<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 The far continent of the sea
 The wonderful features of...
 Grandfather Tamany's New England...
 Captain Bridewell's story of life...
 Thanksgiving at Captain Tamany...
 What Australia teaches in regard...
 The ocean cure
 The sea-birds
 Catching a ghost by flash-ligh...
 More queer stories at sea
 The conquest of the whale - New...
 A Sabbath at sea
 The austral world
 The famous zigzag railway over...
 Old Allspice's strange story
 Another excursion over the...
 The delightful schools of Australia...
 The Australian poets
 A visit to Queensland, the land...
 Advertising
 Back Matter
 Back Cover
 Spine


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A MAIL-CARRIER OF THE AUSTRALIAN INTERIOR.







ZIGZAG, JOURNEYS

IN


AUSTRALIA;

OR,

A VISIT TO THE OCEAN WORLD.


BY
HEZEKIAH BUTTERWORTH.


FULLY ILLUSTRATED.




BOSTON:
ESTES AND LAURIAT,
PUBLISHERS.




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Zigzag journeys in Australia, or, A visit to the ocean world
CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00081189/00001
 Material Information
Title: Zigzag journeys in Australia, or, A visit to the ocean world
Series Title: Zigzag series
Portion of title: Visit to the ocean world
Physical Description: 319 p. : ill. (some col.), ; 21 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Butterworth, Hezekiah, 1839-1905
Barbant, Charles ( Engraver )
Hildibrand, Henri Théophile ( Engraver )
Estes & Lauriat ( Publisher )
John Wilson and Son ( Printer )
University Press (Cambridge, Mass.) ( Printer )
Publisher: Estes and Lauriat
Place of Publication: Boston
Manufacturer: John Wilson and Son ; University Press
Publication Date: c1891
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Youth -- Conduct of life -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Conduct of life -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Voyages and travels -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Sailing -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Ship captains -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Sea birds -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Sunday -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Temperance -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Mountains -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Christian life -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Juvenile fiction -- Australia   ( lcsh )
Travelogue storybooks -- 1891   ( local )
Bldn -- 1891
Genre: Travelogue storybooks   ( local )
novel   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston
United States -- Massachusetts -- Cambridge
 Notes
General Note: Illustrations on endpapers printed in blue; some illustrations engraved by Barbant and Hildibrand.
Statement of Responsibility: by Hezekiah Butterworth ; fully illustrated.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: new aleph # - 026617133
notis - ALG3468
oclc - 00833003
lccn - 05038599
old aleph # - 002223219
System ID: UF00081189:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Frontispiece
        Page 4
    Title Page
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Preface
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Table of Contents
        Page 9
        Page 10
    List of Illustrations
        Page 11
        Page 12
    The far continent of the sea
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    The wonderful features of Australia
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Grandfather Tamany's New England home
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    Captain Bridewell's story of life among the black Australians
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    Thanksgiving at Captain Tamany's
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
    What Australia teaches in regard to moral recovery
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
    The ocean cure
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
    The sea-birds
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
    Catching a ghost by flash-light
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
    More queer stories at sea
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
    The conquest of the whale - New Zealand
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
    A Sabbath at sea
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
    The austral world
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
    The famous zigzag railway over the Blue Mountains
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
    Old Allspice's strange story
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
    Another excursion over the zigzag
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
    The delightful schools of Australia - The temperance teaching - The bower-bird
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
    The Australian poets
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
    A visit to Queensland, the land of the eucalyptus
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
    Advertising
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
    Back Matter
        Page 327
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
    Spine
        Spine
Full Text





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THE ZIGZAG SERIES.
BY
HEZEKIAH BUTTERWORTH.


ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN EUROPE.
ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN CLASSIC LANDS.
ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN THE ORIENT.
ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN THE ACCIDENT.
ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN NORTHERN LANDS.
ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN ACADIA.
ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN THE LEVANT
ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN THE SUNNY SOUTH.
ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN INDIA.
ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN THE AN7IPODES.
ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN THE BRITISH
ISLES.
ZIGZAG JOURNEY YS IN THE GREAT T NORTH-
WEST.
ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN AUSTRALIA.


ESTES AND LAURIAT, Publishers,
BOSTON, MASS.




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A MAIL-CARRIER OF THE AUSTRALIAN INTERIOR.


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ZIGZAG, JOURNEYS

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AUSTRALIA;

OR,

A VISIT TO THE OCEAN WORLD.


BY
HEZEKIAH BUTTERWORTH.


FULLY ILLUSTRATED.




BOSTON:
ESTES AND LAURIAT,
PUBLISHERS.




























Copyright, 1891,
BY ESTES AND LAURIAT.

All Rights Reserved.


























lOtibersit ON, ress:
JOHN WILSON AND SON, CAMBRIDGE.












PREFACE.




T is the purpose of the Zigzag books to give a
view of the political and moral progress of different
countries, in order that young people may intelligently
discuss the topics of the times. This volume seeks
among its interpolated stories and incidents of travel
to explain, -
The Australian Ballot System, its history and influence; the
Wakefield Theory that the profits of the rise in value of waste lands
caused by immigration should be shared by the immigrants; the
great reformation wrought in the lives of tens of thousands of
transported convicts by the opportunity of securing new homes in
new lands where their old tempters and errors did not follow them;
the teaching of temperance physiology in the Australian schools;
and the progressive ideas of young Australia, and their influence
on the world.
The author is indebted to Mr. Douglas Sladen, the Australian
poet, for courtesies and helps; to Mr. C. A. Stephens for the use
of a part of his illustrative story on the Black Men; and to the
" Christian Union," Chautauquan," and Youth's Companion for
matter which he originally wrote for their pages, and which were
first published by them; and to the latter paper for the use of Mr.
Eden's story, and the narrative of the late Captain Jordan.


28 WORCESTER ST., BOSTON, MASS.



















CONTENTS.





CHAPTER PAGE
I. THE FAR CONTINENT OF THE SEA . . . . . . .. 13
II. THE WONDERFUL FEATURES OF AUSTRALIA . . .. . .. 36
III. GRANDFATHER TAMANY'S NEW ENGLAND HOME .. .. .... 57
IV. CAPTAIN BRIDEWELL'S STORY OF LIFE AMONG THE BLACK AUSTRALIANS 80
V. THANKSGIVING AT CAPTAIN TAMANY'S ... . . . . 103
VI. WHAT AUSTRALIA TEACHES IN REGARD TO MORAL RECOVERY .. I 8
VII. THE OCEAN CURE . . . .. . .. . 130
VIII. THE SEA-BIRDS . . . .. . . . . 143
IX. CATCHING A GHOST BY FLASH-LIGHT . . . ... . 149
X. MORE QUEER STORIES AT SEA . ... . . . 166
XI. THE CONQUEST OF THE WHALE. NEW ZEALAND . . . .. 8o
XII. A SABBATH AT SEA .. . . ... . . .. .... 193
XIII. THE AUSTRAL WORLD .. .. .. . . . . . 213
XIV. THE FAMOUS ZIGZAG RAILWAY OVER THE BLUE MOUNTAINS . . 242
XV. OLD ALLSPICE'S STRANGE STORY . . . .. . . . 52
XVI. ANOTHER EXCURSION OVER THE ZIGZAG . . .. . . 272
XVII. THE' DELIGHTFUL SCHOOLS OF AUSTRALIA. -THE TEMPERANCE TEACH-
ING. THE BOWER-BIRD . . . . .. .282
XVIII. THE AUSTRALIAN POETS ..... . . . . . 295
XIX. A VISIT TO QUEENSLAND, THE LAND OF THE EUCALYPTUS .... 309






















I



































































Ni














ILLUSTRATIONS.


PAGE
A Mail-Carrier of the Australian Interior
Frontispiece
Grass-Trees. . . . . 14
Captain Cook . . . . 15
Death of Cook. '........ 16
On Buzzard's Bay. . . . 17
A Kangaroo Battue . . .. 20
Sumner's Sarcophagus . . .. 23
Sunset in the Bay .... . . 25
Natives of Australia hunting the Kanga-
roo . ............ 31
Australia's Giant Trees .... .. 37
An Australian Sheep. . . 38
A Corroboree . ... . . 39
The Tasmanian Devil . ... 42
The Giant King-Fisher, or Laughing
Jackass . . . 46
The Hundred-Weight Nugget. . 50
" Only his Cockatoo to greet him" 52
Sunrise in the Indian Ocean .. . 53
Massasoit welcomed by the Puritans 59
A Princess of Massachusetts . 61
Death of King Philip. . . 63
An Australian Bear and her Young 66
The Cradock Mansion, Medford 70
An Indian alarmed .... .. 73
A Native Hunt in Australia .. 77
Dingoes . . . 84
Young Australians . .... . 87
Native of South Australia .. 89
" He dealt the Boa a Succession of Sharp
Blows . ... . 97
A Kangaroo at Bay .... . . 101


PAGE
The Old Negro Preacher and the Chest-
nut . . . .... .. 105
Near the Source of the Murray . 107
A Devil-Fish of the Indian Ocean . 112
An Australian Whip . . .. 19
A Waddy Fight . . . .. .121
Statue of Captain Cook, at Sydney .. 125
" Its Broad Expanse of Water" . .131
On the Sea . ......... 133
The Province House... . . 135
The Indian Ocean ...... E39
The Albatross . . . .. 146
A King Penguin . . . . 148
A Victorian Lake . . . .. 50
Coaching in Victoria. --A Sharp Corner 151
The Bottle-Tree . .. 155
Aunt Heart Delight's Beau . . 16
" Seas of Sun and Calm" . ... 167
An Abandoned Wreck.. . . 168
The Southern Pacific . ... 169
Pitcairn Island .... . .. .173
The Crew of the Bounty at Otaheite 174
Captain Bligh of the "Bounty" cast Adrift 175
A Descendant of the Mutineers of the
Bounty on Board of a Visiting Man-
of-W ar . . . 178
Whaling in the Arctic Ocean . . 183
The "John Williams," Missionary Ship 187
Natives of New Zealand and their Homes 188
New Zealand . . . . 189
A New Zealand Merry-Go-Round . 191
New Zealanders in the Canoes . 192
A Coral Island of the Pacific . .. 195






ILL USTRA TIONS.


Mount Kosciusko, New South Wales
In an Australian Forest . .. .
Government House and General Post-
Office, Adelaide . . . .
Public School, Adelaide
Botanical Gardens at Adelaide
Camel Teams, South Australia .
Melbourne, 1840 . . . .
A Railway Pier, Melbourne . .
The Fitzroy Gardens, Melbourne
Government Buildings, Macquarie Street,
Sydney .....
View of Sydney Twenty Years Ago .
The Town Hall, Sydney . . .
Views in Sydney: Government House,
the Cathedral, and Sydney Heads .
On the South Esk, Tasmania . .
On the River Derwent, Tasmania
Corra Lynn, Tasmania . . .
The Erebus and Terror in the Ice
of the Antarctic Sea . . .
Mounts Erebus and Terror . .
Zigzag Railway in the Blue Mountains
Gum-Trees on the Blackspur River .
Cascade on the Blackspur . . .
The Laughing Jackass . . .
"A Little Head protruded from her
Pouch ... . . .


PAGE
203 A Boomerang . . . . .
211 Silver-Stem Eucalypts .. ...
The Eucalyptus serving as a Bridge .
215 Railroad through the Gippsland Forest,
216 Victoria . . . .
217 "I lived all Alone in a Shack "
218 Vineyard of St. Hubert on the Yarra
220 Yarra River .. . ....
221 Yarra Yarra River, at St. Hubert .
223 Emu Plains, New South Wales
The Valley of the Grose ..
224 The River Murray in a Freshet
225 Traces of Civilization ..
229 On Lake Wellington, Victoria
Australian Vegetation . . .
233 Views in Tasmania ...
235 The Bower-Bird
236 The Lyre-Bird . . . . .
237 Courtship in Western Queensland
The Mad Shepherd .. . ...
239 A Pioneer of Australia .. ...
240 A Native Encampment, Queensland
243 "A Rough Mining Cabin" . .
245 Roadway through the Silver-Stem Euca-
247 lypts . . . .
248 Turnsville, North Queensland
Sugar Plantation, Queensland
249 Brisbane . . . . .












ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN AUSTRALIA.




CHAPTER I.

THE FAR CONTINENT OF THE SEA.

THE HISTORY OF THE WAKEFIELD THEORY AND OF THE AUSTRALIAN BALLOT SYSTEM, AND
THE QUEER STORY OF THE OLD GRAY GOOSE THAT KEPT A FLYING SCHOOL.

CEANICA,-the fifth continent, the frag-
-' _ments of a once great ocean world!
-:-,',-l:---" IStrange animals and birds were found
there by the early voyagers and dis-
coverers; strange birds and flowers,
Sand stranger men. There once lived
the dodo; there- was found the emu,
the wonderful kangaroo, and more re-
markable yet, the platypus, -an ani-
: ; mral hilf bi:ast and half bird, that lays eggs, or in fact,
a bea.er \\ith a bill. There the beautiful lyre-bird was
found in the great reed fields and marshes, proud of his beautiful
plumes, and charming his mate as he passed before her in the burning
atmospheres. There the tawny tiger snake was discovered; and the
adventurer was warned against its deadly fangs. There startled
sailors saw animals flying through the air in the dusk of the even-
ings andwunder the dim moon,-animals like cats moving about





ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN AUSTRALIA.


in the airy regions as upon invisible trees, seemingly all bodies and
heads, without wings or feet. The odd pitcher-tree was there, and
the curious grass-tree.
There the people roamed about naked, and lived like the animals.
There were the boomerang people, whose deadly weapons returned to
them again, as evil deeds do to the
dwellers in all lands. Men were
there who ate raw flesh; some who
ate human flesh. Moral ideas there
were none. Men were governed by
their appetites and passions; it was
7I a vast region of war and blood,
S an island world of human strifes, yet
S beautiful as the gardens of Hesper,
full of fruits and flowers, ever glo-
S rious with the sun and the rising
and falling tides of the sea.
It was Captain Cook who made
known to the world this vast con-
GRASS-TREES. tinent of gardens of the sea.
Capt. James Cook, one of the
most celebrated of English navigators, was born in Yorkshire in 1728.
He was a common sailor in his early years; but he entered the royal
navy, and having an inquiring mind, he learned so many useful things
that he was made a ship-master. While a marine surveyor he made
charts that drew the attention of certain members of the Royal
Society who were looking for some trustworthy commander to take
charge of an expedition to the South Seas to observe the transit of
Venus across the disk of the sun. They honored Cook with the com-
mission. He sailed from Plymouth, England, in 1768, and arrived at
Tahiti after a voyage of some eight months. He visited -i Zealand,
and afterward New Holland, now called Australia, buh ich he





THE FAR CONTINENT OF THE SEA.


named New South Wales. The young reader should procure the
"Life of Captain Cook," which may be found in almost any good
library. This explorer's adventures are more marvellous than the,
story of Robinson Crusoe. He was a real Sinbad the Sailor, and a
review of his life, if the reader has
any adequate knowledge of the con-
dition of these islands at the present
time, shows how wonderfully nations
change under civilizing influences.
Captain Cook was killed by the na- P
tives of Hawaii in 1779. The latter
had stolen a boat from his ship, and i
he went to the shore, to recover it.
The wild men fell upon him and II '
overcame him before he could re-
ceive assistance. His death filled ..
England with great sorrow; and his
memory has been honored by many
memorials, among them a noble CAPTAIN COOK.
monument at Sydney.
Capt. John Tamany was a sea-captain of New Bedford in the
years of the conquest of the whale. He bore the name of Captain
Jack in port, and he spelled his name Tamany, though he was captain
and part owner of a ship which was named Tammany." Capt.
Jack Tamany of the "Tammany" comprehended his simple his-
tory for many years. New Bedford became a flourishing seaport
town through the whale fisheries; she grew rich through the harvests
of the sea. After the war of 1812, and until the finding of wells of
oil in Pennsylvania and the oil regions of the middle west, Buzzard's
Bay, on which New Bedford is situated, was full of whale ships. The
port at one me harbored some four hundred vessels. Some of the
captains of He vessels met with reverses, but they, as a rule, became





ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN AUSTRALIA.


well-to-do, if n'ot rich men, and retired from their perilous occupation
to -spend the afternoon of life on fine estates.
Captain. Tamany had made many prosperous voyages, and he
was able to purchase a fine farm near New Bedford overlooking
the bay.


DEATH OF COOK.


He had sailed round the 'Horn -" doubled Cape Horn," as he
called his voyages to the Pacific Ocean many times. He had visited
the Northern Pacific Ocean three times; and he did not meet with
losses when a great number of New Bedford vessels were wrecked
at one time in that far ocean world.
He had visited Fiji. Beautiful Fiji he used to call the island;
and wonderful were the stories that he used to relate to his grand-
children of the shores of that quiet sea."
Talk of sowing turnip-seed," he used to say to his gardener, why,
man, in Fiji seed sprouts and bursts in the ground in one day.
Plant turnip-seed one morning, and the next morningot is up, and
















-i=- --- ---=---=--== = --=r--





















































ON BUZZAKD'S BAY.,















































I






































r,













































THE FAR CONTINENT OF THE SEA.


in four weeks the turnips are all ready for eating. There bread grows
on the trees. What do you think of that, man, what do you think
of that ? "
If his gardener stopped to stare at such a statement, the indus-
trious captain would say, Work away, work away. 'T was nothing
uncommon; work away."
Captain Tamany, like Tammany, the old Delaware chieftai. who
gave the name to the Tammany Halls of Philadelphia, New York,
and other places, had a local reputation for sound judgment, and
people often came to him for advice. Every land that he had visited
had taught him something new. Fiji had. He had seen the King
of the Cannibal Islands converted to Christianity, and used to say,
" Any man can reform if he has a sufficient reason for it. Offer a
drunkard a thousand dollars to keep from his cups a week, and he
can do it. If not, offer him ten thousand. The missionary offered
heaven to the poor cannibal, and it was enough. Any man can over-
come his sins if he has a sufficient inducement."
Captain Tamany had many social and political theories. He
used to talk of them almost constantly when in port. One of these
he called-


THE WAKEFIELD THEORY.

About the year 1830 there arose in England some enthusiastic
political theorists, now known as the Theorists of I830," who taught
that the waste land of the British empire should be occupied by set,
tlers; and that as immigration was the cause of the rise in the value
of new lands, the profits of such increased values belonged to the
immigrants themselves. Therefore, according to this theory the Gov-
ernment should use such profits to assist emigration, and to build
homes, institutions, and towns for the immigrants, and thereby add
to the wealth, power, and glory of the British nation. The leader





ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN AUSTRALIA.


of these theorists was Edward Gibbon Wakefield. He published a
book which may be found in many libraries, advocating these ideas.
The result of these theories has been reviewed in a book entitled
" New Zealand after Fifty Years," by Edward Wakefield.

....----......-,----..... .-,-'--- ....--.,-,-:-'--- --"-_---


KANGAROO BATTUE.


The Wakefield theory met with strong opposition at the time, but
was favored by the Duke of Wellington. For this reason the great
commercial city of New Zealand was named Wellington.
The colonies of New Zealand and of Adelaide in New South
Wales were the results of the ideas of the "Theorists of 183o."
Captain Tamany held that these were the right principles of
colonization.
Look at Adelaide," he used to say; she is the model city of the
world. Look at her schools, churches, gardens, and parks; and look






THE FAR CONTINENT OF THE SEA.


at her homes. I believe in giving subsidies to ships, and farms to the
poor, and on the same principles, in helping the poor build houses.
Homes are the strength of a nation. England was wise when she
helped her colonists build homes. I would have it so here. I
would have the Government become the father of the poor."
Captain Tamany seemed to anticipate much of the speculative
thought of recent times. He was never more happy than when he
could secure some sympathetic listener to the views suggested by
the Wakefield Theory. He once wished to be nominated for Con-
gress on the principle that the Government ought to loan money to
poor people at very low rates of interest, to build homes. He claimed
that such an enactment would enrich the nation and make good
citizens and build up noble communities more readily and rapidly
than in any other way.
He was also an enthusiastic advocate of the secret ballot, or the -


AUSTRALIAN BALLOT SYSTEM.

Long before the secret ballot was adopted by the Legislature of
Massachusetts, Captain Tamany used to go to the polls in New Bed-
ford, saying, "You ought to see how they do it in Australia!"
Nothing at this time so much offended him as to be asked
how he was going to vote at an impending election.
I shall wait until the evidence of how I ought to vote is all in,
and then I shall vote according to my convictions," he used to say,
and add, He who instructs me how to vote insults my intelligence."
The ways to the voting precincts in New Bedford used to be lined
with political workers offering ballots. Captain Tamany was a very
even-tempered man, but he used to quite lose self-control at such
times, and exclaim, Oh, I wish that I were in Australia!"
The Australian Ballot System, or the privilege of voting secretly,






ZIGZAG 70OURNEYS IN AUSTRALIA.


owes its beginning to Francis S. Dutton, of the Legislature of South
Australia. He was a member of this body from 1851 to 1865. He
found the will of the common people overborne by organized political
societies, who bribed men or caused them to vote by influence. The
political condition became so bad that independent voting became
almost impossible. The right of manhood seemed to be lost. Popular
ty)ran'ny ruled the polls; riots and bloodshed were common. Mr.
D.utton proposed to the Legislature in 1851 the secret ballot as a
remedy for these evils. It became a law in 1857. I can safely say,"
said Mr. Dutton before an English committee, that no act of my life
ever gave me so much satisfaction."
The bill giving to the people the right of secret ballot was at first
opposed by Sir Robert R. Torrens, a member-of the Government of
South Australia; but he became a convert to it when he saw the
excellent influence of the working of the system.
This method of voting was adopted by England in 1872, and by
Canada in part in 1874. It became a part of the political systems of
Belgium and Italy.
It was really used by the Massachusetts Legislature at the time
of the election of Charles Sumner to the United States Senate.
Twenty-five unsuccessful ballots had been cast.
Go to your hesitating friends in the Legislature, and labor with
them, and you will be elected," said a politician to young Sumner.
"Never! was the answer. I will go to Cambridge, and I will
allow no member of the Legislature to see me until the contest is
decided."
It was proposed that the twenty-sixth ballot should be taken
by the use of secret envelopes. On this ballot, taken in this manner,
Charles Sumner was elected.
The Australian Ballot System became the law of Massachusetts
in 1888, and it has since been adopted by nearly all of the States.
The Farmers' Alliance has given much effort to advocating





THE FAR CO,'T/.1'E.\7 OF THE SEA.


schemes much like the Wakefield Theory; so it is an odd fact that
in our recent political methods, and in much of our public thought,
we have not led, but followed, the island continent of the sea.
Captain Tamany of the Tammany l was a fluent story-teller.
At the age of sixty, he lost his only daughter, who left two children,


SUMNER'S SARCOPHAGUS.


Eric and Mary Hartwell, whom he took to his home and heart.
His wife was an excellent woman, of Quaker parentage. The com-
munity loved her, and pitied her as well, for she was an invalid. It
was Captain Tamany's delight to relate sea stories to his grand-
children and to his patient wife, who was always happy when he was
in port.
It was a pleasant picture to see this family in the long sumner





ZIGZAG 7OLR.E I:J IN AUSTRALIA.


evenings, as they sat on the cool verandas overlooking the city, the
port, and Buzzard's Bay, enjoying a sunset on the water. The sea-
birds drifted through the crimson sky; the bay was white with sails;
old ships lifted their masts here and there, like the tall trees left in
a hewn forest; and the cool sea winds came through the orchards
and .over the long meadows. Eric and Mary were almost always to
be seen on such evenings near their grandparents. Eric thought that
there never existed a man, except Solomon, who possessed so much
wisdom as Captain Tamany of the Tammany; and the captain was
sure that Eric was the most remarkable boy that he had ever met
in all his, travels by sea or land. Each loved the other, and each
was happy in the other's love.
Captain Tamany's stories were often peculiar. He was a man full
of sympathy with new and progressive ideas, and he used to laugh at
his neighbors for telling people what they already knew. There was
one queer story that he once related to an advocate of some old idea,
which so much pleased his grandchildren that they often used to ask
him to repeat it. It was about a certain -



OLD GRAY GOOSE THAT KEPT A FLYING SCHOOL.

There was once an old gray Goose that had led a very lonely life. She had
wandered for years about the green pastures all alone. She had read in the
poets the cheerful promise, -
There never was a goose so gray
-- But sometime, soon or late,
An honest gander came that way,
And took her for his mate."
But that gander never came. Every spring and fall the wild geese crossed the
sky; but no polite gander ever dropped down to speak with her, or to propose
mateship to her.
At last she lost all faith in the poet, and she said, Since I shall never have
any family of my own, I will make myself a mother to the whole feathered
9f
















































































SUNSET ON THE BAY.































'I






THE FAR CO.1T!.'E.VT OF THE SEA.


world. I came of a high family; the wild Geese, my ancestors, all fly high. I
will pride myself on my old family history, and will open a school of art and
philosophy, and teach all the birds in the world to fly."
This seemed a very happy and useful plan, and it made her cackle with
delight, Quack, quack, quack! Her cackle caused a little Duck to lift up
her head and turn it aside, and say,-
How now, Mother Goose! You seem to be very happy to-day. What has
happened?"
Lucky Duck, Lucky Duck, rejoice with me! I am going to teach all the
birds in the world how to fly. I am going to open a flying school."
But, Goosey Lucy, you don't know how to fly yourself. You never have
flown, except when chased by a dog. You have just waddled about the pas_
tures all your life. You might keep a swimming school for Ducks, but not a
flying school for Eagles. That would never do, Goosey Lucy."
I guess you don't know what a high family I came down from," said old
Goosey Lucy, proudly. The whole world knows that the Goose family can
fly. If some Geese don't fly, it is because they do not need to, not because
they are not highly connected."
So old Goosey Lucy wrote an essay on the Art of Flying," and read it to
an assembly of birds called a symposium.
The birds listened to the learned essay with wonder. They all rejoiced
that the art of flying had at last been discovered, and that when Goosey Lucy
should open her College, the little birds and great birds and all the birds
would be taught how to fly.
"We have been waiting many thousand years for this new philosophy
school," said the Guinea-hen. What an age we live in! "
The' Eagle was the King of birds at this time, and he dropped down from
the blue sky with the sun on his wings, to attend the Symposium. He heard
what Goosey Lucy had to say on the new art of flying, and screamed, -
Flying is not an art; it is an inspiration." And he mounted royally aloft
out of the atmosphere of quackery, and was soon lost to view in the brightness
of the sun.
Goosey Lucy was a happy bird. She looked upon herself as the phi-
losopher for which the bird world had waited for ages; and she wondered
how it was that the great gift of teaching birds to fly had been kept wait-
ing all these years, and discovered by her. She asked Lucky Duck how it
was so.
It is because there never was a wise Goose before," said Lucky Duck.
That is a very far-seeing remark," said Goosey Lucy. It shows your






ZIGZAG JOURNEYS /.\ A.4'STR.LI/A.


wisdom. You are a very wise bird; I will make you one of the professors in
my College of the New Philosophy."
So Goosey Lucy opened her Flying School in the herony. under the tall
trees near the lake; and all the bird families were delighted at the new wisdom
that had come to the world, and came to the School to learn how.to fly. The
School grew, and its fame filled the air. It was a wonderful science, said they
all. As soon as a bird received its diploma, it was able to fly. The air around
the College became fill of birds flying about with diplomas on their wings,
signed by Goosey Lucy. Each little diploma read, -

DIPLOMA.
You can now fly.
(Signed) G. Lucy, LL.D., F.R.S.

Then the whole world could see what an excellent thing it was to have a
diploma stating that one could fly.
The fame of the Flying School under the herony grew and grew. All the
birds came to it for wisdom, even the Jackdaw, the Wren, and the Owl. The
Thrushes came to Goosey Lucy to learn how to sing. Such is fame!
The little animals came also. One little mouse came to learn how he might
become as big as a lion. The question is often asked yet.
A mouse in a fog is as big as a lion," said wise Goosey Lucy.
Then I '11 become a poet," said the mouse; and Goosey Lucy said that he
was a very wise little mouse, and had the insight of success.
A little kitten came to study how little kittens might find their tails, for it
had been discovered that when little kittens turn- round to put their paws on
their tails, the tails turn too, and leave nothing behind them.
This was a hard question for the new School of Philosophy; but the
ancient preceptress was equal to it. Get under the feet of the cook," said
she. That will make your tail jump, so you will not have to jump for your
tail."
The little kitten the next day got under the feet of the cook, and soon
found where her tail was, and one lesson was quite satisfactory; she never
jumped for her tail again.
A little dog came to learn how his tail could be shortened without causing
him much pain.
'" Have it cut off piece by piece at a time, until it is the tight length," said
Goosey Lucy. The little dog was as happy in thus learning the art of curtail-
ment as the little kitten had been in solving the problem of angles. There was
evidently great improvement going on in the world.





IRHE F.4.?- CO.'77/.'E.T OF THE SEA.


The College of the New Philosophy was a lovely one. There was a great
colony of Herons in the tall pine tops above it, and a silvery lake stretched
before itin the sun. Around the lake the red-winged Blackbirds swung from
the alders, and the brown Thrushes sang on the witch-hazels. Afar were green
hills and cool elms, where the Orioles lived; and below the Bobolinks toppled
in the wild grasses.
In the evening, as the great moon rose behind the dark'herony, the Owl
would come and talk with Goosey Lucy about the progress of philosophy in
the world, and give lectures to the School, telling the pupils how he had taught
the Moon to rise (illustrated by the stereopticon of the Moon herself). The
lectures were very luminous, and gave a very wonderful insight into the forces
of nature.
The Mocking-bird -the tree poet sometimes came, and, like other
poets, recited what he heard everywhere. The Mocking-bird is a very great
poet.
Mistakes were sometimes made in this new school of wisdom and art. One'
day a poor Hen who had been bereft of all of her children by a Hawk came to
the new school.
"What shall I do to rid myself of the Hawk? she asked. Many Hens have
asked the question since these historical happenings.
"Quack! quack! When you again see the Hawk coming," said Goosey
Lucy, fly up into the air toward him, and he will think that you are trying
to catch him." The problem seemed solved, on the principle that like cures like.
Lucy picked her feathers, and said, Quack! quack! "
The next morning the poor Hen saw the shadow of the Hawk on the grass,
and she flew up into the air, with her feathers all ruffled, so as to seem twice
her usual size. But alas and alas! That Hen was never seen again, but
" only the feathers where the Hawk had been." Some theories don't work well
at first. It takes time.
The College grew and grew, as before; nothing grows like the fame of a
new success-for a time. All the birds in the world came to the new School
of Philosophy; even the Skylarks came over from England to build their nests
about the hill meadows, that their little ones might learn the new art of flying.
The great Auk.came from the North, the Rain-dove from the Carolinas, and
the Ibises from Florida. Some Parrots also came from the Amazons to learn
how to speak English. The Crows came to learn how to pull,corn, and re-
ceived their diplomas at once for excellent scholarship.
One day there was a great flutter in the School. The professors had re-
ceived a message from the Eagle. He sent it by the Skylark. He announced






ZIGZAG 7.0 'R.'E Y IN AL.:'S .-,. .'.-.


that the next day at noon. he was coming down from the sun to visit the
School: The old gray Goose was all feathers and excitement.
"Quack! quack! she said. "'The King himself is coming down from
the sun. Cackle! cackle! I must have my spectacles cleaned." So she had
her spectacles cleaned. "Quack! quack! "
She arranged the School for the descent of the Eagle, just like a village
school-mistress for the .coming of the Esquire and the Committee. She had the
Ibises stand on one leg, in iighl-art fashion, in a long row in the pond. The
IThrushes were- assigned to the witch-hazels, and the Larks to the alders. She
put a chorus choir of Orioles in the elms. The Herons all sat by their nests
in the tops of the trees. The Woodpeckers looked out of their holes in the
old trees. The Robins all had orders to sing, "Cheer up,! Cheer up!" from
the orchards. The old gray Goose, in her tortoise-shell spectacles, stood upon
the stump, and the little birds sat in rows around her on the brakes and ferns.
On the margin:of the pond were gathered the Ducks and Waterfowl.
Now the Peacock had proved a very stupid scholar in the new School of
Philosophy. He had aspiration; he was ambitious to soar to the sun like the
Eagle. He would rise up beautifully on his wings a little way into the air, and
then he would come down again with a squall that made.the old gray Goose
nervous. The Peacock was told to hide under the blueberry bushes during the
descent of the Eagle.
It was a beautiful day. The sun blazed, and the Ospreys wheeled in the
sky. There was a speck in the sky, and the birds all began to sing; the Eagle
\was descending from the sun. The speck became a shadow, and the shadow
a cloud of wings. The great Eagle dropped down into the herony, and sat
above the old gray Goose on a blasted pine bough.
The old Goose sat reading her essay on Occult Forces as the Eagle came
down.
Then she raised her spectacles and said, Quack! quack! Have you any
questions to ask? Quack! /
The Eagle looked very grave, and at last said, -
\\' ho taught you the art of flying? "
'No one. Quack! quack! I discovered it." Then the gray Goose wiped
her spectacles and waited for a more difficult question.
\\'here is the Peacock?" asked the Eagle.
Come out here, Peacock ; the King calls for you. Quack! quack! "
The Peacock came out of the bushes, and looking up to the Eagle, spread
his tail, as a matter of "very distinguished considerations," as the old letter-
writers might say.








































































NATIVES OF AUSTRALIA HUNTING THE KANGAROO.































































/






THE FAR CONTINENT OF THE SEA.


Fly said the Eagle.
The old Goose was greatly ruffled.
The poor Peacock dropped his tail.
You will have to excuse him," said the old gray Goose, greatly mortified. A
"Quack! quack "
Then the poor Peacock retired to the bushes again. Birds with fine feathers
never roost in the sun.
"Where are the young Skylarks? asked the Eagle.
"They have just entered the new School," said the old gray Goose. They
have not yet learned the art of flying. Quack! quack! "
Call one of them up," said the Eagle.
So the old gray Goose called up a plain little Skylark; and it came out of
the grass and flew up on a bush near the old gray Eagle.
My dear little bird, can you fly? asked the Eagle.
I never have been taught to fly," said the little Skylark.
Did you never wish to fly? "
I have often wished to fly, but I have no philosophical diploma." These
words almost broke the little Lark's delicate vocal cords.
Did you ever sing? "
I never have been taught to sing. Goosey Lucy will soon teach me to
sing; she has a beautiful voice in the lower notes."
Did you never wish to sing? "
I feel a desire to sing every morning, but I never have taken any lessons.
I love to hear the other birds that Goosey Lucy has taught sing. They sing
beautifully."
"Well, my little bird," said the Eagle, "just try to mount up into the air
and sing-Now."
The little Skylark began to mount up above the trees and over the bright
water and hills, making a little whistle like this: whir-whir-whir." Then she
began to circle round and round, and the whistle grew like this: we-en -
we-en we-en." Then her flight became a little spiral thread or stair of liquid
song like this: w-e-e-e chee-chee-chee; and then the little bird became a
speck, and was lost in the sky, but its song could still be heard, chee-chee-chee-
chee, away off in the golden regions of the sun, out of sight.
The School was greatly astonished. The birds all held up one leg and
listened.
Quack! quack! said the old gray Goose. "Quack! quack!"
Chee-chee-chee, we-ea-we-ea; it was the song of a little bird lost in
the sky.






ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN AUSTR4LIA.


"Why," said the old gray Goose, taking off her spectacles, that is per-
fectly astonishing. What did ever make that bird fly and sing so? Quack !
quack! "
The Eagle looked very grave, and was silent.
Have you any remarks to make to the School?" asked the old gray
Goose, pensively. (This may be the origin of the above quotation.) Quack!
quack! "
The Eagle gave a scream; and all the School was silent, and very much
afraid.
"A philosopher," said he, "is not an old Goose who tells people what
they knew before." (Here the old gray Goose uttered a loud quack.) "You
cannot make an Eagle run round a farmyard like a gobbling Turkey, or teach
a Peacock to soar to the sun like a Lark. Birds used to fly before this School
of Philosophy was founded." (The old gray Goose seemed greatly surprised.)
" If you can teach birds to fly better than before, it is well to do so. Do you
think you can do this, Goosey Lucy?"
S Poor Goosey Lucy took off her tortoise-shell spectacles and laid them down
on the stump.
"Quack! quack!" she said, clearing her throat. "Do you mean to say
that I did not discover the art of flying? she asked the Eagle at last, in a
discouraged voice.
Yes, yes," said the Eagle. Your new School of Philosophy only teaches
people to be what they already know."
There was a silence. Then he added solemnly, The new School of Phi-
losophy is now dismissed."
Quack quack said the old gray Goose, as she hid her head under her
wing. That night the Owl came to comfort her; and the next morning the little
Skylark returned, to find the herony almost empty, and all the world going on
as before.
Oh, little Skylark, little Skylark, you wicked bird! You have ruined
me," said the poor old gray Goose. What did make you fly and sing so, and
break up my new School, when all the world was following me? "
I could n't help it," said the little bird, meekly. I think it was inspira-
tion that made me do it. I am very sorry; it was a lovely school."
Yes, yes," said the old gray Goose. "Quack! quack! I see; if it were
not for that strange thing 'they call Inspiration, there might be a great deal
more of philosophy in the world."
The Ospreys were wheeling in the sky; the Orioles and Thrushes were
singing; birds were flying about everywhere; and the poor old gray Goose said,






THE FAR CONTINENT OF THE SEA.


"Quack! quack! quack! quack! I'11 have to leave the world to follow
its inspiration after all, and just go off in the pasture and nibble grass again.
It is not every Goose can. be a philosopher, but (quack! quack!) I think it
does some good in the world to make the world see what it did know before."
'And with this argument, this .benevolent old Paracelsus of the pasture
went quietly on her way the rest of her days, simply saying, Quack! quack!
quack! "








/ *'* .













CHAPTER II.


THE WONDERFUL FEATURES OF AUSTRALIA.

THE TASMANIAN DEVIL.-THE LAUGHING KING-FISHER.- BUCKLEY THE WILD MAN.-
GOLD.

ELL us more about Australia," was a common request
on the cool vine-hung verandas of the Tamany
Farm. Eric and Mary Hartwell and their young
friends used daily to ask Captain Tamany of the
Tammany for strange stories of the South Pacific
Seas.
"Tell us something wonderful," little Mary Hartwell used to say.
" Tell us something wonderful, Grandpa. How large is Australia? "
she would perhaps add as a leading question, just to draw him out,"
she would say aside to Grandmother Tamany.
Grandfather Tamany would look over his paper, lift his gray eye-
brows, and answer slowly, -
Australia is as large as the United States, and almost as large
as all Europe. She measures from north to south seventeen hundred
miles, and from east to west twenty-four hundred miles, and is sur-
rounded by islands as large as States. The people here who have not
been to the South Seas do not seem to comprehend that Oceanica is
a world."
He would resume his reading.
Now, Grandma," Mary would say, "you ask him another, and
draw him out."





THE WONDERFUL FEATURES OF AUSTRALIA.


"How big are gum-trees .
there ?" Grandma would say \4'e
accommodatingly.
Grandpa Tamany of the
"Tammany would drop his
paper again. _
"Oh, forty feet round, some
of them."
How do they climb such trees as
those? "
Oh, don't tease me. How do they
climb? They cut steps in the bark, and
put their feet in them as they go up. You
should see a native climbing a gum-tree in
search of an opossum. He carries a hatchet
in one hand, and makes his own stairs as he
goes. He looks like a monkey."
"How many people are there in Austra-
lia ?" continued Mary.
People ? Grandfather would drop his
paper. People, civilized
white people.? Well, there
are about three millions in
all. Australia has an area of
about three million square
miles, so there are about as
many inhabitants in all as
there are square miles. A
great part of the island is
used for growing wool. Aus-
tralia raises some seventy
* million sheep. Think of
that! Seventy million! "
AUSTRALIA'S GIANT TREES.





ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN AUSTRALIA.


Do they have storms there ? "
"Yes; and one kind of a storm that never is known
the hot wind storm. The air comes rushing down the
blast from a furnace, and seems to wither everything.


here. It is
coast like a
The birds


AN AUSTRALIAN SHEEP.


drop dead from the trees. But it passes away, and the earth turns
green again."
Captain Tamany would then relate some incident of the peculiar
customs of the people, as, for example, the corroboree, -a kind of
opera among the native blacks, in which the performers passed around

















































* *-. .rl


IL .,.:' `;
,.,


A CORROBOREE.





1)






THE WONDERFUL FEATURES OF AUSTRALIA. 41

in a circle uttering a dismal chant, and he who made a false note lost
his place. The song continued until all had made a false note. He
who sang correctly for the longest time was accounted the victor.
Captain Tamany called this the "classical music" of Australia; and
he would imitate it, much to the amusement of his young friends.
For an orchestra," he used to say, they used their feet, beating
time on the earth with them as they passed around! Kind o' Wag-
ner music," he would add.. His education in the subtilties of the
higher schools of music had been very limited, and like most un-
schooled minds, he only liked Wagner when that musical composer
violated his own theories and produced some haunting melody.
The statement that Captain Tamany sometimes made, that
Australia was as large as the United States, needs some qualification,
for this area was not supposed to include Alaska on the part of the
United States, and yet to include not only the great island continent,
but all of the Australian possessions. The island of Australia has
an area about the size of the States of the American Union.
Captain Tamany had made a large collection of books and pam-
phlets relating to Australia and the island world. Among these were
a few narratives of a peculiar character that had interested greatly
the young people of his household. One of these related to a
curious animal, known in Australia as the Tasmanian devil. The
account appeared in a London periodical some years ago. It was as
follows :-


THE TASMANIAN DEVIL.

Some years ago I met in London Elias Hart, a well-known adventurer.
In the course of a conversation with him on the remarkable animals I had.
met, I asserted that the ferocity and courage of many inhabitants of the forest
had been greatly overstated.
Why," said I, there is n't an animal in all Australia that in open ground
would face my old hound, Hero."






ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN AUSTRALIA.


"I can tell you of an animal," said Hart, if not found in Australia, yet
common enough in the remoter backwoods of Van Dieman's Land, that would
not only face your Hero in the open country, but would refuse to move an
inch out of the path to let a drove of bul-
locks pass. Did you never hear of the e' ...
Tasmanian devil? re-I n
No; I never had heard of the Tasma- c
nian devil.
"The devil," he continued, "is a beast, a
about the size of a large bull-dog, in ap-
pearance something between a polecat and
a bear, but in kind a poucher, like the
opossum or the kangaroo. r,



....





















the Tasmanian devil.
In English he is called the devil; his name in French is diable, and in
German, teufel; and I am told that the Royal Society has given the Latin name
of devil to the whole race."
th toematn;bt h wceds o llaiml i heUsinSacpkhso




the~~ Tasmaian evil






THE WONDERFUL FEATURES OF AUSTRALIA. 43

I desired him to tell me all that he knew concerning this remarkable
animal.
His natural propensities are gluttonous and sluggish. He will be quiet
enough when gorged with flesh and left to undisturbed repose; but the slightest
provocation will turn him at once into a veritable fiend. He then becomes in-
stantly the very type of senseless fury, attacking all before him, dead or living,
flying with equal fierceness at a mastiff or a barn door. Nor is there, while life
is left to him, either truce or quarter. As long as a shred of flesh remains to
tear, or a last bone to shatter, he fights on, regardless of the numbers that sur-
round him, or of his own subsiding strength, until at length his jaws snap faintly,
and his life goes out with a most malicious snarl.
Though taken young and brought up in captivity, his nature undergoes
not the slightest modification. He lives to the last the same surly life, and
usually dies in some mad struggle with the bars of his cage. After years of
experience he repeats the same acts of profitless and exhausting frenzy.
Without apparent motive he will rush at the wall, beating the air like a
rabid lunatic, uttering long howls that seem to choke him, till they break out
suddenly into a piercing bark.
He does not show the smallest attachment to his guardians or feeders,
whom he menaces from the moment they approach him till they pass com-
pletely out of sight.
When tired out or overfed, he becomes stupid or sleepy, rolls himself up
into a corner, and falls into a leaden slumber, from which it is not always easy
to rouse him.
Nothing can be cheaper than to feed him. He will be satisfied for days
together with huge bones, which he cracks up like biscuit, and usually swallows
entirely.
"The full-grown devil is an animal of strange appearance. His coat is
rough and looks like a blanket brushed the wrong way. His head and stomach
are of brownish-black; the tail is also black, but with a patch of white just
above the insertion. An apron of white covers the chest, and there are spots
of white on the front paws.
In a wild state his habits are nocturnal, and he appears as sensitive as an
owl to the action of the solar rays. When the sun remains on high, he keeps
within the clefts of rocks, or under roots of trees, and sleeps so soundly that the
noisiest pack may pass without awakening him.
No sooner, however, do the shades of night begin to fall, than he issues
forth in search of prey; and then woe to the living thing that passes windward
within scent. Once fairly griped, the victim, whatever its kind, is doomed






ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN AUSTRALIA.


inevitably. A feeble squeak, an unconscious struggle, and all is hushed except
the muffled crepitation of bones smashed up and swallowed with the flesh that
covers them.
"The female bears from three to five cubs, which she carries about with her
in her pouch until they grow too big to get into it. She loves them with a sort
of fiery ardor, and to save or shield them she would no doubt attack an army
or plunge into the flames.
"The voracity of the animal renders him an easy prey to trappers. The
clumsiest snare suffices, provided it be strong enough to hold him. Any bait
that can be scented attracts him.
It is difficult to secure him by means of dogs. No single dog will attack
him twice, and he will fight any number until he falls completely exhausted."
From the time I heard Hart's narration I was ambitious to add to my
natural history collections the Ursian Sarcophilus, or Tasmanian devil. I had
travelled over three quarters of the globe in connection with my profession, and
I now resolved to visit Van Dieman's Land.
The year i860 found me, accompanied by my dog Hero, at Nobbler's End,
where, with a party of rangers, I began my first expedition in search of remark-
able animals, having more especially in view the Tasmanian devil.
Our party consisted of six men and seven dogs.
I felt at times a little nervous about poor old Hero, notwithstanding his
spiked collar and prodigious strength. I knew his courage, for he had been
my constant companion for years of perilous travel, and I dreaded to see
him smart undeservedly, from his entire ignorance of his opponent's mode of
warfare.
I was told that the devil, once roused, entirely neglects his own defence, and
thinks only of wounding his aggressor. When attacked by a dog, his effort is
to seize it by the fore-leg; and if he fairly gets hold, the bone snaps at once,
and the dog limps off, disabled.
Toward evening of the first day of our expedition, we reached a sort of
rocky platform, from which one of the party pointed out a spot where he had
assisted in killing a sarcophilus some months before. It was there, he said, we
should find the devil, if anywhere. The place, he believed, had not been dis-
-turbed for years, and he knew there were devils in the neighborhood.
The whole of the next day was spent in beating fruitlessly the covers. At
nightfall we held a council, and determined to keep watch until moonlight, on
the chance of surprising a sarcophilus hunting on a scent, at which time the,
animal betrays his passage by his voice. But the moon arose, and the night
Brought no encounter.






THE WONDERFUL FEATURES OF AUSTRALIA.


Toward evening on the following day, I was startled by a series of piercing
whistles and boisterous holloes in advance that told me clearly that there was
an end to ambush, and that the battle so long sought for had in reality begun.
Shout followed shout in quick succession, and then there came a long howl, so
long and dismal that old Hero pricked his ears and sprang forward in the
direction of the sound.
I called him back, determined to have him under my own immediate con-
trol, and we hurried on together to the scene of action. I shall not soon forget
the sight which broke on my view as I emerged into the open ground.
With his back to a large overhanging stone, there stood, half crouched
before the dogs, the most horrible-looking beast imaginable. Not that his
contour was villanous, in form he resembled a badger; but his physiognomy
-was literally diabolical.
His jaws were just wide enough apart to reveal his large white teeth, and
from these seemed to issue a continuous growl. But what most arrested me
was the animal's eyes, which gleamed with the lurid light of intense malicious-
ness and rage.
When I arrived on the ground, one wounded dog was howling piteously,
with his tail curved under him, and holding up his fore-foot. The five others
were close to the devil, dodging within distance, but not venturing to close
with him.
A shot had been fired, evidently with some effect, as the animal was bleed-
ing from the ear. One gun was on the ground, bitten short off at the slope of
the stock.
On seeing Hero, the men at once hounded him on the devil, and not hear-
ing my half-muttered counter-orders, looked petrified at his apparent want of
courage.
At last the smallest dog of the pack closed, and the others took heart
immediately. A fearful strife ensued, in the midst of which I let loose Hero
with a shout, meant to explain his previous passiveness.
With one bound he reached the devil, and fastened fiercely and heavily on
his throat. This turned the scale at once, for the sarcophilus was already at
bay with the whole pack, and Hero's weight and galling collar completely
mastered him.
On seeing him thus pinned, a spearsman stepped forward and ended the fight
abruptly with a mortal thrust. The devil watched the dogs defiantly, till his
life went out with a snarl that seemed to go right down and expire underground.
The first dog was maimed irreparably, and his master shot him on the spot.
Two others were badly wounded. Hero had not a scratch.





ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN AUSTRALIA.


Captain Tamany, in describing the strange animals and birds of
Australia, used to say that--


THE LAUGHING KING-FISHER

was the homeliest bird in all the world.
Tell us about it," was sure to follow this announcement.
"Oh, he would make you laugh! he would reply. He himself


THE GIANT KING-FISHER, OR LAUGHING
JACKASS.

laughs, just like a jackass. He
is called the laughing jackass in
Australia. Did you ever hear a
jackass laugh ?"





THE WONDERFUL FEATURES OF AUSTRALIA.


There are no jackasses in New Bedford," Grandma would ven-
ture; and we never went where there were any."
Whom does he laugh at ?" once asked Mary.
"At everybody."
Did he ever laugh at you? "
Oh, yes, the piping crow, or musical magpie, as he is called, has
laughed at me many a time. He is a great favorite among the
settlers, although he is so homely. In early times, he used to give
people the time of day, and so was called The Settler's Clock.'"
How did he give the people the time of day ? "
"By laughing at sunrise and moonrise, and always just at the.
noon hour. He used to be regarded as a bird of good omen, because
he was believed to destroy venomous snakes. He seemed to like the
settlers, and as they were often very lonely, he became a very welcome
bird."
Among Captain Tamany's curious narratives of Australia was one
entitled Buckley the Wild Man," as it appeared in printed form, but
which the captain used to call How the Cannibals used to Live."
It portrays the scenes of savage life before the European emigration
to Australia, as few, if any, civilized people ever saw it.



BUCKLEY THE WILD MAN.

William Buckley was born at Macclesfield, Cheshire, England, in
1780. He became a soldier, and falling into bad ways, was sentenced
as a convict to Australia. Here he escaped, and took to the bush,
and lived for many years among the savages, and became as one of
them, a wild man.
He says in his journal, in describing the people among whom he
had cast his lot,-
"They have no notion of a Supreme Being, although they have





48 ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN AUSTRALIA.

an idea of an after-life; and they offer up a kind of prayer to the sun
and moon. They believe that the earth is supported by props, which
are in the charge of a man who lives at the end of it. They we(e
dreadfully alarmed on one occasion by news that passed from tribe to
tribe that the earth was about to fall."
In his wanderings he met a tribe called the Pallidurg-barrens, who
were cannibals, and killed one another for food. They had no homes
or huts, but lived exactly like the animals, and even lower than the
animals, for animals do not devour their own species. The women
were noted for their ferocity, and seemed to be almost devoid of
natural affection. They became so obnoxious to the neighboring
tribes that the people of the bush formed an alliance to destroy them,
which they did by driving them into a great thicket, and setting the
thicket on fire.
This man lived some thirty-five years among the savage tribes, but
was rescued at last by the white settlers, and was pardoned by the
Government. His narrative, which is well known in Australia, abounds
in incidents which only a scientist would profitably read. It shows
how degraded it is possible for the human species to become.
It was the finding of gold that suddenly changed Australia into an
almost European continent. Until this event the great island was
but little known to Europe except as a place to which England trans-
ported her convicts. It was the land of savages, cannibals, and ticket.
of-leave men.
In 1851, a dish of earth was found in the interior of New South
Wales that glimmered with gold. That pan of earth sent a thrill
through Great Britain, and made an empire. In a few years the
great island had yielded to the treasuries of the world more than a
thousand millions of dollars.






THE WONDERFUL FEATURES OF AUSTRALIA.


THE HUNDRED-WEIGHT NUGGET

was found in Australia in a very curious way, -one of the largest nuggets of
gold ever seen in the world. Some -miles, from Bathurst there was a large
sheep ranch belonging to a certain Dr. Kerr. He wanted an aboriginal shep-
herd, and secured such an one of most trustworthy character, who had bc :n
brought up at one of the mission stations. The man was one day tending his
flock near Murroo Creek when a shining object caught his eye. It was in the
sheep walk. The shepherd had, perhaps," says Archibald Forbes, in describ-
ing the event, used it as a pillow for his noonday doze, or as a prop lor his
back while he sat and soothed his solitude with his clay pipe. But the black
fellow had heard the talk about gold discoveries. He upheaved his tomahawk,
struck a blow, and lo! it was a slice of yellow metal that the sharp edge pared
off.
"The honest native had a good master, and probably had himself a fine
indifference for larger financial resources than the 'white money' that r.p-
resented the price of a nobblerr; anyhow he hurried off to the station head-
quarters at Brucedale, told Dr. Kerr of what he had chanced upon, and
sublimely made his master a present of the discovery. Dr. Kerr rode to the
spot at a gallop, and promptly 'realized.' The nugget, or rather the bowlder,
had originally been one piece, but was now in three adjacent fragments, whose
edges fitted one another.
"The largest of the three blocks was about a foot in diameter, and \weighed
seventy-five pounds gross. Before separation, it, like the other two pieces,
was beautifully encased in quartz. The quartz included, the auriferous mass,
as the pieces were lifted out of their clay bed, weighed about two and one half
hundred-weight. It was entirely isolated. Some of the clay in which it had
lain was taken down to the creek and washed, but gave not the slightest indi-
cation of gold. This precious bowlder, quartz outside and pure gold within,
had come, no man could say whence. It might have rolled down from the
ridge behind; it might have been carried down and deposited by some fierce
flood in the creek. Anyhow, there it lay; about that, at least, there could be
no question. It has been unique; no such mass of gold has the world yielded.
This was a bowlder; its closest approximation has been no more than a big
nugget.
And yet is it veritably 'the lonely one'? Who can tell? The Bathurst
Mountains have been rummaged in vain; yet at the time, a black fellow averred






ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN AUSTRALIA.


that years previously, when he was a child, he had seen a 'plenty bigger'
block of the yellow stuff about which so much fuss was being made. Only he
could not remember precisely where, nor did he ever regain recollection on
that important point.


THE HUNDRED-WEIGHT NUGGET.


"It was a grand error that Dr. Kerr made in breaking the three great
pieces into smaller fragments, in order to cram his new-found riches into his
saddle-bags. Great Britain could have afforded to preserve, as a national





THE WONDERFUL FEATURES OF, AUSTRALIA.


cabinet curiosity, the grandest specimen of gold in situ ever beheld. Looking
at the monster lump in a speculative light, Mr. Barnum would have cleared
two hundred and fifty thousand dollars in a few months, by exhibiting it along
with the black fellow who found it, and would probably have sold it afterward
for at least twice as much as Dr. Kerr realized.
The hundred-weight was sold in Bathurst by auction for twenty thousand
eight hundred dollars."


When the gold fever, as the great immigration of gold hunters
was called, had subsided, Australia became largely a pastoral em-
pire. Her sheep runs, or ranches, are the largest in the world. A
sheep run of a thousand square miles was sometimes leased from
the Government.
The shepherd life in these vast regions used to be very solitary
and lonely; the shepherd wandered day after day with sheep over
an ocean of vegetation and under a blazing sky, until he sometimes
lost the faculty of speech. He lived in a rude shanty, without wife
or family, with perhaps only his cockatoo to greet him on his return
to the place he called his home. Home ? The very name mocked
him, as he thought of the old English cottage on the Thames or the
Humber, or the green coast where mothers, grandmothers, and chil-
dren haunted the vine-clad doors. All this is changing now. The
shepherd has his family like other men. Wife and children await his
home-returning instead of the solitary cockatoo. The great desert of
the interior is blooming with farms, and the iron horse runs hither
and thither, and the church spire points its finger of faith toward the
sky. Greater England is here, full of loyal hearts, free as the air of
the plains, and with prospects as bright for the future as any land
of the sun, the shade, and the sea.
Captain Tamany of the Tammany" had learned to love the
mellow climate of the Northern Pacific Ocean. The Indian Ocean
to him was like a dream; and he loved to talk of the islands of the
gum-trees,'the palm, and fern. In the bleak Northern, winters on





ZIGZAG 70' A'.1E I"S IN AUSTRALIA.


Buzzard's Bay, he grew rheumatic and hugged the fire and talked
of the tropic seas. He had a beautiful home and easy wealth, and
yet he was discontented.
Twenty )yars at sea had
unfitted him for the un-
e\veritful life of a New EIn g-
land estate.
I somC tiles think ll
that I shall iiiake une more


"ONLY HIS COCKATOO TO GREET HIM."


voyage," he said one day to his wife. "I want to see the South
Seas once more. The 'Tammany' is owned in part by the Ade-












-;-- : '.----'-- : } % .> M -_ -._-.-_. _. _._ _:=___ .. .... J "- --^
$^^ RL --6-F- .

----_--_--. -- -- :-- _ --- -,5-. s-'-B--, --s.-.-
-'-- _... '-' .. .._=-- -- i-

_-.E=t_ .E-.____. ;; -E --_- .- .. _--- -_- -= -_ _= _-. ---_- :- ._-- _.:. -- .

sO~


SUNRISE IN THE INDIAN OCEAN.


;
;I-
~'i--~--~-
il r J


"~T~C~:


"'
~~~n~


,t-








THE WONDERFUL FEATURES OF AUSTRALIA.


laide Company, and she will be ordered to Australia. I may take her
back."
Oh, you are too old, and I and the grandchildren need you here.
I am an invalid, with half-crippled limbs and knotted muscles; and the
time has passed for me to be left alone."
I had thought of taking you with me. The sun of the Pacific
may be just what you need; it is dhe sun that heals rheumatic affec-
tions. You went with me on my first voyage to Sydney. Do you
not remember how well you were? You seemed to feed on the
sea breezes. You never had such health as in those calm days on
the Pacific."
Yes, but I was young then. I could not leave the grand-
children now, even if the voyage would restore me to health again."
I would take them with me."
That would deprive them of a year of school life."
"That would give them a year of school life. The highest edu-
cation comes from travel. If a well-read man has been around the
world, no one cares to know whether he has studied geography or not
in the higher schools of education. It is better to see the world than
to learn about it in books. I hope the time will come when travel will
form an essential part of our system of education; when every boy
and girl will complete a full course of study by a tour around the
world."
But you would leave the ship at Adelaide. What would we do
then? "
Return by the way of the Red Sea and Suez Canal on some
agreeable steamer."
That would be a tour around the world."
"Just what I would like, and you would enjoy, and just what the
children need. It would be likely to make us all happier and better
in mind and body. Why should we not go ? "
A Tour around the World!" said Eric, who had overheard the





56 ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN AUSTRALIA.

proposal of the plan. Oh, Grandfather, if I only could go with you
around the world, I would remember it forever."
"We would carry a ship-load of stories," said Mary, "and bring
back another load as good as Grandpa's. I should want to go if
Grandma went."
I think we shall all go sometime," said Captain Tamany.
(4.














CHAPTER III.


GRANDFATHER TAMANY'S NEW ENGLAND HOME.

His OLD RED SETTLE, AND THE STORIES HE USED TO TELL BEFORE THE FIRE. -
A VISITOR.

EW BEDFORD grew rich by the harvests of the sea.
Her mines were the stormy and perilous Atlantic
and the sunny and calm Pacific, though it was in
the beautiful Pacific that her greatest disasters and
misfortunes came at last.
The shores of Buzzard's Bay are lovely in summer-time, with their
green orchards, odorous meadows, noble trees, and ample houses.
Many of the farms here are owned by sea-captains or sea-faring men.
These hardy people, who have been around the Horn and doubled the
Cape of Good Hope, are generous, hearty, and hospitable, but always
restless, and desirous of making one more voyage."
Such was Captain Tamany. He loved the bay and the old towns
on the Cape, and he rode almost constantly over the old roads and by-
ways in summer; but winter was a cheerless season for him, notwith-
standing that he was a great reader of the best books, and had much
good company and a devoted family.
The old county of Plymouth, Mass., is a haunted region. The fami-
lies of the early Pilgrim colonists settled there. The estates have his-
tories that antedate the Revolution. Some of them are associated
with the tragedies and scenes of the old Indian War,





ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN ALC TA'.-4L/. *


Captain Tamany loved to ride through These old towns in sum-
mer and fall, with the children, and to tell them stories by the
way.
There was one town, now called Lakeville, that he especially
liked to visit in this way. Near it lived an old Indian woman and
her family, in whom he took a great interest, and whose stories he
would rather hear than any one's in the cultivated city. This woman
was a widow, and had a remarkable ancestry and a touching family
history. There is an Indian Reservation of virgin forest in Massa-
chusetts, removed from the public ways, and on this Reservation live
the descendants of the great sachem Massasoit, who protected the
infant nation in Plymouth for nearly forty years.
The wife of King Philip and her young son were sold into slavery,
and carried away to the Windward Islands. But Massasoit left a
young daughter, the Princess Amie. She married Tuspuquin, the
Black Sachem. Her descendants in the seventh generation the
Tuspuquin or Gould family live in a forest bordering on a lake, at
Lakeville, formerly a part of Middleborough, Mass., and once known as
" Middleborough Ponds."
There are other traditions associated with the history of the
Massasoit family that are poetic but unhistoric. One is that the
wife of Philip, the beautiful Wootonekanaske, on being borne away
to the Windward Islands, saw the top of Mount Hope in the sunset,
as 'the ship skirted the shores of Rhode Island, and was so over-
whelmed with grief that she leaped into the sea, and so ended her
life. This, however, is a poet's fancy.
The old Indian woman whom Captain Tamany used to visit was
some eighty years old, and has been called a princess of Massachu-
setts. She is a direct descendant from Amie, the daughter of Mas-
sasoit and sister'of King Philip. She is known at Lakeville where
she still lives, by the name of Zerviah Gould Mitchell, and is perhaps
the only aged representative of the Indian race who once ruled in old



























































bl1ASASolIT \ELL i.ILED LY' THE I'UI IIANS.





























































































g:





GRANDFATHER YAMANY'S NEW ENGLAND HO.M1E.


Pokonoket, which territory extended from the shores of Cape Cod to
Mount Hope and Narrangansett bays.
One is surprised at the character of this aged woman's face. It is
almost as fresh as that of a woman of forty, and as placid as a
Quaker's; it has a spiritual expression
that would have won a kindly regard in
a most Christian community.
And yet it is not improbable that
the great Massasoit had the same amia-
ble and benevolent traits that this calm


















A PRINCESS OF MASSACHUSETTS.

face reveals. It was Massasoit who offered the Pilgrims a royal greet-
ing; who invited them to his rustic palaces; who gave a warm home
to Roger Williams in the white and icy winter of his exile. It was
Massasoit of whom one of his warriors said on hearing a false report
of his death, My beloved sachem, my beloved sachem! Many have
I known, but none like thee."





Z/GZ.-AG 70(R.'XE 'S LV' AUSTRALIA.


The home is a simple house, of two rooms, and these women had
built it with their own hands. It was beautiful without in the forest.
Captain Tamany often sat down in the still autumn sunshine, and heard
anew this old woman recount the dramatic and thrilling story of her
race. She has frequently related it to strangers, and it has been pub-
lished in book form. Its end was pathetic. After recounting her
wrongs, she would add, And now they even cut my wood, and carry
it away, and no voice is raised in defence of the bit of land on which I
am allowed to live!"
What a tale of tragedy was this story of the vicissitude, the wrongs,
and the. cruelties that ended in the extermination of a race,--the
mysterious death of Wamsutta, after his visit to Plymouth; the shoot-
ing of Philip, and the dividing of his body among the colonies; the
agonized drowning of Queen Weetamoe, the sister of Philip's wife;
the selling of Philip's family into slavery; the capture of Anawan, and
the execution of the chiefs of the Indian War!
But the last great tragedy of the family was that of Tuspuquin.
In July, 1676, Capt. Benjamin Church, the Indian fighter," learned
that the war chief Tuspuquin was at Assawamset, now Lakeville,
where his descendants, of whom I have written, live. Church had
already slain or captured many of Tuspuquin's warriors. He
surprised the chief near Lakeville, and captured nearly .all his fol-
lowers, and took them away, but left behind him two old squaws
as messengers.
Tell the Black Sachem," he said, "that I have his wife and chil-
dren, and shall take them to Plymouth.. I shall spare their lives. If
he will come to Plymouth and surrender, his life shall also be spared."
This was told the defeated chief. "My tribe is gone," he said.
" I have nothing left but my wife and children. I shall go to them,
but I shall never return." Broken in spirit, he took his lonely trail
toward the hills of Plymouth.
Here Tusputuin surrendered, in the hope of being with his family
















































































DEATH OF KING PHILIP.







a





GRANDFATHER TAMANY'S NEW ENGLAND HOME.


once more; but he had been such a terror in the colony, and the
bitterness of the people was so great against him, that he was im-
mediately bound, and soon after put to death. What dreams of the
past must haunt the few Indians that remain in these secluded
forest lodges!
When Captain Tamany built his great house overlooking Buz-
zard's Bay, he caused open fireplaces to be made in all of the prin-
cipal rooms, after the manner of the colonial houses. He had a
settle made for the kitchen, and painted red, like those seen in the
early colonial times; and he used to move this settle before the great
fire in winter, and when he told strange tales of the South Sea
Islands and of the old New England days of Indian war and witch-
craft, he always sat upon the settle. The young people were accus-
tomed to refer to the captain's narratives as "the old red settle
stories." In early times in New England it was the popular diversion
to relate wonderful ghost stories and incidents of remarkable provi-
dences on the red settle before the fire while roasting apples or pop-
ping corn.
Sea stories became popular at later seasons of colonial development.
The New England story in these days never came out of fairy-land
or angel-land. It was usually something awful, or at least fearful.
The bleak wintry coast, the old Indian War, the hard work in the
rocky fields or the perils on the sea, suggested to the natural story-
teller a dark and avenging spirit-world, and not Pucks or Robin Good-
fellows, or visits of any pretty sprites or happy divinities. The Indian
story and ghost story gave place at last to what were known as sea
yarns or fish stories," and among the latter, adventures in the goblin-
like regions of the King of the Cannibal Islands."
There was one story of a pleasanter character that Captain Tamany
of the Tammany used to tell of Australia and that his grandchildren
often asked him to repeat. He called it, -





ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IfV AUSTRALIA.


THE LITTLE AUSTRALIAN BEAR THAT RODE PIGBACK.

The title was a fanciful one, and the story may have been in part
the same. It was like this: Life in trees of Australia is of a most re-
markable character. Out of the tree-tops in the dusky evenings even
animals seem to fly. The trees seem to have voices in the morning
and at noon; for then
the piping crow, or
laughing king-fisher, is
Sin his most talkative
moods, and his cachin-
nations ring loud and
clear. Here snakes live
in trees, and startle the
Black boy in his search
for honey. The opos-
sum makes his home in
the gigantic gum-trees;
and the black fellow
Searches for him there,
and not unfrequently
AN AUSTRALIAN BEAR AND HER YOUNG. surprises him.
One day, as I was
wandering in an Australian wood, a sailor came running to me with
a surprised look, saying, -
What do you think I have seen? "
"Anything here," said I. What?"
"A bear," he answered.
"The Australian bear is harmless," said I. He always runs away;
he never hugs or bites."






GRANDFATHER TAMANY'S NEW ENGLAND HOME. 67

"But this one has two heads, one great head, lifted up so, and a lit-
tle bear growing out of it. Do they have such animals as that here ?"
"I never heard of any. There are animals here that lay eggs,
and animals that shelter their young in their own bodies, but I never
heard of any with two heads before."
Come with me," said the sailor.
I followed him a little distance amid fan-like trees. Presently an
immense gum-tree appeared, and one of its branches revealed a very
curious sight. There certainly seemed to be a bear with two heads,
a large head and a small one.
I raised my gun, and my fixed look startled the animal. She ran
along a dry limb, and dropped upon a lower limb, and thence to the
ground.
As she did so, a more curious thing happened. One head
dropped off, and revealed a little bear, one of the prettiest creatures
I ever saw.
The little bear had learned to ride on its mother's head. I did
not fire; I had no wish to end its happy life, or to disturb its mother
in her own harmless forest life. The sailor leaped and slapped his
sides when the little head fell out of the large head, and declared that
" Barnum himself never saw the likes o' that." He had somewhere
heard the old saw of the man with the kettle on his head, and he
made a riddle in regard to the odd incident which he used to give
to the crew.
Two heads up,
Eight legs down;
But only four legs
Moving up and down.
One head on a head,
Two heads there;
And four legs on the head
Four legs bear.
What is my riddle true ?
Tell it who can,
And I'11 give a pound to you.
Where is the man?






ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN AUSTRALIA.


No one was ever able to guess the odd riddle; the poetry was
poor, like its old model, but the meaning was exclusive, and belonged
to the cult.
"Jack," I said one day to the riddle-maker, "suppose some one
should guess your riddle; you have no pound to spare."
Oh, yes, I have, plenty of it; I did n't mean the kind of a pound
that you are thinking of. There are different kinds of pounds."
The towns around Buzzard's Bay abound with Indian traditions
and curious folk-lore stories. Captain Tamany's sea-life had given
him a taste for these old local tales, and he liked to visit the localities
and houses where strange events had happened, and picture the in-
cident and its place on the red settle before the fire. One of his
favorite stories, which he used to relate in this way, he called, -



THE TWO BRASS KETTLES.

I was introduced to them in an unexpected way, and I did not soon recover
from the intense curiosity excited by my first impressions of them.
I had gone to the old Minot House, in Dorchester, Mass., to take dinner
with my aunt. We two, my aunt and I, had wandered over the old house,
up the huge stairway, and down into the cellar. Suddenly Aunt opened the
door of an old pantry, on the floor of the porch, and said, Child, look
here! "
"What, Aunt?"
The Two Brass Kettles."
Two enormous brass kettles met my eyes. They were turned over on
the floor, and each would have held the contents of a half-barrel.
Those are the ones, my dear."
"What ones, Aunt?"
The ones that saved the two children from the old Indian straggler."
What Indian straggler? I asked with intense interest.
Oh, the one in King Philip's War. Did n't you ever hear the story? "
No, Aunt."
"Well, I '11 get Uncle Zebedee to tell it to you after dinner. Come."


68






GRANDFATHER TAMANY'S NEW ENGLAND HOME.


But what could any one do with such kettles as these? Where did they
hang them?" I continued.
Come here, and I will show you."
She swept away, and I shut the door of the dark room, which was lighted
only by opening the door, and followed her. We went into the kitchen. She
pointed to an enormous fireplace, and said, There, child! "
But, Aunt, how did the Two Brass Kettles save the children? I asked
again.
"Oh, they crawled about all over the floor here, there, and yonder,"
pointing.
Which crawled about, the kettles or the children, Aunt? "
A din here fell upon the air, and echoed through the great, fortress-like
rooms. It was the huge bell for meals.
Come, child, let's go. Uncle Zebedee will tell you all about it."
In a moment we were in the dining-hall. How grand it all seemed The
sideboard was full of baked meats and steaming pies. Over it hung a flint-
lock gun or a blunderbuss. The room had been decorated for the occasion
with creeping-jenny, and boughs loaded with peaches that had been broken
off by a September gale. There was a whitewashed beam across the room, on
which were great hooks and staples. The table was oak, and the chairs were
of a curious old pattern. At the head of the table was a great chair, and in it
sat Uncle Zebedee, a good old man, now nearly ninety years of age.
After the family were seated, Uncle Zebedee was asked to say grace. He
had a habit of saying "and after ending a sentence, and this made another
sentence necessary, often when he had nothing more to say. It was so even
in his prayers, and was very noticeable in his story-telling. There usually
followed an "and" when the story was done.
It was a queer structure, the old Minot House in Dorchester. It was
really a brick house encased in wood, a fort house it was called. It was
built in this way to protect the dwellers against rude Indian assaults. There
is but one house standing that resembles it, the Cradock Mansion in Med-
ford. There were many such houses in the old colonies, but one by one they
grew gray with moss and vanished. The Minot House itself was burned
about twenty years ago, after standing about two hundred and thirty.years.
The old people of Dorchester and Neponset must remember it. It rose
solemn and stately at the foot of the high hills overlooking the sea meadows.
The high tides came into the thatch margins near it, and went out again,
leaving the abundant shell-fish spouting in the sun. The fringed gentians grew
amid the aftermath of the hay-fields around it. The orioles swung in the tall






ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN AUSTRALIA.


trees in summer-time; and ospreys circled and screamed in the clear sky
over all.


THE CRADOCK MANSION, MEDFORD.


But the orchards, -here were the fulness and perfection of the Old New
England orchards! The south winds of May scattered the apple-blossoms






GRANDFATHER TAMANY'S NEW ENGLAND HOME.


like snow over the emerald turf, and filled the air with fragrance. The earliest
bluebirds came to them, and there the first robins built their nests. How
charming and airy it all was in May, when the days were melting into summer;
and how really beautiful and full of life were all of these venerable New
England homes!
After the old house was burned, I visited the place, and brought away a
few bricks as a souvenir of a home of heroic memories, of happy memories,
too, if we except a single tragedy of the Indian War. The great orchards
were gone, the old barns and their swallows; only the well remained, and a
heap of burned bricks, and the blackened outline of the cellar wall.
It was a house full of legends and stories, wonder tales that once led the
stranger to look upon it with a kind of superstitious awe. It had its historic
lore, and like all great colonial houses, its ghost lore; but the most thrilling
legend associated with the old walls was known as the Two Brass Kettles. The
legend may- have grown with time, but it was well based on historic facts, and
was often told at the ample firesides of three generations of Dorchester
people.
The dinner, like Uncle Zebedee's prayer, seemed never to end. After the
many courses of food there was an and," and pies and apples and nuts,
and all sorts of sweetmeats.
"Uncle Zebedee," I piped.
"Well, dearie."
"Aunt said that you would tell us the story of Two Brass Kettles after
dinner."
Why, dearie, yes, yes. I've been telling that story these eighty years,
come October. Did n't you never hear it? I thought all little shavers knew
about that. The Two Brass Kettles, yes.
They're in the old cupboard, now. Bring them out, and I will tell you
all about 'em. I sha'n't live to tell that story many more years. Maybe I shall
never tell it again."
The servants brought out the two kettles into the kitchen, where we could
see them through the wide dining-room door.
Put 'em in the middle of the floor before the window," said Uncle Zebedee.
" There, that will do. That is just where they were when the Indian came.
You see the window," he added.
It had a great deep-set casement. Grape-vines half-curtained it now on the
outside, and the slanting sun shone through them, its beams glimmering on
the old silver of the table. It was past the middle of the afternoon of the
shortening days of autumn.





ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN AUSTRALIA.


You have all heard of Philip's War," began Uncle Zebedee, leaning for-
ward from his chair on his crutch. Everybody has i it destroyed thirteen
towns in the old colony, and for two years filled every heart with terror.
Philip struck here, there, and everywhere. No one could tell where he would
strike next. The sight of an Indian lurking about in the woods or looking out
of the pines and bushes usually meant a mascree [massacre].
"One Sunday in July, in 1675, the family went to meeting, leaving two
small children, a boy and a girl, at home, in the charge of a maid named
Experience. The kitchen then was as you see it now. The window was open,
the Two Brass Kettles had been scoured on Saturday, and placed bottom up-
ward on the floor, just as you see them there.
It was a blazing July day. The hay-fields were silent. There was an
odor of hay-ricks in the air, and the bobolinks, I suppose, toppled about in the
grass, and red-winged blackbirds piped among the wild wayside roses, just as
they do now. I wish that you could have seen the old hay-fields in the long
July afternoons, all scent and sunshine; it makes me long for my boyhood
again, just to think of them. But I shall never mow again.
"Let me see,-the two children were sitting on the floor near the two
kettles. Experience was preparing dinner, and had made a fire in the great
brick oven, which heated the bricks, but did not heat the room.
"Well, on passing between the oven and the window, she chanced to look
toward the road, when she saw a sight that fixed her eyes, and caused her to
throwup her hands with horror, just like that."
Uncle Zebedee threw up both hands, like exclamation points, and let his
crutch drop into his lap.
Well, the maid only lost her wits for a few moments. She flew to the
window and closed it, and bolted the door. Then she put one of the children
under one of the brass kettles, and the other child under the other kettle, and
took the iron shovel, and lifted it so, and waited to see what would happen,
and -"
Uncle Zebedee lifted his crutch, like an interrogation point, and we could
easily imagine the attitude of the excited maid.
"And -where was I?"
The children were under the Two Brass Kettles, and the maid was stand-
ing with the fire-shovel in her hand so -" said Aunt. La, I've heard that
story ever since I was a girl."
Yes, yes; I have it all now," said Uncle Zebedee. "She was standing
with the fire-shovel up so, when she discovered that the Indian had a gun, -
a gun.






GRANDFATHER 'TAMANY'S NEW ENGLAND HOME. 73

"You see that old flintlock there, over the sideboard? I used to fire it off
every Fourth of July, but the last time I fired, it kicked me over once don't
you never fire it, children. It always kicked, but it never knocked me over
before. I don't think that I am quite as vigorous as I used to be, and-"
"What did the maid do with the gun? asked Aunt.


AN INDIAN ALARMED.


The gun, yes, that was the gun, the one up there. The gun was up in
the chamber, then, and she dropped the shovel and ran upstairs to find it. But
it was not loaded, and the powder was in one place and the shot in another, and
in her hurry and confusion, she heard a pounding on the door, just like that."
Uncle Zebedee rapped on the old oak table with startling effect, and then,
after a moment's confusion, continued, She loaded the gun, and went down to
the foot of the stairs, and looked through the latch-hole of the stair door, so, -
and, -yes, and the Indian was standing at the window. That window. His






ZIGZAG BOURNE YS IN AUSTRALIA.


two eyes were staring with wonder on the Two Brass Kettles. He had proba-
bly never seen a kettle like these before, and he did not know what they were.
While he stood staring and wondering, the kettles began to move. Two
little hands protruded under the bail of each of them, like turtles' paws, for the
kettles stood on their ears, which lifted them a little way from the floor. One
of the children began to creep and to cry, moving the kettle. The other began
to do the same. The cries caused the kettles to ring. Two creeping kettles!
They looked like two big beetles or water turtles, and such the Indian might
have thought them to be, but they bellowed like two brazen animals, and -
did you ever hear a child, cry under a kettle? said Uncle Zebedee, with a
curious smile.
We all confessed that we never had.
"Then, child, you./just get under one of those kettles and holler. You
need n't be afraid, there ain't no Indians now to do ye any harm. Holler
loud! "
I did so.
"Do you hear that?" said Uncle Zebedee. "You never heard such a
sound as that before. Hollow as a bell. Just like a man with lungs of brass
and no body. There, let another little fellow try it."
Another child was placed under one of the kettles, and uttered a continu-
ous cry. The sound rang all over the. room.
"There," said Uncle Zebedee, did any one ever hear anything like that?
It rings all over the room, scary-like.
"Well, the children did not know about the Indian, and they bcgan to
creep toward the light of the window, moving the kettles like two enormous
beetles, and crying and making the kettles rumble and rumble all around,
boom-oom-oom, just like that. The Indian's black eyes glowed like fire, and
he raised his gun and fired at one of the kettles. But nothing came of it; the
shot did not harm the child under the kettle. It frightened both of the
children, and made them cry the louder and louder, and scream as though they
were frantic. 'Ugh! said the Indian, Him no -goot.'
"The kettles were all alive now, moving and echoing. He was more
puzzled than before. What kind of creatures could these be with great brass
backs and living paws, and full of unheard-of noises like those? 'Ugh! ugh! '
said he, just like that. The kettles kept moving and sounding, and the Indian
grew more and more excited as he watched them. Suddenly he threw up his
great arms and turned his back, and now it all goes from me again."
He said 'Ugh! and threw up his arms and turned his back," prompted
Aunt.





GRANDFATHER TAMANY'S NEW ENGLAND HOME.


And the maid opened the stair door and fired," continued Uncle Zebedee;
"she drew quickly back, and waited for the family to return. The children
continued to cry. But they were safe, as they could not overturn the kettles,
and bullets could not reach them. The family came in an hour in great alarm.
They had seen human blood in the road, but no Indian.
A few days afterward the Indian's body was found in some hazel-bushes
by the brook. It was buried in the meadow there, and "
"The Indian's grave," said Aunt, prompting.
Yes, I used to mow over it when I was a boy, and -"
That is all, Uncle Zebedee," said Aunt. You've got through now."
Yes, I 've got through now. I don't think that I ever shall tell that story
again and "'
There was something pathetic, and yet beautifully prophetic, in the con-
tinuance. The slanting sun shone through the old window, and the chippering
of birds was heard in the fields.
Uncle Zebedee never did tell the story again. The final conjunction of
his long peaceful life came soon after he told the tale to me. The violets and
mosses cover him in the old Dorchester burying-ground. The old house is
gone, the two kettles, the gun, and even the gray stone from the field that
rudely marked the Indian's grave.


The incidents of this story are true, so far as essential events are
concerned, but it has some colorings of fancy. A story is a story;
and while truth must always remain the same, a story may grow, and
most stories grow in the telling, where historical fact is not demanded,
Grandfathers' and grandmothers' stories are apt to enlarge, especially
grandfathers'. -The difference between a narrative and a genuine story
is that the latter may have wings of fancy, and not be untruthful in
intention or spirit. Captain Tamany of the Tammany was a very
truthful man, and was governed by a sense of honor in all of his con-
duct in life. On being questioned one day by Mary in regard to the
exact facts of the two stories last related, he said, -
Oh, the Australian bear carries her little one on her head, or has
been seen to do so, which recalled to mind the old riddle; and as for
the Minot House story, an Indian did come to the House when ,he





ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN AUSTRALIA.


people were away at church, and a maid hid two children who had
been left in her care under two brass kettles, and got a gun and shot
the Indian. I once visited the place where the house stood, and I
pictured the rest in mind, and made of the whole a story."
The idea of making one more voyage to the Pacific Ocean grew
in Captain Tamany's mind. He took the papers of Sydney, Mel-
bourne, and Adelaide, and reading them made him restless. He
loved to watch the progress of events in the great ocean island em-
pire. The expansion of the plans founded on the Wakefield Theory,
the progress of the Australian Ballot System in different parts of the
world, the development of the rights of labor, the success of the eight-
hour law, and the good effects of the teaching of temperance as a
physical principle in the schools, all kept his eye fixed on Australia,
and carried his heart back to the sunny waters of the South Seas.
"There labor is honored," he used to say; "there a man works but
eight hours a day, and so has time to know his family, and to live over
again his old youth with his children. There people read, and have
time to read not books only, but Nature, the great book of God.
There schools grow and churches multiply, and all on the principle
that all mankind is a unit; that all men are one man; and that all
good people are equally essential to the welfare of the whole, and that
each should assist the other. Australia has wellnigh solved the hard
problems of labor and society. Her theories are practical, and are
leading the world. The last has become first, and the far-away,
near. Australia is not a flying school."
Captain Tamany had lived in Adelaide when that beautiful city
of churches and schools was in its infancy. He had there met a
settler by the name of Bridewell, who had immigrated into the
country, and had taken up land after the Wakefield Theory, and
had prospered. This man became interested in sea-faring enterprises,
"and purchased a share in the Tammany."
He had never visited "the States," as he called America, but had












~A
o. n ,?- ..
. .:. l















A NATIVE HUNT IN AUSTRALIA.















































Z





GRANDFATHER TAMANY'S NEW ENGLAND HOME. 79

often expressed a desire to Captain Tamany to do so. He corre-
sponded with the New Bedford captain, and always said in his
letters that he would one day meet him, in his home on the Atlantic
Coast.
One day early in November a great surprise enlivened the house-
hold of the Tamanys. Captain Bridewell had indeed arrived without
announcing his coming. He had had business in San Francisco, and
had there suddenly determined to visit his old friend in New Bedford.
The bells would have rung there, had there been any to ring, as in
the halls of old; he was a welcome guest.















CHAPTER IV.


CAPTAIN BRIDEWELL'S STORY OF LIFE AMONG THE BLACK
.AUSTRALIANS.

APTAIN BRIDEWELL had lived for some time in
his early years in Australia among the Black Men, as
the native Australians are called. He from time to
time related incidents of this adventurous life; and he
promised Mary and Eric that some cold winter even-
ing he would sit down on the red settle, grandfather-fashion," and
tell them the whole story of his experiences in the bush.
The cold winter evening soon came,- a November night windy
and stormy, with snow whirling and eddying, filling the groaning
woods, and piling up under the roadside walls.
The great fireplace looked friendly that night. The settle was
placed before it, and Grandfather Tamany said, -
Now, Captain Bridewell, give us the narrative of your life in the
bush among the Black Men. I have told all of my Australian ad-
ventures over and over again to the children. Australian stories are
so inspiring that I usually begin mine with the words, The top of
the world to ye all !' and when I use these words they know it means
progress, and that something Australian is coming. But my stories
are old. Give them something new."
Captain Bridewell, like Captain Tamany, seemed to find Australia
a congenial climate for his mind on a night like this. His story






LIFE AMONG THE BLACK AUSTRALIANS.


presented a vivid picture .of the manner of life among the colonists
in the early days of the great immigration.


AMONG THE BLACK FELLOWS.1

In 1846 I was a fresh" in Victoria, as a new settler was called, or what
in the American West would be termed a "tenderfoot." I was a young
emigrant, and had been only two months in Australia. I had ;6700 in
my pocket, and desired to invest it in sheep, and so make a fortune in a few
years. ,
There were many opportunities for investments even in those early days.
I had been ashore in the then infant town of Melbourne only two days when I
saw the run or sheep farm, on Wallaby Creek, destined to be the scene
of my future efforts as a farmer, advertised on the door of a new shop.
Relying quite too much on the word of the seller, I purchased it, and paid for
the land at once. As a natural result of such incautious haste, I found my-
self- after journeying out to my new place from Melbourne, a distance of a
hundred and fifty miles confronted by a number of disagreeable problems.
The run was rather sterile and drought during a large part of the year, and
my flock of sheep was in lean condition.
The location and scenery, however, were pretty, even picturesque. My
run lay along the plain on the north bank of the creek, -a tributary of the
Goulburn River, -where were many noble gum and box-wood trees, while in
the background, thickets of scrub and broad purple patches of pig-face"
bushes stretched away to the crest of a low range of hills.
My abode was a slab hut fifteen feet by ten. There was a bark shed at a
distance of a hundred yards from the hut, and around it several hurdle-yards,
folds, or corrals. The run itself comprised an area of sixty or seventy square
miles, and the sheep, divided into two flocks, each in charge of a hired shep-
herd, were now several miles from the hut.
The two shepherds had agreed to remain with me at an annual salary of
6o50 each; but the overseer, a Scotchman named Rose, appeared to be in
great haste to put me into possession, and go" to Melbourne.
As I had decided to dispense with the services of an overseer, and dis-
charge the duties of that office myself, there seemed no necessity of his re-

1 This picture of life in the bush was prepared by Mr. C. A. Stephens for the Youth's
Companion," and is used by permission.






ZIGZ.-IG 70LPR.VEYS IN AUSTRALIA.


mining; so earl)' the following morning I saw him depart by the same dray
and team which had taken me out into "the bush."
It was by Rose that I had been assured of the wholly inoffensive character
of the aborigines, who still, in considerable numbers, infested the plains and
river valleys of this portion of the Port Phillip district, as it was then called, -
now the colony of Victoria; and indeed the few black fellows whom I had
seen about the streets of Melbourne seemed to be harmless and good-natured,
From circumstances which came later to my knowledge, in my life at
Wallaby Creek, I have good reason to think that the overseer, Rose, had,
shortly before the time of my taking possession, had trouble with the natives,
and had probably done them some injury, which roused their animosity against
him. This may have been the reason of his haste to leave.
Or it may be, as I have heard hinted, that there was a plot on his part -
for I did not like the appearance of the fellow to get me into difficulty with
the blacks, in the expectation that from fear or from losses, I would soon be
willing to sell my hasty purchase at a sacrifice. Tricks of this sort were
common.
At any rate, I was left alone at my hut on the very morning after my
arrival from town. When the overseer had bidden me farewell, I sat down on
a log near the hut door, and watched the bullock dray move away. There
were four speckled cattle, and a driver wearing a broad cabbage-tree hat.
Behind the cart walked Rose and another "passenger" on his way to the
"distant town.
Very soon the dray disappeared from view among the scrub, and then I
began to realize that I was alone in this vast, far-southern continent, where for
years I must live and work hard, if I hoped ever to see home and friends again
with a competence in my pocket.
The day was pleasant, the sun bright and warm, but somehow the country
had a wild, strange look. A certain feeling of uneasiness stole over me, and I
remember that I carefully looked to my gun, a double-barrelled fowling-piece,
and that I made up a number of cartridges ready for immediate use.
The fact was that I was utterly unused to such solitude, and I can never
adequately describe how long that first day seemed to me. I had my horse,
"Dick," to look out for, and spend what seemed hours attending to him,
shifting his hobble rope, and taking him to drink at the creek..
I then cooked some damper," a kind of hastily mixed bread, and boiled
a quantity of corned beef for my shepherds, who came to the hut every second
day for a supply of food. Indeed, I quite exhausted my occupations, and yet
found hours of idle time on my hands before nightfall.






LIFE AMONG THE BLACK AUSTRALIANS.


Save my horse, there was but a single other living creature at the hut, a
large mastiff which Rose had left behind him, chained to a ring just outside
the door. His name, I had been told, was Roger," his eyes were bloodshot,
and altogether he was so ugly a brute to look at that I had half resolved to
shoot him. His presence at my door gave me a certain sense of security, how-
ever, and I decided to spare his life for a few days at least.
The night seemed longer and more dispiriting than the day. I slept fit-
fully, but was a prey to a thousand nocturnal fancies, and started at the least
noise.
It rained a little during the night, and there was fog and drizzle in the
morning; but thejaarings (cockatoos) were squalling noisily along the creek.
Accordingly, shortly after kindling a fire, I heard ducks quacking in the
water holes.
Thinking I might secure a brace of them, I drew out the heavy charges
of kangaroo-shot from my gun, and replaced them with smaller pellets, and
went in the direction of the ducks.
It was quite foggy. Grows were cawing here and there; I got a glimpse
of several of them, flying about in the fog. In voice, color, and size they
much resembled the common crow of other lands.
Suddenly a wigilopka, the first I had ever heard, burst forth into his loud,
jeering laugh, and I saw the bird fly from a tree close in front of me. The
settlers called it the "laughing-jackass."
A very large bird, which from the glimpse I had of it I decided must
be an emu, started up and ran away from the olpo;ite bank of the creek
as I approached. Game seemed plentiful that wet morning all about the
place. In a.few moments the ducks flew up out of the creek, and out of
range before I had sighted them. Seeing no others, I turned back, thinking
that I would first prepare my breakfast and then shoot for an hour or two.
Going back, I passed near the long bark shed, a loose, tumble-down
structure, built of poles and sheets of bark off the gums. I probably went
within twenty feet of the corner of it, and had passed it a few steps, when I
heard a slight noise either inside of it or behind it, I could not tell which.
It was a peculiar sound.
I stopped short and looked back. I could see a part of the interior of
the shed, but as I saw nothing, I supposed that the noise might have been
made by a crow or some other bird on the roof. So I went on to the hut, -
a distance of a hundred yards, and set the coffee to brew, and cut the fat
pork to fry.
I heard the mastiff growl once or twice, a thing he had not done during





ZIGZAG JO URNEYS IN A I'S TRA L 4.


the night; but I concluded it was because of an emu or a kangaroo which he
sighted or smelled.
Meantime, the ducks came back into the creek close by. I heard them
quacking again, and sat down to eat my breakfast in haste, in order to try for
another shot; but I had not swallowed many mouthfuls when old Roger
suddenly burst forth, barking and growling furiously.
Knowing there must be something unusual in sight, I ran to the door and
saw the apparent cause of the outburst in another dog with a very bushy tail,
which stood sniffing toward'the hut about halfway to the bark shed.


vBp;


DINGOES.


I had heard of the native Australian dog, or dingo; and it came into my
mind that this was one of them, and also that he had better be disposed of at
once, for the shepherds had told me that they were bloodthirsty little brutes,
and often made havoc among the sheep and lambs.
With more experience I should have known that the true wild dog would
never have exposed himself to a shot so near a hut, and that this was the dog ,
of some black fellow, and that his master was probably not far away.
But a new-comer has everything to learn. I caught up my gun, and
standing in the doorway, took aim and snapped first one barrel and then the
other. Both missed fire. The fog, or wet from the bushes at the creek, had






LIFE AMONG THE BLACK AUSTRALIANS.


spoiled the priming. At the instant of snapping the second lock, I saw
through the fog two black fellows emerge from the shed, at the very hole
into which I had looked ten minutes before, and come walking toward the hut.
They had their spears, shields, and waddies, and were painted as these fellows
usually dress their bodies when on some bloody errand.
One can scarcely imagine the horrible effect produced by a few bars and
circles of white clay pigment along the ribs, down the limbs, and about the
cheeks of the stark black bodies of these men; for it seems as if the bony
skeleton were projected forward from the flesh.
A shudder passed through me at sight of them. I knew so little of the
habits of these people and their modes of fighting that I was quite at a loss
how to understand the movement.
Probably they had showed themselves to prevent my shooting their dog.
But what circumstances had prevented them from spearing me when I passed
so near their hiding-place a little before, I cannot guess. Possibly they saw
my gun well in hand, and their courage failed them.
White pella no shootum! they exclaimed, and holding up their hands,
pretended to laugh good-naturedly, as they came toward the hut.
I stepped hastily inside the door, threw back the locks of both barrels,
brushed out the damp priming, and poured fresh powder in from a flask on
my table.
When I looked out again, the two fellows had stopped at a distance of
twenty yards, and were watching my dog; for he was growling savagely and
making strenuous efforts to break loose.
One of them raised his spear as if to throw it at the dog; the other said,
" Tlago, tiago!" (" No, no ") Then they seemed to consult. Of course I
was excited; for I felt by no means certain that my gun would not again miss
fire, and the blacks held their weapons in a manner that convinced me that
they would use them very handily.
At length I said, "What black fellows want?" imitating as nearly as I
could the jargon which I had been told held the place of a common language
between the settlers and the natives.
They seemed somewhat disconcerted by the question, and laughed in a
forced, unnatural manner, looking at each other. I repeated my query.
One of them then replied, Give black pella bacca; and the other im-
mediately added, S'pose give plenty bacca." They had evidently associated
with the whites and understood many of our words. One of them was a heavy-
set, powerful fellow, very muscular for a black. The other was much more
slender, but of good height and lithe of limbs, and seemed quite young.






ZIGZAG 70URNEYS IN AUSTRALIA.


A year later I should have at once ordered them off, knowing that they
were only watching for a chance to attack me without exposing themselves to
danger; but I was then so ignorant of their ways as to think that they perhaps
meant no harm.
As I wished to be on good terms with them, I said, "Very well; you
stay there. I will give baccaa.'"
I had a box of common fig-tobacco set on a shelf along the side of the hut,
and stepped back to get some from it. The cover was nailed on, and I was
obliged to take a hammer and knock it off; but with the first strokes of the
hammer, I heard a fierce snarl from old Roger, a sharp snapping sound, and a
rattle of the dog-chain as if he had broken it.
Whirling around quickly, as a man will at such an alarm, I saw.the younger
of the two at the door, in the very act of launching his spear at me; but the
doorway was narrow. The shaft of his spear grazed against the post as he
threw it, and it went aside.
We- were not more than eight or ten feet apart, and we clinched each other
instantly.
I had the hammer still in my right hand ; there had been no time to drop
it for my gun. We fell across a bench and struck against the table of the
hut.
The black had the better hold, but my right hand coming free, I contrived
to deal him a blow on the head which stunned him for a moment. His grip.
relaxed, when springing up, I caught my gun and with the butt of it gave him a
second blow. I then leaped to the door, for I heard a frightful outcry outside.
The dog was loose. He had hold of the larger of the blacks, who seemed
to be trying with both hands to choke the dog. The other dog was leaping at
the mastiff, biting him.
The combatants were by this time fifty or sixty feet from the door. The
black was partly bending over, partly lying on the dog, with his back to me.
I hurried toward the place, when the black sprang over the dogs and fell; but
the mastiff had lost his hold, and before I could reach them, the black rose and
ran, the dogs following him off past the bark shed.
I did not follow him, for by this time I felt anxious to know how the man
inside was getting on. I found him insensible still, and bleeding both from his
nose and ears. I drew him out into the yard and left him. The mastiff came
back, and I found it hard to prevent him from throttling the unconscious native.
The rascal breathed regularly; I concluded that he would live if allowed
to live. His spear was sticking in the rear wall of the hut; and four others lay
about the door, with both their shields and two waddies.






LIFE AMONG THE BLACK AUSTRALIANS.
\\>. ./.\tu


YOUNG AUSTRALIANS.


Meantime, Dick had taken alarm at the commotion and slipped his tether.
I shut the mastiff up in the hut, took my gun, and went to catch the horse. I
had nearly half a mile to go, and when I got back with him, my black friend
had disappeared.
I had received no injuries in the affray, except some slight bruises in falling
over the bench; and so far from being dismayed by the attack, it gave me
courage. In fact, I never felt much afraid of the blacks afterward.






ZIGZAG .JOURNEYS IN AUSTRALIA.


It would be difficult to picture a more solitary and completely isolated life
than that of a sheep farmer in Victoria in 1846-47.
In my own case, I did not usually see a brother farmer oftener than once a
month, and my two hired shepherds, who were in no sense companionable per-
sons, came to the hut but once in two or three days, and then only for a few
minutes, or for an hour at most. Sheep-shearing and the packing-off of the
wool for Melbourne, and the arrival of the dray and bullock teams with the
season's stock of groceries, were the chief events of the year.
The monotony of solitude had to be relieved somehow, and as a means of
enlivening myself, I took up the diversion of playing knight-errant on an
original plan.
My run lay in the valley of the Goulburn River, and one had but to cross
the low range of hills to the west and north of the river plains to enter upon un-
explored country, stretching away toward the interior deserts. This vast region
was inhabited only by tribes of wandering blacks. Here roamed the emu and
the kangaroo, and we knew not what other animals or monsters.
To set off alone into this unknown tract and explore it, in this or that
direction, making maps of my journeys, and connecting them one with another,
became my chief source of recreation. The dangers were from the blacks and
from losing my way.
For a long time I confined my trips to excursions of one day only, and
returned at nightfall. There is this security in the matter of losing one's way
upon these interior plains; the trail made by a horse in the loose soil can be
quite readily followed, so that if uncertain of one's way, the wanderer has but
to turn about and follow his own trail home.
In time, as the features and landmarks of the region grew somewhat familiar
to me, I ventured on longer excursions of two, three, and four days, embracing
circuits of a hundred miles and more.
My outfit was simple. I always carried a three-quart canteen full of water,
two quarts for Dick, and one for myself. A quart pot for coffee, a pack of
damper bread, a frying-pan for game or fish, a tinder-box, a hatchet, a
blanket, and a long line for tethering my steed, sufficed even for my longest
excursions.
In my pocket I always carried a compass and a good knife; while for
weapons, like errant cavaliers of earlier times, I was not without a good equip-
ment, consisting of a double-barrelled fowling-piece, carried by a strap across
my back, a long flintlock horse-pistol, and a light cutlass.
I had little fear from any chance meeting with one, two, or three natives;
and in the event of falling in with a large party, disposed to be hostile, I
counted on Dick's speed to be able to distance them.






LIFE AMONG THE BLACK AUSTR.LIAN.4.S. 89

My greatest apprehensions came from the danger of being waylaid while
camping on the plains at night. For greater safety on these occasions I used
always, after it had grown dark and I had got my supper, to leave my fire, and
lead Dick off to a distance, to some thicket or recess among rocks, where no


., ..:.. ?%.. '
r1. ~.-:LZ-~


NATIVE OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA.

lurking party of natives, who might have seen my smoke, would be likely to dis-
cover us during the hours of darkness.
But though I would not infrequently see the smokes of the blacks, and
hear them cooeeing miles away, it was not often that I met them. Upon one of
the very first of my long trips, however, I had a rather singular adventure


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ZIGZAG JOURINEYS IN AUSTRALIA.


with a young black fellow, who proved to be anything but a pleasant
acquaintance.
I was riding slowly along the bank of a small creek, where grew thick
groves of stately old gum-trees, when the strokes of a tomahawk came to my
cars at no great distance ahead.
Dick raised his head a little to listen, as was his wont at the least unusual
noise; but I allowed him to walk slowly on toward the sounds, for I had a
curiosity to see \\hat the blacks were doing.
Directly ahead of us was a thicket of young mallee scrub, where manna
might have been pulled off by the pint; and passing this, we came to an open
j...t growth of box and gum trees. Here I found the axeman, thumping away
. lustily at the trunk of a big hollow gum-tree, which he had felled by burning it
ofl' at the roots.
Evidetly lie was hunting opossums. No other person was in sight; he
was alon-, a tall, lithe young fellow, in the scantiest of apparel. A single,
lo.ng.?ar.':.'v feather, white as snow, was stuck in his curling back hair. His
back was turned to me; and his stone tomahawk made such a noise on the
hollo;w v um that he heard nothing of my approach over the soft, yielding soil.
I let Dick walk leisurely along till he was within fifty yards of the gum-
tree, then drew rein and stood still, to watch the action of the native when he
should di-cover us.
After a time- he ceased his blows, to rest for a moment, and then a slight
snort from Dick instantly attracted his attention. -With a, sudden jump, like
that of a startled cat, he faced us," and stood with dilated eyes, petrified with
amazement ur frihlit.
Probably he had never before seen a horse, or a white man on horseback.
He rmay well have taken us for one and the same creature, some monster of
\which lie had never even heard.
I raised my hand in token of peaceful intent, and spoke reassuringly, though
it is not to be supposed that the young native understood my words. He was
as straight a-. a gun-barrel, and he faced me, every muscle tense, and all his
senses on tlhe alert.
At length, w ith an audible puff of his breath, he slightly shifted his posi-
tion, and then, \w without stooping, he raised, with the toes of his bare right foot,
one after the other, three spears, each made of a long light reed, that lay on
the ground clo:.e by. Next he picked up with the other foot his woolba, or
throwing stick.
Seeing that he was preparing to take the offensive, having resisted his first
natural impule to run away, I quietly unslung my gun, still speaking in a






LIFE AMONG THE BLACK AUSTRALIANS. 91

gentle tone to him, and had just got it in my hands when he had a spear fixed
in the woolba ready to throw.
The muscles of his right arm rose in a big knot, and the spear quivered like
a serpent's tongue. At the same instant I presented my piece; then for some
moments we watched each other's movements.
I could but admire the nerve displayed by the savage. There was not a
sign of fear in his attitude, which was that of full defiance, if not aggression.
Dick so much disliked both the smell and the looks of him that he presently
gave vent to a loud snort.
Up to that moment I had expected the black would throw his spear, but
the snort of the horse seemed to alarm the native more than the sight of us
had done. With a quick backward leap, he cleared the trunk of the gum,
and sprang to the cover of a clump of young box-trees.
Not at all sorry that the affair had terminated without a contest, I lowered
my gun, waved my unarmed hand in token of good intent, and touching Dick
with the spur, rode away. Glancing back, I could see the black form of the
resolute native still in the cover of the box-woods. He was watching us with
an expression anything but friendly.
I should like to know what idea led him first to watch and mark my
course and then follow on my trail; for follow me he did all that day and
longer.
Toward night I came to a lake of which the creek was the outlet.' It was
a pretty sheet of water, with sandy and pebbly shores; and about a hundred
yards from the point where I halted to cook my supper that night there was a
cluster of three small islands covered with mallee brush.
The evening was warm. I bathed and led Dick into the water for a rub-
down; and finding the water shallow, it occurred to me to cross over and sleep
on one of the islets. Accordingly, after dusk had fallen, I led Dick across to
one of the most fertile of them, and hitching him up among the scrub, spread
my blanket on the dry, earthy bank and fell asleep there.
Late in the night the moon rose in a clear, starlit sky, and it must have
been two o'clock when I was wakened by a slight splashing in the still water.
Raising up a little, I looked shoreward, and saw a dark object, a black, I felt
sure, standing in the lake, between the island and the shore. Something in the
form suddenly brought to my mind the young hunter of the previous forenoon;
and fearing that he had summoned a party, I glanced rather anxiously along
the moonlit shore, but could see nothing.
He was alone; but that he was hunting for me with evil intentions, I was
sure. Plainly he had reconnoitred my camp-fire and my tracks thoroughly






ZIGZ.-IG JOURNEYS IN AUSTRALIA.


enough already to conclude that I had crossed over to the islets, and was
no\\ considering the idea of attempting to surprise me there.
Of course I could easily have shot him where he stood, and possibly,
under the circumstances, might have been held excusable for doing so; but I
did not \\ish to injure him unless compelled to do so in self-defence. I de-
termined to scare him. Accordingly I suddenly shouted at him in tones
that were re-echo-ed from the entire circuit of the lake shores.
He started back at this sudden salute; but after a few minutes' hesitation
he again advanced into the water to cross over, brandishing his spear and
muttering to himself.
I waited till he was within a hundred feet of the bank where I lay, then
discharged one barrel of my gun over his head. The flash and the report-a
sound probably n-ver heard by him before- had the effect which I had an-
ticipated. W\\it a sharp cluck in his throat, my nocturnal visitor made a rapid
retreat, and regaining the sandy beach, disappeared.
I did not fall asleep again, but saw nothing further of him until morning.
His tracks in the sand, all about the place where my fire had been kindled,
abundantly testified to his faithful efforts to find me.
I cooked my breakfast and set off on my way home, feeling content to let
this newly discovered lake be the limit of my westward riding for this trip;
and although I had kept a very sharp eye out for any traces of my sable
acquaintance, I saw nothing of him at first. But when I had ridden about two
miles, and was passing a little thicket at a walk, and within sixty or seventy
feet of the brush, what seemed like a flash of yellow light shot past my face,
and I heard a soft low whiz.
It startled Dick; he bounded suddenly forward and struck into a canter.
Glancing back, I saw my very much-attached friend looking after me from the
edge of the copse, with a disappointed expression on his round young black
face. He had launched a spear at me, and barely missed his mark.
Startled and angry, I was much tempted to requite his effort with a charge
of kangaroo-shot, but contented myself with promising it to him next time if
he did not desist.
My horse went on at a good pace for four or five miles; we then entered
a sage plain and toiled across this, at a walk, for several hours. Coming at
length to a water-hole, where there was fresh grass, I dismounted to allow Dick
to feed a while.
After a time I stepped upon a rock to look about, and at almost the same
instant saw a black head minus the feather now rise up cautiously for a
look, twenty or thirty rods from where I stood.






LIFE AMONG THE BLACK AUSTRALIANS.


The rascal had been tracking me, and had, like a snake, burrowed along
beneath the sage brush, hoping to creep up within spearing distance, unob-
served. Perceiving now that I saw him, he rose up boldly and spat toward
me. Evidently he had conquered his fear and was hot for revenge. I fancied
that by discharging my gun over his head the night before, I had probably
given him the idea that it was a weapon of noise rather than of harmful execu-
tion; but badly as he was behaving, I yet disliked to fire upon him.
By night, however, he would prove a dangerous neighbor, particularly
on the sage plain. I felt that I was obliged to act in self-defence in the
matter.
Withdrawing the heavy load from my left barrel, I recharged it with bird-
shot, leaving the kangaroo-shot in the right as a last resort. Remounting the
rock, I then called out in a threatening tone of voice to my pursuer.
He replied with a shout of defiance, and advanced menacingly, shaking his
spears; and perhaps to try my courage, he sent one of his boomerangs hur-
tling over my head.
Just at this point I discovered a serpent in the trees. I discharged my gun
at it, and the shot severed its head from its body, and he came tumbling dot\n.
The sight alarmed the black, and he disappeared; and I rode hastily away, but
felt insecure until the next day. He did not appear again this time.
One day in October, of the year 1848, October is a mid-spring month in
Victoria, -a party of Wongut blacks from up the Goulburn River made a raid
on one of my outlying flocks. This act annoyed me very much, and led to a
collision which might well have brought my career as a sheep farmer to an
abrupt termination.
The flock in question consisted of two hundred and seventy-five weaned
lambs, now nearly grown and mostly fat. I had separated them from the par-
ent flock, and placed them under the care of a young Irishman named Cough-
lin, who had recently come out from the old country.
On this particular forenoon, Mike, my boy, was sitting under a box-wood
bush, watching his lambs and smoking, when his reveries were suddenly inter-
rupted by a tap on his shoulder from the handle of a spear. Turning, he saw
a strapping black, in all the beauties of the war-paint, which were as yet new
to him. He was fully armed with shield, spear, and waddy.
To say that Mike was alarmed would be a mild way to describe his mental
condition. His terror may have amused the sable warrior, and led him to
change his first intention of knocking out the shepherd's brains.
He grinned horrid, sir," so Mike afterward related, and merely said,
pointing to the pipe, Give smoke." Mike gave up the pipe instantly. The






ZIGZAG 70L'R.XE YS /.X A STRALI.4.


black placed the pipe in his own mouth, drew a few whiffs, and said, "White
pella sit down."
Mike lost no time in doing so, and then the intruder quietly took up the
Irishman's gun, which stood against a bush close at hand, and walked away
with it. \When at a distance of a hundred yard-, he gave a shrill coo-ee "
and fifteen or sixteen other blacks came out of a -crub thicket a little way off,
where they had been lying hidden. They ran around the flock, divided it,
separated from the rest about a hundred and thirty of the lambs, and drove
them away.
Alike, \who had been sitting on the ground meantime, and trimblin' like
a lafe," as he very honestly confessed, now came home as fast as he could to
report. He told me hi- story with tears in his eyes, and gave me his opinion
that it was a very onruly country, sir, intirc:ly."
Upon riding t;: the place, we found a hundred and forty-five of the lambs
quietly feeding, and Mike's gun lying on the ground where the black had in-
vited him to be seated. It was not easy to understand why they had returned
it, unless they wished us to know that mutton %i a- the only thing which they
felt in need of. Perhaps they thought returning the gun would partly excuse
the theft of the lambs.


Captain Tamany added to this account of life in the bush a
curious story that he had heard of an adventure with the great
serpents of Australia, called the Australian boas.


THE SLEEPING BOAS.

Besides the enormous tiger-snake, one meets in the forest of
Australia boas of enormous size, length, and weight. They
live in trees much of the time, and shelter themselves under the
leaves by night, and sun themselves on the branches by day. They
so closely resemble the dead branches of the trees when they are
dormant or watching for their prey that one fails readily to discover
them.
In Australia, one may not see a serpent for many weeks, or one
may be frequently surprised by finding enormous boas and tiger-





LIFE AMONG THE BLACK AUSTRALIANS.


snakes in one's way. The old couriers or postilions used to relate
many fearful adventures with boas, and the early explorers described
their encounters with tiger-snakes. .Horses and dogs share the uni-
versal fear of these death-dealing foes.
I once heard a story of a traveller who had lain down to sleep
by a fire in a hut made of bushes, and became aware that there was
some unknown living thing in the place.
He could hear a slow movement, but could not tell what it meant.
He became drowsy at last, when he was suddenly startled by a cold,
heavy body creeping over him. He knew it was a deadly snake,
and that his only safety was to remain perfectly motionless.
The long body grew heavy, but passed slowly along over his
shoulders. At last the weight became less and less, and finally the tail
disappeared, and the sound of the movement died away in the bushes.
One day as an explorer was travelling through an Australian
forest with a band of natives, his attention was attracted by the.odd
appearance of a long dead limb of a tree, which seemed to have
grown double. He halted, and pointed toward it.
A boa," said a black boy in the party.
The explorer was uncertain.
I will go and see," said the black boy.
The boy ran up a tree near the forest giant whose high limb
presented the odd appearance.
"A boa," said the boy. He is a big one. I will kill him."
He secured a heavy stick, and climbed up the great tree and dealt
the boa a succession of sharp blows on the head, and sent it tumbling
to the ground.
He slid back to the ground, saying, I see another."
Where? asked the explorer.
In the leaves up there."
In a tree almost over the heads of the party was a shining cluster
of green leaves. Tangled among the sunny foliage was another
f





ZIGZ.IG 7OL.'R.E VS I.' AUSTRALIA.


terrible snake. The boy ran up the tree, dealt the monster a blow,
which caused it to spring into the air, and fall to the earth.
The blacks killed both of the serpents, and began to drag the
bodies away.
\ What are you going to do with them ?" asked the traveller.
Eat them," was the answer.
That evening, the blacks made a great oven, and heated it. They
put into it the huge bodies of the two serpents, and covered them
with grasses and leaves that the steam might not escape. When the
oven was opened anhour later, the black men had a feast. The flesh
when cooked was white like an eel. It looked inviting; but our
explorer, with his hereditary aversion to reptiles, could not be induced
to taste it. The blacks thought that his taste was very peculiar, and
could see no reason for his refusal to sup with them on such rich
food.
Grandmother Tamany said one or two such stories as the last was
enough for a single evening, and begged that for the sake of her
nerves, and the sleep of- the young people, the story-telling might turn
to some more cheerful subject.
To the kangaroos," said Eric.
Yes, that would be better," said Grandmother Tamany, though
one would not care to dream of kangaroos."
The Australian kangaroo," said Captain Bridewell," is the most
curious animal in existence. It is called a marsupial because it has a
pouch in which it carries and nourishes its young. Its fore-feet are
small, and look like arms; its hind-feet are long and very strong, and
are armed with sharp nails. The great kangaroo is nearly eight
feet long, and stands some five or six feet high, and looks in the
distance like a human being. The animal was first made known to
the world by Captain Cook, who discovered it in 1770. His story
sounded like one of the tales of Sinbad the Sailor. It was hard to
believe that- there really. existed an animal whose young lived in her


























-1-'s


vik


I,, : ,
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"HE DEALT THE BOA A SUCCESSION OF SHARP BLOWS."


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