Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Real decreto
 Libro primero. Disposiciones...
 Libro segundo. Del sumario
 Libro tercero. Del juicio oral
 Libro cuarto. De los procedimientos...
 Libro quinto. De los recursos de...
 Libro sexto. Del procedimiento...
 Libro septimo. De la ejecución...
 Apéndice I. Decretos del glbierno...
 Apéndice II. Artículos del código...
 Apéndice III. Artículos de la ley...
 Sumario alfabético

Group Title: Ley de enjuiciamiento criminal (1888)
Title: Translation of the Law of criminal procedure for Cuba and Porto Rico
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00081365/00001
 Material Information
Title: Translation of the Law of criminal procedure for Cuba and Porto Rico
Uniform Title: Ley de enjuiciamiento criminal (1888)
Alternate Title: Law of criminal procedure for Cuba and Porto Rico
Physical Description: iii, iv-vii, iv-vii, 358, 358, 359-393 p. : ; 25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Cuba
Joannini, Frank L. ( tr )
United States -- Bureau of Insular Affairs
Spain -- Tribunal Supremo
Cuba -- Military governor
Puerto Rico
Publisher: Govt. Print. Off.,
Govt. Print. Off.
Place of Publication: Washington
Publication Date: 1901
Copyright Date: 1901
Subject: Criminal procedure -- Cuba   ( lcsh )
Criminal procedure -- Puerto Rico   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Cuba
Puerto Rico
United States of America
Statement of Responsibility: (with Spanish text), with annotations, explanatory notes, and amendments made since the American occupation. War Department, Division of Insular Affairs, October, 1901.
General Note: Paged in duplicate; English and Spanish on opposite pages.
General Note: "A large number of decisions of the Supreme Court of Madrid have been inserted as footnotes."--Translator's note, signed: Frank L. Joannini.
General Note: Appendices: I. Orders of the Cuban military government.--II. Articles of the Penal code referred to in the Law of criminal procedure.--III. Articles of the Law of civil procedure referred to in the Law of criminal procedure.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00081365
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - ADB8447
oclc - 03195455
alephbibnum - 000589659
lccn - 03013358

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
        Page iv-a
        Page v
        Page v-a
        Page vi
        Page vi-a
        Page vii
        Page vii-a
        Page viii
        Page ix
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    Real decreto
        Page 15
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 16
    Libro primero. Disposiciones generales
        Page 17
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    Libro segundo. Del sumario
        Page 72
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    Libro tercero. Del juicio oral
        Page 157
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    Libro cuarto. De los procedimientos especiales
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    Libro quinto. De los recursos de casación y de revisión
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    Libro sexto. Del procedimiento para el juicio sobre faltas
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    Libro septimo. De la ejecución de las sentencias
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    Apéndice I. Decretos del glbierno militar de Cuba
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    Apéndice II. Artículos del código penal á que hace referencia la ley de enjuiciamiento criminal
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    Apéndice III. Artículos de la ley de enjuiciamiento civil á que hace referencia la de enjuiciamiento criminal
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    Sumario alfabético
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Full Text









DrVISION Oi~~, 5dSuLAR AL Fa4~aS


.., -i


The translator of the Code of Criminal Procedure in force in Cuba
and Porto Rico begs to call attention to the fact that a large number of
decisions of the Supreme Court of Madrid have been inserted as foot-
notes, which serve to elucidate the language of the text. These deci-
sions are authoritative interpretations and in the Spanish courts have
practically the force of law.
The references, also inserted as footnotes, calling attention to other
laws in force, to royal decrees and military orders which modify the
procedure prescribed by the code, it is thought will also aid in making
the work of practical use, both for those who desire to inform them-
selves as to the methods of Spanish procedure and those called upon to
practice before the courts in the islands of Cuba and Porto Rico.
At the suggestion of a number of attorneys, the Spanish text, taken
from official editions of the law, has also been inserted for purposes of
, The Cuban civil orders contained in the first appendix have been
inserted as published by the respective authorities, and in many cases
the English equivalents of the Spanish terms will be found to differ
from those used by the translator in the text of the law.
An effort has been made to secure as correct a translation as possi-
ble, and in some cases the translator may be accused of sacrificing what
may be called good English for fidelity to the original text. He has
been constantly on his guard against making an interpretation of law
instead of a translation.
I certify that the following is a copy of the translation of the Law
of Criminal Procedure for Cuba and Porto Rico on file in the Insular
Division of the War Department, made under its direction.
Chief of Diisimon.
7 735c9


Exposici6n ............--------------................------------...................... 1
Real Decreto..-.......--------....---.... .....-.......... ..........-...... 15

Disposicion'es generals.
TiTULo I.-Preliminares..-------... --------------............................. 17
Capitulo I. Reglas generals ........-....-...-............. 17
II. Cuestiones prejudiciales ........................ 18
II.-De la colmpetencia de los jueces y tribunales en lo criminal....... 19
Capitulo I. De las reglas por donde se determine la compe-
tencia --..-----...-....----.......--......... 19
II. De las cuestiones de competencia entire los jueces
y Tribunales ordinarios...................... 22
III. De las competencias negatives y de las que se pro-
mueven con jueces 6 tribunales especiales, y de
los recursos de queja contra las autoridades ad-
ministrativas...............-----....---............ 28
III.-De las recusaciones y excuses de los magistrados, jueces, asesores y
auxiliares de los juzgados y tribunales, y de la abstenci6n del
ministerio fiscal----.........-....--......-................... 30
Capitulo 1. Disposiciones generals ..---..--.........-...--. 30
II. De la sustanciaci6n de las recusaciones de los jueces
de instrucci6n y de los magistrados .....-...... 31
III. De la sustanciaci6n de las recusaciones de los jueces
municipales ----....-----------......-- ........ 33
IV. De la recusaci6n de los auxiliares de los juzgados y
tribunales .--. .......... .... ................. 35
V. De las excuses y recusaciones de los asesores...... 36
VI. De la abstenci6n del ministerio fiscal-...----..... 36
IV.-De las personas A quienes corresponde el ejercieio de las acciones
que nacen de los delitos y faltas -.........-................... 38
V.-Del derecho de defense y del beneficio de pobreza en los juicios
criminals .....----......................................... 43
VI.-De la forma de dictar providencias, autos y sentencias, y del modo
de dirimir las discordias.....-----..--......------.....----..--.. 49
Capitulo I. De la forma de dictar providencias, autos y sen-
tencias ...................................... 49
II. Del modo de dirimir las discordias ...----......... 54
VI.-De las notificaciones, citaciones y emplazamientos.-.............. 55
VIII.-De los suplicatorios, exhortos y mandamientos -................. 58


Address .....---------.... ..-------.. --. ---- ...........................
Royal decree..................------------ .. ............ . .......... i


General provisions.
TITrL I.-Preliminaries .... ............................................. 17
Chapter I. General rules ........---.......--- .....-.... .... 17
II. Preliminary questions------.......--....---......-----.....
II.-Jurisdiction of judges and courts in criminal matters --..----...... 19
Chapter I. Rules fr determining jurisdiction.--.....--....... 19

II. Questions of jurisdiction between ordinary judges
and courts-------............................. 22
III. Questions of negative jurisdiction and those raised
by special judges or courts and complaints against
administrative authorities .-................... 28

III.-Challenges and excuses of justices, judges, assessors, and assistants
of superior and inferior courts and the abstention of the prose
cutingofficials .--..---............-------... .......... ...... 30
Chapter I. General provisions ...--------------.. ....-...... 30
II. Hearing and decision of challenges of judges of ex-
amination and justices -......-................. 31
III. Hearing and decision of challenges of municipal
judges ..--...........-.......... ............. 33
IV. Challenges of assistants of inferior and superior
courts .......................----- ........... 35
V. Excuses and challenges of assessors..-....---- ..... 36
VI. Abstention of prosecuting officials ............... 36
IV.-Persons who may exercise rights of action arising from crimes and
misdemeanors .....................----------..... .......... .. S
V.-The right of defense and the benefit of poverty in criminal causes.. 43

VI.-Form in which orders, rulings, and decisions shall be made, and
manner of adjusting disagreements -.---------......-- ....- .... 49
Chapter I. Form in which orders, rulings, and decisions shall
be made .....- ............................._. 49
II. Manner of adjusting disagreements --............. 54
VII.-Notifications, citations, and .suniuones ------..-..--.......-..------ 55
VIII.-Letters requisitorial, mandate-, and letters rugatory -....-..--..... 58

TiTII.o X.-De los trminos judiciales .-................--.........-..... 61
X.-De los recursos contra las resoluciones de los tribunales y jueces
de instruccin ..---------.....................----------........------.. 6
XI.-De las costas procesales .................----...............----..... 67
XII.-De las obligaciones de los jueces y tribunales, relatives d la esta-
dfstica judicial .-----------------...............--............--....--. 69
XIII.-De las correcciones disciplinarian ..---........--............ .. 71

Del .amtrio.
TfITLO I.-De la denuncia.............................................. 72
II.-De la querella.....-...............---....................... 74
III.-De la policia judicial .-..-.........--.....-................. 77
IV.-De la instruccin ............................................ 81
Capitulo I. Del sumario y de las autoridades competentes
para instruirlo ------............................ 81
II. De la formaci6n del sumario ................. 83
V.-De la comprobaci6n del delito y averiguaci6n del delincuente .. 88
Capitulo I. De la inspecci6n ocular....................... 88
II. Del cuerpo del delito.--....................... 89
III. De la identidad del delincuente y de sus cir-
cunstancias personales...................... 96
IV. De las declaraciones de los procesados-.....--. 99
V. De las declaraciones de los testigos-..........- 102
VI. Del careo de los testigos y procesados ........ 110

VII. Del informed pericial-.......................... 111
VI.-De la citaci6n, de la detenci6n y de la prisi6n provisional....... 116
Capitulo I. De la citaci(n ............................... 116
II. De la detenci6n ............................. 116
III. De la prisi6n provisional ..................... 119
IV. Del tratamiento de los detenidos 6 presos...... 122
VII.-De la libertad provisional del procesado .......-.............. 124
VIII.-De la entrada y registro en lugar cerrado, del de libros y papeles
y de la detenci6n y apertura de la correspondencia escrita y
telegrifica ............................................... 127
IX.-De la fianza y embargos -..................................... 134
X.-De la responsabilidad civil de terceras personas................ 139
XI.-De la conclusion del sumario y del sobreseimiento ............. 141
Capitulo I. De la conclusion del sumario.................. 141
II. Del sobreseimiento ........................... 149
XII.-Disposiciones generals referentes a los anteriores titulos ....... 155


Del juicio oral.
TiTULO I.-De la calificaci6n del delito..---.....-........--- ...... ....... 157
II.-De los articulos de previo pronunciamiento .................... 165
III.-De la celebraci6n del juicio oral .............................. 168
Capitulo I. De la publicidad de los debates ............... 168
II. De las facultades del president del tribunal.... 168

TITLE IX.-Judicial periods. ...........................-................ 61
X. -Remedies against decisions of courts and judges of examination.. 64

XI.-Costs in actions ..-................-.................------- .. 67
XII.-Obligations of judges and courts with regard to judicial statistics 69

XIII.-Disciplinary corrections .--..............----------......-------.. 71


Thie swmario.
TITLE I.-The denunciation ............................................ 72
II.-The complaint or information ..---.....-.....--- .-----..------ 74
III.-The judicial police --....--..- .....-.....---.----.------------- 77
IV.-The investigation ............................................ 81
Chapter I. The sionario and the authorities to take cogni-
zance thereof..................-------------..-- 81
II. Formation of the sumario ........-............ 83
V.-Proof of the crime and verification of the delinquent............ 88
Chapter I. The ocular inspection ..........--.......-....- 88
II. The corpus deliciti..-........----..... ..--.-- ..-- 89
III. The identity of the delinquent and his personal
circumstances .........-..--......- .....---. 99
IV. Declaration of the accused......---....... ------ 99
V. Depositions of witnesses --.....---.....---......-----102
VI. Confrontation between the witnesses and the
accused ..--.......---- ..-..-...-- ....------ 110
VII. Expert evidence.........--------------.....---..--.......------ '111
VI.-The citation, the detention, and the provisional imprisonment... 116
Chapter I. The citation................................... 116
II. The detention......-..-.....---.-- ....-- ...... 116
III. Provisional imprisonment.....--...--.---..... ...---- 119
IV. Treatment of persons detained or imprisoned.... 122
VII.-Provisional liberty of the accused.........-................--.. 124
VIII.-Entry and search of closed places, of books and papers, and the de-
tention and opening of written and telegraphic correspondence. 127

IX.-Bonds and attachments ........-..--.--..--.......---..-----..--- 134
X.-Civil liability of third persons -....--....----....----------..-..--..--....-- 139
XI.-Conclusion of the sumario and dismissal of proceedings .......... 141
Chapter I. Conclusion of the sumario...................... 141
II. Dismissal of the proceedings -......--.......-- 149
XII.-General provisions relating to the foregoing titles ............... 155


The oral trial.

TITLE I.-Classification of the crime....................................-- 157
II.-Preliminary exceptions ........-----..--....--......-----...-------165
III.-Holding of the oral trial....--......................-----------------..--..-- 168
Chapter I. Publicity of the arguments.-.................... 168
II. Powers of the presiding judge of the court.--..... 168

TITULo III.-De la celebraci6n del juicio oral-Continda. Pagina.
Capftulo III. Del modo de practicar las pruebas durante el juicio
oral .......-...........-- ..-- ..-..---....--- 169
Secci6n 1., De la confesi6n de los procesados y
personascivilmente responsables. 169
2." Del examen de los testigos ..--..... 172
3." Del informe pericial ............. 177
4.1 De la prueba documental y de la
imspecci6n ocular.............. 178
5.a Disposiciones comunes A las cuatro
secciones anteriores ............. 178
IV. De la acusaci6n, de la defense y de la sentencia -. 180
V. Ie la suspension del juicio oral..------..-..---... 183

De los procedimientos especiales.
TiTULO I.-Del modo de proceder cuando fuere procesado un Senador 6
Diputado i Cortes..--..--......-- ....--..-..... ......-...-- .. 187
II.-Del antejuicio necesario para exigir la responsabilidad criminal it
los jueces y magistrados .....................-................ 189
III.-Del procedimiento en los casos de flagrante delito........ ..------- 193
Capftulo I. Casos en que tiene lugar este procedimiento... 193
II. Reglas i que debe ajustarse este procedimiento.. 195
IV.-Del procedimiento por delitos de injuria y calumnia contra par-
ticulares ..-.......---.......-......---..............-----.. .199
V.-Del procedimiento por delitos cometidos por medio de la imprenta,
el grabado i otro medio mecinico de publicacin .....-......--. 201
SVI.-Del procedimiento para la extradici6n..----...........-...-..-- 203
VII.-Del procedimiento contra reos ausentes ----......................... 205

De los recursos de casaci6n y de revi.i(n.

TITuLo I.-De los recursos de casaci6n ..................................... 207
Capitulo I. De los recursos de casaci6n por infraccion de ley. 207

Seccion 1. De la procedencia del recurso-..... 207
2." De la preparaci6n del recurso -... 213
3." Del recurso de queja por denegaci6n
del testimonio pedido para inter-
poner el de casaci6n..-......... 215

4.1 De la interposici6n del recurso..... 217
5." De la sustanciaci6n del recurso..... 220
6." 1)e la decision del recurso..--....--- 223
II. De los recursos de casaci6n por quebrantamiento
de forma..---...---..--..--............... 225
Secci6n 1. De la procedencia del recurso...... 225
2.1 De la interposici6n del recurso..... 231
3." Del recurso de queja por denegaci6n
de admisi6n del de (casaci6n por
quebrantamiento de forma ..-.. 232
4.' De la sustanciaci6n del recurso..... 233
5.'! De la decision del recurso...---------.. 234


TITLE III.-Holding of the oral trial-Continued. Page.
Chapter III. Manner of taking evidence at the oral trial.--..... 169

Section 1. Confession of the persons accused
and persons civilly liable........ 169
2. Examination of witnesses--..--..... 172
3. Expert examinations ..-........- 177
4. Documentary evidence and ocular
inspection .-------------....... 178
5. Provisions common to the four pre-
ceding sections........-..-....-- 178
IV. The accusation, the defense, and the sentence-.... 1.0
V. Suspension of the oral trial ................---..--. 183

Special proceedings.
TITLE I.-Manner of proceeding in the trial of a senator or deputy to the
Cortes ...................----.................------.....---....... 187
II.-Preliminary action necessary for the purpose of enforcing the crimi-
nal liability of judges and justices .............----............... 189
III.-Proceedings in cases of flagrant crimes .---..............--------...----------- 193
Chapter I. Cases where these proceedings lie..........--....--- 193
II. Rules to which these proceedings must conformn-- 195
IV.-Proceedings upon crimes of contumely and calumny against private
individuals .------.......---......-----------...------ ..--- 199
V.-Proceedings on crimes committed through the press, engravings, or
other mechanical means of publication ..---..--.....--- ..------ 201
VI.-Prbceedings for extradition.....---............................-- 203
VII.-Proceedings against absent criminals.........------------....--....----..--205

Appealsfor annulment of .pildneit anid for re-iew.
TITLE I.-Appeals for annulment of judgment ................--- ....--..... 207
Chapter I. Appeals for annulment of judgment for violation
Sof la ...--....---...............--- ....... 207
Section 1. When the appeal lies---......--------.. 207
2. Preparation of the appeal.............. 213
3. Remedy of complaint on account of a
refusal of a transcript requested for the
interposition of an appeal for annul-
ment of judgment.---...........----------- 215
4. Interposition of the appeal ---..---.---.. 217-
5. Hearing of the appeal .----............---- 220
6. Decision of the appeal..-------.. --.. -- 223
II. Appeals for annulment of judgment for breach of
form ..-..-..------.-- ..-------------------- 225
Section 1. When the appeal lies..-.....-...--.... 225
2. Interpositon of the appeal....-----------....-- 231
3. Remedy of complaint on account of the
denial of an appeal for annulment of
judgment for breach of form ........ 232
4. Hearing of the appeal --.............----- 233
5. Decision of the appeal ..............---- 234


TiTULO I.-De los recursos de casaci6n-Continua. PAgina.
Capitulo III. De la interposici6n, sustanciaci6n y resoluci6n
del recurso de casaci6n por infracci6n de ley
y por quebrantamiento de forma........--. 234
IV. Del recurso de casaci6n en las causes de muerte 236

II.-Del recurso de revision ......--....-... ..---- ...........-------- 238

Del procedimiento para el juicio sobre faltas.
TiTULO I.-Del juicio sobre faltas, en primera instancia..................... 240
II.-Del juicio sobre faltas, en segunda instancia ......... ......... 243

De la ejecuci6n de las sentencias........................................... 245
Disposici6n final.........-..--.--------..---.-----. -..----..-.........--.. 248


Deereft del Gobierno Militar de Cuba.
No. 41.-14 de Abril de 1899..-----........ --.-.----- ...--- ....-----.---- 249
No. 63.-25 de Mayo de 1899..-...-.......... ..---------.-...----- --..... 259
No. 92.-26 de Junio de 1899....---....-......--.----------.......-..---- 259
No. 109.-13 de Julio de 1899 --.....------ .-.---------...------ ..-------. 281
No. 135.-11 de Agosto de 1899...------.-- .....- ...--------.........------ 287
No. 157.-5 de Septiembre de 1899-.............-..--..... ......--------... 288
No. 176.-21 de Septiembre de 1899-....-.........--------------. ...-- ..-- 288
No. 58.-9 de Febrero de 1900...-...-.......--..-- ..-..- .......-----....- 289
No. 152.-10 de Abril de 1900..... ...-------------.................------. 289
No. 166.-23 de Abril de 1900 ................---------------......-------.........- 290
No. 181.-30 de Abril de 1900 .... --..........-..- .---- ..--- .........---- 293
No. 192.-9 de Mayo de 1900........----.......... ..........----------- 296
No. 213.-25 de Mayo de 1900-......- ......-----------.-- ......----....---- 298
No. 228.-3 de Junio de 1900...-......----- .. ~.---- -- ....---- .........-.. 312
No. 269.-3 de Julio de 1900 ...-...---- ..-- ......--..---- .. .-....--...... 312
No. 311.-8 de Agosto de 1900.........----........--------------..------.........- 313
No. 362.-17 de Septiembre de 100--------........--.---------....------........----....- 317
No. 427.-15 de Octubre de 1900.......-------.......-----.....--.......... --------322
No. 465.-14 de Soviembre d, 1900....... ....-----....--- ....- ........--- 331
No. 468.-15 de Noviembre de 1900.........---- ------------..... ------...... 332
No. 500.-10 de Diciembre de 1900 ---..------........----.---- ......------- 332
No. 513.-19 de Diciembre de 1900 ...--......---....-- ......--..----- ---- 334
No. 3.-1. de Enero de 101..........-- ----.......---- .......----.......- 334
No. 45.-4 de Febrero de 1901..............---- ------------------------- 335
No. 84.-25 de MBarzo de 1901 ....................----------...--.......--------- 337
No. 95.-10 de Abril de 1901--..-..---.. ...-- ......................-....-- 338
No. 520.-21 de Diciembre de 1900 -..-......-- ....---.-- ...------- ..- -...- 342

Articulos del C6digo Penal ii que hace referencia la Ley de Enjuiciamiento
Criminal... ...---------..........-- ...........---- ....----- ----------.--- 344

Articulos de la Ley de Enjuiciamiento Civil A que hace referencia la de Enjui-
ciamiento Criminal..--.....----...... -..----.. ----------------..... 348


TITLE I.-Appeals for annulment of judgment-Continued. Page.
Chapter III. Interposition, hearing, and decision of an appeal
for annulment of judgment for violation of law
and for breach of form...-......---..-....... 234
IV. Appeals for annulment of judgment in causes in-
volving the death penalty .................... 236
II.-The appeal for review............-.....--... ..........-...... 238

Proceedings in actions upon misdemeanors.
TITLE I.-Actions upon misdemeanors at first instance ...................... 240
II.-Actions upon misdemeanors at second instance ................... 243

Execution of sentences.........-------.........--------...............-------......---------- 245
Final provision ..................- .....-..-.............................. 248


Orders of the 'Cuban Military Government.
No. 41.-April 14, 1899---.........---...........---------..--.............--..--- 249
No. 63.-May 25, 1899 .................................... .............. 259
No. 92.-June 26, 1899...--------------...- --..-- ..-..---.........--- -. 259
No. 109.-July 13, 1899 ................................................... 281
No. 135.-August 11, 1899............-................................... 287
No. 157.-September 5, 1899 ...--..................--...........--------------- 288
No. 176.-September 21, 1899............................................. 28?
No. 58.-February 9, 1900......................................---...--. 289
No. 152.-April 10, 1900 ................................................ 259
No. 166.-April 23, 1900 ...-.................- ..............-........ 290
No. 181.-April 30, 1900 ..........................-.-...-..-.......-.. 293
No. 192.-May 9. 1900 ................. ................................. 296
No. 213.-:May 25, 1900 ..........................-----.-------..----.--- 298
No. 22S.-June 3, 190U..... ....... ................ ............. ... 312
No. 269.-July 3, 1900 ......._........................-.... .......-. 312
No. 311.-August 8, 1900................ ..........-...............- 318
No. 362.-September 17, 1900 ................ ............ ........... 317
No. 427.-October 15, 1900...... ........ ................................ 322
No. 465.-November 14, 1900........................... ................... 331
No. 468.-November 15, 1900...---.........-...........-........ ......... 332
No. 500.-December 10, 1900............................................. 332
No. 513.-December 19, 1900. ........... ............................... 334
No. 3.-January 1, 1901........... .....-..--..........-- .--- ..---. 334
No. 45.-February 4, 1901................................................. 335
No. 84.-March 25, 1901 ..............-....-----..-.----..--.------------ 337
No. 95.-April 10, 1901 ............................................... 338
No. 520.-December 21, 1900....................-............-- ..-....... 342

Articles of the Penal Code referred to in the Law of Criminal Procedure ..... 344

Articles of the Law of Civil Procedure referred to in the Law of Criminal Pro-
cedure......................................... 348




SEFoR:-La ejecuci6n de las dos leyes promulgadas en virtud de
Reales decretos de 22 de Junio de este afio presupone un nuevo C6digo
de Enjuiciamiento penal, una modificaci6n profunda en la ley organica
del Poder judicial de 15 de Septiembre de 1870, la determinaci6n del
nfimero y residencia de los Tribunales colegiados que han de conocer
en unica instancia y en juicio oral y pfiblico de los delitos que se come-
tan dentro do su respective territorio, y, por fltimo, la formaci6n de los
cuadros de personal de esos mismos Tribunales cuyos presidents deben
estar adornados de condiciones especiales de capacidad para la direcci6n
y resume de los debates.
Basta la mera enumeraci6n de estos trabajos preparatorios para
comprender que, ni por su indole y naturaleza, ni por su extension y
exceptional importancia, podian terminarse en breve plazo. Cibele,
sin embargo, al infrascrito la satisfacci6n de anunciar hoy A V. M. que
todos ellos pueden darse por ultimados, gracias al patri6tico concurso
que han prestado al Gobierno hombres eminentes no s61o en la ciencia
del Derecho, sino tanbi6n en el conocimiento especial de la topograffa,
censo de poblaci6n, veas de comunicaci6n y estadistica criminal del
territorio de la Peninsula 6 islas adyacentes.

El Gobierno de V. M. no se propone publicar todos estos trabajos
6 la vez; antes al contrario, cree convenient anticipar la promulgaci6n
del C6digo de Enjuiciamiento para que, mientras se instalan las
Audiencias de lo criminal, puedan estudiarle y conocerle los magistrados,
jueces, fiscales, letrados y demis personas que por modo mfs 6 menos
director y eficaz han de concurrir a su planteamiento y aplicaci6n.

No serA su ec'udio muy dificil ni prolijo, porque al cabo el proyecto
que el Ministro que suscribe somete boy a la aprobaci6n de V. M.
esti basado en la Compilaci6n general de 16 de Octubre de 1879, de
conformidad con lo preceptuado en la autorizaci6n votada por las
Cortes; pero asi y todo, son tan radicals las reforms en 41 introduci-
das, que bien podia pasar por un C6digo completamente nuevo y de



SIRE: The execution of the two laws promulgated by virtue of
royal decrees of June 22 of this year presupposes a new code of penal
procedure, a radical change in the organic law of the judicial power
of September 15, 1870, the determination of the number and seats
of the collegiate tribunals which are to take cognizance in first and
last instance, and in oral and public trials of the crimes which may be
committed within their respective territories, and, finally, the selection
of the personnel of the said tribunals, the presiding judges of which
must possess special qualifications for the direction and summing up
of the cases.
A mere statement of these preparatory works is sufficient to show
that neither by their character or nature, nor by their extent and
exceptional importance, could they be concluded in a short time. The
undersigned, nevertheless, has the pleasure of to-day informing Your
Majesty that all of them can be considered as concluded, thanks to the
patriotic assistance furnished to the Government by men eminent in
the science of law and perfectly conversant with the topography of
the country, census of the population, means of communication, and
the criminal statistics of the territory of the Peninsula and adjacent
The Government of Your Majesty does not propose to publish all
these works at the same time, but, on the contrary, it deems it advisa-
ble first to promulgate the Code of Procedure in order that, until the
criminal audiencias are established, it may be studied and known by the
justices, judges, fiscales, attorneys, and other persons who are to con-
tribute in a more or less direct and efficient manner to its establish-
ment and application.
Its study will not be very difficult or require a long time, because,
after all, the draft which the undersigned Minister herewith submits
for the approval of Your Majesty is based upon the general compila-
tion of October 16, 1879, in pursuance with the authority vested in
the Government by the Cortes; but, nevertheless, the amendments
introduced therein are so radical that it might be said with reason

caricter tan liberal y progresivo como el mis adelantado de los C6digos
de procedimiento criminal del continent europeo.
Entre esas reforms son sin duda las menos importantes aquellas
que, sugeridas por la experiencia, tienen por objeto, ya aclarar various
preceptos mas 6 menos oscuros y dudosos de la Compilaci6n vigente, ya
uniformar la jurisprudencia, 6 ya, en fin, facilitar la sustanciaci6n de
algunos recursos y muy especialmente el de casaci6n, acerca del cual
ha hecho observaciones muy oportunas y discretas el Tribunal Supremo,
que naturalmente han sido acogidas con el respeto que merece una Cor-
poraci6n que esti i la cabeza de la Magistratura espaiola, y que es
por la ley int6rprete y guardian de la doctrine juridica.

Las de verdadera importancia y transcendencia son aquellas otras
que se encaminan A suplir, como en las cuestiones prejudiciales, algin
vacio sustancial por donde era frecuente el arbitrio un tanto desmedido,
y mis que desmedido contradictorio, de la jurisprudencia, i corregir
los vicios cr6nicos de nuestro sistema de enjuiciar traditional y A rodear
al ciudadano de las garantias necesarias para que en ningfn caso sean
sacrificados los derechos individuals al interns mal entendido del
Sin desconocer que la Constituci6n de 1812, el reglamento provisional
para la administraci6n de justicia de 1835 y otras disposiciones pos-
teriores mejoraron considerablemente el procedimiento criminal, seria
temerario negar que aun bajo la legislaci6n vigente no es raro que un
sumario dure ocho 6 mAs afos, y es frecuente que no dure menos de
dos, prolongandose en ocasiones por todo este tiempo la prisi6n pre-
ventiva de los acusados, y aun podria aniadirse, para completar el cua-
dro, que tan escandalosos process solian no hi much terminar por
una absolucidn de la instancia, sin que nadie indemnizara en este caso
a los procesados de las vejaciones sufridas en tan dilatado period, y
lo que es mas, dejAndoles por todo el resto de su vida en situaci6n
inc6moda y deshonrosa, bajo la amenaza perenne de abrir de nuevo el
procedimiento el dia que por malquerencia se prestaba & declarer con-
tra ellos cualquier vecino rencoroso y vengativo. Esta prActica
abusive y atentoria a los derechos del individuo pugna todavia por
mantenerse con este 6 el otro disfraz en nuestras costumbresjudiciales;
y es menester que cese para siempre, porque el ciudadano de un pueblo
libre no debe expiar faltas que no son suyas, ni ser victim de la impo-
tencia 6 del egoismo del Estado.

Con ser estos dos vicios tan capitals, no son, sin embargo, los unicos
ni acaso los mis grandes de nuestro procedimiento. Lo peor de todo es
que en 61 no se da intervenci6n alguna al inculpado en el sumario; que


that it is an entirely new one as liberal and progressive as the most
advanced code of criminal procedure on the European Continent.
Among these changes the less important are no doubt those sug-
gested by experience, whose object is either to explain various more
or less obscure and doubtful precepts of the compilation in force, to
make the jurisprudence uniform, or, finally, to facilitate the use of
some remedies and most especially the appeal for annulment of judg-
ment, upon which the Supreme Court has made some very opportune
and well-chosen remarks, which have naturally been received with the
respect which that body deserves which is at the head of the Span-
ish judiciary, and which is by law the interpreter and guardian of the
juridical doctrine.
The amendments of real and transcendent importance are those
whose purpose it is to supply, as in preliminary questions, some sub-
stantial lack owing to which it has frequently occurred that the discre-
tionary powers granted were so great, and more than that, even
contradictory to jurisprudence; to correct the chronic vices of our
traditional system of procedure, and to surround the citizen with the
necessary guaranties, in order that in no case should individual rights
be sacrificed to the poorly understood interests of the State.
Without ignoring the fact that the Constitution of 1812, the pro-
visional regulations for the administration of justice of 1835, and other
subsequent provisions greatly improved the criminal procedure, it
would be unreasonable to deny that even under the legislation in force
it is not unusual that the preliminary proceedings last eight or more
years, and it frequently happens that they do not last less than two,
the temporary imprisonment of the accused continuing in some cases
this entire period; and it may further be added, in order to complete
the picture, that these scandalous processes not so very long ago would
sometimes be closed on account of lack of evidence, without anyone,
in such case, indemnifying the accused persons for the inconveniences
suffered for so long a period, and, what is more, the imprisonment
would leave them for the rest of their life in an unpleasant and dis-
graceful condition, under the permanent menace of the proceedings
being reopened any day that, through malice, any rancorous or venge-
ful neighbor should inform against them. This evil practice, which
attacks the rights of individuals, is still kept under some disguise
or other in our judicial customs; and it is necessary that it should
be abolished forever, because a citizen of a free nation must not expi-
ate faults of which he is not guilty, nor be the victim of the impotence
or of the egoism of the State.
Although these are two capital vices, they are not, however, the
only ones, nor even the most serious faults in our procedure. The
worst of all is that the accused is not allowed to take part in the

el juez que instruye 6ste es el mismo que pronuncia la sentencia con
todas las preocupaciones y prejuicios que ha hecho nacer en su animo la
instrucci6n; que confundido lo civil con lo criminal y abrumados los
juices de primer instancia por el cimulo'de sus multiples y variadas
atencioncs, delegan frecuentemente la prctica de muchas diligencias
en el escribano, quien, A solas con el procesado y los testigos, no siempre
interpreta bien el pensamiento, ni retrata con perfect fidelidad las
impresiones de cada uno, por grande que sea su celo y recta su volun-
tad; que por la naturaleza misma de las cosas y la 16gica del sistema,
nuestros juices y magistrados han adquirido el habito de dar escasa
importancia a las pruebas del plenario, formando su juicio por el
resultado de las diligencias sumariales, y no parando mientes en la rati-
ficaci6n de los testigos, convertida en vana formalidad; que en ausencia
del inculpado y su defensor, los funcionarios que intervienen en la
instrucci6n del sumario, animados de un espiritu receloso y hostile que
se engendra en su mismo patri6tico celo por la causa de la sociedad que
representan, recogen con preferencia los datos adversos al procesado,
descuidando A las veces consignar los que pueden favorecerle; y que,
en fin, de este conjunto de errors anejos A nuestro sistema de enjuiciar,
y no imputable, por tanto, a los funcionarios del orden judicial y fiscal,
resultan dos cosas A cual mis funestas al ciudadano: una, que al compis
que adelanta el sumario se va fabricando inadvertidamente una verdad
de artificio, que mis tarde se convierte en verdad legal, pero que es
contraria A la realidad de los hechos y subleva la conciencia del proce-
sado; y otra, que cuando este, llegado el plenario, quiere defenders,
no bace mis que forcejear initilmente porque entra en el palenque ya
vencido, 6 por lo menos desarmado. Hay, pues, que restablecer la
igualdad de condiciones en esta contienda juridica hasta donde lo con-
sientan los fines esenciales de la sociedad humana.

Quizas se tache de exagerada 4 injusta esta critical de la organizaci6n
de nuestra justicia criminal. jOjala que lo fuera! Pero el Ministro
que suscribe no manda en su raz6n, y estA obligado A decir a V. M.
la verdad tal como la siente; que las llagas sociales no se curan
ocultAndolas, sino al rev4s, midiendo su extension y profundidad, y
estudiando su origen y naturaleza para aplicar el oportuno remedio.
En sentir del que suscribe, s61o por la costumbre se puede explicar
que el pueblo espaffol, tan civilizado y culto y que tantos progress ha
echo en lo que va de siglo en la ciencia, en el arte, en la industrial y
en su educaci6n political, se resigned A un sistema semejante, mostran-
dose indiferente 6 desconociendo sus vicios y peligros, como no los
aprecia ni mide, el que habituado a respirar en atm6sfera mal sana,
llega hasta la asfixia sin sentirla. El extranjero que estudia la organi-

preliminary proceedings; that the judge who sits thereon is the same
as the one who pronounces the sentence, with all the ideas and preju-
dices to which the investigation has given rise; that, civil and criminal
matters being confounded, and the judges of first instance being
overwhelmed by the accumulation of their multiple and various duties,
frequently delegate the performance of many steps to the court clerk,
who, alone with the accused and the witnesses, does not always cor-
rectly interpret the thought nor does he portray with perfect fidelity
the testimony of each, no matter how zealous or how good-may be
his will; that, by the character itself of the things and the logic
of the system, our judges and justices have acquired the habit of
attributing little importance to the evidence introduced at the trial,
forming their judgment upon the result of the preliminary proceed-
ings, and do not pay particular attention to the ratification of the wit-
nesses, which has become a mere formality; that in the absence of
the accused and his counsel, the officials taking part in the preliminary
proceedings, animated with a suspicious and hostile spirit, which is
engendered by their patriotic zeal in the interests of the society they
represent, give preference to the data against the accused, forgetting
at the same time to record those which might favor him; and that,
finally, from this number of errors in our system of procedure, and
which can not be imputed, therefore, to the officials of the judiciary or
to the public prosecutors, there result two things very unfavorable to
the citizen: One, that in proportion as the preliminary proceedings
advance, a network is being inadvertently woven which is later con-
verted into a legal truth, but which is contrary to the facts, and causes
the conscience of the accused to rebel, and the other, that when the
latter wishes to defend himself at the trial he does nothing but use-
lessly contradict, because he enters the arena already defeated, or at
least disarmed. It is necessary, therefore, to establish an equality of
conditions in this juridical contest in so far as the essential ends of
human society will permit.
Perhaps this criticism of the organization of our criminal justice
may be considered exaggerated and unjust. Would that it were so.
But the undersigned Minister is not master of his judgment, and is
obliged to tell Your Majesty the truth as he feels it. Social evils are
not cured by concealing them, but, on the contrary, by measuring their
extent and depth and by studying their origin and nature, in order
that the proper remedy may be applied. In the opinion of the under-
signed, custom only can explain how the Spanish people, so civilized
and cultured, and which has made such progress during the present
century in the sciences, arts, and industries, and in political education,
should resign itself to such a system, showing indifference or ignoring
its vices and dangers, like those who breathe an unhealthy atmosphere
and reach a point of asphyxiation without knowing it. A foreigner

zaci6n de nuestra justicia criminal al vernos apegados a un sistema ya
caduco, y desacreditado en Europa y en America, tiene por necesidad
que former una idea injusta y falsa de la civilizaci6n y cultural
, Lo que hay que examiner, por tanto, es si el adjunto proyecto de
C6digo remedia, si no todos, al menos los mis capitals defects de que
adolece la vigente organizaci6n de la justicia criminal. Es preciso en
primer termino sustituir la marcha'perezosa y lenta del actual proce-
dimiento poi un sistema que, dando amplitud A la defense y garantias
de acierto al fallo, asegure, sin embargo, la celeridad del juicio para la
realizaci6n de dos fines a cual mas importantes: uno, que la suerte del
ciudadano no est6 indefinidamente en lo incierto ni se le causen mis
vejaciones que las absolutamente indispensables para la averiguaci6n
del delito y el descubrimiento del verdadero delincuente; y otro, que
la pena siga de cerca a la culpa para su debida eficacia y ejemplaridad.

Pues bien, Sefior; he aquf el conjunto de medios que el nuevo sistema
ofrece para el logro de resultado tan transcendental: la sustituci6n de
los dos grades de jurisdicci6n por la instancia 6nica, la oralidad del
juicio, la separaci6n de lo civil y lo criminal en cuanto al Tribunal
sentenciador, igual separaci6n en cuanto A los jueces instructors en
ciertas ciudades populosas en donde hay mis de un juez de primer
instancia y es much la criminalidad, un alivio considerable de trabajo
en cuanto A los demis jueces, a quienes se descarga del plenario y del
pronunciamiento y motivaci6n de la sentencia, ya que razones indecli-
nables de economic no permiten extender a ellos dicha separaci6n, multi-
tud de reglas de detalle esparcidas aqui y alli en el adjunto C6digo, y
singularmente en sus dos primeros libros, para que los jueces instructo-
res en el examen de los testigos y en la prictica de los demis medios
de investigaci6n se citian A solo lo que sea ftil y pertinente y, por
uiltimo, la intervenci6n del procesado en todas las diligencias del
sumario tan pronto como el juez estime que la publicidad de las actua-
ciones no compromete la causa pdblica ni estorba el descubrimiento
de la verdad. Por regla general nadie tiene mis interns que el pro-
cesado en activar el procedimiento y si alguna vez su prop6sito fuera
prolongarlo, se lo impediria el juez, y sobre todo el fiscal, a quien se
da el derecho de pedir la terminaci6n del sumario y la apertura del
juicio oral ante el Tribunal colegiado. Concurrira tambi6n al propio
fin la inspecci6n continue y sistemAticamente organizada en la ley, de
la Audiencia de lo criminal y del Ministerio piblico sobre la march
de los process en el period de la instrucci6n y la conduct de los
jueces instructors. No es, finalmente, para echado en olvido, cuando
de la brevedad del juicio se trata, el libro 4, donde se establecen pro-

studying the organization of our criminal justice, in seeing us attached
to a system out of date and which is discredited in Europe and in
America, must necessarily form an unjust and false idea of Spanish
civilization and culture.
What is to be examined, therefore, is whether the attached project
for a code remedies, if not all, at least the most notable defects con-
tained in the organization of criminal justice at present in force. It
is necessary, in the first place, to substitute for the slow and lazy prog-
ress of the present procedure a system which, in giving full scope to
the defense, and guarantees of certainty to the judgment, shall never-
theless assure a speedy trial, for the consummation of two ends of the
greatest importance: One, that the fate of the citizen be not indefi-
nitely held in suspense, and that not more inconveniences be caused
him than are absolutely necessary for the investigation of the crime
and the discovery of the guilty party, and the other that the punish-
ment follow soon after the fault, for the purpose of its proper efficacy
and example.
Consequently, Sir, I state herewith the measures which the new sys-
tem affords for the attainment of such important results: The substi-
tution for the two degrees of jurisdiction by the only instance, the oral
character of the trial, separation of civil and criminal matters with
regard to the sentencing tribunal; a similar separation with regard to
the examining judges in certain largely populated towns where there is
more than one judge of first instance and much crime; a considerable
reduction in work with regard to the other judges, who are not
required to take part in the trial, nor to pronounce sentence and give the
reasons therefore, as unsurmountable reasons of economy do not permit
the extension to them of said separation; a large number of rules of
detail scattered here and there in the attached code, and especially in
the first two books, in order that the examining judges in the exami-
nation of the witnesses and in the execution of the other steps in the
investigation confine themselves ex-lusively to what may be useful and
pertinent; and, finally, the intervention of the accused in all the steps of
the preliminary proceedings as soon as the judge considers that the pub-
licity of the proceedings will not compromise the public cause nor
hinder the discovery of the truth. As a general rule no one has more
interest than the accused in hastening the proceedings; and if his pur-
pose were at any time to prolong the same the judge will prevent it, and
especially theJfical, to whom the right is given to demand the conclu-
sion of the preliminary proceedings and the beginning of the oral trial
before the collegiate tribunal. The continuous and systematic inspec-
tion provided for by this law, of the criminal audiencia and of the public
department, as to the progress of the proceedings during the period of
the investigation and of the conduct of the examining judges will

cedimientos especiales y sumarios para los delitos infraganti, para los
de injuria y calumnia y para los cometidos por medio de la imprenta.

Podri ser que ni la Comisi6n de C6digos ni el Gobierno hayan acer-
tado en la elecci6n de los medios en este punto tan interesante de la
ciencia procesal; pero la verdad es que no han encontrado otros, ni se
los ha sugerido el examen de los C6digos modernos atentamente estu-
diados con tal fin.
La ley de 11 Febrero, en la base referente a la prisi6n preventive,
permit, por la flexibilidad de sus t6rminos, mejorar considerablemente
esta rarte de nuestra legislaci6n sin necesidad de pedir su reform 6
las Cortes. El texto legal bien analizado result tan elistico, que lo
mismo se presta al desenvolvimiento de la base en un sentido tirante y
restrictive, que en otro mas amplio, expansive y liberal.
Ocioso parece afiadir que el Gobierno de V. M. se ha decidido por lo
6ltimo, today vez que podia hacerlo sin cometer una transgresi6n de la
ley; como en la material de fianzas, tan intimamente ligada con todo
lo referente A la prisi6n preventive, ha procurado armonizar los fines
de la justicia con los derechos del procesado, poniendo coto i la possible
arbitrariedad judicial y estableciendo reglas equitativas y prudentes
que permitan mayor amplitud que hasta ahora, asi en los medios y
formas de las fianzas como en la entidad de ellas.

Es igualmente indtil decir que la absoluci6n de la instancia, esta
corruptela que hacia del ciudadano A quien el Estado no habia podido
convencer de culpable, una especie de liberto de por vida, verdadero
siervo de la curia marcado con el estigma del deshonor, esta proscrita y
expresamente prohibida por el nuevo C6digo, como habia sido antes
condenada por la ciencia, por la ley de 1872 y por la Compilaci6n vigente.
De esperar es que las disposiciones de la nueva ley sean bastante eficaces
para impedir que semejante prictica vuelva de nuevo a ingerirse en
forma mas 6 menos disimulada en nuestras costumbres judiciales.
Los demis vicios del Enjuiciamiento vigente quedarin sin duda cor-
regidos con el planteamiento del juicio oral y pfblico y la introduc-
ci6n del sistema acusatorio en la ley procesal.
El reglamento provisional de 26 de Septiembre de 1835 y las dispo-
siciones posteriores publicadas durante el reinado de la augusta madre
de V. M., introdujeron, como ya se ha dicho, evidentes mejoras en el
procedimiento criminal; pero no alteraron su indole esencialmente
inquisitiva. Las leyes de 15 de Septiembre de 1870 y 22 de Diciem-
bre de 1872, inspirindose en las ideas de libertad proclamadas por la
revoluci6n de 1868, realizaron una reform radical en nuestro sistema
de enjuiciar, con el establecimiento del juicio oral y pdblico; pero

also contribute to the same end. Finally, Book IV must not be for-
gotten in treating of the brevity of the proceedings, which establishes
special and summary proceedings for flagrant crimes as well as for
the crime of outrage and calumny and for those committed through
the press.
It may be that neither the commission on codes nor the Govern-
ment, in their selection of means, have covered so interesting a point
in the science of procedure; but the truth is that it has not been pos-
sible to find any other measures nor have any been suggested from an
examination of modern codes carefully studied for this purpose.
The law of February 11, in the basis relating to provisional impris-
onment, permits, by the flexibility of its terms, a considerable
improvement in this part of our legislation without requiring the
Cortes to amend the same. The legal text if well analyzed appears
so elastic that it serves for the development of the basis in a strict and
restrictive sense, as well as in one more ample, expansive, and liberal.
It appears unnecessary to add that the Government of Your Majesty
has decided finally whenever it could do so without committing a
transgression of law; as in the matter of bail, so intimately con-
nected with all that relates to provisional imprisonment, it has
attempted to harmonize the ends of justice with the rights of the
accused, putting an end to the possible judicial arbitrariness and estab-
lishing equitable and prudent rules which permit a greater scope than
allowed heretofore in the character and form of bonds as well as their
It is likewise useless to state that a dismissal of the case for lack of
evidence, this abuse which made of the citizen whom the State could
not convict a kind of paroled prisoner for the rest of his life, a true
serf of the parish marked with the stigma of dishonor, is proscribed
and expressly prohibited by the new code, as it had previously been
condemned by science, by the law of 1872, and by the compilation in
force. It is to be hoped that the provisions of the new law will be
sufficiently efficacious to prevent a similar practice from again being
grafted in a more or less disguised form into our judicial customs.
The other vices contained in the procedure in force will no doubt
be corrected by the establishment of oral and public trials and the
introduction of the accusatory system in the law of procedure.
The provisional regulations of September 26, 1835, and the sunse-
quent provisions published during the reign of Your Majesty's August
Mother, introduced, as has been said, evident improvements in the
criminal procedure, but they did not alter its essentially inquisitive
character. The laws of September 15, 1870, and December 22, 1872,
inspired by the ideas of liberty proclaimed by the revolution of 1868,
established a radical reform in our system of procedure by the estab-
lishment of oral and public trials, but they continued the inquisitive


mantuvieron el principio inquisitivo y el caricter secret del pro-
cedimiento en el period de instrucci6n, siguiendo el ejemplo de
Francia, Bl4gica y otras naciones del continent europeo.
El Ministro que suscribe, de acuerdo con sus colegas, no ha vacilado
en aconsejar A V. M. que de un paso mAs en el camino del progress,
llevando en cierta media el sistema acusatorio al sumario mismo, que
es, despu4s de todo, la piedra angular del juicio y la sentencia. En
adelante el juez instructor por su propia iniciativa y de oficio podra,
6 mejor dicho, deberA acordar que se comuniquen los autos al procesado
desde el moment en que la publicidad y la contradicci6n no sean un
peligro para la sociedad interesada en el descubrimiento de los delitos
y en el castigo de los culpables. Si no se hace espontAneamente en el
plazo de dos meses, contados desde que se inco6 la causa, la ley da al
acusado el derecho de solicitarlo, ya par preparar los elements de su
defense, ya tambi6n para impedir con su vigilante intervenci6n y el
empleo de los recursos legales la prolongaci6n indefinida del sumario.
En todo caso, antes y despu6s de los dos meses, el que tenga la inmensa
desgracia de verse sometido A un procedimiento criminal, gozara en
absolute de dos derechos preciosos, que no pueden menos de ser
grandemente estimados donde quiera que se rinda culto a la personali-
dad humana: uno, el de nombrar defensor que le asista con sus con-
sejos y su inteligente direcei6n desde el instant en que se dicte el
auto de procesamiento; y otro el de concurrir por si 6 debidamente
representado A todo reconocimiento judicial, A toda inspecci6n ocular,
A las autopsies, A los anAlisis quimicos, y en suma, A la prActica de
todas las diligencias periciales que se decreten y puedan influir asi
sobre la determinaci6n de la indole y gravedad del delito, como sobre
los indicios de su presunta culpabilidad.
Subsiste, pues, el secret del sumario; pero s6lo en cuanto es nece-
sario para impedir que desaparezcan las huellas del delito, para recoger
4 inventariar los datos que basten A comprobar su existencia y reunir
los elements que mas tarde han de utilizarse y depurarse en el crisol
de la contradicci6n, durante los solemnes debates del juicio oral y
pdblico. Y A tal punto Ileva la nueva ley su espiritu favorable a los
fueros sagrados de la defense, que proscribe y condena una preocupa-
ci6n hasta ahora muy extendida, que si pudo ser excusable cuando el
procedimiento inquisitivo estaba en su auge, implicaria hoy el descono-
cimiento de la indole y naturaleza del sistema acusatorio, con el cual
es incompatible. Alude el infrascrito A la costumbre, tan arraigada
en nuestros jueces y Tribunales, de dar escaso 6 ningfn valor a las
pruebas del plenario, buscando principal 6 casi exclusivamente la
verdad en las diligencias sumariales practicadas A espaldas del acusado.
No: de hoy mas las investigaciones del juez instructor no seran sino
una simple preparaci6n del juicio. El juicio verdadero no comienza
sino con la calificaci6n provisional y la apertura de los debates delante

principle and the secret character of the procedure during the examin-
ing stage, following the example of France, Belgium, and other
nations of the European Continent.
The undersigned Minister, in concurrence with his colleagues, has
not hesitated to advise Your Majesty to take one more step upon the
road of progress by extending, to a certain degree, the system of accu-
sation to the preliminary proceedings themselves, which are, after all,
the corner stone of the trial and sentence. Hereafter the investigating
judge, on his own initiative and motion, may, or rather must, order
that the record be made known to the accused from the moment when
publicity and contradiction are not a danger to society, which is inter-
ested in the discovery of the crimes and in the punishment of the guilty
parties. Should this not be done voluntarily within the period of two
months from the date of the institution of the cause, the law gives
the accused the right to request it, either to prepare his defense or
to prevent by his vigilant intervention and the employment of legal
remedies the indefinite extension of the preliminary proceedings. In
any case, before and after the two months, he who is so unfortunate
as to be subjected to a criminal proceeding will fully enjoy two pre-
cious rights, which can not but be greatly appreciated wherever per-
sonal rights are honored and revered: the first, the right to designate
counsel to assist him with his advice and intelligent direction from the
moment the indictment is found; and the second, the right to be pres-
ent in person or through a representative at any judicial investigation,
ocular inspection, autopsy, or chemical analysis-in fact, to be present
at any expert measures which may be ordered, and which may affect
the determination of the character and gravity of the crime or the
clues of his presumed guilt.
The secret character of the preliminary proceedings, however, still
continues; but only in so far as is necessary to prevent the disappear-
ance of the traces of the crime, to collect and inventory the data which
may be sufficient to prove its commission, and gather the elements
which are later to be utilized and their truth ascertained in the crucible
of contradiction during the formal arguments at the oral and public
trial. And to such a point does the new law carry a spirit favorable
to the sacred privileges of the defense, that it proscribes and condemns
a preoccupation which, until the present time, has been very extensive,
and which, although it might have been pardonable when the inquisitive
procedure was at its height, would at the present time imply an ignor-
ance of the character and nature of the system of accusation with
which it is incompatible. The undersigned refers to that custom, so
deeply rooted in our judges and courts, of giving little or no value to
the evidence introduced during the trial, seeking the truth principally
or almost exclusively in the most summary proceedings had behind
the back of the accused. No; hereafter the investigations of the

del Tribunal que, extralio a la instrucci6n, va & juzgar imparcialmente
y a dar el triunfo a aquel de los contendientes que tenga la raz6n y la
justicia de su parte. La calificaci6n juridica provisional del hecho
justiciable y de la persona del delincuente, hecha por el acusador y el
acusado una vez concluso el sumario, es en el procedimiento criminal
lo que en el civil la demand y su contestaci6n, la acci6n y sus excep-
ciones. Al formularlas empieza realmente la contienda juridica, y ya
entonces seria indisculpable que la ley no estableciera la perfect igual-
dad de condiciones entire el acusador y el acusado. Estin enfrente
uno de otro, el ciudadano y el Estado. Sagrada es sin duda la causa
de la sociedad pero no lo son menos los derechos individuals. En los
pueblos verdaderamente libres, el ciudadano debe tener en su mano
medios eficaces de defender y conservar su vida, su libertad, su fortune,
su dignidad, su honor; y si el interns de los habitantes del territorio
es ayudar al Estado para que ejerza libdrrimamente una de sus fun-
ciones mas esenciales, cual es la de castigar la infracci6n de la ley
penal para restablecer, alli donde se turbe, la armonia del derecho, no
por esto deben sacrificarse jamIs los fueros de la inocencia, porque, al
cabo, el orden social bien entendido no es mns que el mantenimiento
de la libertad de todos y el respeto reciproco de los derechos indi-

Mirando las cosas por esta prisma y aceptada la idea fundamental de
que en el juicio oral y p6blico es donde ha de desarrollarse con ampli-
tud la prueba, donde las parties deben hacer valer en igualdad de con-
diciones los elements de cargo y descargo, y donde los magistrados
han de former su convicci6n para pronunciar su veredicto con abstrac-
ci6n de la parte del sumario susceptible de ser reproducida en el juicio,
surgia natural y 16gicamente una cuesti6n por todo extreme grave y
delicada; es a saber: la de si la eontradicci6n de un testigo entire su
declaraci6n en el juicio oral y las dadas ante el jpez instructor en el
sumario, seria por si sola fundamento suficiente para someterle a un
procedimiento criminal por el delito de falso testimonio. El Gobierno,
despuss de madura deliberaci6n, ha optado por la negative. Al adoptar
esta soluci6n ha cedido en primer t6rmino a las exigencias de la 16gica,
que no permit atribuir a los datos recogidos en el sumario para la
preparaci6n del juicio una validez y eficacia incompatible con la indole
y naturaleza del sistema acusatorio. No es estociertamenteautorizar,
ni menos santificar el engafo y la mentira en el period de la instruc-
ci6n; esa misma contradicci6n en las declaraciones testificales podri
ser libremente apreciada por los jueces y penetrar en el santuario de
su conciencia como un element de convicci6n, si lega el caso de juz-
gar el perjurio del testigo; lo que inicamente quiere la ley es que 6ste

examining judge shall be nothing but a simple preparation for the
trial. The true trial does not commence until the provisional classifi-
cation and the beginning of the arguments before the tribunal which,
apart from the examination, is going to judge impartially and decide
in favor of the party having right and justice on his side. The pro-
visional juridical classification of the fact to be judged and of the
person of the delinquent, made by the accuser and by the accused
upon the conclusion of the preliminary proceedings, is in criminal
procedure what the complaint and answer, the action and the excep-
tions, are in the civil procedure. The juridical contention really
begins at the time of their formulation, and it would be unpardon-
able if the law did not then establish a perfect equality of conditions
between the accuser and the accused. The citizen and the State con-
front each other. The cause of society is sacred, no doubt, but indi-
vidual rights are no less so. Among a truly free people a citizen must
have in his hand efficient means to defend and preserve his life, his
liberty, his fortune, his dignity, his honor; and, if it be to the interest
of the inhabitants of a territory to assist the State in unrestrictedly
exercising one of its most essential functions, which is that of punish-
ing the violation of a penal law for the purpose of reestablishing the
harmony of the law where it has been disturbed, the privileges of the
innocent should never thereby be sacrificed, because, on the whole,
social order, strictly speaking, is nothing more than the maintenance
of the liberty of all and a reciprocal respect of individual rights.
Looking at things from this point of view, and accepting the funda-
mental idea that it is in the oral and public trial where the evidence is
to be thoroughly sifted, where the parties must under an equality of
conditions, state their charges and denials and where the justices are to
form their convictions in order to pronounce their verdict, abstracting
that part of the preliminary proceedings which can be reproduced in
the trial, naturally and logically a question arose which is extremely
serious and delicate; the question is, Whether the contradiction of a
witness between his testimony given in the oral trial and that before
the examining judge in the preliminary proceedings would in itself be
a sufficient reason to subject him to a criminal action for the crime of
giving false testimony? The Government, after mature deliberation,
has decided in the negative. In adopting this solution it has, in the
first place, given way to the requirements of logic, which does not
permit that there be attributed to the data collected in the preliminary
proceedings for the preparation of the trial a validity and efficiency
incompatible with the character and nature of the accusatory system.
This is by no means an authorization, and still less a sanction, of fraud
and falsehood during the preliminary stage; such contradiction in the
testimony of witnesses may be freely weighed by the judges and pene-
trate in the sanctuary of their conscience, in case it should become

no sea procesado como autor de falso testimonio por la sola raz6n de
aparecer en contradicci6n con sus declaraciones sumariales, debiendo
serlo no mis cuando haya motives para presumir que falt6 g la verdad
en el acto del juicio; porque siendo 6ste el arsenal donde el acusador y
el acusado deben tomar sus armas de combat y de defense y el Tribunal
los fundamentos de su veredicto, claro es que en definitive s61o en este
trimite puede el testigo favorecer 6 perjudicar injustamente al pro-
cesado y ser leal 6 traidor 6 la sociedad y g sus deberes de ciudadano.
A esta raz6n, puramente 16gica, agr4gase otra de mayor transcendencia,
cual es la de facilitar la investigaci6n de la verdad y asegurar el acierto
de los fallos.

Inftil seria rendir culto g los progress de la ciencia rompiendo con
el procedimiento escrito, inquisitive y secret, para sustituirle con los
principios tutelares de la libertad, contradicci6n, igualdad de condi-
ciones entire las parties contendientes, publicidad y oralidad, si el
testigo, cuyas primeras impresiones ha recogido calladamente el juez
instructor trasladindolas A los autos con mas 6 menos fidelidad, se
presentara en el acto del juicio delante del Tribunal sentenciador y del
pfiblico que asiste g los debates, cohibido y maniatado por el recuerdo
6 la lecture de sus declaraciones sumariales. Medroso de la responsa-
bilidad criminal que podria exigfrsele la menor contradicci6n, en vez
de contestar con soltura y perfect tranquilidad i las preguntas del
president, del Ministerio pfblico y de los defensores, limitariase i
ratificar pura y simplemente sus declaraciones, convirti4ndose entonces
su examen en el acto solemne del juicio en vana formalidad. Si no
han faltado escritores distinguidos y jurisconsultos eminentes que al
analizar las condiciones del procedimiento inquisitive han censurado
acerbamente que se obligara a los testigos del sumario g ratificarse en
el plenario, con la seguridad de ser castigados como perjuros en caso
de apartarse en la diligencia de ratificaci6n de lo que antes habian
declarado; si esta fundadisima critical iba dirigida a un sistema en el
que el sumario era el alma de todo el organismo procesal, por no decir
el process entero, tratAndose en la hora present de un m4todo de
enjuiciar en el cual el sumario es una mera preparaci6n del juicio,
siendo en 4ste donde deben esclarecerse todos los hechos y discutirse
todas las cuestiones que jueguen en la causa, no es possible sostener
aquella antigua legislaci6n tan inflexible y rigorosa que, sobre anular
la libertad y espontaneidad de los testigos, expuestos a una persecuci6n
originada en una traducci6n infield de su pensamiento, pugnaria hoy
abiertamente con la indole del sistema acusatorio y con la esencia y
los altos fines del juicio pfblico y oral.

necessary to pass upon the perjury of the witness; the only thing which
the law desires is that the latter be not tried as guilty of false testi-
mony only because he appears to contradict his statements at the pre-
liminary proceedings, and only so tried when there are reasons to
presume that he did not tell the truth at the trial; because as the lat-
ter is the arsenal where the accuser and the accused must receive their
arms for the attack and the defense, and the tribunal the bases for its
verdict, it is evident that definitely only in this stage can the witness
favor or unjustly prejudice the accused and be loyal or a traitor to
society and to his duties as a citizen. To this purely logical reason is
added one of greater importance, which is that of facilitating the inves-
tigation of the truth and insuring the correctness of the decisions.
It would be useless to attempt to further the progress of science by
abolishing the written, inquisitive, and secret procedure in order to
substitute therefore the protective principles of liberty, contradiction,
equality of conditions between the contending parties, publicity, and
oral trials, if the witness, whose first impressions the judge has heard
in silence, transferring them to the record with more or less fidelity,
should appear at the trial before the sentencing tribunal and the public
present at the discussions restrained and with tied hands by the recol-
lection or the reading of his depositions in the preliminary proceed-
ings. Fearing the criminal liability which he might incur upon the
slightest contradiction, instead of answering offhand and with perfect
ease the questions of the presiding judge, the representative of the
department of public prosecution, and of the counsel, he would confine
himself purely and simply to ratifying his statements, his examination
in this formal act of the trial being converted into a mere formality.
There has been a large number of distinguished writers and eminent
jurists who in analyzing the conditions of the inquisitive procedure
have strongly criticised the system of forcing the witnesses at the pre-
liminary proceedings to ratify their depositions at the trial, with the
assurance of being punished as perjurers if during the ratification
they should waver from their previous statements. If this well-
founded criticism were directed against a system in which the prelimi-
nary proceedings were the soul of the entire organism of the procedure,
not to say the entire process, as the method in question at the present
time is one of procedure in which the preliminary proceedings are a
mere preparation for the trial, it being in the latter where the facts
are to be arrived at and where all the questions involved in the cause
are to be discussed, it is not possible to continue the former laws so
inflexible and strict that, in curtailing the liberty and spontaneity of
the witnesses, exposed to a prosecution originating in an unfaithful
translation of their thought, they would at the present time openly
conflict with the character of the accusatory system and with the
essence and high ends of public and oral trials.

Todas estas concesiones al principio de libertad que A una parte de
nuestros jueces y magistrados parecerin sin duda exorbitantes, no con-
tentaran adn probablemente A ciertas escuelas radicales que intentan
extender al sumario, desde el moment mismo en que se inicia, las
reglas de publicidad, contradicci6n 4 igualdad que el proyecto de C6digo
establece desde que se abre el juicio hasta que se dicta la sentencia
firme. No niega el infrascrito que insignes escritores mantienen esta
tesis con ardor y con fe; pero hasta ahora no puede considerArsela
mis que como un ideal de la ciencia, al cual tiende a acercarse progre-
sivamente la legislaci6n positive de los pueblos modernos. ? Se reali-
zara algdn dia por complete? El Ministro que suscribe lo duda much.
Es dificil establecer la igualdad absolute de condiciones juridicas entire
el individuo y el Estado en el comienzo mismo del procedimiento, por
la desigualdad real que en moment tan critic existed entire uno y otro:
desigualdad calculadamente introducida por el criminal y de que 4ste
s6lo es responsible. Desde que surge en su mente la idea del delito,
6 por lo menos desde que pervertida su conciencia, forma el prop6sito
deliberado de cometerle, estudia cauteloso un conjunto de precauciones
para sustraerse A la acci6n de la justicia, y coloca al Poder pfblico en
una posici6n.analoga A la de la victim, la cual sufre el golpe por sor-
presa, indefensa y desprevenida. Para restablecer, pues, la igualdad
en las condiciones de la lucha, ya que se pretend por los aludidos
escritores que el procedimiento criminal no debe ser mAs que un duelo,
noblemente sostenido por ambos contendientes, menester es que el
Estado tenga alguna ventaja en los primeros moments, siquiera para
recoger los vestigios del crime y los indicios de la culpabilidad de su
autor. Pero sea de esto lo que quiera, la verdad es que s6lo el por-
venir puede resolver el problema de si llegara 6 no A realizarse aquel
ideal. Entre tanto los que tienen la honra de dirigir los destinos de un
pueblo estin obligados A ser prudentes y a no dar carta de naturaleza
en los C6digos A ideas que estan todavia en el period de propaganda,
que no ban madurado en la opinion ni menos encarnado en las costum-
bres, ni se han probado en la piedra de toque de la experiencia.

El Gobierno de V. M. cree ser consecuente con el espiritu liberal
que inform su political, introduciendo dentro de ciertos limits racio-
nales el sistema acusatorio en el sumario, lo cual constitute un gran
progress sobre la ley de 22 de Diciembre de 1872. No hay tampoco
una sola naci6n en el continent europeo que vaya en esto mas
alli que el adjunto proyecto de C6digo, ni siquiera la Alemania, en
cuyas leyes procesales qued6 impreso como en roca de granito el sell
caracteristico del individualism germanico, sin que hayan alcanzado
A borrarle ni la autoridad prepotente de sus Monarcas, ni sus gran-
des glorias militares, ni su reciente y portentoso engrandecimiento

All these concessions to the principles of liberty, which to some of
our judges and justices will appear no doubt exorbitant, will prob-
ably not satisfy certain radical schools which desire to extend to the
preliminary proceedings from the instant they are instituted the rules
of publicity, contradiction, and equality which the proposed code estab-
lishes from the time the trial is opened until the final sentence is
pronounced. The undersigned does not deny that well-known writers
support this opinion with ardor and with faith, but it can not be con-
sidered at present as more than an ideal of science which the positive
legislation of modern countries is progressively approaching. Will it
some day be fully realized? The undersigned Minister doubts it very
much. It is difficult to establish an absolute equality of juridical condi-
tions between an individual and the State at the very beginning of the
proceedings, on account of the real inequality which at so critical a mo-
ment exists between one and the other-an inequality purposely intro-
duced by the criminal and for which he only is responsible. From the
moment that the idea of the crime is born in his mind, or at least
from the moment that his conscience is perverted and he forms the delib-
erate intention of committing it, he carefully studies a number of pre-
cautions to escape the action of justice, and he places the public power
in a position similar to that of the victim who receives the blow by sur-
prise-defenceless and unprepared. Thus, in order to reestablish an
equality of conditions for the contest, as it is claimed by the aforemen-
tioned writers that the criminal procedure must not be more than a
duel nobly maintained by both combatants, it is necessary that the State
have some advantages during the first moments, if it be only for the
purpose of collecting the traces of the crime and clues to the guilt of
its author. But, be this as it may, the truth is that the future only
can decide whether this ideal will or will not be realized. In the mean-
time those who have the honor of directing the destinies of a people
are obliged to be prudent and not countenance in the codes ideas which
are still speculative, which have not matured in public opinion, and,
still less, have not rooted themselves in the customs of the people, and
have not stood the test of experience.
The Government of Your Majesty believes it to be in accordance
with the liberal spirit of its policy to introduce, within certain rea-
sonable limits, the accusatory system in the preliminary proceedings,
which constitutes a great advance over the law of December 22. 1872.
There is not a single nation upon the European continent which, on
this point, goes further than the attached proposed code, not even
Germany, on whose laws of procedure is stamped, as on tables of
granite, the characteristic seal of Germanic individualism, without
being wiped out either by the powerful authority of their monarchs,
her glorious military victories, or her recent and portentous territorial

Con id4ntico criterio resuelve el nuevo C6digo las demIs cuestiones
fundamentals del Enjuiciamiento. En material penal hay siempre dos
intereses rivals y contrapuestos: el de la sociedad, que tiene el derecho
de castigar, y el del acusado, que tiene el derecho de defenders. El
carActer individualist del derecho, se ostenta en el sistema acusatorio,
en el cual se encarna el respeto a la personalidad del hombre y A la
libertad de la conciencia, mientras que el procedimiento de oficio 6
inquisitive representael principio social y se encamina preferentemente
a la restauraci6n del orden juridico perturbado por el delito, apaci-
guando al propio tiempo la alarm popular. Por lo tanto, el problema
de la organizaci6n de la justicia criminal no se resuelve bien sino defi-
niendo claramente los derechos de la acusaci6n y de la defense, sin
sacrificar ninguno de los dos ni subordinar el uno al otro, antes bien,
armonizAndolos en una sintesis superior.
Formado de oficio 6 6 instancia de parte el sumario por un funcio-
nario independiente del Tribunal que ha de sentenciar; obligado por la
ley este instructor a recoger, asi los datos adversos como los favorables
al procesado, bajo la inspecci6n inmediata del fiscal, del acusador par-
ticular, y, hasta donde es possible, del acusado 6 su letrado defensor;
otorgada una acci6n pfblica y popular para acusar, en vez de limitarla
al ofendido y sus herederos; reconocida y sancionada la existencia del
Ministerio fiscal, A quien se encomienda la misi6n de promover la ave-
riguaci6n de los delitos y el castigo de los culpables, sin dejar por esto
de defender A la vez al inculpado inocente, result que puede, sin peligro
de los intereses p6blicos y particulares, cefiirse el Tribunal al ejercicio
de una sola atribuci6n: la de fallar como juez imparcial del campo
sin sujetarse a una prueba tasada de antemano por la ley; antes bien,
siguiendo libremente las inspiraciones de su conciencia, exento de
las pasiones que enciende siempre la lucha en el animo de los conten-
dientes y sin el aguij6n del amor propio excitado en el juez instructor
por las estratagemas que en ocasiones emplean el acusado y el acusador
privado para burlar sus investigaciones, y aun sin esto, por las mismas
dificultades inherentes de ordinario a la instrucci6n.

Para mantener al Tribunal en esta serena y elevada esfera, y no
desvirtuar el principio acusatorio que inform el nuevo c6digo, ha
credo el que suscribe que fnicamente al Ministerio fiscal 6 al acusador
particular, si le hubiere, correspond formular el acta de acusaci6n
comprensiva de los puntos sobre que en adelante deben girar los
debates, siguiendo en esto al C6digo de instrucci6n criminal austriaco,
que es acaso, de los actualmente vigentes en la Europa continental, el
que ha desarrollado con mas l6gica y extension el sistema acusatorio.

The new code decides the other fundamental questions of the pro-
cedure upon the same basis. In penal matters there are always two
rival and opposed interests; those of society, which has the right to
punish, and those of the accused, who has the right to defend himself.
The individualistic character of law is evident in the accusatory
system, which includes both respect for the personality of man and
liberty of conscience, while the ex officio and inquisitive proceeding
represents the social principle, whose special object is the restoration
of the judicial order which has been disturbed by the crime, quieting
at the same time the popular alarm. Therefore, the problem of the
organization of criminal justice is not correctly solved except by clearly
defining the rights of the accusation and of the defense, without sacri-
ficing either of the two or subordinating one to the other, but, on the
contrary, by harmonizing them in one superior combination.
The preliminary proceedings being instituted ex offcio or at the
instance of a party by an official independent of the tribunal which is
to pronounce the sentence; the examining judge being required by law
to collect all information, favorable as well as unfavorable, to the
accused, under the immediate supervision of the fiscal, of the private
accuser, and, in so far as possible, of the accused or his counsel; a
popular and public trial of the accusation being provided for, instead
of confining it to the injured persons and his heirs; the existence
of the department of public prosecution being recognized and sanc-
tioned and to which is entrusted the mission of taking the steps for
the ascertainment of the crimes and the punishment of those guilty
thereof; without, however, at the same time ignoring the defense of
an innocent accused person, the result is that without danger to public
or private interests, the duties of the tribunal may be restricted to the
exercise of one attribute only-that of deciding as an impartial judge
of the matter without being subject to evidence previously regulated
by law; in fact, unrestrictedly following the dictates of his conscience
exempt from the passions which are always raised by the struggle in
the minds of the contestants and without the wounding of the amour
propre which is engendered in the examining judge by the stratagems
which the accused and the private accuser employ to frustrate his
investigations, or even without this, by the ordinary difficulties which
attend the investigation.
In order to sustain the tribunal in this serene and elevated sphere
and not defeat the object of the accusatory principle which the new
code provides, the undersigned is of the opinion that only the repre-
sentative of the department of public prosecution or the private .ccuser,
if there be any, should prepare the information, including therein the
points which are to be argued thereafter, following herein the Austrian
code of criminal procedure, which is perhaps of those actually in force
in Continental Europe the one which has developed the accusatory

Asi es como se logra que la cuesti6n criminal que en el process se
agita 6 discute vaya intact al Tribunal a quien corresponde decidirla;
asi es.como las parties pueden preparar con perfect conocimiento de
causa los respectivos elements de cargo y descargo y hacer sus acusa-
ciones 6 defenses con fe y libertad complete, sin la coacci6n, siquiera
sea moral, que no puede menos de existir cuando el que ha de fallar
prejuzga en cierto modo el fallo formulando de oficio el acta de acu-
saci6n, lo cual Ileva naturalmente el desaliento al inimo de aquel de
los contendientes A quien perjudica la calificaci6n juridica hecha pre-
maturamente, aunque con caracter provisorio por el Tribunal. Ni son
estos los fnicos inconvenientes que acarrea la admisi6n del acta de
acusaci6n de oficio, pues una vez formulada esta, 6 se obliga al Minis-
terio fiscal sostenerla contra sus convicciones poniendo en torture su
conciencia, 6 se le deja en libertad para combatirla, en cuyo caso ya
no son las parties quienes contienden entire si, sino que se discute 6ni-
camente el pensamiento, la opini6n, el juicio formulado por el Tribu-
nal, que de este modo desciende a la arena del combat para convertirse
en acusador, con el riesgo inminente de que la excitaci6n del amor pro-
pio de los jueces ofusque 6 perturbe su inteligencia. No; los magistra-
dos deben permanecer durante la discusi6n pasivos, retraidos, neutrales,
a semejanza de los jueces de los antiguos torneos, limitAndose A dirigir
con inimo sereno los debates. Por esto, entire las obligaciones impues-
tas al Ministerio fiscal en Francia y Alemania de formular un acta de
acusaci6n cuando ast lo ha acordado el respective Tribunal, y la libertad
que a dicho Ministerio otorgala ley austriaca, ha optado el que suscribe
por la ultima soluci6n que respeta mas los fueros de la conciencia, los
derechos individuals, y esta mis en consonancia con el principio fun-
damental en que descansa el sistema acusatorio.

Este principio, aplicado en absolute, adolece, sin embargo, de un
vicio, que han puesto en relieve insignes magistrados encanecidos en la
Administraci6n de justicia. Proscrita para siempre la absoluci6n de la
instancia, y rigiendo sin excepci6n la maxima non bis in idem, evidence
es que el error del fiscal en la calificaci6n juridica del hecho justiciable
produce la impunidad del delincuente. Esta bien que en los process
civiles el Tribunal tenga la obligaci6n de absolver 6 condenar, asl como
tambien la de ajustar estrictamente su fallo A los tgrminos en que las
parties hayan planteado el problema litigioso, 6 sea la acci6n ejercitada
por el demandante y a las excepciones formuladas por el demandado;
porque las cuestiones que en esos process se ventilan son de mero
interns privado, y porque ademis no es raro que pueda subsanarse total
6 parcialmente en un nuevo process el error padecido al entablar la
acci6n, para lo cual suelen hacerse reserves de derecho en la sentencia
en favor del condenado; pero en los process criminals, que pueden
incoarse de oficio, estAn siempre en litigio el interns social y la paz


system most extensively and logically. Thus it becomes possible to
secure that the criminal question raised or argued in the proceedings
shall go intact to the court which is to decide it. Thus the parties can
prepare with a perfect knowledge of cause the respective elements of
accusation and denials and make their accusation or defense with con-
fidence and complete liberty, without the coercion, even though moral,
which can not but exist when the person who is to pass judgment, to
a certain extent prejudges the matter by himself drawing up the in-
dictment, which naturally discourages the contestant who is prejudiced
by a juridical classification which has been made prematurely, although
only temporarily, by the tribunal. Nor are these the only objections
to the admission of the indictment prepared ex officio, because after its
preparation the public prosecutor is obliged to defend it against his
convictions torturing his conscience, or he is left at liberty to combat
it, in which case it does not become a contest between the parties, but
only a discussion of the thought, the opinion, and the judgment of the
tribunal, which, in this manner, enters the arena and becomes converted
into an accuser at the imminent risk of the amour propre of the judges,
confusing or disturbing their intellectual faculties. No; the judges
must remain during the arguments'passive, silent, and neutral, as did
the judges of the ancient tournaments, confining themselves to the
direction of the arguments with a serene deportment. Therefore,
between the obligations imposed upon the public prosecutors in France
and Germany, to draw up an indictment when this has been ordered
by the respective tribunal, and the liberty which is granted said prose-
cutors by the Austrian law, the undersigned has selected the latter
solution as the one offering the greater respect to the dictates of con-
science, individual rights, and as being more in consonance with the
fundamental principle upon which the accusatory system is based.
This principle, applied in full, nevertheless still contains one defect
to which various judges who have grown gray in the administration
of justice have called attention. The dismissal of the proceedings for
lack of evidence being proscribed forever and the maxim non his in
idem ruling without exception, it is evident that an error committed
by the prosecutor in the juridical classification of the punishable act
secures the immunity of the delinquent. It is advisable that in civil
proceedings the tribunal shall have the obligation to acquit or con-
demn as well as to strictly adjust its decision to the terms in which
the parties may have submitted the question in litigation; that is to
say, to the complaint of the plaintiff and the exceptions pleaded by the
defendant, because the questions which arise in these proceedings are
of mere private interest, and because, furthermore, it frequently occurs
that the error committed upon the institution of the action can be
corrected totally or partially in a new proceeding, for which reason it
is customary to make reservations of rights in the decision in favor of

p6blica, y teniendo el Tribunal la obligaci6n de condenar 6 absolver
libremente sin reserve alguna y sin que le sea licito abrir un nuevo
procedimiento sobre el mismo hecho ya juzgado, es violent torturar la
conciencia de los magistrados que le forman hasta el punto de colo-
caries en la dura alternative de condenar al acusado a sabiendas de que
faltan a la ley 6 cometen una nulidad, 6 absolverle con la convicci6n de
que es criminal, dejando que -insulte con su presencia y aire de triunfo
A la victim y su familiar, tan s61o porque el Ministerio publico no ha
sabido 6 no ha querido calificar el delito con arreglo a su naturaleza y
a las prescripciones del C6digo penal. De todas suertes es innegable
que llevados A tal exageraci6n el sistema acusatorio y la pasividad de los
Tribunales, 6stos abdican en el fiscal, en cuyas manos queda toda enter
la justicia. De su buena 6 mala fe, que no s61o de su pericia, depende-
ria exclusivamente en lo future la suerte de los acusados.

Y suponiendo que alg6n dia el legislator, echindose en brazos de la
16gica, Ilegase hasta este fltimo limited del sistema acusatorio, el
Gobierno de V. M. ha credo que la transici6n era demasiado brusca
para este pais en que los jueces han sido hasta ahora omnipotentes,
persiguiendo los delitos por sa propia y espontfnea iniciativa, instru-
yendo las causes los mismos que habian'de fallarlas, ejerciendo la
facultad omnimoda de separarse de los dictAmenes fiscales, asi durante
la sustanciaci6n como en la sentencia definitive, calificando segun su
propio juicio el delito y designando la pena sin consideraci6n i las
conclusions de la acusaci6n y la defense, y empleando por ultimo la
formula de la absoluci6n de la instancia, 6 lo que es lo mismo, dejando
indefinidamente abierto el procedimiento cuando, faltos de pruebas
para condenar, infundian en su mente las diligencias sumariales livianas
sospechas contra el acusado. La sociedad debe marchar como la natu-
raleza, gradualmente y no a saltos: los progress juridicos deben irse
eslabonando, si han de encarnar en las costumbres del pais. Por esto,
el Gobierno propone A V. M. la soluci6n contenida en el articulo 733
que no altera en rigor la virtualidad del principio acusatorio. Seg6n
la estructura de la adjunta ley, concluso el sumario, las parties hacen la
calificaci6n provisional del hecho justiciable. Sobre sus conclusions
versan las pruebas que se practican durante todo el juicio, y al t6rmino
de oste, cuando ya no faltan mis que los informs del fiscal y del
defensor del acusado, autorizase a uno y otro para confirmar, rectificar
6 variar, en vista de las pruebas, su primer calificaci6n. Al llegar &
este trimite todo en rigor esti acabado: los jueces han oido al reo y
los testigos; han examinado las demis piezas de convicci6n y estAn en
condiciones de apreciar con amplitud y acierto la naturaleza del hecho

the condemned; but in criminal actions which may be instituted at the
instance of the Government, social interests and public peace are
always in litigation, and as the tribunal has the obligation to convict or
acquit freely without any reservation whatsoever, and without it being
legal to institute a new proceeding upon the same question, it is
unnatural to torture the conscience of the justices composing the
tribunal to the point of placing them in the hard alternative of con-
demning the accused with the knowledge that they do not comply with
the law, destroy its force, or acquit him with the conviction that he is
a criminal, leaving him to insult with his presence and air of triumph
the victim and his family, only because the public prosecutor did not
know how or did not wish to qualify the crime in accordance with its
character and the provisions of the Penal Code. At any rate it can
not be denied that if the accusatory system and the passiveness of the
tribunals goes to such an exaggerated extent, the latter abdicate in
favor of the prosecutor, in whose hanas justice remains intact. The
fate of the accused depends not only on his skill, but also on his good
or bad faith.
And supposing that some day the legislator, appealing to logic, should
arrive to this furthermost limit of the accusatory system, the Govern-
ment of Your Majesty has believed that the transition would be too sud-
den for this country in which the judges have been all powerful, prose-
cuting crimes on their own and voluntary initiative, investigating as
well as passing upon the cases, exercising the power to ignore the
reports of the prosecutors during the hearing as well as in the final sen-
tence, classifying the crime according to their own judgment, and fixing
the punishment without considering the conclusions of the accusation
and defense, and finally dismissing the proceedings for lack of evi-
dence, or, what is the same thing, leaving the proceedings indefinitely
open when there being insufficient evidence to convict, the preliminary
proceedings raised slight suspicions in their mind against the accused.
Society must progress like nature-gradually, and not by leaps; juridi-
cal progress must develop step by step if it is to become grafted in the
customs of the country. Therefore the Government recommends to
Your Majesty the solution contained in article 733, which does not
materially alter the potential character of the accusatory principle.
According to the structure of the annexed law, upon the conclusion of
the preliminary proceedings, the parties make a provisional classifica-
tion of the questions which are the subject-matter of the action. The
evidence taken during the entire action rests upon their conclusions,
and upon the termination thereof, when nothing is left but the final
arguments of the prosecutor and the counsel of the accused, they are
both authorized to confirm, correct, or vary their first classification in
view of the evidence. Upon reaching this stage everything is strictly
terminated; the judges have heard the criminal and the witnesses; they

que es material del juicio. Si en tal moment les asalta una duda
grave sobre su verdadera calificaci6n juridica, que dificultad puede
haber en que hipot6ticamente, sin prejuzgar el fallo definitive y s6lo
por via do ilustraci6n, invite el president del Tribunal al Ministerio
pfblico y defensor del procesado para que en sus informes discutan
una tesis mnis? El principio acusatorio quedaria quebrantado si esta
no hubicra de discutirse y resolverse con arreglo i las pruebas ya
practicadas, dando lugar a que se abriese de nuevo 6 se prorrogase el
juicio; pero comno 6ste esta ya terminado y no es permitido volver
sobre 61, todo lo que puede suceder es que el fiscal 6 el letrado nece-
siten veinticuatro horas para razonar sobre la hip6tesis del Tribunal
con la convenient preparaci6n.
Con ser tan modest y estar tan cenfida esta facultad, declare sin
embargo la ley que no se extiende a los delitos privados 6 que s6lo
pueden perseguirse ii instancia de parte, ni i la calificaci6n de las cir-
cumnstancias atenuantes 6 agravantes, ni A la de la participaci6n
respective de los procesados en la ejecuci6n del crime, quedando
reducida Ai la satisfacci6n de una necesidad apremiante originada en un
interns pilblico y de orden social. Aun encerrada en tan estrechos
limits, el Ministro que suscribe hubiera renunciado A ella, y mante-
nidose en el rigorismo del principio acusatorio, si los C6digos mAs pro-
gresivos y liberals de la Europa continental le hubioran alentado con
su ejemplo; pero no hay ninguno que no d6 mayor amplitud i la inter-
venci6n del Tribunal en el juicio. En Francia y Alemania ya se ha visto
que el Ministerio fiscal tiene la obligaci6n de formular el acta de acu-
saci6n cuando asi lo acuerda el Tribunal respective, y ademis la misma
ley alemana y la austriaca dejan ii ste en libertad de apreciar el hecho
justiciable sin sujetarse A la calificaci6n que de 1l hubieren hecho las
parties, y sin tomar la precauci6n de someter A 4stas la nueva faz de la
cuesti6n, A fin de que la discutan ampliamente antes de que recaiga el
veredicto. Precediendo este solemn debate, no amplihndose ni refor-
mindose en ningfn caso las piezas de convicci6n, no puede en rigor
acusarse de incongruencia al fallo, puesto que la ley en suma se limit
& establecer un medio de suplir la omisi6n del fiscal, cuyo deber es
hacerse cargo de todas las calificaciones probables que autorice la
prueba practicada y que pueda aceptar el Tribunal, redactando al
efecto cuando fuere necesario la pretensi6n alternative de que habla
el art. 732. El Tribunal propone, hipoteticamente y sobre la base
de una prueba inalterable, un tema de discusi6n moments antes de
pronunciar su veredicto, cuando cada magistrado tiene ya formado su
juicio definitive sobre el voto que se va dar. Mejor es, por tanto, que
le emita despues de un debate que puede iluminar su mente y rectificar
su juicio, que no autorizarle para que en el fallo se separe de las con-
diciones debatidas por las parties y siga sus propias inspiraciones no
contrastadas en el crisol de la contradicci6n como le autorizan los

have examined the other evidence, and are in a condition to weigh the
character of the act which is the subject-matter of the trial fully and
with a correct understanding. If at this moment they should enter-
tain some serious doubt as to its true juridical classification, why
should not the presiding judge of the court, hypothetically and only
by way of illustration, invite the public prosecutor and the attorney
for the accused, without prejudging the definite decision, to discuss an
additional thesis in their briefs? The accusatory principle would be
violated if this additional thesis were not argued and decided in accord-
ance with the evidence already taken, causing a postponement or
reopening of the trial. But as the trial is already closed and it is not
possible to review it, all that can take place is that the public prose-
cutor or the attorney be granted twenty-four hours for the purpose of
arguing upon the hypothesis of the tribunal with sufficient preparation.
Although this power is so modest and restricted, the law neverthe-
less declares that it does not extend to private crimes or to those crimes
which can be prosecuted only at the instance of a party, or to the
classification of extenuating or aggravating circumstances, or to that
of the respective participation of the persons accused in the commis-
Ssion of the crime, being thus reduced to meeting an urgent necessity
originating in a public and social interest. Although confined to so
narrow limits, the undersigned Minister would have renounced it and
remained within the excessively severe accusatory principle if the
most progressive and liberal codes of continental Europe had encour-
aged him with their example; but there is none which gives greater
power to the intervention of the court in the trial. It has already been
seen that in France and Germany the public prosecutor is obliged to
prepare the indictment when ordered to do so by the proper court,
and, furthermore, the said German law, as well as the Austrian law,
leave him at liberty to weigh the act without subjecting himself to
the classification thereof made by the parties, and without taking the
precaution of submitting to said parties the new phase of the ques-
tion in order that they may discuss it fully before the verdict is ren-
dered. Before this formal argument, without the evidence in any case
being amended or extended, the sentence could not be said properly to be
incongruent, because the law in substance confines itself to establishing
a means to supply the omission of the public prosecutor, whose duty it
is to take charge of all the probable classifications which the evidence
taken may authorize and which the tribunal may accept, preparing for
this purpose the alternative claim referred to in article 732, whenever
necessary. The tribunal proposes, hypothetically and upon the basis
of an unalterable proof, a theme for discussion a few moments before
pronouncing its verdict, when each justice has already formed his defi-
nite opinion upon the vote which is to be cast. It is better, therefore,
that he should cast his vote after an argument which may enlighten

C6digos austriaco y alem'n, a pesar de ser los mis adelantados de la
Europa continental.

Tales son, Sefior, prescindiendo de otras muchas reforms de menor
importancia, aunque sustanciales, y de evidentes mejoras de detalle en
el m4todo y la redacci6n, las novedades de mis bulto que el proyecto
adjunto introduce en nuestro procedimiento criminal.
No desconoce el Ministro que suscribe que la aplicaci6n y cumpli-
miento de la nueva ley, singularmente en los primeros afios, tropezara
con graves dificultades, siendo la mayor de todas ellas la falta de cos-
tumbres adecuadas al sistema acusatorio y al juicio oral y p6blico.
Educados los espafioles durante siglos en el procedimiento escrito,
secret 6 inquisitorial, lejos de haber adquirido confianza en la Justicia
y de coadyuvar activamente A su recta administraci6n, haciendo, como
el ciudadano ingles, initial la instituci6n del Ministerio pfblico para el
descubrimiento y castigo de los delitos, han formado ideas falsas sobre
la policia judicial y se han desviado cada vez m6s de los Tribunales
mirando con lamentable recelo a magistrados, jueces, escribanos y
alguaciles, y repugnando figurar como testigos en los process. Pero
este mal sera mayor cuanto mis tiempo pase; y como lo actual no
puede seguir sin desdoro de la Naci6n y de los poderes que la gobiernan,
lo mejor es decidirse, que alguna vez se ha de empezar, si la Espafia no
ha de ser una excepci6n entire los pueblos cultos de Europa y America.

El Gobierno de V. M. tiene tal confianza en la aptitud especial y las
condiciones privilegiadas de nuestra raza, que espera seri breve el
apredizaje, no tan s6lo en la aplicaci6n de esta ley, sino en la obra aun
mls delicada de compartir con los jueces la misi6n augusta de adminis-
trar justicia como Jurado; y que muy pronto el ciudadano espafiol
demostrari que es digno de gozar de las mismas ventajas que poseen
los extranjeros.
Al logro de fin tan important y transcendental coadyuvarAn, sin
duda, el celo e ilustraci6n de la Magistratura y del Ministerio pdblico;
que no es possible, Sefior, montar una miquina delicada y hacerla fun-
cionar con 6xito, sino contando con el asent-niento, el entusiasmo, la
fe y el patriotism de los que han de manejarla.

En vista de las razones expuestas, el Ministro que suscribe tiene la
honra de someter a la aprobaci6n de V. M. el adjunto proyecto de
Sen Ildefonso, 14 de Septiembre de 1882.
Sefior, A L. R. P. de V. M.,


his mind and correct his judgment than not to authorize him to depart
from the conditions argued by the parties and follow his own inspira-
tions, which have not been brought together in the crucible of contra-
diction as authorized by the Austrian and German codes, notwithstand-
ing the fact that they are the most advanced on the European Continent.
Such are, Sir, without speaking of many other amendments of lesser
importance, although substantial, and evidently improvements in the
method and preparation, the most weighty innovations introduced by
the attached bill in our criminal procedure.
The undersigned Minister is not unaware of the fact that in the
application and fulfillment of the new law, especially during the first
years, serious difficulties will be encountered, the greatest of all being
the absence of customs applicable to the accusatory system and to an
oral and public trial. Spaniards having been educated for centuries
in the written, secret, and inquisitive procedure, far from having gained
confidence in justice and actively assisting in a proper administration
thereof, and, as the British citizen, rendering useless the institution
of the department of public prosecution for the discovery and punish-
ment of crimes, have formed erroneous ideas as to the judicial policy,
and have every day drifted further from the tribunals, looking upon
the justices, judges, court clerks, and bailiffs with lamentable distrust,
and disliking to appear in the proceedings as witnesses. But this
evil will increase as time passes. And as the present state of affairs
can not continue without discredit to the nation and the powers which
govern it, the best thing to do is to decide, as it must be begun some
time, whether Spain is to be an exception among the cultured peoples
of Europe and America.
The Government of Your Majesty has such confidence in the special
aptitude and the privileged conditions of our race that it believes that
the apprenticeship will be short, not only in the application of this
law, but even in the more delicate task of sharing with the judges the
august mission of administering justice as a Jury, and that very soon
the Spanish subject will demonstrate that he is worthy of enjoying the
same advantages as those enjoyed by foreigners.
In the attainment of so important and transcendental an end, the zeal
and high character of our judiciary and of the department of public
prosecution will no doubt contribute. It is not possible, Sir, to mount
a delicate machine and successfully operate it unless the assent, the
enthusiasm, the confidence, and the patriotism of those who are to
manage it are to be trusted.
In view of the aforestated reasons, the undersigned Minister has the
honor to submit for the approval of Your Majesty the attached bill.

San Ildefonso, September 14, 1882.
Sire, at the Royal Feet of Your Majesty,



Llevadas A cabo por la Comisi6n de C6digos del Ministerio de Ul-
tramar las modificaciones necesarias para que pueda aplicarse en Cuba
y Puerto Rico la ley vigente en la Peninsula sobre procedimiento cri-
minal de acuerdo con aquella Corporaci6n, a propuesta del Ministro
de Ultramar, y en virtud de la autorizaci6n que concede A mi Gobierno
el art. 89 de la Constituci6n de la Monarquia, en nombre de mi Augusto
Hijo el Rey D. Alfonso XIII, y como Reina Regente del Reino,

Vengo en decretar lo siguiente:
ARTfCULO 1. Se aprueba para la isla de Cuba y Puerto Rico la ley
de Enjuiciamiento criminal vigente en la Peninsula, en virtud del Real
decreto de 14 de Septiembre de 1882, con las modificaciones propues-
tas por la Comisi6n de C6digos de Ultramar.
ART. 2. La nueva ley comenzarg A regir en Cuba y Puerto Rico el
dia 1 de Enero de 1889, en que empezarin a funcionar las Audiencias
de lo criminal.
ART. 30. Las causes por delitos cometidos con anterioridad al 1 de
Enero pr6ximo, continuarin sustanciAndose con arreglo i las disposi-
ciones del procedimiento vigente en la actualidad.'
Si las causes a que se refiere el parrafo anterior no hubieren llegado
al period de clasificaci6n, podrin sustanciarse con arreglo a las dispo-

'La jurisprudencia del Tribunal Supremo, sobre lo preceptuado en el mismo arti-
culo del Real decreto de 14 de Septiembre de 1882 aprobando la ley de Enjuicia-
miento criminal vigente en la Peninsula, que en nada difiere de la disposici6n que
anotamos, es contradictoria, pues mientras en sentencias de 3 de Septiembre, 24 de
Octubre de 1884 y 26 de Diciembre de 1885, declare que los Tribunales existentes
antes de constituirse las nuevas Audiencias de lo criminal, son los competentes para
conocer de los delitos cometidos hasta el 15 de Octubre de 1882, aunque haya comen-
zado procederse por su comisi6n con posterioridad 6 esa fecha, siempre que los pro-
cesados no se hayan acogido al nuevo procedimiento, en otra sentenciade 4 de Agosto
de 1887, consign6: Que es precepto claro y terminante, consignado en la regla que
anotamos, que las causes por delitos cometidos con posterioridad al 15 de Octubre del
afio citado, debfan continuar sustancidndose con arreglo d las disposiciones del pro-
cedimiento vigente entonces, apareciendo, por tanto, indiscutible, que se refiere a las
causes incoadas antes de la indicada fecha, y de ningdn modo A las posteriores, por
mis que la comisi6n de los delitos fuera anterior.



The Codification Commission of the Colonial Department having
completed the modifications necessary in order that it may be possible
to apply in Cuba and Porto Rico the law in force in the Peninsula on
criminal procedure, in concurrence with said corporation, upon the
recommendation of the Colonial Minister, and in pursuance of the
authority vested in my Government by article 89 of the Constitution of
the Monarchy, in the name of my August Son the King, Don Alfonso
XIII, and as Queen Regent of the Kingdom,
I hereby decree the following:
ARTICLE. 1. The Law of Criminal Procedure in force in the Penin-
sula, by virtue of a Royal Decreee of September 14, 1882, is approved
for the Islands of Cuba and Porto Rico, with the modifications recom-
mended by the Codification Commission for the Colonies.
ART. 2. The new law shall go into effect in Cuba and Porto Rico on
the first day of January, 1889, when the Criminal Audiencias will
begin to act.
ART. 3. The causes for crimes committed prior to January first
next, shall continue to be heard and determined in accordance with
the provisions of the procedure in force at the present time.'
If the causes referred to in the foregoing article should not have
reached the classification stage, they may be heard and determined in

'The Jurisprudence of the Supreme Court with regard to the provisions of the same
article of the Royal Decree of September 14, 1882, approving the law of criminal
procedure in force in the Peninsula, which does not differ in any manner from the
provision annotated, is contradictory, because while in decisions of September 3,
October 24, 1884, and December 26, 1885, it declared that the courts existing before
the organization of the new criminal audiencias are of competent jurisdiction in crimes
committed up to October 15, 1882, even though the action should have been instituted
subsequently to said date, provided that the accused should not have selected the new
procedure; in another decision of August 4, 1887, it declared: "That it is a clear and
final precept, contained in the rule which we annotate, that the causes for crimes
committed subsequently to the 15th of October of the year mentioned must continue
to be heard and determined in accordance with the provisions of the procedure in
force at that time; and it appears, therefore, undisputable that it relates to the
causes instituted before the said date, and in no manner to subsequent causes, even
though the crimes should have been committed prior thereto."

siciones de la nueva ley, si todos los procesados en cada una de ellas
optan por el nuevo procedimiento.'
Para ello, el Juez que estuviere conociendo del sumario en 1 de
Enero pr6ximo hard comparecer i su presencia A todos los procesados,
acompafiados de sus defensores.
Si aun no los tuvieran, se les nombrarI de oficio para la compare-
Esta sc hara constar en la causa por medio de acta.
ART. 4". Los Jueces de primer instancia se considerar~ n desde luego
como Jueces instructors en las causes que se ajusten al nuevo procedi-
ART. 5". Desde que cesen en sus cargo los actuales Promotores,
desempefiarin las funciones del Ministerio piblico durante la primer
instancia en las causes que se sigan sustanciando, con arreglo al pro-
cedimiento vigente en la actualidad, los Fiscales municipals que sean
Letrados, y A falta de 6stos, los que designed los Fiscales de las
respectivas Audiencias.
ART. 60. Las Salas de Gobierno de las Audiencias y los nuevos Tri-
bunales consultardn directamente con el Ministerio de Ultramar para
su resoluci6n las dudas que puedan originarse en la aplicaci6n de este
Real decreto.
Dado en Palacio a 19 de Octubre de 1888.
El Ministro de Ultramar,

SEs bastante que todos los procesados presents opten por el nuevo procedimiento
para que (ste se siga conform A Ia regla que anotamos. Asf lo declare la Fiscalia del
Tribunal Supremo en la instrucci6n ndm. 3 de las que acompatian A la Memoria de
15 de Septiembre de 1883, resolviendo una consult hecha A la misma sobre aplica-
ci6n de un precepto andlogo del Real decreto aprobando la ley de la Penfnsula, y lo
confirm el mismo Tribunal en sus sentencias, entire otras varias, de 30 de Junio de
1883 y 23 de Diciembre del mismo aio, segdn las cuales inicamente A los procesa-
dos presents en el juicio puede afectar la forma del procedimiento y el fallo que lo
termine; y, por tanto, la ausencia y rebeldfa de otros respect de los cuales se man-
tiene en suspense, no puede redundar en perjuicio de los que, sumisos y obedientes
1 la ley, se ven en la apremiante necesidad de defenders, y si 6stos optan por el
nuevo procedimiento, compete conocer de la causa A la Audiencia de lo criminal
respective y no A la territorial. En otra de 12 de Agosto de 1884, se consign6 que,
seguida una causa con arreglo al procedimiento antiguo, dictada sentencia en primer
instancia, consultada con la superioridad y repuestas las actuaciones al estado de
sumario por disposici6n de la misma, si los procesados optan por el nuevo procedi-
miento, es competent la Audiencia de lo criminal A quien correspond, y no los Tri-
bunales anteriores a la creaci6n de dichas Audiencias.

accordance with the provisions of the new law, if every one of the
accused in each cause should choose the new procedure.'
For this purpose the judge who may be taking cognizance of the
preliminary proceedings on the first day of January next shall order
all the accused to appear before him, together with their counsel.
Should they not have counsel as yet, they shall be assigned to them
at the motion of the court for the appearance.
This appearance shall be duly entered upon the record of the cause.
ART. 4. Judges of First Instance shall at once be considered as
examining judges in the causes which are prosecuted in accordance
with the new procedure.
ART. 5. As soon as the actualpromotores cease in the discharge of
their duties, the functions of the Department of public prosecution in
causes which are being heard in accordance with the procedure in force
at the present time shall be discharged by the municipal fiscales who
may be attorneys, and, in their absence, by those whom thefiscales of
the respective audiencias may designate.
ART. 6. The Administration Chambers of the Audiencias and the
new Tribunals shall submit directly to the Colonial Department for its
decision any doubts which may arise in the application of this Royal
Given in the Palace on October 19, 1888.
Colonial Minister.

It is sufficient that all the accused present select the new procedure for it to be
adopted in accordance with the rule we annotate. This was declared by the office of
the Fiscal of the Supreme Court in instruction number 3, of those attached to the
Memorial of September 15, 1883, deciding a question submitted to the same as to the
application of a similar precept of the Royal Decree approving the law of the Penin-
sula, and the said Court confirmed it in its decisions, among which may be men-
tioned those of June 30 and December 23, 1883, according to which "only the accused
present at the trial can be affected by the form of the procedure and the sentence
closing it; and, therefore, the absence and default of the others with regard to whom
it is suspended can not redound to the prejudice of those who, submissive and obe-
dient to the law, find themselves in urgent necessity of defending themselves, and if
the latter choose the new procedure the proper criminal audiencia is of competent
jurisdiction, and not the territorial audiencia." In another decision, of August 12,
1884, it was stated that a cause having been prosecuted in accordance with the former
procedure, a sentence rendered in first instance, a consultation being had with the
higher court and the proceedings having been returned to the court of primary juris-
diction by order of the same, if the accused then choose the new procedure, the
proper criminal audiencia is of competent jurisdiction, and not the Tribunals which
existed prior to the creation of said audiencias.







ARTfCULO 10. No se impondri pena alguna por consecuencia de
actos punibles cuya reprensi6n incumba A la jurisdicci6n ordinaria,
sino de conformidad con las disposiciones de la present ley 6 de otras
especiales, y en virtud de sentencia dictada por juez competente1

ART. 20. Todas las autoridades y funcionarios que intervengan en
el procedimiento penal cuidaran, dentro de los limits de su respective
competencia, de consignar y apreciar las circunstancias asi adversas
como favorables al presunto reo, y estarin obligados, 4i falta de dispo-
sici6n expresa, A instruir A 4ste de sus derechos y de los recursos que
pueda ejercitar mientras no se hallare asistido de defensor.

1Extraido de Portugal el espafiol Joaqufn Cupido y condenado i la pena de muerte,
interpuso recurso de casaci6n por suponer infringido el art. 1 del convenio de extra-
dici6n celebrado entire Espafia y Portugal en 6 de Diciembre de 1875, segdn el cual
los criminals A quienes correspond la pena de muerte, s6lo serAn entregados A con-
dici6n de que se les conmute dicho castigo. El T. S. declare no haber lugar al
"Considerando que A los Tribunales no correspond conmutar las penas, porque la
conmutaci6n supone la imposici6n previa de aquella que se ha de conmutar, y la
facultad de elegir libremente la que se ha de imponer en cambio, propia y exclusive
de la prerrogativa regia, siendo por tanto s6lo competencia de la administraci6n de
justicia aplicar la ley penal, sin que infrinja, aplicAndola A reos extrafdos de Portugal
por delito que senale el C6digo la pena de muerte, el art. 1 del tratado de extra-
dici6n vigente con el Gobierno portuguds, precepto cuya observancia procederd,
conform al pacto international, despubs de impuesta en fall definitive la referida
pena."-Sala Sa., Sent. 15 Abril, 1884. Gac. 8 Septiembre, p. 168.







ARTICLE 1. No penalty whatsoever shall be inflicted as a consequence
of punishable acts the punishment of which pertains to the ordinary
jurisdiction, except in accordance with the provisions of this and other
special laws, and by virtue of a sentence pronounced by a judge of
competent jurisdiction.1
ART. 2. All authorities and officials taking part in a criminal pro-
ceeding shall seek, within the limits of their respective jurisdictions,
to record and consider all circumstances for and against the presumed
criminal, and shall be obliged, in the absence of an express provision,
to inform the latter of his rights and of the remedies he may employ,
while without the services of counsel.

'A Spaniard by the name of Joaquin Cupido having been extradited from Portugal
and sentenced to death, interposed an appeal for annulment of judgment on the ground
of the violation of article 1 of the extradition convention celebrated between Spain
and Portugal on December 6,1875, according to which criminals subject to the penalty
of death shall be turned over only on condition that said punishment be commuted.
The supreme court declares that the appeal does not lie:
"'Considering that it does not lie within the power of courts to commute sentences,
because a commutation supposes the previous imposition of the sentence to be com-
muted, and the power to freely select that which is to be imposed in lieu thereof,
which is properly and exclusively a royal prerogative, it beingwithin the jurisdiction
of the administration of justice only to apply the penal law, without violating, in
applying the same to criminals extradited from Portugal for a crime to which the code
affixes the penalty of death, article 1 of the extradition treaty in force with the Portu-
guese Government, a precept, the observance of which will be proper, in accordance
with the international agreement, after the said punishment has been imposed by a
definite sentence."-Second Chamber. Decision ofApril 15,1884. Gaceta of September
S8, page 168.


ART. 30. Por regla general, la competencia de los Tribunales encar-
gados de la justicia penal se extiende A resolver, para s61o el efecto de
la represi6n, las cuestiones civiles y administrativas prejudiciales pro-
puestas con motivo de los hechos perseguidos, cuando tales cuestiones
aparezcan tan intimamente ligadas al hecho punible que sea racional-
mente impossible su separaci6n.
ART. 4. Sin embargo, si la cuesti6n prejudicial fuese determinant
de la culpabilidad 6 de la inocencia, el Tribunal de lo criminal sus-
pendera el procedimiento hasta la resoluci6n de aquUlla por quien co-
responda; pero puede fijar un plazo, que no exceda de dos meses, para
que las parties acudan al juez 6 Tribunal civil 6 contencioso-adminis-
trativo competente'
Pasado el plazo sin que el interesado acredite haberlo utilizado, el
Tribunal de lo criminal alzarA la suspension y continuara el procedi-
En estos juicios sera parte el Ministerio fiscal.
ART. 5. No obstante lo dispuesto en los dos articulos anteriores, las
cuestiones civiles prejudiciales referentes a la validez de un matri-
monio 6 a la supresi6n de estado civil, se deferirAn siempre al juez 6
Tribunal que deba entender de las mismas, y su decision servira de
base A la del Tribunal de lo criminal.

ART. 6. Si la cuesti6n civil prejudicial se refiere al derecho de pro-
piedad sobre un inmnieble 6 a otro derecho real, el Tribunal de lo
criminal podri resolver acerca de ella cuando tales derechos aparezcan
fundados en un titulo autintico 6 en actos indubitados de posesi6n.2
ART. 7o. El Tribunal de lo criminal se atemperarA respectivamente
A las reglas del Derecho civil 6 administrative en las cuestiones preju-
diciales que, con arreglo a los articulos anteriores, deba resolver.

1 No son susceptible de recurso de casaci6n:
(a) El auto que suspended temporalmente el procedimiento contra un acusado (4
Diciembre, 1879).
(b) Los autos sobre procedencia de las cuestiones prejudiciales A que se refiere el
art. 4o de la ley, por no estar comprendidos en el 850 (16 Abril y 5 Junio, 1888).

(c) El auto de sobreseimiento provisional (9 Abril de 1887).
2Los arts. 4, 50, y 6, son excepci6n de los 111 y 114, que por regla general pro-
hiben el ejercicio aislado de toda acci6n civil, derivado del delito, mientras no se
resuelva la penal i que el hecho reputado punible haya dado origen.


ART. 3. As a general rule, the jurisdiction of courts charged with
penal justice extends to the decision, for the purposes of reprehension
only, of the preliminary civil and administrative questions arising in
connection with the acts prosecuted, when such questions appear to be
so intimately connected with the punishable act that their separation is
practically impossible.
ART. 4. Nevertheless, if the preliminary question be one involving
a determination of guilt or innocence, the criminal court shall suspend
the proceedings until the decision thereof by the proper person; but
it may fix a period not to exceed two months, within which the parties
may apply to the civil or administrative judge or court of competent
If said period shall expire without the person interested proving
that he has availed himself thereof, the criminal court shall raise the
suspension and continue the proceedings.
The prosecuting official shall be a party to these proceedings.
ART. 5. Notwithstanding the provisions contained in the two pre-
ceding articles, civil preliminary questions relating to the validity of
a marriage or to the suppression of the civil status shall always be
transmitted to the judge or court which is to take cognizance of the
same, and his decision shall serve as a basis for that of the criminal
ART. 6. If the civil preliminary question shall relate to the right
of ownership of real property or of another property right, the
criminal court may decide thereon when such rights appear to be
based on an authentic title or indubitable acts of possession.2
ART. 7. The criminal court shall conform to the rules of civil or
administrative law, respectively, in the preliminary questions which
it may be required to decide, in accordance with the preceding

'The following can not be appealed from for annulmentof judgment:
(a) The decree temporarily suspending the proceedings against an accused person.
(December 4, 1879.)
(b) Rulings as to the legality of the preliminary questions referred to in article 4
of the law, on account of not being included in article 850. (April 16 and June 5,
(c) A decree temporarily suspending the proceedings. (April 9, 1887.)
'Articles 4, 5, and 6 are exceptions to articles 111 and 114, which, as a general
rule, prohibit the separate institution of any civil action derived from the crime until
the penal action has been decided which arose from the alleged punishable act.




ART. 8. La jurisdicci6n criminal es siempre improrrogable.1
ART. 9. Los jueces y tribunales que tengan competencia para cono-
cer de una causa determinada, la tendrin tambi4n para todas sus inci-
dencias, para llevar a efecto las providencias de tramitaci6n y para la
ejecuci6n de las sentencias.2
ART. 10. Correspondera a la jurisdicci6n ordinaria el conocimiento
de las causes y juicios criminals, con excepci6n de los casos reservados
por las leyes al Senado, A los Tribunales de Guerra y Marina y A las
autoridades administrativas 6 de policia.3
ART. 11. El conocimiento de las causes por delitos en que aparezcan
a la vez culpables personas sujetas A la jurisdicci6n ordinaria y otras
aforadas correspondera & la ordinaria, salvo las excepciones consignadas
expresamente en las leyes respect a la competencia de otra juris-
ART. 12. Sin embargo de lo dispuesto en el articulo anterior, la
jurisdicci6n ordinaria sera siempre competent para prevenir las causes
por delitos que cometan los aforados.

'Llmase prorrogada la jurisdicci6n que siendo incompetent se hace competent
por voluntad de los litigantes, seg-in la ley 32, tit. 2., Partida 31., y la 7"., tit. 29,
libro 11 de la Novisima Recopilaci6n.
En lo criminal estA prohibida la prorrogaci6n de la jurisdicci6n, de donde result
que s6lo el juez competent con arreglo & las prescripciones de esta ley puede enten-
der en la persecuci6n de los delitos y faltas que se cometan.
'Segfn declar6 el Tribunal Supremo en sentencia de 24 de noviembre de 1863, en
la ejecuci6n de sentencias se comprende la exacci6n de costas impuestas en la causa,
que son una pena accesoria de la principal.
SCorresponde al Senado hacer efectiva la responsabilidad de los Ministros, los
cuales seran acusados por el Congreso, segdn dispone el art. 45 de la Constituci6n
Sobre competencia dela jurisdicci6nde guerra, veanse los articulos 10 & 17 de la ley
de Enjuiciamiento military de 29 de septiembre de 1886.
Los arts. 21 y 22 de la misma ley enumeran los casos en que los militares quedan
sujetos A la jurisdicci6n ordinaria.
'*Vanse los arts. 15 y 16 de la citada ley de Enjuiciamiento military.



ART. 8. Criminal jurisdiction is never susceptible of prorogation.1
ART. 9. Judges and courts having jurisdiction of a specific cause
shall also have jurisdiction of all its issues, to carry out decrees and
enforce the execution of sentences.2
ART. 10. The cognizance of criminal trials and actions pertains to
the ordinary jurisdiction, excepting such cases as are reserved by law
to the Senate, to the army and navy tribunals, and to the administrative
or police authorities.3
ART. 11. The ordinary jurisdiction shall take cognizance of crimi-
nal causes in which persons subject to the ordinary as well as to other
special jurisdictions appear guilty, with the exceptions expressly men-
tioned in the laws with regard to the competency of another jurisdic-
ART. 12. Notwithstanding the provisions of the foregoing article,
the ordinary jurisdiction shall always be competent to take the pre-
liminary steps in causes involving crimes committed by persons sub-
ject to special laws.
1Prorogation of jurisdiction is that jurisdiction which is by the consent of the
parties conferred on a judge otherwise incompetent, according to law 32, title 2,
partida 3, and law 7, title 29, book 11 of the Novisima Recopilaci6n. (Bell's Die.,
7th ed., p. 868.)
Prorogation of jurisdiction is prohibited in criminal matters, so that only the judge
competent in accordance with the provisions of this law may take cognizance of
crimes and misdemeanors which may be committed.
2As the supreme court declared in a decision of November 24, 1863, the execution
of a sentence includes the exaction of the costs taxed in a cause, which are a penalty
accessory to the principal one.
3 The Senate has jurisdiction to enforce the liability of members of the cabinet
who shall be accused by the Congress, in pursuance of the provisions of article 45 of
the Constitution in force.
With regard to the competency of the army jurisdiction, see articles 10 to 17 of the
law of military procedure of September 29, 1886.
Articles 21 and 22 of the said law mention the cases in which soldiers are subject
to the ordinary jurisdiction.
SSee articles 15 and 16 of the aforementioned law of military procedure.

Esta competencia se limitarg A instruir las primeras diligencias, con-
cluidas las cuales, la jurisdiccci6n ordinaria remitird las actuaciones al
juez 6 tribunal que deba conocer de la causa con arreglo i las leyes, y
pondr6 6 su disposici6n a los detenidos y los efectos ocupados.

La jurisdicci6n ordinaria cesarg en las primeras diligencias tan luego
como conste que la especial competent instruye causa sobre el mismo
Los autos de inhibici6n de esta clase que pronuncien los jueces
instructors de ia jurisdicci6n ordinaria son apelables ante la respective
Entre tanto que se sustancie y decide el recurso de apelaci6n, se cum-
plira lo dispuesto en el art. 22, pirrafo segundo, A cuyo efecto y para
la sustanciaci6n del recurso se remitira el correspondiente testimonio.1

ART. 13. Consideranse como primeras diligencias: las de dar pro-
tecci6n a los perjudicados, consignar las pruebas del delito que puedan
desaparecer, recoger y poner en custodia cuanto conduzca a su com-
probaci6n y a la identificaci6n del delincuente, y detener en su caso 6
los reos presuntos.
ART. 14. Fuera de los casos reservados al Senado, y de aquellos que
expresa y limitativamente atribuye la ley al Tribunal Supremo, 6 las
audiencias territoriales, 6 las jurisdicciones de Guerra y Marina y A
las autoridades administrativas 6 de policia, serin competentes por
regla general:
1. Para los juicios de faltas, los jueces municipales del t6rmino en
que se hayan cometido.
2. Para la instrucci6n de las causes, los jueces instructors del par-
tido en que el delito se haya cometido.
3. Para conocer de la causa y del juicio respective, la audiencia de
lo criminal de la circunscripci6n en donde el delito se haya cometido.2
SSobre apelaci6n por el fiscal de los autos de inhibici6n, vase la nota al art. 25.
El Tribunal Supremo tiene declarado, en sentencia de 11 de febrero de 1880, que
el hecho de haber comenzado un Juez 6 conocer de una causa y reclamado su juris-
dicci6n, no es bastante para atribuir competencia; y en otra de 5 de agosto de 1886,
que la jurisdicci6n ordinaria es competent para instruir diligencias sobre suicidio de
de un soldado.
'De las causes contra jueces municipales y jueces de instrucci6n 6 de primer
instancia y de las promovidas contra consejales de ayuntamiento y autoridades
administrativas de poblaciones donde no hubiera audiencia 6 no sean capitals de
provincia, Ldeberdn conocer las audiencias de lo criminal 6 las salas respectivas de
las territoriales?
La fiscalia del Tribunal Supremo resuelve la duda en favor de las audiencias de
lo criminal de la circunscripci6n en que se haya cometido el delito, primero en la
69 de las instrucciones que acompafiaron A la Memoria de 15 de septiembre de 1883,
y despues en la circular de 18 de Agosto de 1884.
De conformidad con la opinion de la fiscalia, el Tribunal Supremo ha establecido

This jurisdiction shall be confined to the first steps, upon the con-
clusion of which the ordinary jurisdiction shall transmit the proceed-
ings to the judge or court which is to take cognizance of the cause in
accordance to law, and shall place the persons detained and the effects
seized at the disposal of the same.
The ordinary jurisdiction shall discontinue the first steps as soon as
it becomes evident that the proper special jurisdiction has instituted
proceedings on the same crime.
Decrees of inhibition of this character issuing from examining
judges of the ordinary jurisdiction may be appealed from to the
proper audiencia.
Until the appeal is heard and decided the provisions of the second
paragraph of article 22 shall apply, for which purpose, as well as for
the hearing and determination of the appeal, the proper transcript
shall be forwarded.1
ART. 13. The following are considered first steps: Those taken to
protect the injured parties, record the evidence of the crime which
may disappear, collect and place under custody all that may conduce
to the proof thereof and to the identification of the delinquent, and,
in a proper case, arrest the presumed criminals.
ART. 14. With the exception of the cases reserved to the Senate,
and of those which are expressly and specially assigned by law to the
supreme court, to the territorial audiencias, to the army and navy
tribunals, and to the administrative or police authorities, the following
shall have jurisdiction as a general rule:
1. Of actions for misdemeanors, the municipal judges of the district
in which committed.
2. To investigate the causes, the examining judges of the judicial
district in which the crime was committed.
3. To take cognizance of the cause and the respective trial, the
criminal audiencia of the circuit where the crime was committed.'
With regard to appeals by the prosecuting official from decrees of inhibition, see
note to article 25.
The supreme court declared in a decision of February 11, 1880, that the fact of a
judge having begun to act in a cause and claimed jurisdiction thereof is not sufficient
to grant jurisdiction; and in another, of August 5, 1886, that the ordinary jurisdiction
is competent to institute proceedings relating to the suicide of a soldier.
2Do criminal audiencias or the respective chambers of the territorial audiencias
have jurisdiction of causes instituted against municipal, examining, or judges of
first instance, as well as against members of Ayuntamientos and administrative
authorities of towns where there is no audiencia, or which are not the capital of a
The Fiscalia of the supreme court decides the doubt in favor of the criminal au-
diencias of the circuit where the crime was committed, first in the 69th instruction
which accompanies the memorial of September 15, 1883, and subsequently in the
circular of August 18, 1884.
In accordance with the opinion of the Fiscalia, the supreme court ruled in its


ART. 15. Cuando no conste el lugar en que se haya cometido una
falta 6 delito, serin jueces y tribunales competentes en su caso para
conocer de la causa 6 juicio:
10. El del t6rmino municipal, partido 6 circunscripci6n en que se
hayan descubierto pruebas materials del delito.
20. El del tirmino municipal, partido 6 circunscripci6n en que el
presunto reo haya sido aprehendido.
3. El de la residencia del reo presunto.
4. Cualquiera que hubiese tenido noticia del delito.
Si se suscitase competencia entire estos jueces 6 tribunales, se
decidir! dando la preferencia por el orden con que estin expresados
en los nfimeros que preceden.
Tan luego como conste el lugar en que se hubiese cometido el delito,
se remitirAn las diligencias al juez 6 tribunal a cuya demarcaci6n
correspond, poniendo A su disposici6n ~ los detenidos y efectos
ART. 16. La jurisdicci6n ordinaria seri la competent para juzgar i
los reos de delitos conexos, siempre que alguno este sujeto a ella, aun
cuando los demis sean afolados.
Lo dispuesto en el pirrafo anterior se entiende sin perjuicio de las
excepciones expresamente consignadas en este C6digo 6 en leyes espe-
ciales, y singularmente en las leyes penales de Guerra y Marina
respect & determinados delitos.
ART. 17. Considgranse delitos conexos:
1. Los cometidossimultAneamente por dos 6 mis personas reunidas,
siempre que 4stas vengan sujetas A diversos jueces 6 tribunales ordi-
narios 6 especiales, 6 que puedan estarlo por la indole del delito.
2. Los cometidos por dos 6 mis personas en distintos lugares 6
tiempos si hubiese precedido concerto para ello.
3. Los cometidos como medio para perpetrar otros, 6 facilitar su
4. Los cometidos para procurar la impunidad de otros delitos.
5. Los diversos delitos que se imputen 6 un procesado al incoarse
contra el mismo causa por cualquiera de ellos, si tuvieren analogia 6
en sentencia del 10 de marzo de 1885, que la salas de las audiencias territoriales, en
cuanto d los delitos de los jueces de instrucci6n se refiere, s61o son competentes para
conocer de los cometidos dentro del territorio 6 demarcaci6n que les est6 asignado,
siendole exclusivamente las nuevas audiencias para perseguir y castigar los que hayan
tenido lugar dentro de las suyas respectivas (sentencia de 23 de febrero de 1885), y
que segun el Tribunal Supremo tiene declarado en reiteradas decisions, de una
manera explicita y terminante, es de la exclusive competencia de las audiencias de
lo criminal el conocimento de los delitos cometidos por los jueces de instrucci6n de
su circunscripci6n respective.
Los mismos tribunales son los competentes para conocer de las causes contra
jueces y fiscales municipals.

ART. 15. When the place where a misdemeanor or crime has been
committed is not known, the following judges and courts shall have
jurisdiction, in a proper case, of the cause or trial:
1. That of the municipal or judicial district or circuit where mate-
rial proofs of the crime have been found.
2. That of the municipal or judicial district or circuit in which the
presumed criminal may have been apprehended.
3. That of the place of residence of the presumed criminal.
4. Any judge or court receiving notice of the crime.
If a question of jurisdiction shall arise between these judges or
courts the decision rendered shall give the preference in the order
mentioned in the preceding numbers.
As soon as the place where the crime was committed is known, the
proceedings shall be forwarded to the judge or court within whose
district such place is situated, the persons arrested as well as the effects
seized being held subject to orders of the same.
AnT. 16. The ordinary jurisdiction shall be competent to judge per-
sons guilty of connected crimes, provided that one of 'them is subject
thereto, even if the others should be subject to special jurisdictions.
The provisions contained in the foregoing paragraph shall be under-
stood without prejudice to the exceptions expressly mentioned in this
code or in special laws, and particularly in the war and navy criminal
laws with regard to specific crimes.
ART. 17. The following are considered connected crimes:
1. Those committed simultaneously by two or more persons together,
provided that they are subject to the jurisdiction of different ordinary
or special judges or courts, or who might be so on account of the
nature of the crime.
2. Those committed by two or more persons at different places or
times, if there shall have been a previous agreement between them.
3. Those committed as a means to perpetrate others or to facilitate
their execution.
4. Those committed to secure immunity from other crimes.
5. The different crimes charged against an accused person upon the
institution against him of an action for any of them, should there be

decision of March 19, 1885, that the chambers of the territorial audiencias, in so far
as crimes committed by examining judges are concerned, have jurisdiction only of
those committed within the district assigned them, and that the new audiencias are
exclusively competent to prosecute and punish those which may have taken place
within their respective district (decision of February 23, 1885), and that, as the
supreme court has repeatedly declared in an explicit and final manner, the jurisdic-
tion of crimes committed by examining judges of their respective circuits pertains to
criminal audiencias exclusively.

The said courts have jurisdiction of causes against municipal judges and prosecut-
ing officials.

relaci6n entire si a juicio del tribunal y no hubiesen sido hasta entonces
objeto de procedimiento.
ART. 18. Son jueces y tribunales competentes, por su orden, para
conocer de las causes por delitos conexos:
10. El del territorio en que se haya cometido el delito a que est6
sefialada pena mayor.
2. El que primero comenzare la causa en el caso de que a los delitos
est6 sefialada igual pena.
3. El que la audiencia de lo criminal 6 el Tribunal Supremo en sus
respectivos casos designed, cuando las causes hubieren empezado al
mismo tiempo, 6 no conste cuil comenz6 primero.



ART. 19. Podrin promover y sostener competencia:
1. Los jueces municipales en cualquier estado del juicio, y las
parties desde la citaci6n hasta el acto de la comparecencia.
2. Los jueces de instrucci6n durante el sumario.
3. Las audiencias de lo criminal durante la sustanciaci6n del juicio.
40. El ministerio fiscal en cualquier estado de la causa.2
5. El acusador particular antes de formular su primer petici6n
despu&s de personado en la causa.
6. El procesado y la parte civil, ya figure como actor, y aparezca
como responsible, dentro de los tres dias siguientes al en que se les
comunique la causa para calificaci6n.
ART. 20. Son superiores jergrquicos para resolver sobre las cues-
tiones de competencia, en la forma que determinaran los articulos
10. De los jueces municipales del mismo partido, el de instrucci6n.
2. De los jueces de instrucci6n de una misma circunscripci6n, la
audiencia de lo criminal.
30. De las audiencias de lo criminal del mismo territorio, la audien-
cia territorial en pleno.
40. De las audiencias territoriales, 6 cuando la competencia sea entire
una audiencia de lo criminal y la sala de lo criminal de una territorial,
el Tribunal Supremo.
Las reglas que se fijan en este capftulo para sustanciar competencias, no se aplican
cuando los conflicts se suscitan en causes seguidas contra reos de flagrante delito; en
esos casos se abrevia la contienda tramitandose y decididndose por el procedimiento
especial del art. 782.
'Derecho del ministerio fiscal para promoter la competencia en cualquier estado de la
causa. Este derecho entrafia la facultad de ejercitar la inhibitoria 6 la declinatoria
sin limitaci6n alguna; y si entabla la primer despu6s de terminado el sumario y de
abierto el juicio oral, no puede tener aplicaci6n el procedimiento marcado en el art. 23
(6 de diciembre de 1885. Gac. de 9 de mayo 1886).


analogy or relation between them, in the judgment of the court, and
should they not have been the subject of proceedings to that time.
ART. 18. The following, in their order, are judges and courts which
have jurisdiction of causes involving connected crimes:
1. That of the territory where the crime was committed to which
a higher penalty is affixed.
2. The one first beginning proceedings, if equal penalties are affixed
to the crime.
3. The one designated by the criminal audiencia or by the supreme
court in their respective cases, when the causes were begun at the
same time, or when it does not appear which was begun first.


ART. 19. Questions of jurisdiction may be raised and sustained by-
1. Municipal judges at any stage of the action, and by the parties
between the citation and the hearing.
2. Judges of examination, during the sumario.
3. Criminal audiencias during the hearing of the trial.
4. The public prosecutor at any stage of the cause."
5. The private accuser, before filing his first plea, after having
entered an appearance in the cause.
6. The accused and the civil party, whether appearing as plaintiff
or defendant, within three days after the cause has been transmitted
to them for classification.
ART. 20. The following are hierarchical superiors for the decision of
questions of jurisdiction, in the manner prescribed by the following
1. Of municipal judges of the same judicial district, the judge of
2. Of judges of examination of the same circuit, the criminal
3. Of criminal audiencias of the same territory, the territorial audi-
encia in bane.
4. Of territorial audiencias, or when the question of jurisdiction is
between a criminal audiencia and the criminal chamber of a territorial
audiencia, the supreme court.
The rules prescribed in this chapter for the hearing and determination of ques-
tions of jurisdiction, are not applicable when raised in causes against those guilty of
flagrant crimes; in such cases the contest is curtailed, being heard and determined
in accordance with the special procedure of article 782.
SRight of the public prosecutor to raise a question of jurisdiction at any stage of the
cause.-This right includes the power to interpose an inhibitory or declinatory plea
without any limitation whatsoever; and if he interposes the former plea between the
conclusion of the sumario and the beginning of the oral trial, the procedure men-
tioned in article 23 can not apply. December 26, 1885. (Gaceta of May 9, 1886.)

Cuando cualquiera de los jueces 6 tribunales mencionados en los
ndmeros 1, 2" y 3, no tengan superior inmediato comin, decidira la
competencia el que lo sea en el orden jerirquico, y a falta de este el
Tribunal Supremo.'
ART. 21. El Tribunal Supremo no podra former ni promover com-
petencias y ning6n juez, tribunal 6 parte podri promoverlas contra 41.

Cuando algfn juez' 6 tribunal viniere entendiendo en asunto cuyo
conocimiento estuviere reservado al Tribunal Supremo, ordenari este
a aqu6l de oficio, i excitaci6n del ministerio fiscal 6 a solicitud de
parte, que se abstenga de todo procedimiento y remita los antecedentes,
en el t6rmino de segundo dia, para en su vista resolver.
El Tribunal Supremo podrA sin embargo autorizar, en la misma
orden y entire tanto que resuelve la competencia, la continuaci6n de
aquellas diligencias cuya urgencia 6 necesidad fueren manifiestas.
Contra la decision del Tribunal Supremo no se da recurso alguno.
ART. 22. Cuando dos 6 mas jueces de instrucci6n se reputen compe-
tentes para actuar en un asunto, si a la primer comunicaci6n no se
pusieren de acuerdo sobre la competencia, darn cuenta con remisi6n
de testimonio al superior competente' y 4ste en su vista decidira de
plano y sin ulterior recurso cual de los jueces instructors debe actuar.

Mientras no recaiga decision, cada uno de los jueces instructors
seguira practicando las diligencias necesarias para comprobar el delito,
y aquellas otras que consider de reconocida urgencia.'
Dirimido el conflict por el superior a quien compete, el juez de
instrucci6n que deje de actuar remitira las diligencias practicadas y los
objetos recogidos al declarado competent dentro de segundo dia, A
contar desde el en que reciba la orden superior para que deje de

'Corresponde al Tribunal Supremo la decision de la competencia suscitada entire
dos juzgados enclavados en distrito de la misma audiencia territorial, pero pertene-
ciente uno de ellos A circunscripci6n de audiencia de lo criminal. Fdndase esta doc-
trina en que "formando parte del pleno de la audiencia territorial la sala de lo crim-
inal, vendria A ser juez y parte" si dicha audiencia territorial decidiese el conflict.
(Sala 3, sent. de junior 28 de 1888. Gac. 30 id.)
2 Este precepto, aplicable A las competencias negatives por virtud del Art. 46, no
permit que se remitan al superior las diligencias originales, pues entonces no pueden
seguir practicandose las necesarias para comprobar el delito y sus circunstancias.
(Sentencia de sepliembre 20 de 1886.) Pero si, esto no obstante, remiten las actuaciones
originales, tal irregularidad no debe producer la declaraci6n de estar mal formada la
competencia. (Julio 17 de 1884).

SDesde que un juzgado tiene conocimiento de que otro ha prevenido causa sobre
el mismo hecho de que aqu6l conoce, debe abstenerse de dictar resoluci6n definitive
antes de promover la inhibitoria, y de no hacerlo asf la que recaiga no puede ser
obsticulo para decidir la competencia. (Sala 3, seenncia de 29 de Abril de 1878.)

When any of the judges or courts mentioned in numbers 1, 2, and
3 shall have no immediate common superior, the question of jurisdic-
tion shall be decided by the hierarchical superior, and in the absence
of the latter, by the supreme court.'
ART. 21. The supreme court can not institute or raise a question of
jurisdiction, nor can any judge, court, or party question its jurisdic-
If any judge or court shall take cognizance of a question, jurisdic-
tion of which is reserved to the supreme court, the latter shall order
the former, ex oqficio, on motion of the public prosecutor or of a party,
that it discontinue further proceedings and forward the same, on or
before the second day, for the proper decision.
The supreme court may nevertheless authorize in the same order,
until the question of jurisdiction is settled, the continuation of such
proceedings the urgency or necessity of which is apparent.
There shall be no remedy against the decision of the supreme court.
ART. 22. When two or more examining judges consider themselves
as having jurisdiction of a matter, if upon the first communication they
should not agree as to the jurisdiction, they shall make a report to the
proper superior, forwarding a transcript,2 and the latter shall decide
eo instant, in view thereof and without further remedy, which of the
examining judges shall have jurisdiction.
Until a decision is rendered, each of the examining judges shall con-
tinue the proceedings necessary to prove the crime and any other
proceedings which he may consider of recognized urgency.'
After the conflict has been decided by the proper superior, the judge
of examination who discontinued proceedings shall forward the pro-
ceedings had, and the objects gathered, to the judge declared competent,
within two days after receiving the superior order to cease taking
cognizance thereof.
I The decision of a question of jurisdiction between two courts situated within the
district of the same territorial audiencia, but one of them belonging to the circuit of
a criminal audiencia, pertains to the supreme court. The basis for this doctrine is
that "as the criminal chamber of a territorial audiencia forms part of the audiencia
in bane, it would become a judge and party" if said territorial audiencia should decide
the conflict. (Third Chamber, decision of June 28, 1888. Gaceta of the 30th.)
2 This precept, applicable to negative questions of jurisdiction by virtue of article
46, does not permit the transmission to the superior of the original proceedings,
because in such case it would be impossible to continue the necessary proceedings to
prove the crime and its circumstances. (Decision of September 20,1886.) But if, not-
withstanding this, they forward the original proceedings, such irregularity does not
permit of a declaration that the question of jurisdiction is not well taken. (July 17,
From the moment that a court has knowledge that another court has begun a
cause involving the same matter of which it is taking cognizance, it must not render
a definite decision before requesting an inhibition; otherwise the decision rendered
will not be an obstacle to the decision of the question of jurisdiction. (Third
chamber, decision of April 29, 1878.)


Art. 23. Si durante el sumario el ministerio fiscal 6 el acusador
particular entendiesen que el juez instructor no tiene competencia
para actuar en la causa, podran reclamar ante el tribunal superior i
quien corresponda, el cual, previous los informed que estime necesarios,
resolverg de piano y sin ulterior recurso.'
En todo caso se cumplirg lo dispuesto en el prrafo segundo del
articulo anterior.
ART. 24. Terminado el sumario, toda cuesti6n de competencia que se
promueva suspenders los procedimientos hasta la decision de ella.2
ART. 25. El juez 6 tribunal que se consider competent deberi
promover la competencia.
Tambi4n acordari la inhibici6n a favor del juez 6 tribunal com-
petente cuando consider que el conocimiento de la causa no le
corresponde, aunque sobre ello no haya precedido reclamaci6n de los
interesados ni del ministerio fiscal.
Los autos que los jueces municipales 6 de instrucci6n dicten, inhibi6n-
dose A favor de otro juez 6 jurisdicci6n, seran apelables observindose en
este caso lo dispuesto en el 6ltimo parrafo del art. 12. Contra los de
las audiencias podri interponerse el recurso de casaci6n.3

'No es admisible, por lo tanto, el de casaci6n. Sntencias de junior 27 y 3 y 81 de
diciembre, 1884.
2 No es procedente suscitar competencia sobre conocimiento de una causa fallada ya
definitivamente. (Sentenia dejulio 8 de 1878.)
SCuando debera apelar el ministerio fiscal de los autos de inhibici6n & que se
refiere este articulo y el 12?
"Si el ministerio fiscal ha sido ofdo antes de dictarse los indicados autos, y su
opini6n se hubiere aceptado por el juez 6 audiencia respective, no debe interponerse
recurso alguno.
"Si el ministerio fiscal no ha tenido intervenci6n, 6 hubiera opinado en contra de
la procedencia de dicho auto, entonces debe apelar del mismo, si ha sido dictado por
un juez municipal 6 de instrucci6n.
"Respecto A los falls dictados por el Tribunal colegiado, deberd interponerse el
recurso de casaci6n, si hubiere motivo legal para ello." (Ni mero 5 de la Memoria
de la fiscalia del Tribunal Supremo de 15 de septiembre de 1883, y 10 de la de 15 de sep-
tiembre 1886.)
En sentencia de 14 de noviembre de 1883 declar6 el Tribunal Supremo que contra
el auto de un juez inhibi6ndose del conocimiento de una causa en favor de la juris-
dicci6n de guerra, no es admisible el recurso de casaci6n, pues contra tal provefdo
procede el recurso ordinario de apelaci6n, segdn el art. 25 dela ley de enjuiciamiento
criminal, A lo cual no obsta la disposici6n del articulo 50, porque esta disposici6n se
refiere al caso de que exist 6 amenaze trabarse una verdadera cuesti6n de compe-
tencia, y no cuando un juez de instrucci6n espontineamente 6 al primer requeri-
miento 6 petici6n que se le dirige se juzga incompetent y acuerda inhibirse, sin que
por lo tanto medie todavia semejante cuesti6n ni haya que tramitarla, A no ser que,
acogi6ndose los interesados al recurso que la ley en su citado art. 32 les facility, acuden
en apelaci6n al superior inmediato, y iste determine que sostenga su jurisdicci6n y
se sustancie y resuelva el asunto de la manera y por quien en el expresado titulo esta

ART. 23. If during the sumario the public prosecutor or the private
accuser shall consider that the examining judge has no jurisdiction to
proceed in the cause, they may object before the proper superior
court, which, after the investigation it considers necessary, shall
decide eo instant without further remedy.'
In any case the provisions of the second paragraph of the foregoing
article shall be complied with.
ART. 24. Upon the conclusion of the sumario, any question of juris-
diction raised shall stay the proceedings until it is decided.2
ART. 25. The judge or court considering itself competent must raise
the question.
It shall also grant the inhibition in favor of the competent judge or
court when it considers that it has not jurisdiction of the cause even
though the persons interested or the public prosecutor have not pre-
viously pleaded thereto.
The decrees of municipal or examining judges inhibiting themselves
in favor of another judge or jurisdiction may be appealed from, in
which case the provisions of the last paragraph of article 12 shall be
observed. An appeal for annulment of judgment lies from decrees of

'An appeal for annulment of judgment is therefore inadmissible. (Decisions of
June 27 and December 3 and 31, 1884.)
2 A question of jurisdiction can not be raised as to the cognizance of a cause which
has already been definitely decided. (Decision of July 8, 1878.)
3When must the public prosecutor appeal from the decrees of inhibition referred
to in this article and in article 12?
"If the public prosecutor has been heard before the issue of said decrees, and his
opinion should have been accepted by the respective judge or audiencia, no appeal
can be taken.
"If the public prosecutor should not have had any intervention, or should have
opposed the issue of said decree, he must then appeal therefrom, if it issued from a
municipal or examining judge.
"With regard to the decisions of a collegiate tribunal, an appeal for annulment of
judgment must be taken if there is a legal cause therefore (No. 5 of the memorial of
the staff of the public prosecutor of the supreme court of September 15, 1883, and 10 of that
of September 15, 1886.)
In a decision of November 14, 1883, the supreme court declared that an appeal for
annulment of judgment does not lie from a decree of a judge declining the jurisdic-
tion of a cause in favor of the war jurisdiction, because an ordinary appeal lies there-
from according to article 25 of the law of criminal procedure, which is not affected
by article 50, because the latter provision relates to a case where a true question of
jurisdiction exists or is liable to arise, and not when a judge voluntarily or upon the
first demand or request addressed to him deems himself incompetent and consents to
his inhibition, without such a question arising and having to be decided, unless the
persons interested seek the remedy of law granted them by the said article 32 and
appeal to the immediate superior, and the latter determines that he shall sustain his
jurisdiction, and that the matter be heard and deterra;ned in ',h ra'nner and by the
persons prescribed in the said title.


ART. 26. El ministerio fiscal y las parties promoverin las compe-
tencias por inhibitoria 6 por declinatoria.
El uso de uno de estos medios excluye absolumente el del otro, asi
durante la sustanciaci6n de la competencia, como una vez que 4sta se
halle terminada.
La inhibitoria se propondri ante el juez 6 tribunal que se renute

ART. 27. El juez municipal ante quien se proponga la inhibitoria,
oyendo al fiscal cuando este no la hubiere propuesto, resolved en tir-
mino de segundo dia si procede 6 no el requerimiento de inhibicion.

El auto denegatorio de requerimiento es apelable en ambos efectos
para ante el juez de instrucci6n respective.'
ART. 28. Si el juez municipal estimare que procede el requerimiento
de inhibici6n, lo mandarin practical por medio de oficio, en el cual
consignarg los fundamentos de su auto.
El oficio se remitird dentro de veinticuatro boras precisamente.
ART. 29. El juez municipal requerido de inhibici6n, oyendo al fiscal,
resolved en termino de segundo dia si desiste de conocer 6 mantiene
su competencia.

En el primer caso remitird dentro de las veinticuatro horas
siguientes las diligencias practicadas al juez requirente.
Si mantiene su competencia se lo comunicard dentro del mismo
plazo, exponiendo los fundamentos de su resoluci6n.
ART. 30. Recibidos los autos por el juez requirente, declarard sin
mis trimites y dentro de veinticuatro horas, si insisted en la competen-
cia 6 se aparta de ella.
En el primer caso lo participara en el mismo plazo al juez requerido
para que remita las diligencias al juez 6 tribunal que deba resolver la
competencia, i tenor de lo dispuesto en el articulo 20, haciendo l4 la
remisi6n de las suyas dentro de las veinticuatro horas siguientes.

En el segundo caso, lo participarl en el mismo dia al juez requerido
para que este pueda continuar conociendo.
'1Es necesaria la firma de letrado en el escrito proponiendo la inhibitoria ante los
juzgados municipales? Los arts. 27 6 32 que se ocupan de las cuestiones de compe-
tencia entire tales juzgados, no exigen ese requisite, que en cambio impone como
necesario el art. 33 para proponer la inhibici6n ante los tribunales de lo criminal, en
cuya frase no sabernos si estaran comprendidos, para el caso, los juzgados munici-
pales. Con'arreglo d:la".lgi'ali(i, anterior, el Tribunal Supremo tenia resuelta la
duda en el seutido e' que er" indispk'efible la finna de letrado en el escrito de inhibi-
Loria, por exigirlo, sin distinci6n daecAp's, plab rt. 365 de la ley orgdnica judicial. (Sen-
encmas de septiembre 24 y marzo 5 de 1877.'

ART. 26. The public prosecutor and the parties shall raise the ques-
tion of jurisdiction by an inhibitory or declinatory plea.
The employment of one of these remedies absolutely excludes the
employment of the other, both during the hearing of the question as
well as after its decision.
The inhibitory plea shall be interposed before the judge or court
considered competent.
The declinatory plea before the judge or court which considers
itself as not having jurisdiction.
ART. 27. The municipal judge before whom the inhibitory plea is
interposed, after hearing the public prosecutor, if interposed by
another party, shall decide before the second day whether the writ of
inhibition shall issue.
A decision overruling the plea may be appealed from for review
and for a stay of proceedings to the proper examining judge.'
ART. 28. If the municipal judge should be of opinion that the
inhibition is well taken, he shall issue a writ in which he shall state
the reasons for his decree.
The writ must be transmitted within twenty-four hours.
ART. 29. The municipal judge sought to be inhibited, after receiving
the opinion of the public prosecutor, shall decide before the second
day whether he abstains from proceeding in the cause or whether he
defends his competency.
In the former case he shall forward the proceedings had to the in-
hibiting judge within the next twenty-four hours.
If he maintains his jurisdiction, he shall communicate it to him
within the same period, stating the reasons for his decision.
ART. 30. After the record has been received by the inhibiting judge
he shall declare without further proceeding and within twenty-four
hours whether he insists upon his jurisdiction or abandons it.
In the former case he shall so communicate within a similar period
to the judge sought to be inhibited in order that he may forward the
proceedings to the judge or court which is to decide the jurisdiction,
in accordance with the provisions of article 20, and the judge request-
ing the inhibition shall forward his within the following twenty-four
In the latter case he shall communicate it the same day to the judge
sought to be inhibited in order that he may continue the proceedings.
'Is the signature of an attorney necessary to the inhibitory plea presented to
municipal courts? Arts. 27 to 32, which relate to questions of jurisdiction between
said courts, do not demand this requisite, which, on the other hand, is imposed as
necessary by article 33 to interpose an inhibition before criminal courts, in which
sentence we do not know whether municipal courts should be included. With
regard to the prior laws the supreme court has decided the doubt to the effect that
the signature of an attorney was indispensable to the inhibitory plea as it is required,
without any distinction of cases, by art. 365 of the judicial organic law. (Decisions
of September 24 and March 5, 1877.)


Los autos que los jueces requeridos dicten, accediendo 4 la inhibici6n,
serin apelables para ante el respective juez de instrucci6n. Tambign
lo seran los que dicten los requirentes desistiendo de la inhibici6n.
ART. 31. Recibidas las diligencias en el juzgado 6 tribunal Ilamado
a resolver la competencia y oldo el fiscal por el t6rmino de segundo
dia, la decidiri dentro de los tres siguientes al en que el ministerio
fiscal evacue el traslado.

Contra lo resuelto por el juzgado 6 audiencia procederi el recurso
de easaci6n.
Contra la resoluci6n del Supremo no se da recurso alguno.

ART. 32. Cuando se proponga declinatoria ante un juez municipal,
resolverg 4ste en termino de segundo dia, oyendo previamente al fiscal,
sobre si procede 6 no acordar la inhibici6n.

El auto en que se deniegue la inhibici6n es apelable en ambos efectos
para ante el juzgado 4 quien correspond resolver la competencia, el
cual sustanciari el recurso en la forma prevenida en el pirrafo primero
del articulo anterior.

Contra la resoluci6n del juzgado procederi el recurso de casaci6n.

ART. 33. La inhibici6n ante los tribunales de lo criminal se pro-
pondr6 en escrito con firma de letrado.
En el escrito expresar6 el que la proponga que no ha empleado la
declinatoria. Si resultase lo contrario, seri condenado en costas
aunque se decide en su favor la competencia, 6 aunque la abandon en
lo sucesivo.
ART. 34. El tribunal ante quien se proponga la inhibitoria oiri por
termino de uno 4 dos dias, segin el volume de la causa, al ministerio
fiscal, cuando 6ste no la haya propuesto, asi como 4 las dem6s parties
que figure en la causa de que pudiera g la vez estar conociendo el tri-
bunal 4 quien se haya instado para que haga el requerimiento, y en su
vista, mandarA dentro de los dos dias siguientes library oficio inhibito-
rio, 6 declarar no haber lugar A ello.
ART. 35. Contra el auto en que se deniegue el requerimiento de
inhibici6n s61o habri lugar al recurso de casaci6n.1
ART. 36. Con el oficio de inhibici6n se acompafiarA testimonio: del
escrito en que se haya pedido, de lo expuesto por el ministerio fiscal

'Este articulo se refiere ~ los autos en que se deniegue el requerimiento de inhibi-
ci6n por los tribunales de lo criminal y no A los que los jueces de primera instancia
pueden dictar en asuntos de su competencia. (Sentencia de Abril 28 de 1883.)
Contra la sentencia dinegatoria del recurso de casaci6n no cabe ningiin otro. (Sen-
tencia de febrero 10, 1880, sala 31.)

The decisions of the judges sought to be inhibited consenting to the
inhibition may be appealed from to the respective examining judge.
Those of the judges requesting the inhibition desisting therefrom may
also be appealed from in the same manner.
ART. 31. After the proceedings have been received by the judge or
court which is to decide the jurisdiction and after the opinion of the
public prosecutor has been received within the two days following, a
decision shall be rendered within three days after the prosecuting
officials submit their report.
An appeal for annulment of judgment lies from the decision of the
court or audiencia.
There is no remedy whatever against the decision of the Supreme
ART. 32. When a declinatory plea is interposed before a municipal
judge he shall render a decision thereon before the expiration of two
days, after hearing the public prosecutor as to whether the plea is or
is not well taken.
A decree overruling the inhibition may be appealed from for
review and for a stay of proceedings to the judge to whom the decision
of the jurisdiction pertains, who shall hear and determine the appeal
in the manner prescribed in the first paragraph of the foregoing
An appeal for annulment of judgment lies from the decision of the
ART. 3M. Inhibitory pleas before criminal courts shall be in writing
and signed by an attorney.
The person interposing said plea shall state that he has not inter-
posed a declinatory plea. Should the contrary appear the costs shall
be taxed against him, even though the question of jurisdiction be
decided in his favor or he should subsequently abandon it.
ART. 34 The court before which the inhibitory plea is interposed
shall hear for a period of one to two days, according to the volume
of the cause, the prosecuting officials, if the latter should not have
interposed it, as well as the other parties appearing in the cause
which the court is hearing before which the plea for inhibition has
been interposed and in view thereof, it shall issue, within the next
two days, a writ of inhibition, or shall overrule the plea.
ART. 35. An appeal for annulment of judgment only lies against a
decree denying a writ of inhibition.'
ART. 36. Attested copies shall be attached to the writ of inhibition,
of the petition requesting it, of the statements of the prosecuting
officials, and of the parties, in a proper case; of the decision rendered,
IThis article refers to decrees denying a writ of inhibition by criminal courts and
not to those issued by judges of first instance in matters of their jurisdiction. (Deci-
sion of April 28, 1885.) No appeal lies from the decision which denies an appeal.
(Decision of February 10, 1880, Third Chamber.)

y por las parties en su caso, del auto que se haya dictado y do lo demas
que el tribunal estime conducente para fundar su competencia.
El testimonio se extender y remitiri en el plazo improrrogable de
uno a tres dias, segin el volume de la causa.

ART. 37. El tribunal requerido acusara inmediatamente recibo, y
oyendo al ministerio fiscal, al acusador particular, si le hubiere, al
procesado 6 procesados y a los que figure como parte civil, por un
plazo que no podri exceder de veinticuatro horas a cada uno, dictara
auto inhibi6ndose 6 declarando que no ha lugar A hacerlo.

Contra el auto en que el tribunal se inhibiere no se darg otro recur-
so que el de casaci6n.
ART. 38. Consentida 6 ejecutoriada la sentencia en que el tribunal se
hubiese inhibido, se remitirf la causa, dentro del plazo de tres dias,
al tribunal que hubiera propuesto la inhibitoria, con emplazamiento
de las parties y poniendo A disposici6n de aquil los procesados, las prue-
bas materials del delito y los bienes embargados.

ART. 39. Si se denegare la inhibici6n, se comunicara el auto al tri-
bunal requirente, con testimonio de lo expuesto por el ministerio
fiscal y por las parties y de todo lo demas que se crea conducente.

El testimonio se expedir6 y remitira dentro de tres dias.
En el oficio de remisi6n se exigira que el tribunal requirente con-
teste inmediatamente para continuar actuando si no insisted en la inhibi-
ci6n, 6 que en otro caso remita la causa a quien corresponda para que
decide la competencia.

ART. 40. Recibido el oficio que express el articulo anterior, el tri-
bunal que hubiere propuesto la inhibitoria dictara, sin mis tramites,
auto en termino de segundo dia.

Contra el auto desistiendo de la inhibici6n s6lo procederi el recurso
de casaci6n.
ART. 41. Consentido 6 ejecutoriado el auto en que el tribunal desista
de la inhibitoria, lo comunicara en el t6rmino de veinticuatro horns al
requerido de inhibici6n, remitidndole al propio tiempo todo lo actuado
para su uni6n A la causa.

ART. 42. Si el tribunal requirente mantiene su competencia, lo comu-
nicara en el termino de veinticuatro horas al requerido de inhibici6n
para que remita la causa al tribunal A quien correspond la resoluci6n,
haci6ndolo 41 de lo actuado ante el mismo.

and of anything else which the court may consider proper upon which
to base its jurisdiction.
The attested copy shall be prepared and forwarded within the unex-
tendible period of one to three days, according to the volume of the
ART. 37. The court sought to be inhibited shall at once acknowledge
receipt, and after hearing the prosecuting officials, the private accuser,
should there be any, the person or persons undergoing trial, and those
who appear as civil parties, for a period which shall not exceed twenty-
four hours for each one, shall issue a decree inhibiting himself or
declaring that there is no reason for so doing.
There shall be no remedy but an appeal for annulment of judgment
from decrees of a court inhibiting itself.
ART. 38. After the decision by which a court has inhibited itself
has been consented to or executed, the cause shall be forwarded, within
a period of three days, to the court which proposed the inhibition,
with a summons of the parties and holding the accused at the disposal
of the former as well as the material evidences of the crime and the
goods seized.
ART. 39. If the inhibition should be refused, the decree shall be
communicated to the court demanding the inhibition, with transcript
of the statements of the prosecuting officials and of the parties, and of
anything else which may be deemed proper.
The transcript shall be issued and transmitted within three days.
In the communication of transmittal it shall be required that the
court demanding the inhibition answer immediately, in order to con-
tinue the proceedings if the inhibition be not insisted upon, or that
otherwise the cause be transmitted to the proper person for a decision
as to the jurisdiction.
ART. 40. After the communication mentioned in the foregoing
article has been received, the court that proposed the inhibition shall
render a decision before the expiration of two days, without further
From a decree abandoning an inhibition an appeal for annulment of
judgment only lies.
ART. 41. After the ruling by which the court desists from the inhi-
bition has been consented to or executed, it shall be communicated
within a period of twenty-four hours to the court sought to be inhib-
ited, transmitting at the same time all proceedings had for attachment
to the cause.
ART. 42. If the court demanding the inhibition defends its com-
petency, it shall communicate the same within a period of twenty-four
hours to the court sought to be inhibited, in order that it may transmit
the record to the court which is to decide the question; and it shall do
the same with its own record.


ART. 43. Las competencias se decidirAn por el tribunal dentro de los
tres dias siguientes al en que el ministerio fiscal hubiese emitido dic-
tamen, que evacuari en el t4rmino de segundo dia.

Contra estos autos, cuando procedan de las audiencias territoriales,
habrt lugar al recurso de casaci6n.
Contra los pronunciados por el Tribunal Supremo no se da recurso
ART. 44. El tribunal que resuelva la competencia podri condenar
al pago de las costas causadas en la inhibitoria A las parties que la
hubieren sostenido 6 impugnado con notoria temeridad, determinando
en su caso la proporci6n en que deban pagarlas.
Cuando no hiciere especial condenaci6n de costas, se entenderin de
oficio las causadas en la competencia.
En el caso de que un tribunal sin causa legitima debidamente justi-
ficada, se hubiese extralimitado en los t4rminos establecidos en el pre-
sente titulo para la sustanciaci6n y decision de las competencias, seri
corregido prudencial y disciplinariamente, segf n la gravedad del caso.
ART. 45. Las declinatorias se sustanciaran como articulos de previo


ART. 46. Cuando la cuesti6n de competencia empefiada entire dos 6
mis jueces 6 tribunales fuere negative por rehusar todos entender en
la causa, la decidird el juez 6 tribunal superior y en su caso el Supremo,
siguiendo para ello los mismos trimites prescritos para las demis
ART. 47. En el caso de competencia negative entire la jurisdicci6n
ordinaria y otra privilegiada, la ordinaria empezar5 6 continuarg la
ART. 48. Las cuestiones de jurisdicci6n promovidas por tribunales
seculares contra jueces 6 tribunales eclesiasticos se sustanciaran y
decidirin por los tramites y de la manera que se establece en el titulo
III del libro 1 de la ley de enjuiciamento civil.2
ART. 49. Cuando los jueces 6 tribunales eclesi6sticos estimaren que
les corresponde el conocimiento de una causa en que entienda un juez
6 tribunal secular, podran requerirle de inhibici6n; y si no accediese

'Fijan el procedimiento para la sustanciaci6n y decision de los artfculos de previo
pronunciamiento, los articulos 666 A 679.
'Trata de los recursos de fuerza en conocer. (Arts. 125 a 152 de la ley de enjui-
ciamiento civil vigente en las Islas de Cuba y Puerto Rico.)

ART. 43. Questions of jurisdiction shall be decided by the court
within the three days following that on which the public prosecutor
may have given his opinion, which he shall do within a period of two
An appeal for annulment of judgment lies from these decrees when
issuing from territorial audiencias.
Against those of the supreme court there is no remedy whatsoever.

ART. 44. The court deciding the question of jurisdiction may tax
the payment of the costs occasioned by the plea of inhibition against
the parties who have defended or opposed the same with marked per-
sistence, deciding, in a proper case, the proportion each shall pay.
If there be no special condemnation of costs made, those occasioned
in deciding questions of jurisdiction shall be understood to be ex oicio.
If a court without legal cause properly proved, shall go beyond the
limits prescribed in this title for the hearing and determination of
questions of jurisdiction, it shall be corrected and disciplined accord-
ing to the gravity of the case.
ART. 45. Declinatory pleas shall be heard and determined in the
same manner as interlocutory issues.'


ART. 46. If the question of jurisdiction raised between two or more
judges or courts be negative by all refusing to take cognizance of the
cause, the superior judge or court, or, in a proper case, the supreme
court shall decide it, observing therein the procedure prescribed for
other questions of jurisdiction.
ART. 47. In case of negative jurisdiction between the ordinary and a
special jurisdiction, the ordinary jurisdiction shall begin or continue the
ART. 48. Questions of jurisdiction raised by secular courts against
ecclesiastical judges or tribunals shall be heard and decided according
to the procedure and in the manner established in Title III of Book I
of the Law of Civil Procedure.2
ART. 49. When ecclesiastical judges or tribunals shall consider that
they have jurisdiction of a cause of which a secular judge or court is
taking cognizance, they may interpose an inhibitory plea, and if it
should be overruled they may complain to the proper court, which,
1The procedure for the hearing and determination of ihterlocutory issues is fixed
by articles 666 to 679.
'This title treats of civil remedies against actions of ecclesiastical courts (Arts. 125
to 152 of the Law of Civil Procedure in force in Cuba and Porto Rico).


a ella, recurring en queja al superior respective, que, oyendo al fiscal,
resolveri, sin ulterior recurso, lo que crea procedente.
ART. 50. Las cuestioffes de competencia que se promuevan entire
tribunales ordinarios y otros cualesquiera especiales, que no sean
eclesiasticos, se sustanciarin y decidiran con arreglo g lo dispuesto en
el present titulo, correspondiendo en todo caso su resoluci6n al Tri-
bunal Supremo de Justicia.
ART. 51. Respecto de las competencias que la administraci6n suscite
contra los jueces 6 tribunales de la jurisdicci6n ordinaria, y de los
recursos de queja que 4stos pueden promover contra las autoridades y
administrativas, se estara lo que dispone la secci6n 4P, titulo II, libro
I de la ley de enjuiciamento civil.'
1 Articulos 116 & 124 de la ley que se cita.

after hearing the public prosecutor, shall decide without further remedy
what it may deem proper.
ART. 50. Questions of jurisdiction between ordinary and any special
courts, not ecclesiastical, shall be heard and determined according to
the provisions of this title in all cases by the supreme court.

ART. 51. Questions of jurisdiction raised by the administration
against judges or courts of the ordinary jurisdiction, and the com-
plaints which the latter may make against the administrative authori-
ties, shall conform to the provisions of section 4, Title II, Book I, of
the Law of Civil Procedure.1
SArticles 116 to 124 of the lai cited.




ART. 52. Los magistrados, jueces y asesores, cualesquiera que sean
su grado 6 jeraqufa, s61o podran ser recusados por causa legitima.
ART. 53. Podran 1inicamente recusar en los negocios criminals:

El representante del ministerio fiscal.
El acusador particular 6 los que legalmente represented sus acciones
y derechos.
Los procesados.
Los responsables civilmente por delito 6 falta.
ART. 54. Son causes legitimas de recusaci6n:
1. El parentesco de consanguinidad 6 afinidad dentro del cuarto
grado civil con cualquiera de los expresados en el articulo anterior.
2. El mismo parentesco dentro del segundo grado con el letrado de
alguna de las parties que intervengan en la causa.
3. Estar 6 haber sido denunciado 6 acusado por alguna de estas
como autor, c6mplice 6 encubridor de un delito, 6 como autor de una
4. Haber sido defensor de alguna de las parties, emitido dictamen
sobre el process 6 alguna de sus incidencias como letrado, 6 interve-
nido en aqu4l 6 en 6stas como fiscal, perito 6 testigo.
5. Ser 6 haber sido denunciador 6 acusador privado del que recusa.

6. Ser 6 haber sido tutor 6 curador de alguno que sea parte en la
7. Haber estado en tutela 6 guardaduria de alguno de los expresados
en el nimero anterior.
8. Tener pleito pendiente con el recusante.
9. Tener interns director 6 indirecto en la causa.'

SPara que exista el motivo de recusaci6n de este ndmero, es precise que la denun-
cia reuna los requisitos y surta los efectos necesarios para proceder, en su virtud, i la
averiguaci6n de los hechos que comprende, segtn declare el Tribunal Supremo en
sentencia de 12 de abril de 1886.
'Para poder ser estimada la causa de recusaci6n comprendida en este ndmero, es
necesario que el juez tenga interns personal y director en la causa de que este inci-
dente proceda. (Sentencia de 12 de abril de 1886.)




ART. 52. Justices, judges, and assessors, whatever be their grade or
rank, may be challenged only for a legitimate cause.
ART. 53. In criminal matters only the following persons are per-
mitted to challenge:
The prosecuting officials.
The private accuser or his legal representatives.

The accused.
Those civilly liable for a crime or misdemeanor.
ART. 54. Legitimate causes of challenge are:
1. Relationship by consanguinity or affinity within the fourth civil
degree to any of the persons mentioned in the foregoing article.
2. The same relationship within the second degree to the attorney of
any of the parties to the cause.
3. To be or have been denounced or accused by any of said parties
as the principal, accomplice, or accessory to a crime or as a principal
in a misdemeanor.'
4. Having been counsel for any of the parties, given a professional
opinion on the case or any of its incidental issues, or having appeared
in either as prosecutor, expert, or witness.
5. To be or have been the private denouncer or accuser of the chal-
lenging party.
6. To be or have been the tutor or curator of any of the parties to
the cause.
7. To have been under the tutorship or guardianship of the parties
mentioned in the foregoing number.
8. To have an action pending against the challenging party.
9. To have a direct or indirect interest in the cause.2
SIn order that there may exist a motive for the challenge in this case, it is neces-
sary that the denunciation shall have all the requisites and produce all the effects
necessary to proceed, by virtue thereof, with the proof of the acts included therein,
according to a decision of the Supreme Court of April 12, 1886.
'In order that the cause for challenge under this number may be considered, it is
necessary that the judge have a personal and direct interest in the cause from which
this incident arises. (Decision of April 1~, 1886.)

10. La amistad intima.
11. La enemistad manifiesta.
12. Haber sido instructor de la causa.
ART. 55. Los magistrados y jueces comprendidos en cualquiera de
los casos que expresa el articulo anterior, se inhibirin del conocimiento
del asunto sin esperar A que se les recuse. Contra esta inhibici6n no
habra recurso alguno.
De igual manera se inhibirin, sin recurso alguno, cuando al ser
recusados en cualquier forma estimasen procedente la causa alegada
En uno y otro caso mandarin pasar las diligencias A quien deba
ART. 56. La recusaci6n podra proponerse en cualquier estado de la
causa, pero nunca despues de comenzado el juicio oral, A no ser que el
motive de la recusaci6n sobreviniere con posterioridad.



ART. 57. La recusaci6n se harA en escrito firmado por letrado, por
procurador y por el recusante si supiere firmar y estuviere en el lugar
de la causa. El iltimo deberi ratificarse ante el juez 6 tribunal.

Cuando el recusante no estuviese present, firmarin s6lo el letrado
y el produrador. En todo caso se expresara en el escrito concrete y
claramente la causa de la recusaci6n.
ART. 58. No obstante lo dispuesto en el articulo anterior, podr~ el
procesado, si estuviere en incomunicaci6n, proponer verbalmente la
recusaci6n en el acto de recibirsele declaraci6n, 6 podri llamar al juez
por conduct del alcalde de la cArcel para recusarle.
En este caso debera el juez de instrucci6n presentarse acompafiado
del secretario, que hara constar por diligencia la petici6n de recusaci6n
y la causa en que se funde.
Cuando fuese denegada la recusaci6n, se le advertira que podri
reproducirla una vez alzada la incomunicaci6n.
ART. 59. El auto admitiendo 6 denegando la recusaci6n serA fundado
y bastara notificarlo al procurador del recusante, aunque este se halle
en el pueblo en que se siga la causa y haya firmado el escrito de

ART. 60. Cuando el recusado no se inibiere por no considerarse
comprendido en la causa alegada para la recusaci6n, se mandara former
'pieza separada.
Esta contender el escrito original de recusaci6n y el auto denega-

10. Intimate friendship.
11. Manifest enmity.
12. Having conducted the preliminary investigation.
ART. 55. The justices and judges included in any of the cases men-
tioned in the foregoing article shall abstain from taking cognizance of
the cause without waiting to be challenged. No remedy lies against
this resolution.
In like manner they shall decline jurisdiction without remedy what-
soever when, on being challenged in any manner, they shall consider
the alleged cause to be well founded. In either case they shall order
the record to be transmitted to whosoever should substitute them.
ART. 56. The challenge may be interposed at any stage of the pro-
ceedings, but not after the oral trial has commenced, unless the cause
of challenge shall have arisen thereafter.



ART. 57. The challenge shall be in writing and signed by an attor-
ney, by a solicitor, and by the challenging party, if he knows how to
sign, and should be at the place where the cause is pending. The
petition must be ratified by the latter before the judge or court.
If the challenging party be not present, only the attorney and solic-
itor shall sign. In every case the cause of challenge shall be stated
clearly and explicitly.
ART. 58. Notwithstanding the provisions of the foregoing article, the
accused may, should he be incomunicado, interpose the challenge
orally when his declaration is received, or he may call the judge through
the warden of the prison in order to challenge him.
In such case the judge of examination must present himself, accom-
panied by the secretary, who shall make a record of the written chal-
lenge and the cause therefore.
If the challenge be overruled, he shall be advised that he can renew
the same when the incomunicacidn is raised.
ART. 59. A decree sustaining or overruling a challenge shall state the
reasons therefore, and it shall be sufficient to notify the solicitor of the
challenging party thereof, even though the latter be in the town in
which the cause is being prosecuted and had signed the written chal-
ART. 60. If the person challenged does not inhibit himself, not con-
sidering that he is included in the causes alleged for the challenge, he
shall order a separate record to be prepared.
Said record shall contain the original written challenge and the ruling

torio de la inhibici6n, quedando nota expresiva de uno y otro en el
ART. 61. Durante la sustanciaci6n de la pieza separada no podra
intervenir el recusado en la causa ni en el incident de recusaci6n, y
sera sustituido por aquel a quien corresponda con arreglo a la ley.

Si el recusado fuese un juez de instrucci6n, deber4 6ste, no obstante,
bajo su responsabilidad, practicar aquellas diligencias urgentes que no
puedan dilatarse mientras su sucesor se encargue de continuar la
ART. 62. La recusaci6n no detendri el curso de la causa. Excep-
tfiase el caso en que el incident de recusaci6n no se hubiese decidido
cuando sean citadas las parties para la vista de alguna cuesti6n 6 inci-
dente 6 para la celebraci6n del juicio oral.
ART. 63. Instruirin la pieza separada de recusaci6n:
Cuando ef recusado sea el president 6 un president de sala de
audiencia territorial 6 del Tribunal Supremo, el president de sala
mas antiguo; y si el recusado fuere el mis antiguo, el que le siga en
Cuando el recusado fuere el president de una audiencia de lo cri-
minal, el magistrado mis antiguo de la sala de lo criminal de la audi-
encia territorial.
Cuando el recusado sea un magistrado de la audiencia de lo crimi-
nal 6 territorial 6 del Tribunal Supremo, el magistrado mas antiguo
de la respective sala 6 tribunal; y si aqu6l fuere el mas antiguo, el
que le siga en antigiiedad.
Si por consecuencia de la recusaci6n de alguno 6 algunos magistrados
de audiencias de lo criminal no quedase en estos tribunales nfmero
suficiente para former tribunal, corresponderg la instrucci6n de la pieza
separada de recusaci6n al magistrado mis modern de la sala de ]o
criminal de la audiencia territorial respective.
Cuando fuese juez de instrucci6n el recusado, instruira la pieza de
recusaci6n el magistrado mas modern de la respective audiencia.
ART. 64. Formada la pieza separada, se oirA A ]a otra 6 otras parties
que hubiese en la causa, por termino de tres dias A cada una, que s6lo
podra prorrogarse por otros dos cuando A juicio del tribunal hubiese
just causa para ello.
ART. 65. Transcurrido el t4rmino sefialado en el articulo anterior,
con la pr6rroga en su caso, y recogida la causa sin necesidad de peti-
ci6n por parte del recusante, se recibira A prueba el incident de recu-
saci6n, cuando ]a cuesti6n fuese de hecho, por ocho dias, durante los
cuales se practicard la que hubiere sido solicitada por las parties y
admitida como pertinente.
ART. 66. Contra el auto en que las audiencias 6 el Tribunal Supremo
admitieren 6 denegaren la prueba, no se dara ulterior recurso.

denying the inhibition, an entry being made of all this in the original
ART. 61. While the separate record is being heard and determined
the person challenged can not act in the cause nor in the issue of the
challenge, and shall be substituted by the proper person in accordance
to law.
If the person challenged be a judge of examination, he must, never-
theless, under his own liability, take such urgent measures as can
not be delayed until his successor takes charge of continuing the
ART. 62. The challenge shall not delay the course of the cause unless
the issue of the challenge shall not have been decided when the parties
are cited for the hearing of some question or interlocutory issue or for
the oral trial.
ART. 63. The separate record of challenge shall be prepared-
By the senior presiding justice of chamber if the person challenged
be the presiding judge or a presiding judge of a chamber of a terri-
torial audiencia or of the supreme court; and if the judge challenged
be the senior, by the one next below him in seniority.
By the senior justice of the criminal chamber of the territorial
audiencia if the person challenged be the presiding judge of a criminal
By the senior justice of the respective chamber or court if the person
challenged be a justice of a criminal or territorial audiencia or of the
supreme court; and if he be the senior, by the one next below him in
If, as a result of the challenge of one or more justices of the criminal
audiencias, these courts should not have members sufficient to form a
quorum, the preparation of the separate record shall pertain to the
junior justice of the criminal chamber of the respective territorial
The junior justice of the respective audiencia shall prepare the
record of challenge when the judge of examination is challenged.
ART. 64. After the separate record has been prepared, the other
party or parties to the cause shall be heard for a period of three days
for each one, which period can only be extended for two days more
when in the opinion of the court there be just cause therefore.
ART. 65. When the period fixed in the foregoing article has elapsed,
as well as the extension in a proper case, and the cause is taken up
again without the necessity of a petition by the challenging party,
evidence on the issue of the challenge shall be admitted for eight days
if the question be a question of fact, during which time the evidence
submitted by the parties and admitted as pertinent shall be received.
ART. 66. There shall be no remedy against rulings of audiencias or
of the supreme court admitting or rejecting evidence.

ART. 67. Cuando por ser la cuesti6n de derecho, no se hubiere reci-
bido a prueba el incident de recusaci6n, 6 hubiese transcurrido el
t6rmino concedido en el art. 65, se mandarg citar A las parties, sefia-
lando dia para la vista.
ART. 68. Decidirin los incidents de recusaci6n:
Cuando el recusado fuese el president 6 un president de sala de
audiencia territorial 6 del Tribunal Supremo, el tribunal en pleno.
De igual manera se procederi cuando los recusados fueren dos 6 mis
magistrados de una misma sala 6 secci6n de estos tribunales.

En los demAs casos decidirin estos incidents los tribunales 6 salas
a que pertenezcan los magistrados instructors de las piezas separadas.
ART. 69. Los autos en que se declare haber 6 no lugar a la recusa-
ci6n, serAn siempre fundados.
Contra el auto que dictaren las audiencias s6lo procedera els recurso
de casaci6n.
Contra el que dictare el Tribunal Supremo, no habri recurso alguno.

ART. 70. En los autos en que se deniegue la recusaci6n, se conde-
narg en las costas al que la hubiere promovido.
Ademis se impondri al recusante una multa de 125 a 250 pesetas
cuando el recusado fuese juez de instrucci6n, y de 250 g 500 cuando
fuese magistrado de audiencia.

Se exceptia de la imposici6n de las costas y la multa al ministerio
ART. 71. Cuando no se hicieren efectivas las multas respectiva-
mente seialadas en el articulo anterior, el multado quedard sujeto g la
responsabilidad personal subsidiaria correspondiente, por via de sus-
tituci6n y apremio, en los t6rminos que para las causes por delitos
establece el c6digo penal.

ART. 72. En los juicios de faltas se propondri la recusaci6n en el
mismo acto de la comparecencia.
ART. 73. En vista de la recusaci6n, si la causa alegada fuese de las
expresadas en el articulo 54 y cierta, el juez municipal se darg por
recusado, pasando el conocimiento de la falta a su suplente.

ART. 74. Cuando el recusado no considerare legitima la recusaci6n,
pasar, el conocimiento del incident su suplente, haci6ndole constar
en el acta.

ART. 67. If, on account of the question being one of law, evidence
on the challenge is overruling, or when the period granted in article
65 has elapsed, the parties shall be cited, a day being fixed for the
ART. 68. The challenge shall be decided-
By the court in banc, if the person challenged be the presiding judge
or a presiding judge of a chamber of a territorial audiencia or of the
supreme court. Like procedure shall be observed if the persons chal-
lenged be two or more justices of the same chamber or section of said
In other cases these issues shall be decided by the courts or cham-
bers to which the examining justices of the separate record belong.
ART. 69. The decision sustaining or overruling the challenge shall
always state the reasons therefore.
An appeal for annulment of judgment lies from a decision rendered
by an audiencia.
There shall be no remedy whatsoever against a decision rendered by
the supreme court.
ART. 70. Decisions overruling a challenge shall contain the taxation
of the costs of the same against the person interposing it.
There shall also be imposed on the challenging party a fine of not
less than 125 pesetas nor more than 250 pesetas if the authority chal-
lenged be a judge of examination, and not less than 250 nor more than
500 pesetas if a justice of the audiencia.
The prosecuting officials shall be exempt from the payment of cbsts
or the fine.
ART. 71. If the fines respectively mentioned in the foregoing article
are not paid, the party fined shall be subject to such proper compul-
sion in substitution thereof as provided for crimes in the penal code.


ART. 72. In trials for misdemeanors the challenge shall be inter-
posed at the time of the appearance.
ART. 73. In view of the challenge, should the cause alleged be of
those mentioned in article 54, and be true, the municipal judge shall
consider himself challenged, transferring the cognizance of the misde-
meanor to his substitute.
ART. 74. If the challenged party should not consider the challenge
to be legitimate, he shall transfer the cognizance of the issue to his sub-
stitute, making note thereof in the record.

Ni en este caso ni en el del articulo anterior se da recurso alguno
contra lo resuelto por el juez municipal.
ART. 75. El juez municipal recusado no podra intervenir en la sus-
tanciaci6n de la pieza de recusaci6n, y se suspenders la celebraci6n del
juicio de faltas hasta que aqudlla se decide.

ART. 76. El juez suplente encargado de la sustanciaci6n be la pieza
de recusaci6n hara comparecer A las parties a su presencia, y en el
mismo acto recibirA las pruebas que ofrezcan y conceptde pertinentes
cuando la cuesti6n verse sobre algin hecho.
Contra el auto denegatorio de la prueba podra pedirse reposici6n en
el acto de hacerse saber a las parties.
ART. 77. Recibida la prueba, 6 cuando por tratarse de cuesti6n de
derecho no fuera necesaria, el juez municipal suplente resolveri si ha
6 no lugar a la recusaci6n en auto fundado, y en el mismo acto si es
possible. En. ning6n caso dejar6 de hacerlo dentro de segundo dia.
De lo actuado y del auto se hard menci6n en el acta que se extienda.

ART. 78. Contra el auto del juez suplente declarando haber lugar a
la recusaci6n, no se dari recurso alguno.
Contra el auto en que la denegare, habri apelaci6n para ante el juez
de instrucci6n.
ART. 79. La apelaci6n se interpondri verbalmente en el acto de la
comparecencia ante el mismo juez municipal suplente, si este resol-
viese en el moment.
Si para resolver utilizare el termino de segundo dia, se interpondri
la apelaci6n en el acto mismo de la notificaci6n siempre que sea per-
sonal, y si no dentro de las veinticuatro horas siguientes g ella. La
apelaci6n en este caso se interpondra tambien verbalmente ante el
secretario del juzgado y se hard constar por diligencia.
ART. 80. Cuando no se apelase dentro de los terminos sefialados en
el articulo anterior, el auto del juez suplente sera firme.

Interpuesta apelaci6n en tiempo, se remitirin los antecedentes al
juez de instrucci6n respective con citaci6n de las parties y i expenses
del apelante.
ART. 81. En el juzgado de instrucci6n se dard cuenta inmediata-
mente por el secretario, sin admitir escritos, y se citart i las parties a
una comparecencia dentro del termino de segundo dia.
Los interesados 6 sus apoderados podrAn hacer en ella verbalmente
las observaciones que estimen, previa la venia del juez de instrucci6n.

Este pronunciard auto en el mismo dia 6 en el siguiente, y contra lo
que decide no habri ulterior recurso.

Neither in this case nor in that of the foregoing article shall there
be any remedy against the decision of the municipal judge.
ART. 75. The municipal judge challenged cannot take part in the
hearing and determination of the issue of the challenge, and shall sus-
pend the trial for the misdemeanors until the question of the challenge
is decided.
ART. 76. The substitute judge charged with the hearing and deter-
mination of the issue of the challenge shall order the parties to appear
before him, and shall at once hear the evidence they may offer and
which he may consider pertinent, if the question be one of fact.
If a decision ruling out the evidence is made, a rehearing may be
requested as soon as the parties are notified thereof.
ART. 77. The evidence having been taken, or when a question of law
being involved it is not necessary, the substitute municipal judge shall
decide at once, if possible, whether the challenge is or is not well taken
in a ruling stating the reasons for his decision. In no case shall he fail
to render a decision within two days.
The proceedings had and the ruling shall be entered upon the record
ART. 78. There shall be no remedy against a ruling of a substitute
judge sustaining a challenge.
From a decree overruling a challenge an appeal lies to the judge of
ART. 79. The appeal shall be interposed orally at the appearance for
decision before the substitute judge, should he render a decision at
If, in order to render a decision, he should take the period of two
days, the appeal shall be filed at the time of the notification, provided
it be personal; otherwise within the twenty-four hours following the
notification. The appeal in such case shall also be interposed orally
before the clerk of the court, and it shall be made a matter of record.
ART. 80. If an appeal be not taken within the periods prescribed in
the foregoing article, the ruling of the substitute judge shall become
If the appeal be taken in due time, the proceedings shall be forwarded
to the proper judge of examination, with a citation of the parties, at
the expense of the appellant.
ART. 81. In the court of examination the clerk shall immediately
make a report without admitting any documentary evidence, and the
parties shall be cited to appear within a period of two days.
With the permission of the judge of examination the parties in inter-
est or their attorneys may make orally at that time whatever remarks
they may consider proper.
The judge of examination shall render his decision the same day or
the day following, and against his decision there shall be no further

Si el jues instructor entendiese que el municipal suplente debi6 repo-
ner el auto denegatorio de la prueba A que se refiere el pArrafo segundo
del art. 76, lo declararg asi, absteni4ndose de pronunciar sobre el fondo,
y mandarg devolver las diligencias al juzgado municipal de que pro-
cedan, para que se practique la prueba propuesta y se dicte nuevo

Seran aplicables a este las disposiciones de los arts. 78 al 81.
ART. 82. Cuando el auto sea confirmatorio. se condenara en costas
al apelante.
ART. 83. Declarada procedente la recusaci6n por auto firm, enten-
deri el suplente en el juicio.
Declarado improcedente, el juez recusado volveri A entender en el
conocimiento de la falta.


ART. 84. Los secretaries de los juzgados municipales, de los de
instrucci6n, de las audiencias y del Tribunal Supremo, serin recusa-
Lo serin tambien los oficiales de sala.
ART. 85. Son aplicables a los secretaries y oficiales de sala las pre-
scripciones de este titulo, con las modificaciones que establecen los
articulos siguientes.
ART. 86. Cuando los recusados fueren auxiliares de los juzgados de
instrucci6n, de las audiencias 6 del Tribunal Supremo, la pieza de recu-
saci6n se instruir6 por el juez instructor respective 6 magistrado mis
modern, y se fallarf por el mismo juez 6 por el tribunal correspon
El juez 6 magistrado instructor podr6 delegar la practice de las dili-
gencias que no pudiere ejecutar por si mismo en el juez municipal 6 en
uno de los jueces de instrucci6n de la respective circunscripci6n.

ART. 87. Los auxiliares recusados no podran actuar en la causa en
que lo fueren ni en la pieza de recusaci6n, reemplazandoles aquellos a
quienes corresponderia si la recusaci6n fuese admitida.
ART. 88. En las recusaciones de secretaries de juzgados municipales
instruir' y fallara la pieza de recusaci6n el juez municipal. donde s61o
hubiere uno.
Si hubiere dos, el del juzgado A que no Dertenezca el recusado; y si
tres 6 mas, el de mayor edad.
ART. 89. Cuando se desestimare la recusaci6n, se condenara en costas
al recusante.

If the judge of examination should hold that the substitute munici-
pal judge should reverse his ruling denying the admission of evidence,
referred to in the second paragraph of article 76, he shall so declare,
refraining from deciding the main question, and order the proceed-
ings to be returned to the municipal court from which they were for-
warded, in order that the evidence offered be taken and a new ruling
The provisions of articles 78 to 81 shall apply to this ruling.
ART. 82. If the ruling be affirmative, the appellant shall be taxed the
costs thereof.
ART. 83. If the challenge be sustained by a final ruling, the sub-
stitute judge shall take cognizance of the case.
If overruled, the challenged judge shall again take cognizance of
the offence.

ART. 84. The clerks of municipal courts, courts of examination, of
audiencias, and those of the supreme court may be challenged.

The officers of chambers may also be challenged.
ART. 85. The provisions of this title are applicable to the clerks and
officers of chambers with the modifications prescribed in the following
ART. 86. If the challenged parties be the assistants of courts of
examination, of audiencias or of the supreme court, the issue of the
challenge shall be prepared by the proper judge of examination or the
junior associate justice, and shall be decided by the same judge or by
by the corresponding court.
The judge or associate justice of examination may delegate the per-
formance of the proceedings which he cannot personally conduct to
the municipal judge, or to one of the judges of examination of the
respective circuit.
ART. 87. The assistants challenged cannot take part in the cause nor
in the issue of the challenge, being substituted by the proper'persons
if the challenge be sustained.
ART. 88. In challenges of clerks of municipal courts the municipal
judge shall prepare and determine the issue of the challenge where
there is but one judge.
Should there be two, the judge of the court to which the challenged
party does not belong; and if there be three or more, by the eldest.
ART. 89. If the challenge be overruled, the challenging party shall
be taxed the costs.

ART. 90. Cuando sea firme el auto en que se admit la recusaci6n,
quedari el recusado separado de toda intervenci6n en la causa, continuan-
do en su reemplazo el que le haya sustituido durante la sustanciaci6n
del incident; y si fuere secretario de juzgado municipal 6 de instrucci6n,
no percibir6 derechos de ninguna clase desde que se hubiese solicitado
la recusaci6n, 6 desde que, si6ndole conocido el motivo alegado, no se
separ6 del conocimiento del asunto.

ART. 91. Cuando se desestimase la recusaci6n por auto fire, vol-
veri el auxiliar recusado A ejercer sus funciones; y si fuese 6ste secre-
tario de juzgado municipal 6 de instrucci6n, le abonari el recusante
los derechos correspondientes a las actuaciones practicadas en la causa,
haciendo igual abono al que haya sustituido al recusado.
ART. 92. No podran los auxiliares ser recusados despuns de citadas
las parties para sentencia, ni durante la practica de alguna diligencia de
que estuvieren encargados, ni despu6s de comenzada la celebraci6n del
juicio oral.
ART. 93. Es aplicable & los actuales relatores y escribanos de cimara:
primero, lo dispuesto en los articulos anteriores respect i las recusa-
clones de los secretaries de sala; y segundo, lo prevenido en los arts.
90 y 91 reference al abono de derechos.
ART. 94. Los asesores de los jueces municipales, cuando 6stos desem-
pefien accidentalmente funciones de jueces de instrucci6n, se excusaran
si concurrieren en ellos algunas de las causes enumeradas en el articulo
54 de esta ley.
El mismo juez municipal apreciari la excuse para admitirla 6
desestimarla. Si la desestimase, podra el asesor recurrir en queja 6 la
respective audiencia, y 6sta, pidiendo informes y antecedentes, resol-
vera de piano sin ulterior recurso lo que crea procedente.

ART. 95. Los que sean parte en una causa podrAn recusar al asesor
por cualquiera de los motives sefialados en el art. 54.
La recusaci6n se har~ por medio de escrito dirigido al juez municipal.
Contra las decisions del juzgado municipal desestimando la recusa-
sion, procederi igualmente el recurso de queja ante la audiencia
ART. 96. Los representantes del ministerio fiscal no podr&n ser
recusados; pero se abstendran de intervenir en los actos judiciales
cuando concurra en ellos alguna de las causes sefialadas en el art. 54
de esta ley.

ART. 90. When a ruling sustaining a challenge becomes final, the
party challenged can take no part in the cause whatever, the person
who was substituted for him during the hearing and determination
of the issue continuing to take his place; and if he be the clerk of
a municipal court or court of examination he shall receive no fees
of any kind from the time that the challenge was interposed, or when
the alleged cause being known to him he did not abstain from taking
cognizance of the subject.
ART. 91. If the challenge be overruled by a final decision the
assistant challenged shall again perform his duties; and should he be
the clerk of a municipal court or court of examination the challeng-
ing party shall pay to him the fees corresponding to the proceedings
had in the cause, and a similar payment shall be made to his substitute.
ART. 92. The assistants can not be challenged after the parties have
been cited to appear for judgment, nor while engaged in some pro-
ceeding intrusted to them, nor after the oral trial has begun.

ART. 93. To relators and copyists of chambers are applicable: First,
the provisions of the foregoing articles with regard to challenges of
clerks in chambers; and, second, the provisions of articles 90 and 91
with reference to the payment of fees.
ART. 94. The assessors to municipal judges, when the latter acci-
dentally discharge the duties of judges of examination, shall excuse
themselves if they be embraced in any of the causes mentioned in
article 54' of this law.
The municipal judge himself shall weigh the excuse in order to admit
or reject it. Should he reject it, the assessor may appeal in complaint
to the proper audiencia, and the latter, after calling for reports and
data, shall decide eo instant without further remedy, what it may deem
ART. 95. The parties to a cause may challenge the assessor for any
of the causes mentioned in article 54.
The challenge shall be in writing, addressed to the municipal judge.
From the decision of the municipal court overruling a challenge, an
appeal in complaint lies also to the proper audiencia.

ART. 96. Prosecuting officials can not be challenged; but they shall
abstain from intervening in judicial acts when they are included in
any of the causes mentioned in article 54 of this law.

ART. 97. Si concurriere en el fiscal del Tribunal Supremo 6 en los
fiscales de las audiencias alguna de las causes por raz6n de las cuales
deban abstenerse, de conformidad con lo dispuesto en el articulo
anterior, designarin para que los reemplacen al teniente fiscal, y en su
defecto, A los abogados fiscales, por el orden de categoria y antigiiedad.

Lo dispuesto en el pirrafo anterior es aplicable A los tenientes 6
abogados fiscales cuando ejerzan las funciones de su jefe respective.

ART. 98. Los tenientes y abogados fiscales del Tribunal Supremo y
de las audiencias harin present su excusa al superior respective, quien
les relevar6 de intervenir en los actos judiciales, y elegirA para susti-
tuirles al que tenga por convenient entire sus subordinados.

ART. 99. Cuando los representantes del ministerio fiscal no se excu-
saren, 6 pesar de comprenderles alguna de las causes expresadas en el
articulo 54, podrin los que se considered agraviados acudir en queja
al superior inmediato.
Este oiri al subordinado que hubiese sido objeto de la queja, y
encontrAndola fundada, decidiri su sustituci6n. Si no la encontrare
fundada, podrA acordar que intervenga en el process. Contra esta
determinaci6n no se da recurso alguno.
Los fiscales de las audiencias territoriales decidirfn las quejas que se
les dirijan contra los fiscales de las audiencias de lo criminal.

Si fuere el fiscal del Tribunal Supremo el que diera motivo A la
queja, debera vista dirigirse al Ministro de Gracia y Justicia por con-
ducto del president del mismo tribunal. El Ministro de Gracia, y
Justicia, oida la sala de gobierno del Tribunal Supremo, si lo consider
oportuno, resolved lo que estime procedente.

ART. 97..If the public prosecutor of the supreme court or the
public prosecutors of audiencias be included in any of the causes by
reason of which they should abstain, according to the provisions of
the foregoing article, they shall appoint as their substitutes the deputy
public prosecutor, and in his absence the assistant deputy public prose-
cutors, in the order of their rank and term of service.
The provisions of the foregoing paragraph are applicable to the
deputy or assistant deputy public prosecutors when they discharge
the duties of their respective chief.
ART. 98. The deputy and assistant deputy public prosecutors of the
supreme court and of the audiencias shall submit their excuses to the
proper superior, who shall relieve them from taking part in the judi-
cial proceedings, and shall select as a substitute the person he may
deem proper from among their subordinates.
ART. 99. When the prosecuting officials do not excuse themselves,
notwithstanding their being included in any of the causes mentioned
in article 54, those who consider themselves injured may appeal in
complaint to the immediate superior.
The latter shall hear the subordinate who may have been the object
of the complaint, and if he shall find it proper shall order his sub-
stitution. If he shall not find it proper he may order him to appear
in the case. There shall be no remedy against this decision.
The public prosecutors of the territorial audiencias shall decide the
complaints addressed to them against the public prosecutors of the
criminal audiencias.
If the public prosecutor of the supreme court be the subject of the
complaint, it must be addressed to the Minister of Grace and Justice
through the chief justice of the said court. The Minister of Grace
and Justice after hearing the chamber of administration of the
supreme court, should he consider it necessary, shall decide what he
may deem proper.



ART. 100. De todo delito 6 falta nace acci6n penal para el castigo del
culpable, y puede nacer tambien acci6n civil para la restituci6n de la
cosa, la reparaci6n del dailo y la indemnizaci6n de perjuicios causados
por el hecho punible.1
ART. 101. La acci6n penal es pfiblica.
Todos los ciudadanos espafoles podrAn ejercitarla con arreglo A las
prescripciones de la ley.
ART. 102. Sin embargo de lo dispuesto en el articulo anterior, no
podran ejercitar la acci6n penal-
10. El que no goce de la plenitud de los derechos civiles.2

Las acciones penales, por su naturaleza, y con arreglo d los principios del dere-
cho, nunca deben ampliarse, sino por el contrario, entenderse y aplicarse siempre de
un modo restrictive." (Sntencia de Junio 3, 1874.)
'Sin la pretension de conseguir una enumeraci6n complete, las personas que no
pueden comparecer en juicio ni, por consiguiente, dar poder 4 otro para que compa-
rezcan en su nombre, a no ser con la intervenci6n de sus representantes legftimos,
son las siguientes:
Los hulrfanos menores.-Su representaci6n legal corresponde al tutor (c6digo civil,
articulo 262), el cual en ciertos casos necesita el consentimiento del consejo de familiar
(id., 269, nrmeros 12 y 18). Si los intereses del tutor son opuestos A los del hu6rfano,
por ejemplo, en el supuesto del ndmero 9", artfculo 237, la representaci6n en juicio
correspond al protutor (23S, apartado r).
Los hijos no emancipados, por los que comparecen sus padres (c6digo civil, articulo
155), y cuando estos tengan interns incompatible con el de los hijos, el defensor A que
alude el articulo 165, que equivale al antiguo curador para pleitos, de que hablan los
articulos 1852 A 1860 de la ley de enjuiciamiento civil. Si los padres estan privados
de la patria potestad, 6 tienen suspendido su ejercicio (c6digo civil, articulos 70,
p&rrafo S, 78, pdrrafo 2 del ndmero S0, y 168 d 171), representarA A los hijos el tutor
Los menores de edad emancipados por concesidn del padre 6 de la madre, son represen-
tados en juicio por sus padres, y en su defect por un tutor. (Articulos 314, ndmero
8, y 317 del c6digo civil.)
Los menores que obtienen el benefiio de la mayor edad por concesi6n del consejo de
familiar, son representados por un tutor. (Cddigo civil, articulos 22 & S34 y 317 A que
se refiere el dltimo.)
Los casados mayores de 18 arlos, pueden comparecer por sf en juicio en nombre
propio y en el de su mujer, segdn los articulos 59 y 315 del c6digo civil, que deben
asi entenderse, pues la emancipaci6n de que habla el artfculo 317 se refiere A la del
nfimero 3 del 314.



ART. 100. A criminal action arises from every crime or misdemeanor
for the punishment of the culprit, and a civil action may also arise
for the restitution of the thing, the repair of the damage, and the
indemnity of the losses caused by the punishable act.'
ART. 101. A criminal action is public.
All Spanish citizens may bring a criminal action according to the
provisions of law.
ART. 102. Notwithstanding the provisions of the foregoing article a
criminal action can not be brought by:
1. A person not in the full enjoyment of civil rights.2

SCriminal actions, by reason of their character and in accordance with the princi-
I les of law, can never be extended, but, on the contrary, must be understood and
applied always in a restricted manner. (Supreme Court. decision of June 3, 1894.)
SWithout attempting a full enumeration, the persons who can not appear in an
etion, and consequently who can not grant powers of attorney to others to appear
in their behalf, unless it be with the intervention of their legal representatives, are
the following:
Minors who are orphans are legally represented by their guardians (Civil Code, art.
V62), who in certain cases require the consent of the family council. (Ibid., 269,
Nos. 1 and 18.) If the interests of the tutor are opposed to those of the orphan,
as, for example, in the case of number 9 of article 237 of the Civil Code, the repre-
sentation of the minor in court pertains to the protutor. (Ibid., 236, second par.)
Children not emancipated are represented by their parents (Civil Code, art. 155),
and when said parents have an interest which is incompatible with that of their
children the latter shall be represented by the next friend referred to in article 165,
which is equivalent to the former curator ad litem referred to in articles 1852 to 1860
of the Law of Civil Procedure. If the parents are deprived of the parental author-
ity, or if it be suspended (Civil Code, articles 70, paragraph 8; 78, par. 2 of number 2,
and 168 to 171), the tutor appointed shall represent the children.
Minors emancipated by the concession of the father or mother are represented in court
by their parents, or, in their absence, by one tutor. (Articles 314, number 3, and 317
of the Civil Code.)
Minors who obtain the benefit of majority by concession of the family council are repre-
'sented by one tutor. (Civil Code, articles 322 to 324 and 817, referred to.)

Married persons over 18 years of age may appear in person in court in their own
* name and in that of their wives, according to articles 59 and 315 of the Civil Code,
which must be understood in this manner, because the emancipation referred to in
article 317 relates to that of number 3 of article 314.

2. El que hubiera sido condenado dos veces por sentencia firme
como reo del delito de denuncia 6 querella calumniosas.
30. El juez 6 magistrado.
Los comprendidos en los n6meros anteriores podrin, sin embargo,
ejercitar la acci6n penal por delito 6 falta cometidos contra sus perso-
nas 6 bienes, 6 contra las personas 6 bienes de sus c6nyuges, ascen-
dientes, descendientes, hermanos consanguineos 6 uterinos y afines.

Los comprendidos en los nimeros 2 y 3 podran ejercitar tambien la
acci6n penal por el delito 6 falta cometidos contra las personas 6 bienes
de los que estuviesen bajo su guard legal.
Art. 103. Tampoco podrIn ejercitar acciones penales entire si-

10. Los c6nyuges, A no ser por delito 6 falta cometidos por el uno
contra la persona del otro 6 la de sus hijos' y por los delitos de adulte-
rio, amancebamiento y bigamia.

Los condenados 6 interdicos. (VWanse los articulos 228, 229, 262, 269, nimeros 12
y 13, y 274 del c6digo civil, y los 26, 43, 54 y 57 del penal.)
Los locos, dementes y sordomudos.-Su representaci6n legal corresponde al tutor 6 en
su caso al defensor que nombren los tribunales 6 al ministerio pdblico. (C6digo civil,
articulos 215, apartado S8, 262, 269, nfmeros 12 y 13, y 274.)
En los pleitos sobre prodigalidad, cuando el demandado no comparezca, tendra su
representaci6n el fiscal 6 en su caso el defensor nombrado por el juez. (C6digo civil,
articulo 223.
'La mujer casada.-Los casos en que necesita licencia de su marido para compare-
cer por sf en juicio y los en que no necesita, se determinan en los articulos 60 y 1387
del c6digo civil.
Consursados.-Una vez hecha la declaraci6n de concurso, quedan incapacitados
para la administraci6n de sus bienes todos (1161 de la ley de enjuiciamiento civil y
1914 del c6ddigo civil), y consiguientemente privados del pleno ejercicio de sus derechos
civiles. La representaci6n legal del concurso corresponde al depositario administra-
dor (ley, articulo 1181) hasta el nombramiento de sindicos. Verificado dste, lossindi-
cos representan al concurso en juicio defendiendo sus derechos y ejercitando las
acciones y excepciones que le competan. (Id, artculo 1181, regla 1.)
Personas juridicas (corporaciones, sociedades y demds entidades juridicas).-Los
pueblos y ayuntamientos son representados en juicio por los procuradores sfndicos y
en los pueblos agregados d otros para former ayuntamiento, los presidents de sus
juntas administrativas representan tambidn 6 sus respectivos pueblos, cuando se trate
de acciones 6 derechos que correspondent exclusivamente A sus mismos pueblos.
(Articulos 56 y 90 & 96 de la ley de 1877, y R. O. S0 Enero 1875.)
Las provincias eran representadas por el diputado provincial nombrado al efecto con
arreglo al articulo 37 de la ley de 25 de Septiembre de 1863; luego lo fueron por el
gobernador, conform A los articulos 9 y 70 de la ley de 2 de Octubre de 1877, y hoy lo
son por el vice president de la comisi6n provincial, conforme al articulo 98, ndmero
6 de la ley de 29 de Agosto de 1882.
La hacienda pdblica ha venido siendo representada por el ministerio fiscal en la
forma prescrita por el decreto de 9 de Julio de 1869 y por la orden de la misma fecha;
pero desde el decreto de 16 Marzo 1886 correspond su representaci6n A los abogados
del estado.
'Las palabras de este articulo no significant que el delito objeto de la querella haya
de ser precisamente de los que el c6digo penal denomina contra las personas en el

2. A person who has been twice condemned by a final sentence as
guilty of the crime of calumnious denunciations or complaints.
3. The judge or justice.
Those included in the foregoing numbers may, however, bring a
criminal action for a crime or misdemeanor committed against their
persons or property, or against the persons or property of their
spouses, ascendants, descendants, uterine brothers or sisters, or rela-
tives by consanguinity or affinity.
The persons included in numbers 2 and 3 may also bring a criminal
action for a misdemeanor or crime committed against the persons or
property of those who may be under their legal care.
Art. 103. Nor can the following persons bring criminal actions
against each other:
1. Spouses, except for a crime or misdemeanor committed by one
against the person of the other or that of his or her children,' and for
the crimes of adultery, concubinage, and bigamy.

Persons suffering interdiction or undergoing a sentence. (See articles 228, 229, 262,
269, numbers 12 and 13, and 274 of the Civil Code, and the proper articles of the
Penal Code.)
The deaf and dumb and the insane are legally represented by their guardian or, in
a proper case, by the next friend appointed by the court or by the public prosecu-
tor. (Civil Code, articles 215, paragraph 3; 262, 269, numbers 12 and 13, and 274.)
In actions relating to prodigals, when the defendant does not appear, he shall be
represented by the public prosecutor or, in a proper case, by the next friend appointed
by the court. (Civil Code, article 223.)
Married woman.-The cases in which she does and does not require the permission
of her husband to appear in an action are mentioned in articles 60 and 1387 of the
Civil Code.
Bankrupts.-After a declaration in bankruptcy the bankrupts are disqualified from
administering any of their property (1161 of the law of Civil Procedure and 1914 of the
Civil Code), and consequently are deprived of the full exercise of their civil rights.
The depositary-administrator is the legal representative of the estate of the bankrupt
(law, art. 1181) until trustees are appointed. After this has been done the trustees
represent the bankrupt in court, defending his rights and taking the actions and
exceptions incumbent upon them. (Ibid., article 1181, rule 1.)
Judicial persons (corporations, associations, and other judicial entities).-Towns and
municipalities are represented by the procuradores sindicos, and in towns annexed to
others in order to constitute a municipality, the presidents of their administrative
boards also represent the respective towns, when actions or rights are involved which
pertain exclusively to the said towns. (Articles 56 and 90 of the law of 1877, and Royal
order of January 30, 1875.)
Provinces were represented by the provincial deputy, appointed for the purpose in
accordance with article 37 of the law of September 25, 1863; afterwards they were
represented by the governor, in accordance with articles 9 and 70 of the law of Octo-
ber 2, 1877, and now they are represented by the vice-president of the provincial
commission, in accordance with article 98, number 6, of the law of August 29, 1882.
The public treasury has been represented by the department of public prosecution
in the manner prescribed by the decree of July 9, 1869, and by the order of the same
date; but since the decree of March 16, 1886, it is represented by the state attorneys.
'The words of this article do not signify that the crime which is the subject of the
complaint must be of those which the Penal Code denominates crimes against the

2. Los ascendientes, descendientes y hermanos consanguineos 6 ute-
rinos y afines, 6 no ser por delito 6 falta cometidos por los unos contra
las personas de los otros.
ART. 104. Las acciones penales que nacen de los delitos de estupro,
calumnia 6 injuria tampoco podrin ser ejercitadas por otras personas ni
en manera distinta qne las prescritas en los respectivos articulos del
c6digo penal.
Las faltas consistentes en el anuncio por medio de la imprenta de
hechos falsos 6 relatives a la vida privada con el que se perjudique 6
ofenda a particulares, en malos tratamientos inferidos por los maridos
6 sus mujeres, en desobediencia 6 malos tratos de 4stas para con
aqu6llos, en faltas de respeto y sumisi6n de los hijos respect de sus
padres, 6 de los pupilos respect de sus tutores, y en injuries leves,
s6lo podrin ser perseguidas por los ofendidos 6 por sus legitimos
ART. 105. Los funcionarios del ministerio fiscal tendran la obliga-
cion de ejercitar, con arreglo A las disposiciones de la ley, todas las
acciones penales que considered procedentes, haya 6 no acusador
particular en las causes, menos aqu6llas que el c6digo penal reserve
exclusivamente A la querella privada. Tambi4n deberin ejercitarlas
en las causes por los delitos contra la honestidad, que con arreglo 6 las
prescrpciones del c6digo penal deben denunciarse previamente por
los interesados, 6 cuando el ministerio fiscal deba 6 su vez denunciarlos
por recaer dichos delitos sobre personas desvalidas 6 faltas de perso-
ART. 106. La acci6n penal por delito 6 falta que d6 lugar al pro-
cedimiento de oficio no se extingue por la renuncia de la persona ofen-
Pero se extinguen por esta causa las que nacen del delito 6 falta que
no puedan ser perseguidos sino 6 instancia de parte, y las civiles,
cualesquiera que sea el delito 6 falta de que procedan.
ART. 107. La renuncia de la acci6n civil 6 de la penal renunciable
no perjudicari mfs que al renunciante; pudiendo continuar el ejercicio
de la penal en el estado en que se halle la causa, 6 ejercitarla nueva-
mente los demrs A quienes tambi6n correspondiere.

tftulo viii, libro ii (parricidio, asesinato, homicidio, infanticidio, aborto, lesiones y
duelo), sino que la ley alude A la condici6n de que el hecho ofenda C persona empa-
rentada con el culpable, que puede ser perseguido A instancia de la agraviada, aunque
el delito sea de injuria. (Marzo 2 de 1885.-Gaceta, Octubre 4.)

'En cumplimiento del artfculo 467 del c6digo penal vigente en las islas de Cuba
y Puerto Rico, el ministerio fiscal tiene la obligaci6n de ejercitar la acci6n penal en
los delitos de rapto y adulterio A que el mismo se refiere.


2. The ascendants, descendants, the uterine brothers or sisters, or
relatives those by consanguinity or affinity, unless for a crime or mis-
demeanor by either against the persons of the others.
ART. 104. Nor can penal actions which arise from the crimes of
seduction, calumny, and contumely be instituted by other persons or
in a different manner than those prescribed in the respective articles
of the Penal Code.
Misdemeanors consisting in a notice in the press of false facts or
which relate to the private life, by which individuals are prejudiced
or offended, in the ill-treatment of wives by their husbands, the dis-
obedience of or the ill treatment by wives of their husbands, lack of
respect and submission of children to their parents, or of pupils to
their tutors, and in slight acts of contumely, can only be prosecuted
by the persons offended or by their legitimate representatives.

ART. 105. The public prosecutors are obliged to institute, accord-
ing to the provisions of law, all criminal actions which they may
consider proper, whether there be a private accuser or not in the
causes, except in those which the Penal Code reserves exclusively to
private complaints. They shall also institute them in causes for crimes
against chastity, which, according to the provisions of the Penal Code,
must first be denounced by the persons interested, or when the public
prosecutor should himself denounce them, because said crimes are com-
mitted against helpless persons or those lacking personality.'

ART. 106. A criminal action for a crime or misdemeanor which
gives rise to proceedings ex oficio is not extinguished by the withdrawal
of the complaint by the person offended.
Actions which arise from a crime or misdemeanor which can only be
prosecuted at the instance of a party, and civil actions, whatever be the
crime or misdemeanor involved, are extinguished for this cause.
ART. 107. The abandonment of the civil action or of a criminal
action which can be abandoned shall only prejudice the person who
abandons it; the other persons interested in the cause being permitted
to continue the criminal action in the state it was, or institute a new
person in Title VIII, Book II (parricide, assassination, homicide, infanticide, abor-
tion, injuries inflicted with violence, and dueling), but the law refers to a state when
the act offends a person related to the guilty person, which may be prosecuted at
the instance of the person injured, even though the crime be an outrage. (March R,
1885-Gaceta of October 4.)
1In compliance with the provisions of article 467 of the Penal Code in force in the
islands of Cuba and Porto Rico, the prosecuting officials are obliged to bring a crimi-
nal action in the crimes of abduction and adultery referred to there.


ART. 108. La acci6n civil ha de entablarse juntamente con la penal
por el ministerio fiscal, haya 6 no en el process acusador particular;
pero si el ofendido renunciare expresamente su derecho de restituci6n,
reparaci6n 6 indemnizaci6n, el ministerio fiscal se limitar- a pedir el
castigo de los culpables.
ART. 109. En el acto de recibirse declaraci6n al ofendido que
tuviese la capacidad legal necesaria, se le instruird del derecho que le
asiste para mostrarse parte en el process y renunciar 6 no a la restitu-
ci6n de la cosa, reparaci6n del dafo 6 indemnizaci6n del perjuicio
causado por el hecho punible.1
Si no tuviese capacidad legal, se practicar' igual diligencia con su
Fuera de los casos previstos en los dos pZrrafos anteriores, no se
hark A los interesados en las acciones civiles 6 penales notificaci6n
alguna que prolongue 6 detenga el curso de la causa, lo cual no obsta
para que el juez procure instruir de aquel derecho al ofendido
ART. 110. Los perjudicados por un delito 6 falta que no hubieren
renunciado su derecho podrin mostrarse parte en la causa, si lo hicie-
ren antes del tramite de calificaci6n del delito, y ejercitar las acciones
civiles y penales que procedan, 6 solamente unas 6 otras, seg6n les con-
viniere, sin que por ello se retroceda en el curso de las actuaciones.

Aun cuando los perjudicados no se muestren part en la causa, no
por esto se entiende que renuncian al derecho de restituci6n, repara-
ci6n 6 indemnizaci6n que a su favor pueda acordarse en sentencia
fire; siendo menester que la renuncia de este derecho se haga en su
caso de una manera express y terminante.
ART. 111. Las acciones que nacen de un delito 6 falta podran ejer-
citarse junta 6 separadamente; pero mientras estuviese pendiente la
acci6n penal, no se ejercitari la civil con separaci6n hasta que aqu6lla
haya sido resuelta en sentencia fire, salvo siempre lo dispuesto en los
articulos 4, 5 y 6 de este c6digo.
ART. 112. Ejercitada s6lo la acci6n penal, se entendera utilizada
tambi6n la civil, A no ser que dafiado 6 perjudicado la renunciase 6 la
reservase expresamente para ejercitarla despu6s de terminado el juicio
criminal si a ello hubiere lugar.
Si se ejercitase s6lo la civil que nace de un delito de los que no pue-
den perseguirse sino en virtud de querella particular, se considerar6
extinguida desde luego la acci6n penal.
ART. 113. Podrin ejercitarse expresamente las dos acciones por
una misma persona 6 por varias; pero siempre que sean dos 6 mas las
SLa obligaci6n de instruir de su derecho i los interesados en la causa, no s6lo se
establece a favor de los perjudicados por el delito, sino en beneficio de los presuntos
culpables, conforme al artfculo 2.

ART. 108. The civil action must be brought jointly with the crimi-
nal action by the prosecuting official, whether there be a private accuser
or not in the cause; but if the person offended shall expressly renounce
his right to restitution, repair, or indemnity, the prosecuting official
shall confine himself to requesting the punishment of the guilty parties.
ART. 109. As soon as the declaration of an offended party having
the necessary legal capacity has been received, he shall be informed
of his rights to become a party to the action and to renounce or not
the restitution of the thing, repair of the damage, and indemnity for
the loss caused by the punishable act.'
Should he not have the legal capacity, the same information shall be
communicated to his representative.
Aside from the cases provided for in the two foregoing paragraphs,
no notice shall be served upon the parties interested in civil or crim-
inal actions which shall prolong or delay the course of the cause,
which, however, is not an obstacle to the judge informing the absent
person offended of his rights.
ART. 110. Those prejudiced by a crime or misdemeanor who shall
not have renounced their rights may enter an appearance in the cause,
should they do so before the classification of the crime, and exercise
the proper civil and criminal actions, or either, as they may desire,
without, however, causing any retrogression in the course of the
Even if the persons prejudiced do not enter an appearance in the
cause, it shall not be understood that they thereby renounce the right to
restitution, repair, or indemnity which may be granted them by final
sentence, it being necessary that the renunciation of this right be made
in a proper case in an express and positive manner.
ART. 111. The actions which arise from a crime or misdemeanor
may be instituted jointly or separately; but during the pendency of
the criminal action the civil action can not be brought separately
until the former has been decided by a final sentence, excepting
always the provisions of articles 4, 5, and 6 of this code.
ART. 112. If the criminal action only is instituted, it shall be under-
stood that a civil action may also be brought, unless the person injured
or prejudiced renounces the same or expressly reserves the right to
institute it after the conclusion of the criminal action, if necessary.
If only the civil action arising from a crime which can be prosecuted
only on a private complaint is instituted, the criminal action shall
thereby be considered as extinguished.
ART. 113. The two actions may be expressly instituted by the same
or by different persons; but should the actions derived from a crime or
'The obligation of informing the parties to a cause of their right is established
not only with regard to those injured by the crime but also in favor of the presumed
criminals, according to article 2.

personas por quienes se utilicen las acciones derivadas de un delito 6
falta, lo verificarIn en un solo process, y si fuere possible bajo una
misma direcci6n y representaci6n A juicio del tribunal.
ART. 114. Promovido juicio criminal en averiguaci6n de un delito 6
falta, no podra seguirse pleito sobre el mismo hecho; suspendidndole,
si le hubiese, en el estado en que se hallare, hasta que recaiga senten-
cia fire en la causa criminal.
No serd necesario para el ejercicio de la acci6n penal que haya pre-
cedido el de la civil originada del mismo delito 6 falta.

Lo dispuesto en este articulo se entiende sin perjuicio de lo estable-
cido en el capitulo II, titulo I de este libro respect a las cuestiones
ART. 115. La acci6n penal se extingue por la muerte del culpable;
pero en este caso subsiste la civil contra sus herederos y causahabientes,
que s6lo podra ejercitarse ante la jurisdicci6n y por la via de lo civil.1

ART. 116. La extinci6n de la acci6n penal no leva consigo la de la
civil, a no ser que la extinci6n procede de haberse declarado por sen-
tencia fire que no existi6 el hecho de que la civil hubiese podido
En los demis casos, la persona g quien correspond la acci6n civil
podra ejercitarla ante la jurisdicci6n y por la via de lo civil que pro-
ceda contra quien estuviere obligado a la restituci6n de la cosa, repara-
ci6n del dafio 6 indemnizaci6n del perjuicio sufrido.
ART. 117. La extinci6n de la acci6n civil tampoco lleva consigo la
de la penal que nazca del mismo delito 6 falta.
La sentencia firme absolutoria dictada en el pleito promovido por el
ejercicio de la acci6n civil no sert obstAculo para el ejercicio de la
acci6n penal correspondiente.
Lo dispuesto en este articulo se entiende sin perjuicio de lo que
establece el capitulo II del titulo I de este libro, y los articulos 106,
107, 110 y parrafo segundo del 112.
SEste articulo es sustancial repetici6n de los 125 y 132, n6m. 1 del c6digo penal.

misdemeanor be instituted by two or more persons, they shall do so in
one proceeding, and if possible with the same counsel, in the discretion
of the court.
ART. 114. If a criminal action is brought to investigate a crime or
misdemeanor, a suit can not be prosecuted in the same; the proceeding
being suspended, should any be pending, in the state in which it may
be, until final sentence has been pronounced in the criminal cause.
It shall not be necessary for the institution of the criminal action that
it shall have been preceded by the civil action arising from the same
crime or misdemeanor.
The provisions of this article shall be understood without prejudice
to those of Chapter II, Title I, of this book, with reference to pre-
liminary questions.
ART. 115. A criminal action is extinguished by the death of the
culprit; but in such case a civil action still lies against his heirs and
successors in right, which can only be brought in a civil court and
through civil channels.'
ART. 116. The extinction of the criminal action does not carry with
it the extinction of the civil action, unless the extinction be caused
by a final sentence declaring that the act on which a civil action might
be based did not exist.
In other cases the person having a right of civil action may insti-
tute before the civil jurisdiction, and through the proper civil channels,
an action against the person who may be obliged to restore the thing,
to repair the damage, or indemnify the losses suffered.
ART. 117. Nor does the extinction of the civil action extinguish the
criminal action resulting from the same crime or misdemeanor.
A final judgment absolving from liability rendered in the suit
brought by the exercise of the right of civil action, shall not bar the
exercise of the proper right of criminal action.
The provisions of this article are to be understood without preju-
dice to the provisions of Chapter II, Title I, of this book, and of
articles 106, 107, 110, and the second paragraph of article 112.

'This article is substantially a repetition of articles 125 and 132, subd. 1, of the
Penal Code.



ART. 118. Los procesados deberin ser representados por procurador
y defendidos por letrado, que pueden nombrar desde que se les notifi-
que el auto de procesamiento. Si no los nombraren por si mismos 6
no tuvieren aptitud legal para verificarlo, se les designari de oficio
cuando lo solicitaren. Si el procesado no hubiese designado procu-
rador 6 letrado, se le requerirA para que lo verifique, 6 se le nombrair
de oficio, si requerido no los nombrase, cuando la causa llegue a estado
en que necesite el consejo de aqu6llos 6 haya de intentar algfn recurso
que hiciere indispensable su intervenci6n.'
ART. 119. Los perjudicados por el hecho punible 6 sus herederos que
fueren parte en el juicio, si estuviesen habilitados para defenders como
pobres, tendrin tambidn derecho A que se les nombre de oficio procu-
rador y abogado, para su representaci6n y defense.

SART. 120. Los abogados A quienes correspond la defense de pobres
no podrin excusarse de ella sin un motive personal y just, que califi-
carAn segin su prudent arbitrio los decanos de los colegios donde los
hubiese, y en su defecto el juez 6 tribunal en que hubieren de hacerse
las defenses.
ART. 121. Todos los que sean parte en una causa, si no estuviesen
declarados pobres, tendran obligaci6n de satisfacer los derechos de
los procuradores que les represented, los honorarios de los abogados
que les defiendan, los de los peritos que informed A su instancia y las
indemnizaciones de los testigos que presentaren, cuando los peritos y
testigos al declarar hubiesen formulado su reclamaci6n y el juez 6
tribunal la estimaren.
Ni durante la causa ni despues de terminada tendran obligaci6n de
satisfacer las demAs costas procesales, a no ser que A ello fueren con-

'Los abogados estAn obligados A defender A los pobres. Impuesta & un abogado la
correcci6n disciplinaria para que estln autorizados los juzgados y tribunales, resisti-n-
dose todavia aquil A aceptar la defense que por turno le correspondi6 de un litigante
pobre, fuW procesado y penado como reo de desobediencia grave, con arreglo al art.
265 del c6digo penal, y habiendo interpuesto recurso de casaci6n, se declar6 no haber
lugar & 61 por no haberse infringido dicho articulo. (entencia de Marzo 7 de 1877.)


ART. 118. The persons accused must be represented by a solicitor and
defended by an attorney, whom they may appoint as soon as they are
notified of the indictment. If they do not designate them themselves or
should they not have the legal power to do so, they shall be appointed
ex oficio, upon their request. If the accused should not have desig-
nated a solicitor or attorney, he shall be required to do so or they shall
be appointed ex offcio, if they should not have been appointed by him
when the cause reaches a stage where he needs their counsel or some
step should be taken wherein their intervention is necessary.1
ART. 119. The persons injured by the punishable act, or their heirs,
who may be parties to the action, if they have been declared as enti-
tled to defense in fw~rma pauperis, shall also have the right to have
a solicitor and attorney appointed ex officio to represent and defend
ART. 120. The attorneys whose duty it is to defend the poor can not
excuse themselves therefrom, except for a personal and just cause,
which shall be passed upon according to the prudent judgment by the
deans of the college, where there is such, and in their absence by the
judge or court before which the defense is to be made.
ART. 121. All parties to a cause, if not declared poor persons, shall
be obliged to pay the fees of the solicitors who represent them, of the
attorneys who defend them, of the experts testifying in their behalf,
and of the witnesses which they present, if the experts and witnesses at
the time of testifying shall have filed their claim and the judge or court
shall have allowed it.

Neither during the cause nor after its termination shall they be
obliged to pay the other costs of the proceedings, unless adjudged to
pay them.
'Attorneys are obliged to defend poor persons. A disciplinary penalty having
been imposed upon an attorney, for which superior and inferior courts have author-
ity, as he still refused to accept the defense of a poor person when it was his turn to
do so, he was tried and convicted as guilty of grave disobedience, in accordance with
the provisions of article 265 of the Penal Code, and upon taking an appeal for annul-
ment of judgment it was disallowed, it being held that said article had not been vio-
lated. (Decisio of March 7, 1887.)

El procurador que nombrado por los que fueren part en una causa,
haya aceptado su representaci6n, tendri obligaci6n de pagar los honora-
rios A los letrados de que se valiesen los clients para su defense.
Los que hubiesen sido declarados pobres podrin valerse de abogado
de su elecci6n; pero en este caso estarin obligados a abonarles sus
honorarios, como se dispone respect de los que no est4n declarados
ART. 122. Se usara papel de oficio en los judicios sobre faltas y en
las causes criminals, sin perjuicio del correspondiente reintegro si
hubiere condenaci6n de costas.
ART. 123. S61o podrAn ser habilitados como pobres:

10. Los que vivan de un journal 6 salario eventual.
20. Los que vivan s6lo de un salario permanent, 6 de un sueldo,
cualquiera que sea su procedencia, que no exceda del double journal de
un bracero en la localidad donde tengan su residencia habitual.
3. Los que vivan s6lo de rentas, cultivo de tierras 6 crfa de gana-
dos, cuyos products esten graduados en una suma que no exceda de
la equivalent al journal de dos braceros en el lugar de su residencia
4. Los que vivan s6lo del ejercicio de una industrial 6 de los pro-
ductos de cualquier comercio por los cuales paguen de contribuci6n
una suma inferior a la fijada en la siguiente escala:
En la ciudad de la Habana, 150 pesetas.
En las capitals de las otras provincias de la isla de Cuba, 100
En la capital de la isla de Puerto Rico, 100 pesetas.
En las capitals de los partidos judiciales de las islas de Cuba y
Puerto Rico, 50 pesetas.
En las demis poblaciones de ambas islas, 25 pesetas.
50. Los que tengan embargados todos sus bienes, 6 los hayan cedido
j udicialmente A sus acreedores, y no ejerzan industrial, oficio 6 profesi6n.

En estos casos, si quedasen bienes despuds de pagar A los acreedores,
se aplicaran al pago de las costas que deba satisfacer el defendido como
'Este artfculo debe entenderse subordinado al 125, y, por lo tanto, procede denegar
el beneficio si la sala deduce de los signs visible de riqueza que el que le pretend
tiene medios superiores al double journal de un bracero.-Sentenias del TribunalSupremo
18 Febrero 1870; 81 Diciembre 1877; 22 Septiembre, 18 y 21 Noviembre 1879; 10 Enero,
29 Marzo y 24 Junio 1880; 11 Febrero 1881; 15 Diciembre 1883 y otras.

(b) Contra la sentencia que concede A un litigante el beneficio de pobreza no pro-
cede el recurso de casaci6n.--ntencia de 10 Mayo 1881.
(c) Tambien debe declararse pobre A la persona que vive exclusivamente con una

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