged
Such a scene as this is rather dispiriting, but it is soon left
far behind as our oarsmen row straight for the shore, in which an
opening gradually appears, and, suddenly almost, we find our boat
has entered a smoothly flowing muddy stream about forty yards
wide, the banks of which are invisible for the mangroves which grow
in the shallow water. Up this stream we slowly but easily make our
way. The sun is shining brightly, and now and again his rays are
reflected from the scaly sides of huge fish, as they leap out of the
water and, descending with resounding splashes, send little wavelets
rippling over the muddy water in far-extending circles. Again and
again the fish leap as if in mere playfulness and joy, inspired by the
freshness of the morning; or are they feeding on the numerous
insects which are flitting over the surface near the banks ? "Could
they not be taken with a fly ? I ask: "such monsters would surely
give good sport." "No," is the reply; "it has been tried many times
without success." Dey get too much to eat here, dey don' care for
bait, sah," volunteers a boatman.
Now and again the line of mangroves is broken by a young palm
or the creeper-clad relict of what was once a stately silk-cotton.
Over everything, the mangrove roots and the dead trees which they
surround, grows a vine-like plant, which is in places almost covered
with a cup-shaped flower, bringing back vividly to our minds
the convolvulus to be seen on old neglected garden walls at
The Book of Trinidad
home. As we get higher up the river the banks become visible, the
mangroves give place to solid walls of a small palm covered with
long brittle black bristles, which are exceedingly painful when they
pierce the skin. At their roots are numberless holes, the homes of
the crabs, which often stand outside grotesquely defiant, waving
abnormally large pincer claws, the companions to which are as small
as the others are great. These creatures are constantly to be seen
gesticulating in this way, and now and again a pair may be caught
in the entrance of a hole, clashing their formidable weapons against
each other in what may be presumed to be mortal combat. Again,
the pickmock palms are varied by lofty clumps of bamboos, the older
stems forming graceful arches, while the younger ones, with green
feathery tops, almost sweep the sky. Now and then a palmiste adds
further beauty to the scene. A large blue heron rises in front of us,
and with heavy flight reaches the withered arm of a dead silk-cotton,
but not for long. An unsuccessful shot sends him slowly flapping
away to warn his friends that unusual dangers haunt the river this
fine March morning. A squirrel with a bundle of moss in his mouth
runs down a tree and vanishes, reminding us by his shape and thick
handsome brush, if not by his colour, of the merry little acorn-storer
of our English woods. No one would raise a hand to harm him
here, far away as he is from cocoa or nutmeg tree. Ah there's a
splash Babiche cry the boatmen ; and there, sure enough, we
see in yonder clump of waterweed close to the bank a pair of prominent
eyes, a narrow forehead, and the nose of an alligator peering at us.
A Day's Sport on the Caroni
A momentary pause-a loud crack, a throwing up of the water,
and a short convulsive struggle. We row rapidly to the place, and
the boatmen pick up, very cautiously, a fine young alligator, 3 feet
7 inches in length, with a bullet-hole under the left eye. He is
hoisted in, and the men prepare to batter his head to pieces. This,
however, is forbidden; but, although the reptile looks dead enough,
yet, as every one knows, his kind have a trick of temporarily re-
covering from their wounds and snapping right and left. As this
one has particularly long and ugly teeth, his jaws are tied up before
depositing him in the recess forward.
We proceed more slowly, and within the next few minutes a
lovely heron falls a victim to my companion's marksmanship, but
some distance in-shore. This entails a stoppage of some duration,
it being necessary to cut a path with a cutlass to where the bird lies
A DENIZEN OF THE RIVER.
before it can be secured. Shortly afterwards another bird of the
same kind is espied, this time on a dead trunk a little way in the
bush, and we back water to get a better view. "M-m-y Fa-der "-
an exclamation of horror from the men-a shout of delight from
ourselves. "Shoot him, sah: he bad fellow!" cries the bow oar,
who precipitately rises from his thwart to come aft out of harm's way.
"Him bad: shoot him I shoot him!" The men appear paralysed,
and cannot withdraw their eyes from that slender streak of pale
yellow which is dangling from the topmost branch of yonder pick-
mock palm. Slowly and gracefully it turns its small head and
brilliant eyes this way and that, as if admiring its exquisite colouring
of bronze, green and yellow, its symmetry of form mirrored in the
water beneath it. Surely the serpent chosen by the Evil One as his
disguise when he tempted our Mother Eve was a Yellow Machete,
the progenitor of the perfect beauty before us, and not the clumsy,
heavy boa usually represented in the paintings and drawings of that
The Book of Trinidad
unfortunate event: no other snake would have been listened to for
a moment by our Universal Mother. But the creature has to be
caught, and our reflections as to the Tempter and Eve and all the
rest of the Biblical narrative vanish under the thought of the difficulty
of such a feat. Now then, you two, come aft, and mind you do as
you're told. Don't bother about the snake-he is our concern. We
are going to catch him." "Oh no, sah: look at trouble noo. We
came to shoot babiche, sah, an' no catch snake, sah; him 'ting yo',
sah: bes' way shoot he, sah," half blubbers one man. I'll jump
overboard, sir, if he comes aboard, sir," chimes in his companion.
"Then I hope the babiche will eat you," is the unfeeling retort:
that will be ten times worse than the snake."
By this time we have changed our places, the men having got into
the stern with a celerity which was truly remarkable, while we stand
up in the bows with the bamboo noose ready to snare the machete,
which, despite all the noise which has been made, is so engrossed
with itself that it is unconscious of our presence. The terrified
boatmen, after many threats, commands and expostulations, are in-
duced to send the boat slowly forward towards the bush, but hesitate
about driving her straight into it.
The reptile, which is a good specimen of a species credited with
an utterly unfounded but terrible reputation for "wickedness," climbs
its own body, regains the branch, and retreats along the boughs in
easy, graceful curves, "He come go 'way, sah! Yo' nebah catch
he noo, sah." But this weak attempt at discouragement is of no
avail, for it only leads to his being told to land one of us with the
view of cutting off the machete's retreat and driving it back to the
water. This is speedily accomplished, but none too soon, for the
snake in a second or two would have reached another bush, and
would then probably have been lost for ever. As it happens, he is
turned, and the boat having, after a good deal of shouting on our
part and prodigious grumbling by the boatmen, been brought up
to the bush, the machete finds itself taken front and rear. It again
turns to flee towards the bank, is seized by the tail, and at once
winds the fore-part of its body round the branch. The men's excite-
ment by this time is intense, and it is with difficulty they can be
dissuaded from jumping overboard. At length, being reassured by
the snake's passive resistance in simply clinging to the branch, they
are induced to keep the boat up. It is fully two minutes before its
neck can be secured and its body disentangled from the bough, all
care being exercised, because a bite from these reptiles, though not
dangerous, is naturally disagreeable.
The creature safely bagged, once more the boat proceeds on her
way. Another small alligator shortly afterwards falls a victim to our
rifle, and we vow not to shoot any more, but to watch the trees for
whatever animals may be asleep in them. We therefore simply row
close along the banks and peer up into the foliage, closely examining
A Day's Sport on the Caroni
anything which looks like a bundle of dried leaves in the forks of the
branches. We have retained our forward position, and the men are
in the stern slowly paddling the boat along. As she passes under
some arching boughs, the bow, who is thoroughly demoralised for
the time being, suddenly catches sight of a richly coloured iguana
basking on a branch. He dashes head foremost forward, and in
doing so butts against my chest as I rise to catch the sleeping lizard,
knocking me down between the thwarts. The iguana, roused from
its siesta by the unwonted commotion, leisurely makes its way out
of reach. Expostulations, with the unfortunate boatman have no
effect. In vain he is told that his own people consider the iguana
a delicacy: he only wishes he was home safe once more, for he will
never come on such a hazardous expedition again.
Several alligators are now in sight, and some of them must be
very large ones, judging by the size of their eyes and the distance
from the tip of the nose to the crown of the head-for this is all the
alligator vouchsafes to the world of his presence when in the water.
Now and again one slides silently from the bank at our approach,
and is lost to sight immediately, a ripple on the waters being the
only indication of his exit from our view.
As we ascend the river higher and yet higher, the scene becomes
more lovely. The tall graceful palms overtop all the surrounding
dense, matted tangle of bush, tree, and creeper. Now we pass a
ceiba, which extends a mighty arm over the river, but a hundred feet
above it; from it depend
rope-like creepers in huge
festoons. In these other
plants have grown, and,
though the leaves are not
so bright as doubtless they
are in the wet season, yet
the whole is very picturesque,
forming a huge curtain to
the river, of which it is
certainly one of the most
beautiful sights. Overhead,
in the clear blue sky, the
black vultures are wheeling
in untiring circles. Over
there a frigate-bird is de-
scribing his bold curves;
the opening and shutting of
his scissor-like tail can be
seen as it is silhouetted
against the blue. A large
hawk rises from a tree-top
and wings its way slowly WHITE HERON.
The Book of Trinidad
westward. On ahead, resting on the arm of a
dead tree, watching the water, is a snow-white
heron; but he, too, disappears as our boat
comes in view. Gorgeously winged butterflies
flit around: one or two big greenish-
blue fellows, usually near the tops of the
highest trees, are flying about; others of
brightest scarlet, with bands of sombre
hue, and some with simply black velvet
and orange spots and tips, flit here and
there. Dragonflies in plenty skim to
and fro. Now and again a covey of tiny
bats spring up from the bushes on
the bank and flit out into the sun-
shine for an instant, to settle
Sagain-a living Jacob's laddcr-
S, head downwards on the stem
S, of some tall reed, their noses
Sk all turned inquisitively to-
n wards the boat; while their
colour, a dark ash-grey,
matches their resting-place
so well that, had we not
seen them fly to it, we
should pass them by as
A PRETTY HINDU GIRL. being only dead leaves on
the stem, so closely do they
resemble in colour their resting-place.
A Qu'est-ce-qu'il-dit, in a gorgeous yellow vest and brown coat, eyes
us from his aerial seat, and, vigorously sharpening his strong black
bill on the bough, impertinently asks us, What do you say ?" A
loud discordant cry, and amongst the branches lower down we see
three or four mel corbeaux or black tick birds hopping about, and
balancing themselves with their long tails while they erectly hold their
heavily billed and clumsily formed heads, watching our approach.
A small iguana, asleep on a sunlit spot of baked mud-bank, is
shot dead; and is a prize, for the new growth of tail proves what
has been doubted by some one-that these lizards, like the others,
reproduce their caudal appendages. More civilised regions are
reached at length, and a cocoa estate borders the right bank. A pretty
Hindu girl sits on a log to look at us as we pass, the bracelets on her
shapely arms shining in the sun and the wind streaming her long
veil out behind her-a capital picture. Near her is her mother, a
withered old woman, dressed exactly like her daughter, squatting on
the earth, hardly lifting her eyes from the rice she is winnowing. A
chubby little coolie calls our attention to a duck on the opposite
bank. After some trouble a movement in the bush is seen, and a
A Day's Sport on the Caroni
A NOONDAY HALT.
shot directed towards the spot is the death of a handsome bird,
the small head, long legs, and disproportionately great toes of which
forcibly remind us of the water-hen or coot of our English lakes and
ponds. A little farther, and on a long spit of mud, where the Caroni
makes a wide sweeping bend, and a small rivulet from the direction of
St. Joseph joins it, lie several huge logs, which suddenly becoming
endowed with life, we find out to be alligators, as they slide into their
watery retreat. A little grey striped bird, like a snipe, is not so wise,
and falls a victim to his intrepidity. A few hundred feet farther, and
we surprise a pair of teguexin lizards, each about two feet long.
These are in first-rate condition, and their scaly mail of yellow
and black shines iridescently in the midday sun as they greedily
discuss the head and fore-part of a large fish, which has either been
stranded on the mud, or forms the remains of the repast of some
fishing hawk, or perhaps of that rare beast the Trinidad otter.
Such a chance of good specimens is not to be missed. "You take
the one on the left, I'll look after the right," I say. One rolls
over, the other lies still astonished at the noise, but unwounded, as,
owing to something having gone wrong, only one gun is fired. We
row to the place. The unwounded mat" scampers off, and the other
one tries to follow suit, but he is too much hurt and is easily taken
and deposited in the bottom of the boat. Shortly afterwards we pull
up to the bank and moor our boat while we refresh ourselves.
But on such an excursion as this the time seems wasted unless
48 The Book of Trinidad
every moment is taken up with watching land and water, tree, bush
and air. We therefore launch forth again, and drift down with the
stream on our homeward journey. A bird like a water-fowl, having
very sharp spurs on the wing-probably thejacana so fully described
by Waterton in his Travels "-is secured, likewise an alligator which
presented a tempting shot on the bank. On and on we drift, the
boatmen just keeping our craft in mid-stream. A mass of foliage
hanging over the river calls for unusual scrutiny, and my companion
quietly remarks, "There's our Xiphosoma."
The boat is stopped, but peer as I may I cannot see the brute, so
skilfully has he hidden himself. I see a snake's slough or cast skin
in the branches, but that is all. The boat is got into a favourable
position, and with a long bamboo my companion turns aside the leaves,
and there sure enough are the loose coils of a yellowish brown snake.
"Garamightee, sah, he Cascabel Dormillon: yo' nebah hold him."
"If you bring that one into the boat, sir, I am going ashore,"
exclaims his confrere. He deadly poison if he 'ting yo'; shoot
him, sah." Now don't you two make asses of yourselves: he won't
bite any more than a baby; you do as you're told, and keep the boat
up so that we can snare him."
The snake is lying in a thick mass of foliage some ten feet above
our heads. The boat is brought up, and we two stand in the bows,
the one with the snare-a wire noose on a long stick-and the other
with a simple bamboo to stir up the snake with. Ugh I there
he is," and in a paroxysm of fright the men send the boat beyond
the mark and against the bank. What are you doing ? keep the
bow about three feet from under him," we cry. We get into position,
and a good hearty poke is administered to the snake, to make him
wake up. The result is a rapid uncoiling, and a pair of widely dis-
tended pink-coloured jaws, bristling with teeth, are launched violently
at the stick. "He coming sah Shoot him befo' he'ting. Ah we dead,
sah !" and before we know it the boat has drifted down stream twenty
or thirty feet. Then we rise and mildly expostulate with and rebuke
those misguided men; and a sultriness, flavoured with a slightly
sulphurous odour, taints the breezes playing o'er the surface of the
river, impossible to describe on paper. At length we get back into
position, and there is three feet of snake hanging out of the tree
waiting to receive us. A blunt spear-shaped head is turned towards
us; watching our proceedings, and a forked tongue flicks in and out in
a threatening manner. Oh, Golly, dere he am again For Heaven's
sake shoot him, sah; yo' nebah catch him cry the boatmen. Oh I
shut up, can't you ? is the inelegant reply : don't look at the snake;
you can't do two things at one time; only keep the boat up-we'll do
all the rest." But away we float. Oh, go home, you venerable
old dears! keep the boat up, can't you ? The beast is getting away."
And sure enough seven feet of snake is slowly ascending upwards
towards giddy heights from whence nothing but a gunshot can bring
UN THE BANK OF THE KIVER.
STEPHENS AND SCOTT'S
A Day's Sport on the Caroni
him down. A dexterous prod, however, so hurts the creature's
dignity that down he comes again, to wreak vengeance upon the
insulter of his ophidian dignity. Now's your chance The snake
presents his head; the noose is over and pulled tight; but alas the
snake moves a little, and a dead branch is caught instead. It is
easy enough to catch a branch, but it is not so easy to let it go again,
and a desperate struggle ensues to get the wire down. At last it
breaks, but not before the snake has made many wicked snaps at
it, each one eliciting a loud exclamation of horror from the men,
interspersed with invocations from ourselves for every imaginable
blessing upon their heads if they don't keep the boat up. The noose
is repaired, and again we try; but the snake a second time com-
mences to retreat. He is again brought back, and presently the
noose slides easily over his head and is drawn tight. The men by
this time are half out of the boat, and the conversation becomes
unusually animated on our part. Our rhetorical powers at last get
the men to control themselves a little, and a gentle strain is put on
the snake. The other pole is brought to bear on his back, and he
considerately throws a coil or two round it, which helps us a good
deal. Then the last twig which he is holding with his tail breaks,
and we have him at the end of our poles, while the boat drops into
mid-stream. Both men stand up in the stern, and should the snake
come near them it is evidently their intention to jump into the river
and swim ashore. The creature is brought into the boat gently, and
by a dexterous feint with a soft cap his attention is attracted, and
then his neck is seized and the wire loosened. He is a fine specimen
of the tree boa-constrictor, seven feet long.
But the day's excitement is not yet over. Something rushes from
under the thwart. One boatman is over the side in the twinkling of
an eye, the other rushes toward us and drops terror-stricken in the
stern; the boat is nearly capsized. In our wake we see a little black
head swimming on the surface. It is the wounded mat," which
was thought to be dead. He is soon recovered, however, and put
hors de combat. We pull in our dripping boatman, who returns
sulkily to his oar, vowing by all that is holy he will never come with
us again. We feel we have done enough for one day, and beyond
an occasional shot at an alligator, do nothing to interfere with our
further progress towards the sea. Just before we reach the river
mouth an alligator four feet and a half in length is shot (with No. 3
this time). In his mouth we find the tail of a large iguana. On
opening him the body of the lizard is discovered. As we have three
alligators already, we hew off this last victim's head with a view to
preserving it, and allow his body to drift away. Beyond a temporary
check caused by the boat sticking on a mud-bank for a few minutes,
nothing further occurs, and we land on the Queen's Wharf as the
clock strikes six, having enjoyed such a day's fun on the Caroni, as
falls to the lot of few to obtain.
The Forest Resources of
BY C. F. ROGERS, FOREST OFFICER, TRINIDAD.
Forth goes the woodman, leaving unconcerned
The cheerful haunts of man, to wield the axe
And drive the wedge in yonder forest drear.
RINIDAD is the
still has a fair propor-
tion of land under
primeval forest, and
in which the Govern-
ment has realized the
necessity of having a
forest policy. The
question of adopting a
forest policy has been
brought to notice at
various times by dif-
ferent persons. This
policy includes the re-
servation of certain
areas of land from
sale, and their man-
agement as forests for
the protection of the
climate, the regulation
of the water supply
in the rivers, the pre-
CASHEW. mention of landslips
and floods, and the production of timber and other forest produce.
The utility of forests may be divided into direct and indirect
utility. Forests supply three things. First of all they represent
capital, they also supply produce, and, incidentally, they are the
means of providing labour. The importance of forests cannot be
overestimated, since they produce the material which is necessary
for the construction of bridges, ships, paper, furniture, and fuel;
The Forest Resources of Trinidad
without which it would, I assume, be inconvenient to exist. Forests
yield many useful materials-such as bark for tanning, rubber, gum,
dyes, turpentine, resin, fibre, leaves for thatching, medicines, fruit,
and seeds which produce oil. In Trinidad, where so much timber
is used, over 40,ooo worth is annually imported. It is true that
much of this timber is the produce of coniferous trees, but there
is still room for a much larger use of our valuable hard woods and
our most durable cedar. Though iron has to some extent taken
the place of wood in recent years, and coal has forged ahead of
wood as fuel, the fact remains that timber is, and ever will be,
essential. The capital of forestry consists of the soil, i.e. the land,
and the trees growing on it, which are termed the growing stock. The
soil is called the fixed capital and the growing stock the movable
capital, and the two together represent a considerable monetary
value. Forests provide work for the woodman actually engaged in
felling the trees, squaring and sawing the timber, collecting other
produce, and replanting, besides the work provided by industries
dependent on the forests for their supply of raw material.
With regard to the indirect utility of forests, with which we
are largely concerned in Trinidad, their action on the climate, their
power of preserving the water supply of rivers, and their actual
effect on the rainfall, are all beneficial.
Owing to the existence of forests the temperature both of the
air and the soil is reduced, because the shade, so provided, cools
THROUGH A FOREST.
the land by day and screens it by night, thus rendering the climate
more equable and less liable to sudden changes of temperature.
Of course, the effect on the temperature is most noticeable
The Book of Trinidad
within the forests, but since there is a constant motion in the air,
hot air rising and cold air taking its place, from cooler adjoining
areas, the effect is felt by the surrounding country. Forests reduce
evaporation, prevent erosion and landslips, and increase the relative
humidity of the atmosphere. In forests, especially when evergreen,
such as the forests of Trinidad, the soil is always moist, even in the
dry season, when grass lands or lands cultivated in annual crops
are quite dry; consequently their moisture is available for evaporation
and keeps the air moister than it would be if the forests were non-
existent. This is a matter of great importance to the cocoa grower,
since this crop requires a hot, damp atmosphere. We may therefore
say that for cocoa to be grown successfully a considerable area of the
island must be kept permanently under forest." Cocoa plantations
cannot take the place of forests, since they are unable to supply
the necessary moisture during the dry season; nor can they keep
up the permanency of our springs and rivers. It is true that they
provide a good deal of shade, but, being kept clear of undergrowth,
wind easily passes through them; and a dry wind, or even merely a
circulation of dry air at such a slow rate as to be scarcely perceptible
as wind, takes up a great deal of moisture. Then during a good
part of the dry season the bois immortelle, almost invariably used
as a shade tree, is out of leaf and lets in the sun. What is of still
greater importance in the matter of preserving moisture--I mean the
power of the soil to retain moisture-is in most cases lost in cocoa
plantations, which are usually extensively drained by open channels;
whereas in our forests the roots of trees and accumulations of de-
caying leaves do prevent rain-water which falls from immediately
running off into the streams, and retain much of it until it soaks
into the ground and feeds the springs; and for this reason forests
regulate the flow of water in springs and rivers, making them more
permanent. Whereas in a treeless country the water in streams
and rivers becomes much less, and even may cease to flow in a
dry season, in a forest-clad country the flow is nearly even all
the year round, especially if the forests are not subject to fires.
The question of the effect of forests on the actual rainfall has
been much discussed, and varying opinions have been formed.
In one place in the south of France, during a period of seven
years, it was discovered that 16 per cent. more rain fell in a well-
wooded area at an elevation of 1,247 feet, than in a comparatively
treeless area only some ten miles distant from it. In Prussia also,
an average increase of 14 per cent. at an elevation between 329 and
526 feet, 19 per cent. between 1,969 and 2,279 feet, and 43 per cent.
between 2,297 and 2,625 feet, was recorded in favour of a forest-clad
area over open country. These figures show that the value of
forests as rain producers increase with the elevation at which
they are situated, but even at an elevation of only three to four
hundred feet they are of considerable value.
The Forest Resources of Trinidad 55
To sum up, the importance of forests in Trinidad is great, for
the following reasons, and they may even be considered necessary
to the welfare of the colony:-
I. They reduce the variations of the temperature and
render the climate more equable.
2. They preserve and regulate the water supply in the
streams and rivers.
3. They reduce the rapidity of evaporation and increase
the relative humidity.
4. They increase, or at any rate tend to increase, the
What do other countries do in the matter of the preservation of
forests ? According to Dr. Schlich the proportion of forests to total
area in the following countries is as follows: France, 16 per cent.;
Germany, 26 per cent.; Russia, 42 per cent.; while Great Britain
has only 4 per cent. I believe that in Trinidad we require not less
than 16 per cent. permanently reserved as forest. Taking the area
of Trinidad as 1,750 square miles, we should have 280 square miles
under forest. At present there appear to be 851 square miles still
covered by forests, these, of course, being Crown land. We may
safely conclude that private owners will not maintain any appreciable
quantity of land under forest, for the simple reason that it will not
pay them as well as cocoa or other crops. Besides, forests require
skilled management of a highly technical character to yield satis-
factory returns and this is not generally available in Trinidad.
Consequently, it is to the Government that we must look for the
preservation of the necessary forests. These protection forests which
I have already, shown to be necessary must be made to produce our
supply of timber and other forest produce. It is impossible, in our
present state of knowledge in detail of the forests of the island, to
estimate the various kinds of timber available with any degree of
accuracy. With one exception, our best timber trees form such a
small proportion of the growing stock in our forests that they are
of small commercial importance outside the island. There is,
however, enough for local use, could it only be brought to market
at reasonable cost.
I will mention some of our more important timber trees.
Cedar-Cedrela odorata, L., known in Europe as West Indian
cedar. A large tree 60 to 8o feet high, 4 to 6 feet diameter; wood
a red or brown colour, splits easily, soft and porous, has a strong
scent, and for this last reason is much used for wardrobes and such-
like articles of furniture; weighs about 36 lb. per cubic foot; crushing
strength 2-94 tons per square inch. It is much used for boards,
shingles, furniture and framing, and is exported to Europe for cigar
-boxes. It grows singly or in small groups, preferring sloping
groutt The accessible forests which contain cedar in Trinidad are
nearly worked out.
56 The Book of Trinidad
Balata or Bullet wood-Minusopia globosa, Gaertn. A large tree,
80 to Ioo feet high, 4 to 6 feet diameter; wood dark red, dense,
heavy, hard, very durable; weighs 70 lb. per cubic foot; crushing
strength 4'77 tons per square inch. It is eminently suitable for
posts, bridges, and all kinds of outdoor work, is much used by
wheelwrights, and requires to be seasoned in the shade, and is not
attacked by wood ants. Value, 10 per ton. Grows singly or in
small groups, preferring ridges or sloping ground; is not particular
as to soil. The supply of this tree has been much reduced by
tapping or bleeding for its gum, which is intermediate in character
between rubber and gutta-percha.
Poui-Tecoma serratifolia, Don. A tree 30 to 50 feet high, il to
2 feet in diameter; wood grey or green, hard, heavy, very durable;
weighs about 70 lb. per cubic foot. It is the best wood in the
colony for posts and all kinds of outdoor work, and grows in a mixed
forest, forming only a small proportion of the growing stock. Value,
Io per ton.
Locust-Hymencea courbaril, L. A large tree, 60 to 8o feet high,
2 to 4 feet diameter.; wood of a reddish brown colour, streaked, close-
grained, hard and tough; weighs 69 lb. per cubic foot; crushing
strength 5"17 tons per square inch; it will not last in the ground,
but is suitable for cabinet work and furniture. Value, 10 a ton.
Purple-heart-Peltogoyne porphyrocardia, Gr. A large tree, 50 to
8o feet high, I to 3 feet diameter; wood of a dark purple colour,
hard, heavy, close-grained, tough and durable; suitable for furniture,
cabinet work and buildings.
Crappo or Carapa-Carapa Guianensis, Aubl. A tree 40 to 6o feet
high, I to 3 feet diameter; wood reddish in colour, liable to warp
if used unseasoned, weighs 42 Ib. per cubic foot, durable, easily
worked and suitable for building; is plentiful in mixed forests.
Value 8 per ton.
Black Olivier- Terminilia buceras, L. A tree 40 to 60 feet high,
2 to 4 feet diameter; wood durable, especially in water or damp
situations; used for boards, planks, posts, shingles, etc.; suitable
for all outdoor work; grows quickly, and is fairly common.
Mora-Mora excelsa, Benth. A large tree 80 to 120 feet high,
2 to 4 feet diameter; wood a chestnut-brown colour, hard, heavy,
tough, strong, close-grained, very durable in water or damp situations;
weighs about 65 lb. per cubic foot; suitable for boards, scantlings,
and especially for large beams; is one of the first-class woods at
Lloyds, grows gregariously on low-lying land subject to inundations,
and does well on poor soil.
Acoma-Sideroxylon mastichodendron, Jacq. A large tree 50 to
8o feet high, 2 to 3 feet diameter; wood chestnut or brown colour,
dense, hard, heavy, durable; weighs 66 lb. per cubic foot; used for
posts, frames of buildings, and outdoor work.
Watercaire or Aquatapana-Lecythis cevifolia, Gr. A large tree,
IN THE HEART OF THE FOREST.
58 The Book of Trinidad
60 to 8o feet high, 2 to 3 feet diameter; wood very durable; used
for posts and outdoor work; lasts well underground. Value,
8 per ton.
Cyp-Cordia gerascanthus, Jacq. A tree 40 to 50 feet high,
2 to 3 feet diameter; wood light brown colour, of medium hardness,
tough, easily worked; weight 38 lb. per cubic foot; used for joinery,
furniture, and cabinet work.
Balsam-Copaifera oficinalis, Jacq. A large tree, 40 to 60 feet
high, 2 to 3 feet diameter; wood dark brown, finely marked, used
for shingles, staves, and repairs to railway carriages, suitable for
furniture and cabinet work.
Roble-Platymiscium platystachium, Benth. A tree 30 to 40 feet
high, I to 2 feet diameter; wood reddish-brown, hard and durable;
suitable for outdoor work, cabin work, and furniture.
Fustic-Maclura tinctoria, L. A small tree, 20 to 40 feet high,
I to 2 feet diameter; wood weighs about 44 lb. per cubic foot, is
used by wheelwrights, and yields a yellow dye, for which it is
exported; value, 3 to 5 a ton.
At present only cedar and mora are at all well known in Europe,
and the latter is not now exported from Trinidad. Cedar is chiefly
sent to Germany, where it is used for cigar boxes. It is not probable
that our other timbers are likely to be exported in any quantity in
the rnar future. The chief reason for this is the great difficulty in
transporting the timber in logs or squares to our ports. Also, most
of our forests are very unhealthy, both for man and beast; and in
this damp climate, where unmetalled roads are not fit for wheel
traffic, it does not pay to haul timber from many of our forests. We
cannot make use of water transport, because most of our timbers will
not float, and streams suitable for floating are very scarce. These
reasons prevent the extraction of timber, both from lands being
cleared for cultivation or from Crown land, except for local use. It
is only where a metalled cart-road exists close to the forests that
timber can be profitably extracted for export. The export of timber
from Trinidad reached its highest point in 19oo, and has already
fallen off considerably, the export of cedar during the last year being
less than 4,000 logs, and it is still steadily decreasing. This decrease
is principally due to the easily accessible forests being worked out.
Now as to mora, although this wood is known as a first-class timber
in Europe, the demand for it is limited. It has been exported to
some extent from British Guiana, but not, I believe, from Trinidad.
As far as I have been able to ascertain, about I,ooo,ooo cubic feet
could, with safety, be cut every year in Trinidad; but, before cutting
on a large scale is commenced, it would be necessary to systematically
examine our forests and make as careful an estimate of the available
supply as can be done at reasonable cost. In 1855-6 some 20,000
to 25,000 cubic feet of hard wood, principally mora, was cut by the
Government and used in public buildings. In past years samples
A BANYAN TREE.
60 The Book of Trinidad
of local wood have been sent to exhibitions in various places, but
so far no trade in them has resulted, with the exception of the fine
trade in cedar. The total exports of timber from Trinidad for the
past years have been valued at: 1897, 4,479; 1898, 1,6io; 1899,
8,190; 1900, 12,802; t901, 8,779.
The development of a trade in timber is an important factor, and
when sending samples to an exhibition we should state the amount
which could be annually supplied, and be able to answer questions
as to the rate per ton at which we could supply it. Trade in timber
is like trade in other commodities : either you must have a demand
already in existence, which you propose to supply, or you must enter
into competition with goods already in the market; and to do the
latter successfully in timber you must submit with your samples
proof of the technical qualities of your timber, and be able to
guarantee a regular supply of the same quality. This is necessary
in order to induce consumers to substitute the timber you want to
sell for that which they have been in the habit of using, and of
which they know the technical qualities, and to show them that
they can always get what they want. Before we can put our native
timbers on the market, we must, besides collecting proof of their
qualities, make an estimate of the quantity of marketable timber in
our forests and an estimate of the annual increment of this timber.
It is this annual increment which will constitute our available supply.
To obtain this estimate we must ascertain the extent of our accessible
forests and the amount of marketable timber which annually can be
extracted, having due regard to the preservation and improvement
of our forests. This is a work which will take a considerable time
and cost a good deal of money. The only forests that can be
included in this estimate are those which are to be permanently
reserved and systematically worked. Now, suppose we had decided
that we could cut 0o,ooo tons a year, it would not pay to cut only
those trees that were over-mature, scattered as they would be over
the whole area of our forests, but we should have to cut the required
number on as small an area as possible in order to keep down the cost.
This would be easy enough if our forests had been created by
planting, in which case we should have a number of equal areas
containing trees of the same age, and each area containing trees one
year younger than its neighbours. We could then replant each area
after it was felled over, and so go on cutting the same quantity year
after year indefinitely. Of course, our forests are not at all of this
character, and we only have one tree which grows gregariously or
" socially "-i.e. which quite occupies the ground on which it grows,
to the exclusion of other kinds-and that tree is mora. In our mora
forest trees of all ages are irregularly mixed together, which makes
working of the forest more complicated than it would be if the
"age classes" were regular. Consequently, we cannot expect any
considerable increase in our timber exports until we have laid out
The Forest Resources of Trinidad 61
our reserves and collected the necessary data to make what is
termed in forestry "working plans" for them, by which the areas
to be felled over are prescribed and the annual out-turn is approxi-
It may be asked why we do not make use of the timber annually
felled in clearing land for cultivation. The reason for this is simply
the want of facilities for getting the timber to the market. Where
land is cleared near a metalled cart-road some timber is extracted,
but far from a road it cannot be done profitably.
Now as to planting and the improvement of our forests. Up to
the present time no systematic attempt has been made to replace the
timber removed. To effect this object the planting of a few trees
here and there is useless. For cedar plantations to be of any value
they must be systematically made over considerable areas, each
plantation being considered in relation to the others. Besides the
actual creation of forests by planting, much can be done to improve
our natural forests by increasing the stock of the valuable timber trees
in them by planting. This method is eminently suitable to our
Trinidad forests, where many of our best timber trees form such a
small proportion of the growing stock that it will hardly pay to work
them on a large scale unless we can considerably increase the pro-
portion of valuable timber trees. This method is also in accordance
with nature, as is shown in the process of the natural formation of
a forest which can be observed in India and elsewhere. This process
is. roughly as follows. A tract of waste land is taken in hand by
the Forest Department, and the first thing which is done is to protect
it from fire. I am considering the case of a forest which is not
burdened with "rights of user" to take timber, etc., from it. Such
an area might perhaps be, for the most part, covered with coarse
grass, the flowering stalks of which were fifteen feet high, and trees
would be scattered about in groups and clumps of greater or less
extent. The area would be demarcated and brought under the forest
law, and eventually planted up and systematically worked; but, if
only left to nature and fires prevented, the trees already existing on
it owing to their power of being able to withstand the annual fires
that formerly swept over it, would gradually increase in number
beyond and spread out until the area was covered with trees, and
their shade would reduce and eventually kill out the coarse grass.
These trees would be for the most part deciduous, quick-growing,
soft-wood trees; then, under their shade, harder-wooded trees, some
of them perhaps evergreen, would come up; and these harder-wooded
trees, capable of enduring shade, especially during their youth, would
be much longer-lived than the original soft-wood trees. As the old
soft-wood trees died out, their places would be taken by these hard-
wood trees, and the soft-wood trees would not be able to regain a
footing, owing to their not being able to compete with seedlings of
the hard woods, due to the fact that they are unable to bear shade
The Book of Trinidad
to any extent. Thus the forest would by gradual stages become a
hard-wood forest, or, at any rate, a forest containing a fair proportion
of hard woods. I use the term hard wood in its Trinidad sense,
meaning a durable timber. This process in nature takes centuries to
accomplish, but could, of course, be done much quicker by artificial
means, such as planting.
Now, to apply the process to Trinidad, we begin with forests
containing a proportion of hard woods, and cut out the worthless
trees and replace them by planting hard woods. In some cases in
India it has been found sufficient to only cut out and remove the
poorer kinds of wood, and the better sorts come up from seed in their
places. This could be applied to our cedar forests, for I have ob-
served a fine crop of cedar which has come up in a clearing with a
few cedar trees left standing either on it or in the adjoining high
woods. It might also be possible to increase the stock of our other
hard woods in the same manner; but from observations I have made
I believe that it would be necessary to plant poui and balata, since I
have found very few natural seedlings of these trees in our forests.,
As I have already said, we require to increase the proportion of
valuable timber trees in our forests in order to render them com-
mercially valuable. We shall then be able to work them at a profit,
and such timber as is in excess of local requirements will be available
for export. If sufficient timber of the right kind is available, new
industries may spring up, which will increase the wealth of the
colony. If we can increase the supply of our valuable timber trees
from, say, five or ten per acre to forty or fifty, our forests would pay
to work, and yield a satisfactory profit to all concerned. This refers
to our protection reserves. In some cases, however, they are too far
away from some centres of industry to supply local needs, and in
these cases we require reserves of one hundred to six hundred acres,
which should be improved by planting in the same way. These
smaller reserves should be in accessible places and treated to supply
local requirements. For the firewood supply of a village perhaps
one hundred acres would be sufficient, but for timber five or six
hundred acres at least would be required.
In selecting trees to plant, we must, of course, consider their
suitability to the soil, and this must be done for each area separately;
for instance, it would be useless to plant cedar on flat land subject to
inundation, a place where we never find it growing naturally.
For a cedar plantation, both for local requirements and for
export, Quinam, a tract of land on the south coast between Erin
and Moruga, where the cedar forests have been almost worked out,
would be a suitable place, and a reserve of fifty or a hundred square
miles would be a very valuable asset to the colony. For by planting
we could get an annual supply of fifty to sixty trees per acre,
from two to three feet in diameter, in fifty years. I say fifty years,
for I am informed that a cedar tree in the open grows to two feet in
THE ROPE TREE.
64 The Book of Trinidad
diameter in twenty-five years, but if grown close together they would
not grow so fast, while their timber would be of a much higher
technical quality. If one hundred square miles were reserved, we
should plant up two square miles a year, and at the end of fifty years
we should have an assured annual supply of sixty thousand trees
concentrated on two square miles, taking only fifty trees per acre
and allowing the odd eighty acres for river beds, etc. Trees grown
in such a plantation would yield two or three fine logs of twenty feet
in length and of very good quality; and as the quality became known
in Europe, Trinidad cedar would gain a name, and the demand for it
would soon quite equal, if not exceed, the supply, and then perhaps
the price might rise, to the benefit of all concerned.
Owing to lack of natural resources in the forests of Trinidad,
it has become necessary to specialise-if I may use the term-to
some extent. The object in the preservation of the forests them-
selves is twofold. While on the one hand they shield the cocoa,
which is one of the most important products of the island, it is also
expedient-if possible-to make them pay their way. This can only
be done by growing, and continuing to grow for a considerable
period of time, the hard wood, which, when a market is found
for it in due course, will amply refund the initial cost.
It is agreed on all sides that the maintenance of a certain portion
of forest land is an essential to the welfare of the island, but there is
no reason why, with intelligent and judicious management, the forest
land, so far from being an expense and a drag upon the resources of
the island, should not prove a source of revenue to the Government.
The main question is the item of woods and hard timber, which will
be of commercial value, and are quite as capable of preserving the
humidity of the atmosphere as any soft woods, however valueless,
and which possess the additional advantage that they are in many
The Bocas at Daylight.
BY F. DODSWORTH.
Welcome from sweeping o'er the sea and through channel,
Hardships and danger despising for fame,
Furnishing story for glory's bright annual,
Welcome, my wanderer! . .
IF it be a sin to join issue with some of the greatest authorities,
living or dead, upon the world's scenery and the world's attrac-
tions, then I am the greatest sinner among many; and more
than that, I glory, and shall persist in glorying, in my sin. The
West Indies are full of sights, various in kind, diverse in beauty,
and yet containing some family resemblance one to the other, in
so much that to the English eye such things as are not beautiful
are interesting, and what is neither interesting nor beautiful may,
to the eye of the stranger, still remain picturesque. When I say
that I consider the entrance through the Trinidad Bocas in the early
morning to be one of the finest sights that the West Indies has
to offer the tourist, I feel that perhaps I ought to justify my opinion
and produce my credentials. Like the devil, I have walked to and
fro in the West Indian Islands, and I have gone up and down in
them. I have revelled in the glorious scenery and the cool climate
of the Blue Mountains of Jamaica; I have enjoyed the chastened
sweetness of St. Kitts as seen from the sea; I have gazed with
childish awe at Mount Pelee, the destroyer, by daytime, and I
have seen Mount Pelee emit a red glow as we passed it at mid-
night; I have climbed from La Guayra, the torrid, to Carucas, the
magnificent, and I have been even farther into the heart of Venezuela
than the capital.
Comparisons, besides being odious, are unnecessary, and in this
case impossible. The only piece of scenery in the West Indies
which can in any way be brought into line with the Bocas are the
twin Pitons, which, rising out of the sea to a height of 2,700 feet,
guard the beautiful island of St. Lucia like brothers in arms, who
rest not night or day.
We were peculiarly fortunate in the morning upon which we
first approached the Dragon's Mouth. Rain there had been, enough
to cool the air, but rain had floated away on the wings of the
night and had left the morning cool and clear. The sun had flashed
forth his morning ray, heralding his imminent approach from behind
Port-of-Spain. The sky, until now a dull grey, or at best a sleepy
blue, woke into life; colour after colour, tint after tint, combination
66 The Book of Trinidad
after combination, followed one another in quick succession, be-
wildering the eye, taking charge of the senses, making description
almost impossible, and driving the pleasure of appreciation almost
to the verge of pain. Mingled with the sky, and yet not of it,
we saw gaunt, towering, shadowy masses of rock. Implacable
they seemed, and even terrible in their aspect, natural fortresses
and natural protectors. In imagination we heard a voice, not of
earth, saying, "Who goes there?" And as the sun became
stronger, and with his penetrating touch woke up the world, the
Bocas stood out and revealed themselves as they were; and as
we drew near, a variety of impressions rushed across our brain.
On the south, the north-east coast of Venezuela, coming slowly
into sight, reminded us of the great continent of South America,
'yet half unexplored, and in all probability destined never to be
BOCA DE NAVIOS.
really known. The brown, muddy waters which ran past our ship
told us of the Orinoco; and the names of Raleigh, Drake, and other
heroes, brought back to us scenes of battle and of trouble and of
insistent conquests of the British race. We remembered that
Trinidad was bound up in the story ; we pitied, for the seventieth
time, the unfortunate Columbus bickering with his crew; and the
child legend of Robinson Crusoe occupied a corner in our thoughts.
But while we thought, the Bocas rose over us, and, passing
through the little Bocas, seemed to tower over us, conveying a
sense of irresistible power and threatening complete destruction.
Weird as the scene was, with its strange sunlight effects, its ever-
changing sky, its gaunt masses of rock, its hidden horizon at our
stern in the open sea, an event now occurred which rendered it
still more weird, and perhaps a little human. When we came
abreast of the Bird Rock a great crowd of sea birds of all kinds